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Sample records for api x65 estudio

  1. Comparative study of the microbiological corrosion among an AISI 304L and an API X65; Estudio comparativo de la corrosion microbiologica entre un AISI 304L y un API X65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Arganis J, C.; Luna C, P.; Carapia M, L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez F, E. [ITT, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Metallic samples of AISI 304L sensitized and API X65, were subjected to the action of an inoculated media with reductive sulphate microorganisms (SBR), carrying out electrochemical evaluations by means of the techniques of Polarization Resistance (RP), Tafel extrapolation (ET) and Electrochemical Noise (RE). The generated information was complemented with the analysis and diagnostic of the present damage in the surfaces exposed in both metals. The used electrochemical techniques allow to determine the corrosion velocities associated to each system, establishing that the uniform corrosion is not affected by the effect of the microorganisms; however, electrochemical noise, evidenced the formation of stings associated to the presence of bacteria. (Author)

  2. Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.

  3. Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.

    2016-11-01

    In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.

  4. Correction factors for safe performance of API X65 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Sayyed H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Birjand, P.O. Box 97175/615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shhashemi@birjand.ac.ir

    2009-08-15

    Prediction of required Charpy energy for fracture arrest is vital for safe performance of gas transportation pipelines. This is commonly estimated through failure models calibrated in the past on fracture data from combined Charpy tests and full-thickness burst experiments. Unfortunately, such pipeline failure models are unable to correctly predict the minimum arrest toughness of thermo-mechanical controlled rolled (TMCR) steels. To refine the existing failure models, different empirical adjustments have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, similar correction factors were derived from fracture information of instrumented Charpy impact tests on API X65 steel. The contribution of different fracture mechanisms of impact test specimens was determined through energy partitioning analysis. Parts of the energy contribution were correlated then to the source of uncertainty observed in similar experiments. The applied technique was similar to that of previous studies on X70 and X100 steels, and proved to be encouraging in giving consistent results compared to available test data.

  5. Risk of Galvanic Corrosion among API X65, 316L and Inconel 625%API X65、316L不锈钢及Inconel 625间电偶腐蚀风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永芹; 常炜; 胡丽华; 贾旭; 周晓红; 邢云颖; 余晓毅; 于湉

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To determine the galvanic corrosion risk among API X65, 316L and inconel 625.Methods Elec-trochemical corrosion test, standard galvanic corrosion evaluation experiment and simulation experiment were carried out to analyze the corrosion risk.Results The corrosion potential of X65 was around-0.75 V, while that of 316L and 625 potential was both around-0.35 V. For standard galvanic corrosion evaluation experiment, in the open solution or 100 kPa and 500 kPa CO2 solution, the galvanic current of X65-316L was the largest, followed by X65-625 and then 316L-625. Galvanic corrosion oc-curred when X65 met either 316L or 625. For simulation experiment, obvious galvanic corrosion occurred among X65, 316L and 625. There was a serious groove corrosion near the weld joint position in X65. The corrosion rate of X65 without galvanic corrosion was 1.24 mm/a. The galvanic corrosion increased this value. The average galvanic corrosion rate of X65-316L was 1.49 mm/a and that of X65-625 was 1.75 mm/a. The local galvanic corrosion rate of X65-316L was 16.8 mm/a and that of X65-625 was 26.4 mm/a, which was over ten times as high as the corrosion rate of X65 without galvanic corrosion. The galvan-ic corrosion rate of X65 and 316L was larger than that of X65 and 625. There was almost no galvanic corrosion between 316L stainless steel and 625 nickel base alloy.ConclusionGalvanic corrosion risk between X65 and 316L was larger than that be-tween X65 and 625. Galvanic corrosion risk between 316L and 625 was very small.%目的:确定API X65、316L不锈钢及inconel625相互偶接后的电偶腐蚀风险。方法采用电化学测试、标准电偶腐蚀评价实验和腐蚀模拟实验对电偶腐蚀进行分析研究。结果在模拟地层水中,经过电化学测试,X65的自腐蚀电位在-0.75 V左右,316L和625的电位在-0.35 V左右。对于标准电偶腐蚀评价实验,敞口溶液及CO2分压分别为100 kPa和500 kPa的溶液中,X65与316L之间的

  6. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of API X-65 grade line-pipe steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ananta Nagu; Amarnath; T K G Namboodhiri

    2003-06-01

    Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled $\\gt$ quenched and tempered $\\gt$ normalized. The fracture mode in the hydrogen embrittled steel was ductile.

  7. DESGASTE POR ABRASIÓN DEL ACERO API 5L X65 REVESTIDO CON NIOBIO POR ASPERSIÓN TÉRMICA A PLASMA Y CON INCONEL 625 POR SOLDADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MATOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico en desgaste del acero API 5L X65, revestido con niobio en comparación al desempeño del revestimiento de la aleación de inconel 625 empleados en la industria de petróleo y gas. El revestimiento de niobio fue obtenido por el proceso de aspersión térmica a plasma de arco no transferido y el revestimiento inconel 625 por soldadura con electrodo revestido. La resistencia al desgaste por abrasión fue evaluada según la norma Petrobras N-2568, en un tribómetro CTER, la rugosidad y el volumen de material desgastado se determinó a través de perfilometría y la dureza de los revestimientos por microscopia Vickers. Los revestimientos obtenidos fueron caracterizados respecto a su morfología por microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía óptica (MO. La mayor dureza del revestimiento con niobio obtenido puede haber contribuido a reducir la tasa de desgaste en comparación con el revestimiento de inconel 625.

  8. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  9. Comparative study in the induced corrosion by sulfate reducing microorganisms, in a stainless steel 304L sensitized and a carbon steel API X65; Estudio comparativo de la corrosion inducida por microorganismos sulfatorreductores, en un acero inoxidable 304L sensibilizado y un acero al carbono API X65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Gonzalez F, E.; Arganis J, C.; Luna C, P.; Carapia M, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: ads@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In spite of the operational experience related with the presence of the phenomenon of microbiological corrosion (MIC) in industrial components, it was not but until the decade of the 80 s when the nuclear industry recognized its influence in some systems of Nuclear Generating Power plants. At the moment, diverse studies that have tried to explain the generation mechanism of this phenomenon exist; however, they are even important queries that to solve, especially those related with the particularities of the affected metallic substrates. Presently work, the electrochemical behavior of samples of stainless steel AISI 304L sensitized is evaluated and the carbon steel APIX65, before the action of sulfate reducing microorganisms low the same experimental conditions; found that for the APIX65 the presence of this type of bacteria promoted the formation of a stable biofilm that allowed the maintenance of the microorganisms that damaged the material in isolated places where stings were generated; while in the AISI 304L, it was not detected damage associated to the inoculated media. The techniques of Resistance to the Polarization and Tafel Extrapolation, allowed the calculation of the speed of uniform corrosion, parameter that doesn't seem to be influenced by the presence of the microorganisms; while that noise electrochemical it distinguished in real time, the effect of the sulfate reducing in the steel APIX65. (Author)

  10. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  11. Estudio de la actividad antifúngica de un extracto de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera proveniente del estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Londoño Orozco; José Guillermo Pinieres Carrillo; Carlos Gerardo García Tovar; Liborio Carrillo M.; María Leonor Quintero Mora; Susana Elvira García Vásquez; Marco Antonio Mendoza Saavedra; To natiuh Antonio Cruz Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la acción inhibitoria de un extracto etanólico al 15% de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera, procedente del apiario de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM, sobre el crecimiento de Candida albicans (ATCC 14055), Cryptococcus neoformans, y Aspergillus fumigatus, mediante dos pruebas de susceptibilidad: difusión en agar y microdilución. Se impregnaron los discos con el extracto de propóleo. Las pruebas de difusión fueron efectuadas so...

  12. X65管线钢的TRIP效应研究%Study on TRIP effect of X65 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; 吕建国; 宋鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过扩展Avrami相变动力学模型、开发线性混合热膨胀模型、应用有限元单胞法,考虑了相变诱导塑性(TRIP)、相变膨胀、热膨胀等机制,建立了热力耦合有限元单胞模型.用该模型研究了X65管线钢分别在0、±50、±100、±150、±200 MPa拉、压单轴外载作用下,以1℃/s的冷速从540℃冷却至480℃的控冷过程,标定了TRIP系数,定量分析了TRIP效应对应变、应力的影响.结果表明:本模型适用于研究X65管线钢中由Greenwood-Johnson机制产生的TRIP效应,TRIP系数为5.35×10;控冷结束,拉应力外载产生的ε占ε的比例最低22%,最高79%;拉、压外载作用下,TRIP效应产生的最高残余拉、压应力分别为346 MPa和-103 MPa的.%A thermo-mechanical coupled finite element unit cell model was established, where the modified Avrami model, the developed linear mixture thermal expansion model and the method of finite element unit cell were utilized. In this model transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), transformation dilatation, thermal expansion are considered. The identification of TRIP parameters was implemented and the effects of TRIP on strain, stress field were analyzed quantitatively during controlled cooling of X65 pipeline steel with a cooling speed of 1 ℃/s in temperatures between 540 ℃ and 480 ℃, under uniaxial tensile or compressive external loading, such as 0, ±50, ±1O0, ± 150 or ±200 MPa. The results show that the model is suitable to study the effect of TRIP from Greenwood-Johnson effect during controlled cooling of X65 pipeline steel. The coefficient of TRIP is 5.35 × 10-5. The minimum and maximum percent of TRIP strain in total strain are 22 % and 79 %respectively under tensile external loading. The maximum residual tensile stress from TRIP effect is 346 MPa under uniaxial tensile external loading, and -103 MPa for compressive condition.

  13. Fracture toughness and safety assessment of X65 offshore pipeline welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li; Zhang Yufeng; Huo Lixing; Deng Caiyan

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical properties and low-temperature fracture toughness of API 5L X65 offshore pipeline welded joints were studied. Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure (SINTAP)-Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method was applied to the pipe structure with surface flaw at the weld toe. According to the ISO standard BS7448,the CTOD fracture toughness of the welded joints was determined at the temperature of 0℃. For the heat-affected zone (HAZ) specimens, post-test metallographic analysis was performed to verify that the tip of the crack was located in the coarse crystal zone in order to confirm the validity of the above results. The failure lines of analysis level 1 and 3 of weld metal were derived from the results of the mechanical property test. The assessment was performed, considering the maximum lay stress, residual stress conservatively assumed to be uniform tensile stress, and minimum CTOD value. The results of the assessment showed that pipeline structure with a surface flaw ( the height and length are respectively 2. 2 mm and 5 mm) at the weld toe is safe. This study lays the foundation of application of SINTAP to pipeline structure assessment.

  14. APPLICATION OF SINTAP TO THE SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF X65 PIPELINE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Caiyan; Zhang Yufeng; Huo Lixing

    2005-01-01

    The recently developed European flaw assessment procedure, structural integrity assessment procedure(SINTAP) is applied to assessment for welded joints of the API 5L X65 pipeline steel with an assumed embedded flaw and surface flaw at the weld toe. As one of the basic input data, fracture toughness crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests are conducted at 0 ℃ and performed according to the requirements of the standard of BS7448. For the heat affected zone (HAZ) specimens, the microstructure observation is performed to insure that the tip of the crack is located in the coarse grain zone. The result explains the dispersity of the test values. In structural integrity assessment procedure-fracture assessment diagram(SINTAP FAD) method, the failure curves of welded joints at level 1 and 3 are derived from the tensile test results. The results of the assessment show that all assessment points are located within the failure lines of analysis level 1 and 3. So the welded joint of the pipeline is safe. This study laid the foundation of application of SINTAP to pipeline structure assessment.

  15. Estudio de la actividad antifúngica de un extracto de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera proveniente del estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Londoño Orozco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la acción inhibitoria de un extracto etanólico al 15% de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera, procedente del apiario de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM, sobre el crecimiento de Candida albicans (ATCC 14055, Cryptococcus neoformans, y Aspergillus fumigatus, mediante dos pruebas de susceptibilidad: difusión en agar y microdilución. Se impregnaron los discos con el extracto de propóleo. Las pruebas de difusión fueron efectuadas sobre agar dextrosa Sabouraud (SDA, Müeller-Hinton con 2% de glucosa y 0,5 μg/mL de azul de metileno (MHAM: documento NCCLS M-44ª y RPMI 1640 con agar noble. Para obtener la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM, se realizaron pruebas de microdilución según los métodos M27-A2 (levaduras y M38-A (filamentosos del NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard: ahora Institute for Clinical Laboratory Standard. Se observó actividad inhibitoria sobre el desarrollo de todos los hongos estudiados. Estos resultados sugieren el posible potencial del propóleo como un tratamiento alternativo contra las infecciones por hongos, tanto levaduriformes como filamentosos.

  16. Development and Production of X65 HTP Type Pipeline Steel at Jigang%HTP型X65管线钢的开发与生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 孙玮

    2007-01-01

    介绍了济钢在3 200/3 500 mm双四辊轧机上首次大规模研制生产X65管线钢的工艺和性能.所研制的管线钢采用低C、S、P和高Nb、无V、Mo的成分设计,有低的碳当量CE(≤0.34)和PCM(≤0.17).应用精轧机HTP和ACC快速冷却工艺获得针状铁素体组织,采用堆垛缓冷实现热扩散处理,获得优良性能.采用所开发的X65管线钢板制成的直缝埋弧焊钢管具有良好的力学性能和焊接性能.

  17. X65 Steel Subsea Pipeline in CO2/H2S Conditions%X65钢海管在CO2/H2S环境中的腐蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 杨秘; 向安; 王聚锋; 赵东胜; 张立娜; 刘智勇; 李晓刚

    2012-01-01

      中海石油(中国)有限公司天津分公司为了节能减排,在渤海湾某油田开展了天然气利用项目,天然气外输海管选用X65管线钢铺设完成.随着油田不断深入开发,天然气中CO2和H2S含量都达到了较高水平,使该海底管线在运行过程中面临潜在的不确定性腐蚀风险.因此,本文研究了在不同运行工况条件下的X65钢海管焊缝区及热影响区的腐蚀形态和腐蚀规律.试验结果表明,在管线钢的焊缝区和热影响区存在不同程度的均匀腐蚀,而点蚀相对比较轻微;试样整体均匀腐蚀速率达0.1~0.3mm/a,属于中等偏高的腐蚀程度;pH降低、温度升高会使腐蚀速率增大,在管线运行和维护过程中需针对均匀腐蚀采取控制措施.本研究可以为今后海底管线选材、焊接工艺以及后期运维等工作提供借鉴.%  CNOOC (China) Limited-Tianjin carried out an offshore NG utilization project in Bohai Bay of China for energy saving and emission reduction, and API 5L X65 steel was selected for the subsea NG transmission pipeline. Whereas, CO2 and H2S content in NG is increasing along with the continuous and in-depth development of offshore oilfield, and high levels of souring gases may lead to unknown corrosion risks towards the subsea pipeline. Therefore, this paper studies on the corrosion forms and corrosion regularity of weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) in the X65 steel pipeline under different running conditions. Results of the experiment show that uniform corrosion of varying degrees existed at both weld and HAZ, however, pitting corrosion is relatively slight. The total corrosion rate of the coupon reached 0.1-0.3 mm/a which is medium to high levels of corrosion, and the corrosion rate increased in lower pH and higher temperature in the experiment, so control measures towards uniform corrosion should be taken in its running and maintenance process. Thus, this study would be a significant reference for

  18. Micro Structural Comparison of Friction Stir Weldment and Shielded Metal Arc Welding in API-X65 Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shahinfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and microhardness properties of the friction stir welded zones and shielded metal arc welded. Microstructural analysis of the weld was carried out using optical microscopy. Under FSW process base metal microstructure fully changed. Different heat inputs were obtained using a fix travel (welding speed in combination with several spindle speeds. Heat input during welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties in the various weld regions.it can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone hardness increase.

  19. Helioviewer API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Helioviewer Project maintains a set of Public APIs with the goal of improving access to solar and heliospheric datasets to scientists, educators, developers,...

  20. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  1. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  2. X65级高频焊接钢管爆裂原因分析%Cause Analysis on Bursting of X65 High Frequency Welded Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 罗金恒; 冯耀荣; 张华; 张广利

    2011-01-01

    Bursting reasons for the φ457 mm× 7.1 mm X65 grade high frequency welded (HFW) pipeline was analyzed by means of chemical compositions analysis, mechanical properties test, metallographic examination and scanning electron microscope analysis.The results show that existing cold welding defects in the welding line and disqualification of impact ductility of the welding line were main reasons for the bursting.The effective bearing area reduced because of the cold welding defects and the original cracks initiated and expanded in the welding line.At the same time the ability of resistance the crack spreading was worsened because of low impact ductility of the welding line.So the X65 grade pipeline burst at the welding line under the force of hydraulic pressure test.%通过化学成分分析、力学性能测试、金相检验以及扫描电镜分析等方法对某规格为φ457 mm×7.1 mm的X65级高频焊(HFW)钢管水压试验时发生爆裂的原因进行了分析.结果表明:钢管爆裂失效是由于其直焊缝上存在冷焊缺陷以及焊缝冲击韧度不合格所致;焊缝中存在冷焊缺陷使其有效承载面积减小,原始裂纹在冷焊缺陷处萌生并扩展,加之焊缝冲击韧度低,抗裂纹扩展能力差,在水压试验压力作用下最终导致该钢管于焊缝处失稳爆裂.

  3. X65管线厚板控制冷却时的相变效应%Transformation Effect During Controlled Cooling of X65 Heavy Pipeline Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; 宋鹏; 吕建国

    2012-01-01

    为明确相变效应对X65管线厚板控制冷却的影响,通过开发线性混合热膨胀模型、拓展Avrami相变动力学模型和应用Leblond模型建立了热力耦合有限元模型.用该模型研究了X65管线厚板在上下层流冷却系数分别为3和1 kW/(m2·K)的非对称控制冷却时,相变效应对温度、残余应力和应变的影响.结果表明:相变期间,潜热减缓心部和下表面的冷却速度达50%、25%;潜热和TRIP效应分别产生峰值为89、- 89 MPa,并且130、- 170 MPa的应力可减小整体残余应力;相变膨胀产生峰值为723、- 479 MPa的组织应力决定了整体残余应力大小及分布.%To study the phase transformation effect during the controlled cooling of X65 heavy pipeline plate, a thermomechanical coupled finite element model was established, where the developed linear mixture thermal expansion model, the modified Avrami transformation dynamics model, and the Leblond model were combined. Using the model, the influence of transformation effect on temperature, residual stress, and strain was studied during the asymmetric controlled cooling of X65 heavy pipeline plates with 3 kW/( m ·K) laminar cooling coefficient on top surface and 1 kW/( m ·K) on bottom surface. The result shows that latent beat slowed the coaling speed of inner and bottom surface by 50% and 25% , respectively, during the phase transformation. Peak stresses, 89 MPa and -89 MPa, were induced due to latent heat, and 130 MPa and - 170 MPa from TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) effect. Because of the coexistence of tensile and compressive stresses caused by latent heat and TRIP effect, the overall residual stresses were reduced. Moreover, the magnitude and distribution of the overall residual stresses were dependent significantly on the structural stress with peak values of 723 MPa and - 479 MPa from transformation dilatation.

  4. Mechanism of protective film formation during CO2 corrosion of X65 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques,X-ray diffraction (XRD),and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the corrosion behaviors of X65 steel in static solution with carbon dioxide (CO2 at 65℃.The results show that iron carbonate (FeCO3deposits on the steel surface as a corrosion product scale.This iron carbonate scale acts as a barrier to CO2 corrosion,and can reduce the general corrosion rate.The protection ability of the scale is closely related to the scale morphological characteristics.

  5. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  6. Estudio del daño por hidrógeno en uniones soldadas de un acero API 5L X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility to hydrogen damage on a type API 5L X52 steel welded by electrical resistance. Several techniques, such as hydrogen permeation and cathodic charging were used. The metallic material was characterized using SEM and TEM. The base metal microstructure was very similar to that one corresponding to the welded area. This microstructure was mainly comprised by ferrite and perlite, differing only in the grain size. Therefore, the susceptibility to hydrogen damage was similar in both cases. It is worth mentioning that the welded area has very small dimensions. Indeed, the fusion zone is only 5 mm wide while the heat affected zone is 1 mm wide. The hydrogen damage observed was mainly in the form of blisters, which were associated to the presence of aluminum rich inclusions. Also, it was noticed partial inclusion dissolution and some matrix attack adjacent to the inclusions.

    En la presente investigación se estudió la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno en un acero API 5L X52 soldado por resistencia eléctrica. Para ello, se emplearon técnicas de permeación y de carga catódica de hidrógeno. El material fue caracterizado mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y de transmisión. La susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno fue similar tanto en el metal base como en el cordón de soldadura. Este comportamiento se vincula a la microestructura homogénea constituida por perlita y ferrita, que presentan ambos, aun cuando existen diferencias en el tamaño de grano. El cordón de soldadura tenía dimensiones muy pequeñas, donde la zona de fusión y la afectada por el calor poseen espesores de 5 mm y 1 mm, respectivamente. El daño inducido por hidrógeno se presentó en forma de ampollas en la superficie del material, asociado, principalmente, a la presencia de inclusiones globulares y semiglobulares ricas en aluminio. Además, se manifestó una disoluci

  7. 复合管X65/316L在模拟产出水中的电偶腐蚀行为%Galvanic Corrosion Behaviors of X65-316L Bimetal Tube in Simulated Production Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪达; 曾顺鹏

    2015-01-01

    海洋天然气输送用复合金属管内外层因内层金属输送介质渗漏将构建电偶对,加速外层金属腐蚀.本工作采用浸泡试验和电化学技术分析X65-316L电偶对在模拟产出水中的电偶腐蚀行为.采用SEM观察电偶对金属腐蚀前后形貌变化;分析X65和316L偶接前后开路电位(OCP)和偶接电流密度(Jcc)随时间的变化曲线,以及其对电化学参数的影响.结果显示,X65-316L电偶对在模拟产出水中X65为阳极,316L为阴极;与偶接前相比,X65腐蚀速率增加,316L腐蚀速率下降,同时X65阴极极化率减小,316L阳极极化率增加.

  8. Improving fatigue performance of welded joints of X65 pipeline steel by UIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinming; Chen Tong; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Treating weld toes properly can improve the fatigue performance. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) is a more effective and convenient method to enhance the fatigue strength of welded joints and suchlike structures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the specimens made of X65 pipeline steel. The test specimens were investigated on the fatigue strength and the fatigue life at the same stress range level by comparing the ones peened by UIT with the others without the treatment: the fatigue strength of the specimens as UIT, 90% of the fatigue strength of the base mental, is increased by 38% compared with that of as welded only; the fatigue life of the ones as UIT is prolonged by 11 multiples of the ones as welded only.

  9. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomei, T.T.; Czarnecki, K.; Lämmel, R.; Storm, T. van der; Brand, M.G.J. van den; Gasevic, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-01-01

    API migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code transformatio

  10. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  11. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. 1....

  12. NASA Techport API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA TechPort system provides a RESTful web services API to make technology project data available in a machine-readable format. This API can be used to export...

  13. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  14. Processing, basic characterization and standard dielectric measurements on PLZT x/65/35 (4 ≤ x ≤ 11) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Suchanicz, Jan; Livinsh, Maris; Sternberg, Andris

    2014-11-01

    The influence of external stress (0-800 bar) on the dielectric properties of lead lanthanum zirconium titanate (PLZT) x/65/35 (4 ≤ x ≤ 11) ceramics was investigated. Applying uniaxial pressure leads to a change in the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ɛ), in its frequency dispersion as well as in the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity of ɛ becomes broader and shifts to lower temperatures for PLZT x/65/35 with x = 4, 7, 9.75 and 11, with increasing pressure, on heating. It was concluded that applying uniaxial pressure induces an increase of Tm, and thus has a similar effect as the increase of the Ti ion concentration in the lead zirconium titanate (PZT) system. Results based on nanoregion switching processes under combined electromechanical loading were interpreted. Studies clearly showed that applied stress has a significant influence on the dielectric properties of PLZT ceramics.

  15. Study on H2S stress corrosion test of welded joint for X65 pipeline steel and numerical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓军; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 白秉仁; 李晓巍; 曹军

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of welded joint for the X65 pipeline steel to H2S stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is investigated. SCC tests on the steel are carried out in the environment based on NACE TM-01-77 solution with saturated gaseous H2S. The threshold stress intensity factor and crack propagation velocity are calculated according to wedge-opening loading (WOL) specimens. The three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of WOL specimens is performed by using the FEM programming package ANSYS. Stress field and concentration of hydrogen distribution property ahead of the crack tip are obtained. This paper surveyed the microstructure of welded joint and studied on the mechanical properties of X65 pipeline steel. It provides experimental basis for studying stress corrosion. The results of numerical analysis are consistent with conclusions of stress corrosion test.

  16. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing.

  17. TA1/X65复合板焊接工艺及焊缝组织和性能研究%Research on Welding Process, Microstructure and Mechanical Property of TA1/X65 Clad Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 毕宗岳; 牛辉; 刘海璋; 张万鹏; 田磊; 黄晓江; 张超

    2015-01-01

    采用TIG+MIG+MAG焊接工艺对TA1/X65复合板进行了以V/Cu作为中间过渡填充金属的板-板对接焊试验。利用金相显微镜、扫描电镜、 X射线衍射、 EDS能谱面扫描和显微硬度试验,研究了焊缝区组织特征、界面元素分布、主要物相与显微硬度分布。研究结果表明,坡口设计和过渡金属纯度及各元素间物理、化学特性差异对焊接质量有较大影响。探讨了焊缝区裂纹缺陷的形成及脆硬金属间化合物的产生等问题,为TA1/X65钛钢复合板工程化焊接及焊接中易出现问题的规避和解决积累了经验。%Adopting the welding process of TIG(gas tungsten arc welding)+MIG(metal inert-gas welding)+MAG(metal active-gas welding) to carry out plate-plate butt welding test, with V/Cu as transition filler metal. By using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, EDS element mapping and microhardness test, the microstructure characteristics of weld area, interface element distribution, main phase and microhardness distribution were investigated. The results indicated that the welding quality of TA1/X65 pipeline steel clad plates butt joints was greatly influenced by weld groove design, transition-metals purity and differences between the physical and chemical properties. It also discussed some problems, such as the formation of weld area crack defects, the generation of brittle intermetallic compounds etc., which provide experience for avoiding and solving some problems easily appeared in titanium TA1/X65 steel clad plates engineering welding.

  18. Calculation and comparison between alternate and continuous controlled cooling technology for X65 pipeline steel plate%X65管线钢板交替与连续控冷工艺的计算与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; 吕建国; 宋鹏; 杜重麟

    2012-01-01

    为减小X65管线钢板控制冷却后的残余应力和翘曲,通过开发线性混合热膨胀模型、拓展Avrami相变动力学模型和应用Leblond的相变诱发塑性(TRIP)模型建立了热力耦合有限元模型,考虑了控冷时的弹塑性变形、热膨胀、相变潜热、相变膨胀、TRIP等所有物理效应.用该模型研究了2种控制冷却工艺下X65管线钢板的温度、残余应力、残余应变及翘曲.结果表明:与连续控冷相比,交替控冷使板的温度进一步降低7℃;上表面一侧的残余拉应力峰值进一步减小44 MPa;下表面一侧的残余总压应变峰值进一步增加0.001;翘曲由0.54×10-3减至0.09×10-3;故交替控冷可降低板内的残余应力,并减小翘曲.%To decrease the residual stress and warping of X65 pipeline steel plate after controlled cooling, a thermo-mechanical coupled FEM model was established according to linear mixture thermal expansion model, modified Avrami transformation dynamics model and Leblond transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) model. All relevant physical effects of elastoplastic deformation, thermal expansion, latent heat, transformation dilatation and TRIP effect were considered in the FEM model. Temperature, residual stress, residual strain and warping of X65 pipeline steel plate were analyzed by the proposed model under two controlled cooling technologies. The results show that the temperature of plate under alternate controlled cooling is 7 ℃ less than that under continuous controlled cooling. The residual tensile stress peak value near top surface is decreased by 44 Mpa with enhanced residual compressive strain peak value of 0.001 near bottom surface, while the warping is reduced from 0. 54 × 10-3 to 0. 09 × 10-3. Alternate controlled cooling can reduce residual stress and warping of plate.

  19. Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion of Different Microstructural Phases of X65 Pipeline Steel under Saturated Carbon Dioxide Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ and parent plate (PP regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two different temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C and at initial pH~4.0. In addition, a non-electrochemical immersion experiment was also performed at 80 °C in CO2, on a sample portion of X65 pipeline containing part of a weld section, together with adjacent heat affected zones (HAZ and parent material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the separate weld and parent plate samples. This study seeks to understand the significance of the different microstructures within the different zones of the welded X65 pipe in CO2 environments on corrosion performance; with particular attention given to the formation of surface scales; and their composition/significance. The results obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD measurements suggest that, post immersion, the parent plate substrate is scale free, with only features arising from ferrite (α-Fe and cementite (Fe3C apparent. In contrast, at 80 °C, GIXRD from the weld zone substrate, and weld zone/heat affected zone of the non-electrochemical sample indicates the presence of siderite (FeCO3 and chukanovite (Fe2CO3(OH2 phases. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM on this surface confirmed the presence of characteristic discrete cube-shaped crystallites of siderite together with plate-like clusters of chukanovite.

  20. Production of Baosteel X65 High Strength and High Toughness Pipeline Steel%宝钢X65高强度高韧性管线用板卷钢的生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 陈钰珊

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the development, production andapplication of Baosteel X65 high strength and high toughness pipeline steel . Baosteel has mastered the modern pipeline steel production and quality control technology, the product's quality is stable and meet the pipeline steel plate demand requirements of customers. It is not only solved the problem of long distance pipeline steel relying on import, realized import substitute , and also successfully applied on pipeline project both home and abroad.%介绍了宝钢发展X65高强度高韧性管线钢所进行的研制、生产及应用情况。宝钢已较好地掌握了现代管线钢的生产和质量控制技术,产品质量稳定,满足国内外用户对管线钢板卷的需求。不仅解决了我国长输管线用钢长期依靠进口的问题,产品能替代进口,并在国外管线工程上得到了成功的应用。

  1. Google Ajax Search API

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Use the Google Ajax Search API to integrateweb search, image search, localsearch, and other types of search intoyour web site by embedding a simple, dynamicsearch box to display search resultsin your own web pages using a fewlines of JavaScript. For those who do not want to write code,the search wizards and solutions builtwith the Google Ajax Search API generatecode to accomplish common taskslike adding local search results to a GoogleMaps API mashup, adding videosearch thumbnails to your web site, oradding a news reel with the latest up todate stories to your blog. More advanced users can

  2. The Study of Controlled Cooling Technology and Warping of X65 Heavy Pipeline Plate%X65厚管线板控冷工艺与翘曲分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; Thomas Antretter; 吕建国; 宋鹏

    2011-01-01

    A thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model is established, which combines the modified Avrami transformation dynamics model, the linear mixture thermal expansion model, and the Leblond transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)model. The model considers latent heat, transformation dilatation, TRIP effect, as well as thermal expansion and elasto plastic deformation. The influence of three different controlled cooling modes on temperature field and stress, strain field of X65 heavy pipeline plate is simulated and the warping of plate is analyzed. The result shows that the main reason of warping is the temperature difference between the top and bottom surfaces from unsymmetric cooling, which causes the unsymmetric distribution of stress and strain field. Alternate cooling, in which laminar cooling and air cooling appear alternately, decreases the temperature difference and reduces the magnitude of warping strongly. To avoid warping and to realize the uniformity of properties, it is more effective to maintain the cooling homogeneity between the top and bottom surface of plate during controlled cooling, and to use alternate cooling.%通过扩展Avrami相变动力学模型、开发线性混合热膨胀模型和使用Leblond相变诱导塑性(TRIP)模型建立了X65厚管线板控冷过程的热力耦合有限元模型,全面考虑了相变潜热、相变膨胀、TRIP效应、热膨胀等机制.用该模型对3种控冷模式下X65厚管线板控冷过程的温度场和应力/应变场进行了模拟,并分析了控冷模式对翘曲变形的影响.结果表明:不对称冷却产生的上下表面间的温差所导致的应力/应变场的不对称分布是材料翘曲的根本原因;交替冷却不仅可降低温差,还可大幅减小材料的翘曲;实现上下表面对称冷却和采用交替冷却是保证产品平直和性能均匀的有效方法.

  3. HTP型X65级管线钢连续冷却相变的研究%Research on Continuous Cooling Phase Transformation of HTP Type X65 Grade Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明浩; 黄国建; 徐烽; 孔祥磊

    2009-01-01

    利用Gleeble-3800热摸拟试验机,测定了HTP型X65级管线钢的动态CCT曲线,并通过光学显微镜和电子显微镜(SEM和TEM)对连续冷却后的组织和第二相析出物进行了详细观察和分析.随着冷却速度的提高,在连续冷却转变组织中依次出现多边形铁素体、珠光体、针状铁素体,且各阶段冷却后试样的硬度也逐渐增加,M/A数量逐渐增多,分布越来越均匀,第二相析出物增多且变得弥散细小.

  4. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  5. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  6. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  7. 复合管X65/316L在模拟产出水中电偶腐蚀行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪达[1; 曾顺鹏[2; 曹献龙[1; 兰伟[1

    2015-01-01

    海洋天然气输送用复合金属管由于内层金属穿孔常发生内外层问电偶腐蚀。本文采用浸泡试验和电化学技术分析X65—316L构成电偶对在模拟产出水中电偶腐蚀行为。采用SEM观察腐蚀前后形貌变化;分析X65和316L偶接前后开路电位(OCP)和偶接电流(Icc)随时间变化,以及电化学参数变化。结果显示,X65—316L电偶对在模拟产出水中X65为阳极,316L为负极;与偶接前相比,X65腐蚀速率增加,316L腐蚀速率下降,同时X65阴极极化率减小,316L阳极极化率增加。

  8. IBM System i APIs at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Vining, Bruce; Hawkins, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of the bestselling i5 application programming interface (API) book includes powerful new APIs and updated code to give programmers a working knowledge of the APIs available under i5/OS. Using real business-world examples, this book explains APIs that serve webpages, list APIs, APIs that work with user spaces, dynamic index APIs, APIs that retrieve system values, job information and job queue information APIs, APIs that work with data queues, APIs for error handling and message handling, and spool file APIs, among many others. Completely revised and including eight new chapters

  9. X65钢和3Cr钢作为海底管道用钢抗CO2腐蚀性能研究%Research on the CO2 corrosion resistance of X65 and 3Cr steels applied to subsea pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽华; 常炜; 张雷; 李忠涛; 于湉; 许立宁; 路民旭

    2011-01-01

    The high-pressure high temperature au toclave was used to simulate the typical corrosion environment for oil and gas pipeline, and the CO2 corrosion resistance of X65 and 3Cr steels applied to subsca pipeline was researched.The corrosion rates of both X65 and 3Cr steels were low in mild corrosion environment, so we could choose X65 steel in this environment.With temperature and CO2 par tial pressure increasing, the CO2 corrosion resistance of 3Cr was superior to X65 steel; the average corro sion rate of 3Cr steel was obviously lower than X65 in the middling corrosion environment and 3Cr steel can avoid local corrosion in the middling and severe corrosion environments, so the 3Cr steel was more appropriate than X65 steel in such corrosion environ ment.The corrosion product scale enriched with Cr element was formed on the surface of the steel to protect the matrix from corrosion, which was the main reason that the CO2 corrosion resistance of 3Cr steel was superior to that of X65.%用高温高压反应釜模拟油气输送管道典型腐蚀环境,研究X65钢和3Cr钢作为海底管道用钢的抗CO2腐蚀性能.在温和腐蚀环境,X65钢与3Cr钢的平均腐蚀速率均较低,使用X65钢是安全的.随着温度和CO2分压提高,与X65钢相比3Cr钢表现出更优越的抗CO2腐蚀性能:在中等腐蚀环境3Cr钢平均腐蚀速率较X65钢大幅降低,在中等和苛刻腐蚀环境3Cr钢可有效抑制局部腐蚀的发生;在这样的腐蚀条件下,3Cr钢作为海底管道用钢较X65钢安全.3Cr钢较X65钢抗CO2腐蚀性能提高的主要原因是表面形成了富Cr的腐蚀产物膜,结构致密,对基体起到了有效的保护作用.

  10. X65厚管线板控冷时的相变潜热及TRIP效应%Latent heat and TRIP effect of X65 heavy pipeline plate during controlled cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德丰; 陆建生; 宋鹏; 林清华; 吕建国

    2011-01-01

    通过开发线性混合热膨胀模型、使用Leblond相变诱导塑性(TRIP)模型和拓展Avrami相变动力学模型建立了热力耦合有限元模型,考虑了相变潜热、相变膨胀、TRIP效应、热膨胀等机制.用该模型分析了X65厚管线板从860℃至低温的非对称(上下表面层流冷却系数分别为3,1mW/mm2K)控冷过程,定量研究了相变潜热、TRIP效应对温度、残余应力的影响.结果表明:相变期间,潜热升温52.7℃,并减缓下表面和心部的温降分别为50%,25%;控冷终了,潜热提高板温44℃.潜热和TRIP效应分别产生峰值为±89M%Based on the developed linear mixture thermal expansion model,the Leblond transformation induced plasticity(TRIP)model,and the modified Avrami transformation dynamics model,a thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model was established,which considered latent heat,transformation dilatation,TRIP effect,thermal expansion,and so on.By the model,the influence of latent heat,TRIP effect on temperature and residual stress was investigated quantitatively during unsymmetrical controlled cooling of X65 heavy pipeline plate from 860℃ to low temperature with 3mW/mm2K laminar cooling coefficient on top surface and 1mW/mm2K laminar cooling coefficient on bottom surface.The results show that the latent heat enhances about 52.7℃ during phase transformation and the cooling speed of bottom surface and inner slows 50% and 25% respectively because of the increasing of latent heat,and the latent heat increases the temperature of plate 44℃ finally.The magnitude and distribution of residual stress are influenced by shifting the stress peak due to latent heat and TRIP effect.

  11. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  12. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  13. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  14. Butt Welding of 2205/X65 Bimetallic Sheet and Study on the Inhomogeneity of the Properties of the Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ning-Nian; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jian-Long; Bi, Zong-Yue

    2017-03-01

    The explosively welded 2205 duplex stainless steel/X65 pipe steel bimetallic sheets were butt jointed by multilayer and multi-pass welding (gas tungsten arc welding for the flyer and gas metal arc welding for the transition and parent layers of the bimetallic sheets). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The results showed that in the thickness direction, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint exhibited obvious inhomogeneity. The microstructures of parent filler layers consisted of acicular ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, and a small amount of blocky ferrite. The microstructure of the transition layer and flyer layer consisted of both austenite and ferrite structures; however, the transition layer of weld had a higher volume fraction of austenite. The results of the microhardness test showed that in both weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent filler layers, the average hardness decreased with the increasing (from parent filler layer 1 to parent filler layer 3) welding heat input. The results of hardness test also indicated that the hardness of the WM and the HAZ for the flyer and transition layers was equivalent. The tensile test combined with Digital Specklegram Processing Technology demonstrated that the fracturing of the welded joint started at the HAZ of the flyer, and then the fracture grew toward the base metal of the parent flyer near the parent HAZ. The stratified impact test at -5 °C showed that the WM and HAZ of the flyer exhibited lower impact toughness, and the fracture mode was ductile and brittle mixed fracture.

  15. Web API Fragility: How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers a

  16. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  17. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  18. Contracting the Facebook API

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper w...

  19. H2S Stress Corrosion Tests of Welded Joint for X65 Pipeline Steel and Finite Element Numerical Analysis of Crack Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓军; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 白秉仁; 李小巍; 曹军

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of welded joint is surveyed and the mechanical properties of X65 pipeline steel are studied in this paper, which provides experimental basis of performance effect on stress corrosion. H2S stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests on the steel are carried out in the environment based on NACE TM-01-77 solution. The threshold stress intensity factor and crack propagation velocity for base metal and HAZ are obtained. The susceptibility of welded joint for X65 pipeline steel to H2S stress corrosion cracking is investigated. The programming package ANSYS of finite element model (FEM) is used to perform the three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of WOL specimens. Stress field and concentration of hydrogen distribution property of the crack tip are obtained.

  20. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Research on Amivar® efficacy against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honey bee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05%±3,39 (rango=79,5 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Amivar® (amitraz, Apilab, Argentina to control Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, in Apis mellifera colonies during the autumn 2003. Work was done at "Centro de Extensión Apícola" experimental apiary located in Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Twenty Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received one strip of Amivar® (amitraz, 1 gr in the center of brood area. The second one represented the control group. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors designed to avoid mite removal by adult honeybees. Then, a total of three doses of 5 ml of Oxavar® at seven days

  1. Twitter manager GO API intended for GNU Social API

    OpenAIRE

    Janiga, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor’s thesis had two goals. The first one was to create API for GO programming language that communicates with GNU Social API. The second one was to create an application that uses the mentioned API. The main purpose of creating the application was to reduce the time spent with the login and logout of the accounts by the members in the white team. The application is intended for training purposes in JYVSECTEC project at JAMK University of Applied Sciences. JYVSECTEC sta...

  2. A Review on Genomics APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Swaminathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement and falling prices of whole human genome Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has resulted in rapid adoption of genomic information at both clinics and research institutions. Considered together, the complexity of genomics data, due to its large volume and diversity along with the need for genomic data sharing, has resulted in the creation of Application Programming Interface (API for secure, modular, interoperable access to genomic data from different applications, platforms, and even organizations. The Genomics APIs are a set of special protocols that assist software developers in dealing with multiple genomic data sources for building seamless, interoperable applications leading to the advancement of both genomic and clinical research. These APIs help define a standard for retrieval of genomic data from multiple sources as well as to better package genomic information for integration with Electronic Health Records. This review covers three currently available Genomics APIs: a Google Genomics, b SMART Genomics, and c 23andMe. The functionalities, reference implementations (if available and authentication protocols of each API are reviewed. A comparative analysis of the different features across the three APIs is provided in the Discussion section. Though Genomics APIs are still under active development and have yet to reach widespread adoption, they hold the promise to make building of complicated genomics applications easier with downstream constructive effects on healthcare.

  3. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  4. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  5. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  6. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  7. Dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 under mechanical stress, electric field and temperature loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pytel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of uniaxial pressure (0÷1000 bars applied parallely to the ac electric field on dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 ceramics. There was revealed a significant effect of the external stress on these properties. The application of uniaxial pressure leads to the change of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ϵ, of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity ϵ becomes diffused/sharpened and shifts to a higher/lower temperatures with increasing the pressure. It was concluded that the application of uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the domain switching processes under the action of combined electromechanical loading.

  8. X65钢在含超临界CO2的NaCl溶液中腐蚀机制的讨论%CORROSION MECHANISM DISCUSSION OF X65 STEEL IN NaCl SOLUTION SATURATED WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亮; 庞晓露; 高克玮

    2015-01-01

    利用高温高压反应釜研究了X65管线钢在含有超临界CO2(supercritical CO.SC CO2)的3.5%NaC1溶液、去离子水以及溶解有NaC1溶液的超临界CO2相中的腐蚀行为.结果表明,C1-的存在导致X65钢在含有饱和SC CO2的NaC1溶液中的腐蚀速率显著升高,腐蚀产物膜的晶粒形貌发生改变.X65钢在超临界CO2相中的腐蚀速率远远低于在NaCl溶液中的腐蚀速率,但出现局部腐蚀.X65钢在含有SC CO2的NaC1溶液中的腐蚀分为3个阶段:第一个阶段为基体快速溶解阶段,表面没有FeCO3生成;第二阶段为FeCO3开始沉积阶段,形成的FeCO3腐蚀产物膜不完整,增大了阴极还原反应面积,导致腐蚀加速;第三阶段为腐蚀产物膜保护阶段,形成的腐蚀产物膜致密性逐渐提高,保护性好,但C1-仍然可以穿过腐蚀产物膜到达膜基界面,从而加速钢的腐蚀.建立了普通管线钢在含C1-溶液中的超临界CO2腐蚀模型.

  9. Automated information extraction from web APIs documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Papa Alioune; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of Web APIs is the fact that, de facto, providers hardly follow any standard practices while implementing, publishing, and documenting their APIs. As a consequence, the discovery and use of these services by third parties is significantly hampered. In order to achieve further automation while exploiting Web APIs we present an approach for automatically extracting relevant technical information from the Web pages documenting them. In particular we have devised two ...

  10. Accessing Inaccessible Android APIs: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, LI; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise; Le Traon, Yves; Klein, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    As Android becomes a de-facto choice of development platform for mobile apps, developers extensively leverage its accompanying Software Development Kit to quickly build their apps. This SDK comes with a set of APIs which developers may find limited in comparison to what system apps can do or what framework developers are preparing to harness capabilities of new generation devices. Thus, developers may attempt to explore in advance the normally “inaccessible” APIs for building unique API-based...

  11. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events, and...

  12. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN EFEK HEPATOPROTEKTIF DAUN BAKAU API-API PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    safrina dyah hardiningtyas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kasar daun api-api putih yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan terbaik, menentukan kandungan fitokimia dan efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak kasar yang dipilih secara in vivo. Daun api-api putih diekstrak menggunakan tiga jenis pelarut, yakni metanol, etil asetat dan n-heksana. Dalam uji in vivo dilakukan evaluasi terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA, enzim aspartat transaminase (AST, enzim alanin transaminase (ALT, dan histopatologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi daun api-api putih dengan pelarut etil asetat menghasilkan aktivitas antioksidan terbaik dengan kandungan fitokimia terdiri dari flavonoid dan steroid/triterpenoid. Pemberian ekstrak etil asetat daun api-api putih pada tikus yang telah diinduksi CCl4 dapat menormalkan berbagai parameter biokimia stres oksidatif (kadar MDA, AST, dan ALT dibandingkan dengan standar Silymarin. Ekstrak daun api-api putih berpotensi untuk melindungi hati tikus dari kerusakan oksidatif yang diinduksi CCl4. Efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak daun api-api putih berkorelasi dengan aktivitas antioksidannya.Kata kunci: antioksidan, Avicennia marina, ekstrak, hepatoprotektor

  13. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana (AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera (AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318 A. mellifera colonies and 64 A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38 A. mellifera colonies and 37 A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated from A. mellifera were clustered with the A. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae of A. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV in A. mellifera. Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infect A. mellifera colonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities of A. cerana and A. mellifera to sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. PMID:26801569

  14. Validation of the Parlay API through prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellenthal, J.W.; Planken, F.J.M.; Wegdam, M.

    2001-01-01

    The desire within the telecommunications world for new and faster business growth has been a major drive towards the development of open network API. Over the past 7 years several (semi) standardization groups have announced work on network API, including TINA-C, JAIN, IEEE P1520, INforum, 3GPP, JAI

  15. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. mellifera colonies and 64A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. mellifera colonies and 37A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. mellifera were clustered with theA. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. cerana and A. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices.

  16. How do developers use APIs? A case study in concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    With the omnipresent usage of APIs in software development, it has become important to analyse how the routines and functionalities of APIs are actually used. This information is in particular useful for API developers, to make decisions about future updates of the API. However, also for developers

  17. Web API Growing Pains: Loosely Coupled yet Strongly Tied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. Developers using web APIs are forced to accompany the API providers in their software evolution tasks. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we perfor

  18. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  19. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  20. Apiñamiento dentario en escolares de 3 a 12 años. Holguín 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Carmona Vidal; Yolanda Ayala Pérez; José Eduardo Díaz Morell

    2009-01-01

    Aborda un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 2200 niños de 3-12 años de edad que reciben atención en las clínicas: Mario Pozo, Artemio Mastrapa y Manuel Angulo, en el período de septiembre del 2007 a septiembre del 2008; con el objetivo de contribuir al conocimiento sobre la presencia de apiñamiento en la muestra seleccionada, su clasificación, localización, grupos dentarios afectados y los factores de riesgo asociados. Se pudo conocer que existe una alta prevalencia de apiñamiento, ...

  1. Real World Uses For Nagios APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Janice

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the Nagios 4 APIs and how the NASA Advanced Supercomputing at Ames Research Center is employing them to upgrade its graphical status display (the HUD) and explain why it's worth trying to use them yourselves.

  2. BeXRB Monitor Data API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples. This is a monitor using data from Swift/BAT, MAXI and Fermi/GBM...

  3. ChemSpell Web Service API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ChemSpell Web Service API provides chemical name spell checking and chemical name synonym look-up. ChemSpell contains more than 1.3 million chemical names...

  4. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  5. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  6. Comparative Foraging Behavior of Apis Cerana F. and Apis Mellifera L. in Rapeseed under Cage Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwor Pudasaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. in rapeseed under cage condition in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment showed that Apis cerana F. foraged extra 42 minute per day as compared to Apis mellifera L. Apis cerana F. were more attracted to nectar, whereas Apis mellifera L. were more attracted to pollen collection throughout the day. The activities, in into hives and out from hives, for both species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 8:00 am. The highest in-out were observed at 2:00 pm on both species as Apis mellifera L. 44.33 bees entered into hives and 49.66 bees went out of hives, whereas lower number of Apis cerana F. 43.66 bees entered into hives and 48.16 bees were out of hives. Apis mellifera L. collect 1.22:1 and 0.41:1 pollen nectar ratio at 10:00 am and 4:00 am whereas at same hours Apis cerana collect 1.16:1 and 0.30:1 pollen nectar ratio. Apis cerana F. foraged significantly higher number of rapeseed flowers and plants as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition. It shows that Apis cerana F. was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition.

  7. Development of API 5L X70 and X80 in the Brazilian Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes industry; Desenvolvimento de acos API 5L X70 e X80 na Vallourec e Mannesmann Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio M. Silveira e; Carvalho, Ricardo N. de [Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes - V e M do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The demand for seamless pipes with resistance higher than those for API 5L X60 and X65 grades has increased in the last years. They are traditionally used up to now for applications on rigid risers for production and exportation and line pipes for oil and gas. In the case of seamless pipes, the great challenge is to fulfill the requirements of mechanical properties for X70 and X80 grades, quenched and tempered, with values of carbon equivalent low enough to assure a good weldability. This paper presents the results obtained by Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes - V and M do Brazil on producing seamless pipes of X70 and X80 API grades, with outside diameter lower than 8 5/8{sup (} 219,1 mm ) and wall thickness up to 0,562{sup (} 14,3 mm ). Results of tensile, Charpy notch impact resistance and hardness tests are shown. Hydrogen-Induced and Environmental Cracking tests were also carried out, since for some applications is required a good resistance to these kinds of embrittlement mechanisms. The mechanical properties, microstructure and physical characteristics of welded joints were also evaluated. The results obtained up to now are quite promising, showing good suitability to the aimed final applications. (author)

  8. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  9. Advanced API security securing APIs with OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect, JWS, and JWE

    CERN Document Server

    Siriwardena, Prabath

    2014-01-01

    Advanced API Security is a complete reference to the next wave of challenges in enterprise security--securing public and private APIs. API adoption in both consumer and enterprises has gone beyond predictions. It has become the 'coolest' way of exposing business functionalities to the outside world. Both your public and private APIs, need to be protected, monitored and managed. Security is not an afterthought, but API security has evolved a lot in last five years. The growth of standards, out there, has been exponential. That's where AdvancedAPI Security comes in--to wade through the weeds

  10. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis.

  11. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  12. MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS. This Application Programming Interface (API) encompasses a library of functions that provides programmatic data access to...

  13. Comparing Speech Recognition Systems (Microsoft API, Google API And CMU Sphinx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veton Këpuska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to design a tool that will be used to test and compare commercial speech recognition systems, such as Microsoft Speech API and Google Speech API, with open-source speech recognition systems such as Sphinx-4. The best way to compare automatic speech recognition systems in different environments is by using some audio recordings that were selected from different sources and calculating the word error rate (WER. Although the WER of the three aforementioned systems were acceptable, it was observed that the Google API is superior.

  14. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  15. 47 CFR 61.46 - Adjustments to the API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the API. 61.46 Section 61.46... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.46 Adjustments to the API. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and... carrier must calculate an API for each affected basket pursuant to the following methodology: APIt =...

  16. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  17. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  18. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kellner, Christian J; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines.

  19. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...

  20. Implicación de la erupción de los terceros molares en el apiñamiento anteroinferior severo

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bustillo Arrieta

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el grado de asociación entre el apiñamiento anteroinferior y la presencia de terceros molares inferiores en modelos de estudio y radiografías panorámicas de pacientes atendidos en el Postgrado de Ortodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena y centros de atención odontológica y radiológica de la ciudad de Cartagena. Diseño del estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento: Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena de Indias (Colo...

  1. How Do Developers Use APIs? A Case Study in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    With the omnipresent usage of APIs in software development, it has become important to analyse how the routines and functionalities of APIs are actually used. This information is in particular useful for API developers, to make decisions about future updates of the API. However, also for developers...... of static analysis and verification tools this information is highly important, because it indicates where and how to put the most efficient effort in annotating APIs, to make them usable for the static analysis and verification tools. This paper presents an analysis of the usage of the routines...

  2. An Implementation Model of Parlay MMCCS API Based on SIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN You-qing; SHEN Su-bin

    2006-01-01

    Parlay Multi Media Call Control Services(MMCCS) Application Programming Interfaces (API) based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is essential for the implementation of Parlay Call Control (CC) API. This paper first proposes an implementation model of Parlay MMCCS API based on SIP, then presents a mapping between SIP and MMCCS API as far as methods and parameters are concerned, illustrates corresponding relationships between different components of SIP and MMCCS API by means of an application collaboration diagram, and finally presents an application using Java codes as well as some SIP messages. The application shows that a majority of MMCCS API based on SIP can be implemented and therefore verifies our mapping between MMCCS API and SIP.

  3. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.

  4. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    such as configuration of devices, ports, queues, etc. An Application Programming Interface (API) for dynamic configuration of QoS resources in the network devices is implemented herein, by using the capabilities of OVSDB. Further, the paper demonstrates the possibility to create network services with coarse granularity...... on top of the fine granular services exposed by the QoS configuration API at the SDNC. A series of tests emphasize the capabilities and the performance of the implemented QoS configuration API....

  5. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, Nick; Wilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend some modifications to the API as a result of our analysis.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: ggarcia@comimsa.com

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  7. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K.

    2016-10-11

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  8. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K.

    2016-11-15

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  9. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  10. Tozaltı Ark Kaynak Yöntemi ile Birleştirilen X60, X65 ve X70 Çeliklerin Kaynak Bölgesinin Etüdü

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akın Akay, ,; Yakup Kaya; Nizamettin Kahraman

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, petrol ve doğal gaz hatlarında kullanılan, düşük alaşımlı, ince taneli ve yüksek mukavemetli X60, X65 ve X70 çelikleri, tozaltı ark kaynak yöntemi ile iki farklı tel (S1 ve S2Mo) ve toz (LN761 ve P223) kullanılarak birleştirilmiştir. Kaynaklı birleştirmelere, öncelikle yüzey ve yüzey altı kusurların belirlenebilmesi için tahribatsız muayene yöntemlerinden gözle ve ultrasonik muayeneye teknikleri uygulanmış, sonrasında birleştirmelerin dayanımlarını belirlemek amacıyla, çekme ve ...

  11. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, Rinke; Sack, H; Rizzo, G; Steinmetz, N; Mladenić, D; Auer, S; Lange, C

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming a common practice to enable universal access to the integration favorable dataspace of Linked Data. However, the Linked Data community cannot expect users to learn SPARQL to query this dataspace, and Web APIs are the most extended way of enabl

  12. API and CPTDC Jointly Promote Chinese Enterprises to Go Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to push the certification forward and help more Chinese enterprises to go abroad, API (American Petroleum Institute) and CPTDC (China Petroleum Technology & Development Corporation) jointly held a meeting between March 4 and 8, 2004, to promote API certification of Chinese enterprises.

  13. Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs. Automated mapping with Apache POI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmanidis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs and reusing existing implementations is a required functionality in order to reduce effort and time in contrast with implementing a new one from scratch. In this study we are trying to interface RASCAL with Apache POI, a Java implemented API in order to import and a

  14. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  15. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Tomkins, James; VanDyke, John P.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Laros, James H.,; Bridges, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its bene ts due to fault rates outpacing I/O bandwidths. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them. Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. These involve changes to the operating system, runtime, I/O library, and application layers. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads. 3

  16. API E MIELE NEL MEDITERRANEO ANTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bormetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available L’importanza del miele come sostanza culturalmente ed economicamente rilevante nel mondo antico non è stata ancora del tutto indagata. Il miele e le api sono nondimeno presenze assidue e trasversali ai generi e alle tipologie di fonti antiche greche e romane, ed è pertanto da esse che una ricerca sull’argomento deve partire. I manufatti, le tecniche e i concetti descritti dagli antichi devono però essere relazionati con cautela al materiale archeologico rinvenuto, per fare ciò pare indispensabile un approccio che tenga conto delle nozioni biologiche, etologiche e zootecniche di base. Attraverso quest’ottica sono state ricapitolate le evidenze materiali provenienti dal bacino del Mediterraneo e concernenti gli strumenti e le strutture relative all’apicoltura, dalle arnie agli apiari, peril lungo arco cronologico che va dall’età del bronzo alla tarda antichità. Ciò è possibile per la tematica apicola grazie alla conservatività delle tecniche, strettamente legate ai severi dettami della natura fino alla rivoluzione ottocentesca delle arnie razionali a telai mobili del reverendo Langstroth. Sono inoltre analizzati gli utilizzi più frequenti del miele per come descritti dalle fonti letterarie nonché le implicazioni di api e miele nella ritualità e nel simbolismo della morte, del genere e della regalità, sebbene i risultati siano scarsi data la povertà dei riscontri archeologici e la limitata attenzione di cui questo argomento ha fin ora goduto.

  17. Coming 5th Edition of the API Standard 618: major changes compared to the API 618, 4th edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyle, A.; Eijk, A.; Elferink, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the highlights of changes that will be found in the 5th Edition of API 618, which is expected to be published in late 2003 or early 2004. Approximately every 5 years the API Standards are revised in such a way that the latest field experiences and proven designs are included

  18. Implicación de la erupción de los terceros molares en el apiñamiento anteroinferior severo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bustillo Arrieta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar el grado de asociación entre el apiñamiento anteroinferior y la presencia de terceros molares inferiores en modelos de estudio y radiografías panorámicas de pacientes atendidos en el Postgrado de Ortodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena y centros de atención odontológica y radiológica de la ciudad de Cartagena. Diseño del estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento: Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena de Indias (Colombia y otros centros de atención odontológica de la ciudad. Participantes: 366 modelos de estudio y radiografías panorámicas de pacientes seleccionados por estrictos criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Mediciones principales: Se utilizó un instrumento que incluyó edad, sexo, presencia o ausencia de terceros molares, posición de terceros molares según la clasificación de Winter, estadio de formación de los terceros molares según la clasificación de Nolla; y magnitud de apiñamiento según la clasificación de Harfin. Los datos fueron analizados a partir de distribuciones de frecuencia y proporciones; se realizó análisis inferencial (prueba chi² utilizando el programa SPSS statistic v22 IBM y se efectuó análisis multivariante utilizando el análisis de correspondencias simple en el programa estadístico R. Resultados: La prevalencia de apiñamiento anteroinferior fue de 70,2%. Se presentó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la magnitud de apiñamiento anteroinferior con el estadio de formación del tercer molar inferior izquierdo. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de apiñamiento anteroinferior en los sujetos fue alta; el estadio de formación del tercer molar es un factor determinante en la aparición de apiñamiento anteroinferior.

  19. Comparison of learning and memory of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiu-Hong; He, Xu-Jiang; Tian, Liu-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The honeybee is an excellent model organism for research on learning and memory among invertebrates. Learning and memory in honeybees has intrigued neuroscientists and entomologists in the last few decades, but attention has focused almost solely on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In contrast, there have been few studies on learning and memory in the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana. Here we report comparative behavioral data of color and grating learning and memory for A. cerana and A. mellifera in China, gathered using a Y-maze apparatus. We show for the first time that the learning and memory performance of A. cerana is significantly better on both color and grating patterns than that of A. mellifera. This study provides the first evidence of a learning and memory difference between A. cerana and A. mellifera under controlled conditions, and it is an important basis for the further study of the mechanism of learning and memory in honeybees.

  20. Uma breve revisão histórica do desenvolvimento da soldagem dos aços API para tubulações A brief history review of development on API steels welding for pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Casanova Soeiro Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfoca o desenvolvimento dos aços API para tubulações desde o aço API 5L X42, desenvolvido em 1948, através de laminação a quente seguida de tratamento térmico. Desde então foram feitos diferentes desenvolvimentos visando aumentar a resistência mecânica e a tenacidade, além de melhorar a soldabilidade. Entre eles, a adição de elementos de liga, produzindo os aços ARBL e a utilização de rotas de processamento termomecânico durante a laminação. Inicialmente a rota utilizada era a laminação a quente controlada (TMCR, com utilização de elemento microligante como Nb para os aços X60 e o conjunto Nb e V para os aços X65 e X70, associado a uma redução do teor de carbono. Posteriormente foi implantada a rota de fabricação do aço por laminação controlada seguida de resfriamento controlado (TMCP, com redução de carbono e adição de Nb e Ti para os aços X80, e adições de Mo, Nb, Be Ti para os X100. A redução do carbono foi motivada também para melhorar a sua soldabilidade e, por este motivo, estes aços são soldados por diferentes processos de soldagem, como o eletrodo revestido. Desenvolvimentos recentes com raiz feita com MAG-TC e enchimento com arame tubular tem dado resultados animadores.This paper is a brief history on the development of pipelines steels since the API 5L X42 steel, developed in 1948 by hot rolling followed by heat treatment. Subsequently different developments were made to increase the strength and toughness of these materials, and to improve their weldability. Among them, the addition of microalloying elements, producing HSLA steels and thermomechanical processing routes during hot rolling. Initially the route used was the controlled hot rolling (TMCR, together with microalloying element such as Nb for X60 steel and Nb plus V for X65 and X70 steels, associated with a reduction in carbon content. Later, the thermomechanical controlled process (TMCP manufacturing route was

  1. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  2. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers.

  3. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    The solubility of solid organic compounds in water and organic solvents is a fundamental thermodynamic property for many purposes such as product-process design and optimization, for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Experimental literature solubility data are usually scarce and temperature......-dependent measurements are expensive in terms of time and resources. The few available data are badly organized and difficult to use for fast solubility calculations and solvent screening. Available models often require time consuming and complex implementation together with a good user expertise for their efficient use....... In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework...

  4. Africanización en Apis mellifera, estudio de toxicidad y enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    Genchi García, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    La provincia de Buenos Aires concentra cerca del 50% de la producción apícola argentina, magnificando su importancia, no solo desde el punto de vista económico, sino también social y ecológico. En este sentido, el conocimiento de la introgresión de genes africanos en Buenos Aires permitiría no solo poder trazar medidas correctivas, sino también preservar la biodiversidad autóctona de abejas. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: -Realizar un relevamiento de poblaciones de abejas para determi...

  5. Building Hypermedia APIs with HTML5 and Node

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, Mike

    2011-01-01

    With this concise book, you'll learn the art of building hypermedia APIs that don't simply run on the Web, but that actually exist in the Web. You'll start with the general principles and technologies behind this architectural approach, and then dive hands-on into three fully-functional API examples. Too many APIs rely on concepts rooted in desktop and local area network patterns that don't scale well-costly solutions that are difficult to maintain over time. This book shows system architects and web developers how to design and implement human- and machine-readable web services that remain

  6. Apiñamiento dentario en escolares de 3 a 12 años. Holguín 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Carmona Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 2200 niños de 3-12 años de edad que reciben atención en las clínicas: Mario Pozo, Artemio Mastrapa y Manuel Angulo, en el período de septiembre del 2007 a septiembre del 2008; con el objetivo de contribuir al conocimiento sobre la presencia de apiñamiento en la muestra seleccionada, su clasificación, localización, grupos dentarios afectados y los factores de riesgo asociados. Se pudo conocer que existe una alta prevalencia de apiñamiento, 779 infantes afectados, predominando el apiñamiento secundario sobre el primario a medida que avanza la edad; en la mandíbula se localizó con mayor frecuencia, 393 niños y el grupo incisomandibular fue el más afectado con 610 pacientes. Además se encontraron diferentes factores de riesgo como: las caries interproximales en 169 pequeños, seguidas de las pérdidas prematuras, la falta de espacio interincisivo y primate, la disfunción neuromuscular y los hábitos de succión.

  7. Estudio del horizonte local

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Ferré, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical).

  8. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  9. Drone competition at drone congregation areas in four Apis species

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In Apis mellifera the estimated average number of drones visiting a drone congregation area (DCA) was 11 750 + 2 145. Drones of the species Apis cerana, A. koschevnikovi, A. dorsata and A. mellifera, which pursued a queen dummy moving in circular course, flew in a comet shaped formation. Median numbers of drones in a comet ranged from 9 drones (A. koschevnikovi) to 31 drones (A. mellifera). In none of the species we observed aggression between drones. Drone density beh...

  10. Pengaruh Busur Api Terhadap Kekuatan Dielektrik Gas SF6

    OpenAIRE

    Jhony

    2011-01-01

    Bahan isolasi gas yang sering digunakan adalah gas SF6. Sifat –sifat dari gas SF6 ini tidak berwarna, tidak beracun, tidak berbau. Salah satu pemanfaatan dari gas SF6 ini sebagai bahan isolasi adalah pada pemutus tenaga (circuit breaker). Jika pemutus tenaga SF6 membuka, maka pada sela kontaknya akan terjadi busur api. Busur api akan menaikkan temperatur gas SF6 sehingga ada dugaan gas SF6 mengalami perubahan struktur kimia, sehingga sifat listriknya berubah. Tugas akhir ini ak...

  11. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M.; Wong, Aaron K.; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  12. Mining Effective Temporal Specifications from Heterogeneous API Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wu; Guang-Tai Liang; Qian-Xiang Wang; Hong Mei

    2011-01-01

    Temporal specifications for Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) serve as an important basis for many defect detection tools.As these specifications are often not well documented,various approaches have been proposed to automatically mine specifications typically from API library source code or from API client programs.However,the library-based approaches take substantial computational resources and produce rather limited useful specifications,while the client-based approaches suffer from high false positive rates.To address the issues of existing approaches,we propose a novel specification miniug approach,called MineHEAD,which exploits heterogeneous API data,including information from API client programs as well as API library source code and comments,to produce effective specifications for defect detection with low cost.In particular,MineHEAD first applies client-based specification mining to produce a collection of candidate specifications,and then exploits the related library source code and comments to identify and refine the real specifications from the candidates.Our evaluation results on nine open source projects show that MineHEAD produces effective specifications with average precision of 97.2%.

  13. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-08

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu.

  14. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Snehal D; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-09-26

    We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication.

  15. Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Tingek, Salim; Phiancharoen, Mananya

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Published estimates of the mean spermatozoa numbers for Apis dorsata drones vary from 1.2 × 106 and 2.4 × 106; the number of spermatozoa per individual drone vary from 0.22 × 106 to 2.65 × 106. Counts presented here revealed 1.19 × 106 + 0.25 × 106 spermatozoa in drones sampled near a colony and 1.59 × 106 + 0.18 × 106 in drones sampled at a drone congregation area (DCA) in Sabah, Borneo. The difference between the two sites is significant. Further, the degree of varia...

  16. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells.

  17. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74 and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame. The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  18. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Laurent; Cornman, Scott; Hartmann, Ulrike; Cousserans, François; Evans, Jay D; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2015-07-09

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74) and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame). The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  19. Estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-González-Durán, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un estudio de caso de acompañamiento emocional y psicoterapéutico. Se muestra el contexto general y el proceso de la consultante. El motivo principal de consulta fue una experiencia de secuestro y violación que ocasionó un cuadro de estrés post-traumático. Dentro del apartado del estudio de caso se hace referencia a las vivencias, significados y contexto de la consultante, se pretende demostrar el desarrollo que se fue llevando a cabo en la consultante, y se comparten f...

  20. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation.

  1. Tozaltı Ark Kaynak Yöntemi ile Birleştirilen X60, X65 ve X70 Çeliklerin Kaynak Bölgesinin Etüdü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akın Akay, ,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, petrol ve doğal gaz hatlarında kullanılan, düşük alaşımlı, ince taneli ve yüksek mukavemetli X60, X65 ve X70 çelikleri, tozaltı ark kaynak yöntemi ile iki farklı tel (S1 ve S2Mo ve toz (LN761 ve P223 kullanılarak birleştirilmiştir. Kaynaklı birleştirmelere, öncelikle yüzey ve yüzey altı kusurların belirlenebilmesi için tahribatsız muayene yöntemlerinden gözle ve ultrasonik muayeneye teknikleri uygulanmış, sonrasında birleştirmelerin dayanımlarını belirlemek amacıyla, çekme ve eğme testi uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca numuneler üzerinde sertlik ve makroyapı çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kaynaklı numuneler üzerinde yapılan gözle ve ultrasonik muayene sonucunda, kaynak bölgesinde herhangi bir kaynak hatasına rastlanılmamıştır. Yapılan çekme testleri sonucunda, tüm numunelerde kopma, ana malzemeden gerçekleşmiş ve bütün bağlantı dayanımları, ana malzemelerden daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Eğme testleri sonucunda, kaynak bölgesinde herhangi bir çatlak, yırtık vb. hata görülmemiştir. Yapılan sertlik testleri sonucunda, en yüksek sertlik değerleri kaynak metalinden ölçülürken onu sırasıyla ITAB ve ana malzeme takip etmektedir. Makroyapı resimleri incelendiğinde kaynak bölgesinde çatlaklara, yırtılmalara, boşluklara, ergime/nüfuziyet azlığına, curuf kalıntılarına ve yanma oluklarına rastlanılmamıştır. Deney sonuçları genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde, X70 malzemede kullanılan, S2Mo teli ve P223 tozu en verimli mekanik test sonuçları vermiştir.

  2. Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para

  3. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  4. Retrato de estudio. Sacerdote.

    OpenAIRE

    Ansede y Juanes

    2010-01-01

    1 fot.; papel; imagen 12,6 x 20 cm. - Retrato de estudio. Sacerdote. (2 copias. Gelatina D. O. P. mate montada sobre cartulina, medida total 12,6 x 20. Sello troquelado impreso del fotógrafo con letras doradas en ángulo inferior derecho de cartulina: "Ansede y Juanes - Salamanca"). - Procedencia: fondo Miguel de Unamuno. - Buena Conservación.

  5. de estudios observacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik von Elm

    2008-01-01

    un documento de explicación y elaboración al que puede accederse libremente en los sitios web de PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine y Epidemiology. Esperamos que la declaración STROBE contribuya a mejorar la calidad de la publicación de los estudios observacionales.

  6. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  7. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software.

  8. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  9. Durability of API class B cement pastes exposed to aqueous solutions containing chloride, sulphate and magnesium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a durability study conducted on API class B cement, the type used in shallow oil wells, when exposed to aggressive formation water. Its resistance to the major ions, namely –SO4=, Mg+2 and Cl-–, is related both to its capacity to assimilate the aggressive action of each harmful agent and to the changes in the chemical reactivity of some of its components. The methodology used consisted in preparing and immersing cement specimens in neutral solutions containing variable concentrations of these ions to monitor the chemical reactions taking place. These solutions were analyzed and XRD studies were conducted for over a year to identify mineralogical variations. The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of joint ionic attack on this kind of cement and to monitor the variations in the calcium concentration in the aqueous solutions of Na2SO4, MgCl2 and NaCl in contact with API class B cement pastesEste trabajo se basa en el estudio de la durabilidad de un cemento API clase B, utilizado en pozos petrolíferos someros, frente a la agresividad de las aguas de formación a las que puede estar expuesto. Su eficacia frente a la exposición a los iones más importantes –SO4=, Mg+2 y Cl-– se relaciona con su capacidad de asimilar la acción agresiva de cada agente perjudicial, así como de las reacciones químicas que sufra por la reactividad de alguno de sus compuestos. La metodología aplicada supone la preparación de probetas de este cemento y su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los referidos iones a distintas concentraciones, para evaluar el desarrollo de las reacciones existentes en su seno. A tal fin se realizaron análisis de las disoluciones y estudios de DRX durante más de un año para conocer su evolución mineralógica. El objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar los efectos resultantes de los ataques conjuntos de los citados iones al referido cemento; así como la observación de las

  10. Nosema ceranae in drone honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Brenna E; Fell, Richard D

    2011-07-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian intracellular parasite of honey bees, Apis mellifera. Previously Nosema apis was thought to be the only cause of nosemosis, but it has recently been proposed that N. ceranae is displacing N. apis. The rapid spread of N. ceranae could be due to additional transmission mechanisms, as well as higher infectivity. We analyzed drones for N. ceranae infections using duplex qPCR with species specific primers and probes. We found that both immature and mature drones are infected with N. ceranae at low levels. This is the first report detecting N. ceranae in immature bees. Our data suggest that because drones are known to drift from their parent hives to other hives, they could provide a means for disease spread within and between apiaries.

  11. Acinetobacter apis sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-08-01

    A novel Gram-negative, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped bacterium, designated strain HYN18(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). The isolate was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Strain HYN18(T) showed optimum growth at 25°C, pH 6-7, and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl in trypticase soy broth medium. The isolate was negative for hydrolyses of starch, casein, gelatin and urea, indole production from tryptone and hemolysis on sheep blood agar. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequence showed that strain HYN18(T) was most closely related to Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) and A. boissieri SAP 284.1(T) with 98.3% and 98.1% similarity (16S rRNA gene), respectively, and 84.4% similarity with Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) (rpoB gene). The major cellular fatty acids were summed features 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c /C16:1ω6c ), C12:0 and C16:0. The main isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q-9). The polar lipids of strain HYN18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated less than 33 ± 10% relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species, Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T). Thus, the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicate that strain HYN18(T) is a novel species within the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter apis is proposed. The type strain is HYN18(T) (=KACC 16906(T) =JCM 18575(T)).

  12. Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (IG, with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C, 160 °C. These temperatures were maintained as interpass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in undermatched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary.

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas de uniones soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido, de acero API 5L-X80. En este sentido, se evalúa la influencia de la temperatura de precalentamiento, manteniendo el aporte de calor uniforme. Todas las uniones soldadas se realizaron en la posición plana (IG, con la antorcha fíja y la tubería girando. Se utilizó un tubo de 762 mm de diámetro exterior y 16 mm de espesor. Las soldaduras se aplicaron sobre una unión de tope con bisel en V simple, utilizando 6 pasadas, con tres niveles de temperatura de precalentamiento (ambiente, 100 °C y 160 °C. Estas temperaturas se mantuvieron como temperatura entre pasadas. El metal de aporte, del tipo E71T8-K6, se utilizó en la

  13. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  14. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  15. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-04-05

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc).

  16. Fertile diploid drones in africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    1977-02-15

    59 diploid drones of Apis mellifera adansonii, 12-37 days old, were tested for the presence of semen after provoked ejaculation; 13 drones ejaculated semen enough to be used in an instrumental insemination, but only three on them (5%) furnished 1 mm3 of semen. The problems referring to the attainment of descendants from the 2n drones are briefly discussed.

  17. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, John C., E-mail: jcwright@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, Joshua [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Abla, Gheni; Chanthavong, Bobby; Flanagan, Sean; Schissel, David; Lee, Xia [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Romosan, Alex; Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access.

  18. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  19. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  20. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  1. EXPERIENCE API – NEW STANDARD OF E-LEARNING SOFTWARE AND EXAMPLES OF ITS PRACTICAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Shcherbyna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze features of the new standard of e-learning software - Experience API (xAPI, previously also known as the Tin Can API. The standard defines a way of interaction between xAPI-clients – software which students work with while e-learning process, and xAPI-servers – Learning Record Stores (LRS, which store data about their results. Standard also defines LRS data representation format and a way of data transfers between LRS, which makes it possible to combine several LRS into distributed database that could accumulate information about people training in formal, non-formal and informal education throughout life. The article contains review of available xAPI-clients, xAPI-servers, and the results of their testing, which prove the possibility of their usage in our educational institutions.

  2. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  3. Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ. Alternative splicing (AS is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

  4. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  5. un estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Varona

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación efectiva es uno de los mayores retos que tienen hoy las organizaciones y empresas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional (global. Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada por un equipo internacional de investigadores interesados en descubrir y comparar las conductas comunicativas o estilos de comunicación de los empleados finlandeses y mexicanos cuando interactúan con sus superiores. Para ello presentamos: primero, un breve marco teórico del estudio; segundo, la metodología; tercero, los resultados del análisis estadístico comparativo entre los empleados de Finlandia y México; cuarto, las conclusiones generales y su explicación cultural; y quinto, las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de este estudio con respecto a las competencias comunicativas necesarias para la comunicación efectiva entre empleados y superiores tanto en organizaciones nacionales como internacionales (globales.

  6. Efecto antiinflamatorio de apitoxina de Apis mellifera sobre prostaglandina E2 del fluido crevicular gingival de pacientes con y sin enfermedad periodontal, sometidos a apiterapia: ensayo preliminar Anti-inflammatory effect of apitoxin and Apis mellifera on prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with and without periodontal disease, submitted to apitherapy: preliminary test

    OpenAIRE

    W Faúndez Poblete; CG Narváez Carrasco; A Burgos Arias

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La apitoxina que es producida por la Apis mellifera posee efecto antiinflamatorio sobre una serie de marcadores biológicos. La prostaglandina E2 forma parte de ellos, estando presente en el fluido gingival crevicular (FGC). La prostaglandina E2 es evidenciada en la enfermedad periodontal. Objetivo: En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de la apitoxina sobre la concentración de prostaglandina E2 del FGC de un paciente sin enfermedad periodontal (SEP) y otro con enf...

  7. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey R Williams

    Full Text Available Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  8. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  9. The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service

    CERN Document Server

    Lamy, Laurent; Henry, Florence; Sidaner, Pierre Le

    2015-01-01

    The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service, accessible online, provides an open and interactive access to processed auroral observations of the outer planets and their satellites. Such observations are of interest for a wide community at the interface between planetology and magnetospheric and heliospheric physics. APIS consists of (i) a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since 1997 with its mostly used Far-UltraViolet spectro-imagers, (ii) a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria and (iii) the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory (VO) community, such as Aladin and Specview. This service is VO compliant and can therefore also been queried by external search tools of the VO community. The diversity of available data and the capability to sort them out by relevant physical...

  10. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  11. Estudio de competencias del teleformador

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    El Servicio Andaluz de Empleo de la Consejeria de Empleo de la Junta de Andalucia ha realizado un Estudio de Competencias del Teleformador. Este estudio establece un análisis de competencias necesarias para el diseño, desarrollo y gestión de acciones de e-Learning.

  12. Metadata and API Based Environment Aware Content Delivery Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of current content delivery networks is lack of support for environment aware content delivery. This paper first discusses the requirements of such support, and proposes a new metadata gateway based environment aware content delivery architecture. The paper discusses in some details key functions and technologies of environment aware content delivery architecture, including its APIs and control policies. Finally the paper presents an application to illustrate advantages of environment aware content delivery architecture in the context of next generation network.

  13. Apis florea en Jordanie : origine de la population fondatrice

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Nizar; FUCHS, Stefan; Randall Hepburn, H.; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A recent isolated population of Apis florea has been reported from Aqaba in Jordan at the Red Sea, consisting of numerous colonies within a still limited range which apparently is expanding. This region is about 1500 km apart from its next occurrences in Sudan where it had been introduced and first detected in 1985 and about 2000 km apart from its next natural occurrences in Iran and Oman. These bees apparently have been imported by human transport, most likely by ship...

  14. ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyla, R.; Accomazzi, A.; Holachek, A.; Grant, C. S.; Elliott, J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.; Sudilovsky, V.

    2015-09-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  16. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  17. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles.

  18. The end of polling: why and how to transform a REST API into a Data Streaming API?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We know interactivity is the key to keep our user’s interest alive but we can’t reduce animation to UI anymore. Twitter, Waze, Slack… users are used to have real-time data in applications they love. But how can you turn your static API into a stream of data? By pulling? Pushing? Webhook-ing? When talking about data streaming, we often think about WebSockets. But have you ever heard of Server-Sent Events? In this tools-in-action we will compare those technologies to understand which one you should opt for depending on your usecase, and I’ll show you how we have been reducing the amount of data to transfer even further with JSON-Patch. And because real-time data is not only needed by web (and because it’s much more fun), I’ll show you how we can make a drone dance on streamed APIs.

  19. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  20. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae) Índice de agresividad en Apis mellifera ( Hymenoptera: Aapidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Omar Danilo; Insuasty Torres Jennyfer

    2004-01-01

    An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999). The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968). In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicat...

  1. Induction bending of API 5L X80 pipes; Curvamento a quente de tubos API 5L X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Gilmar Z. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: g.zacca@petrobras.com.br; Naschpitz, Leonardo [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. - PROTUBO, Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: naschpitz@protubo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program to make possible the application of API 5L X80 in pipeline construction in Brazil. At this stage, the effect of the induction bending process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the pipe is presented. For this study an API 5L X80 pipe, made by the UOE process, is used. The pipe was manufactured from a plate produced by thermo-mechanically controlled rolling without accelerated cooling. The pipe bending was carried out applying a local induction heating following by water quenching. The bend section, outer and inner curvature regions, of the pipe bend were evaluated and compared with the original pipe. The longitudinal weld and transition zones were not evaluated at this stage. Dimensional analyses, microstructural evaluation, Charpy-V impact tests, and tensile tests were performed. A significant microstructural change was verified in the bend area. The yield strength of the pipe bend was found to be lower than original pipe and standard requirements. Other tensile properties and impact properties are compatible with API 5L X80 requirements. (author)

  2. Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter's Streaming API with Twitter's Firehose

    OpenAIRE

    Morstatter, Fred; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Liu, Huan; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is a social media giant famous for the exchange of short, 140-character messages called "tweets". In the scientific community, the microblogging site is known for openness in sharing its data. It provides a glance into its millions of users and billions of tweets through a "Streaming API" which provides a sample of all tweets matching some parameters preset by the API user. The API service has been used by many researchers, companies, and governmental institutions that want to extract...

  3. Use of the API 20E system to identify veterinary Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, E C; Collins, M T

    1980-01-01

    A total of 503 veterinary enteric bacterial pathogens obtained from state veterinary diagnostic laboratories were tested on API 20E strips to determine whether this rapid microidentification system could be utilized for veterinary clinical microbiology. The API 20E strip accurately identified 96% of the veterinary isolates and misidentified 3%. Identifications by the API system and the diagnostic laboratories were in agreement in 85% of the isolates, disagreement on 16% of the isolates, and 1...

  4. Contribución para el estudio de la selección de estirpes limpiadoras precoces resistentes a la Ascosferiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sância

    1997-01-01

    Este trabajo dentro de la patología apícola pretende ser una contribución al estudio de la selección de estirpes limpiadoras precoces resistentes a la Ascosferiosis. Así, después de realizada una revisión bibliográfica sobre la enfermedad, viendo que tratamientos farmacológicos y buen manejo, necesitan de la selección del comportamiento higiénico en abejas del género Apis mellifera L. como un mecanismo de resistencia a la Ascosferiosis. Dando especial énfasis a los estudios y técnica...

  5. y casos de estudios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Valenzuela Van Treek

    2006-01-01

    latinoamericanas, adentrándose en las problemáticas de la más relevantes, así como reflexionar sobre el presente de ellas, tomando para esto algunos casos de estudio.. “En el caso de las áreas metropolitanas, la concentración y el crecimiento de las grandes ciudades con fenómenos de nuevas barriadas, de municipios limítrofes y de ciudades dormitorios, dentro o fuera del término de la gran ciudad, demandan soluciones administrativas de conjunto que superen los esquemas municipales tradicionales” (Barrero, 1993. Esto lleva a definir el problema de estudio de como la aglomeración de población en áreas superiores a las ciudades tradicionales en América Latina, constituyen formas diferentes a los planos nacionales y municipales, por lo que urge crear condiciones para el bienestar de sus ciudadanos. Es necesario para esto, el comprender el sistema político de manera dinámica y variable, el cual esta íntimamente ligado a la constitución a la deriva estructural de las sociedades, pero sobretodo al gobierno de la ciudad, elemento fundante de la civilización occidental en la cual estamos situados.

  6. Estudio del CH interestelar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  7. MEXCODE* CASO DE ESTUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arturo García Gómez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso plantea la reactivación de un proyecto que se presentó en el año 1995 como alternativa para el desarrollo del centro del Valle y mejora de la eficiencia en el manejo del comercio exterior de la Cuenca Pacífica. El proyecto se revivió a raíz de la necesidad de la compañía patrocinadora de mejorar sus flujos de caja proyectados y la reciente autorización para su funcionamiento. El proyecto es el popularmente denominado “Puerto Seco” de la ciudad de Guadalajara de Buga, internamente nombrado Mexcode. Los estudios iniciales estaban encaminados a que el proyecto fuera manejado por el municipio de Buga, sin embargo, posteriormente se vio la necesidad de buscar que pasara a manos de la empresa privada. El municipio, después de analizar las propuestas de varios inversionistas de la región en las cuales se evaluaba la ubicación dentro de la zona de los predios de sus empresas, su área, proximidad a la línea férrea y a la doble calzada Buga-Tuluá (sitio de paso del 80% de la carga de importación y exportación por Buenaventura y evaluar aspectos relativos a su trayectoria empresarial y compromiso con el desarrollo de la región, decidió otorgarle el proyecto al Grupo Empresarial Agri-Supplies S.A.

  8. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  9. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  10. Improvements and extensions to API 618 related to pulsation and mechanical response studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Blodgett, L.E.; Smalley, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasers of reciprocating compressors need a standard to help ensure reliable installations. The PNEUROP standard evolved in Europe, and the API 618 Standard in the U.S.A. Frequent application and generally good experience, worldwide, have led to four releases of API 618, the last dated June 1995.

  11. Influence of humidity on the phase behavior of API/polymer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Luebbert, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous formulations of APIs in polymers tend to absorb water from the atmosphere. This absorption of water can induce API recrystallization, leading to reduced long-term stability during storage. In this work, the phase behavior of different formulations was investigated as a function of relative humidity. Indomethacin and naproxen were chosen as model APIs and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) as excipients. The formulations were prepared by spray drying. The water sorption in pure polymers and in formulations was measured at 25°C and at different values of relative humidity (RH=25%, 50% and 75%). Most water was absorbed in PVP-containing systems, and water sorption was decreasing with increasing API content. These trends could also be predicted in good agreement with the experimental data using the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. Furthermore, the effect of absorbed water on API solubility in the polymer and on the glass-transition temperature of the formulations was predicted with PC-SAFT and the Gordon-Taylor equation, respectively. The absorbed water was found to significantly decrease the API solubility in the polymer as well as the glass-transition temperature of the formulation. Based on a quantitative modeling of the API/polymer phase diagrams as a function of relative humidity, appropriate API/polymer compositions can now be selected to ensure long-term stable amorphous formulations at given storage conditions.

  12. APIS - a novel approach for conditioning honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hagen Kirkerud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees perform robustly in different conditioning paradigms. This makes them excellent candidates for studying mechanisms of learning and memory at both an individual and a population level. Here we introduce a novel method of honey bee conditioning: APIS, the Automatic Performance Index System. In an enclosed walking arena where the interior is covered with an electric grid, presentation of odours from either end can be combined with weak electric shocks to form aversive associations. To quantify behavioural responses, we continuously monitor the movement of the bee by an automatic tracking system. We found that escapes from one side to the other, changes in velocity as well as distance and time spent away from the punished odour are suitable parameters to describe the bee’s learning capabilities.Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behaviour to aversively learned odours by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalisation and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardised and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to our toolbox for studying honey bee behaviour.

  13. From where did the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) originate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fan; Wallberg, Andreas; Webster, Matthew T

    2012-08-01

    The native range of the honeybee Apis mellifera encompasses Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, whereas the nine other species of Apis are found exclusively in Asia. It is therefore commonly assumed that A. mellifera arose in Asia and expanded into Europe and Africa. However, other hypotheses for the origin of A. mellifera have also been proposed based on phylogenetic trees constructed from genetic markers. In particular, an analysis based on >1000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers placed the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies among samples from Africa, suggestive of an out-of-Africa expansion. Here, we re-evaluate the evidence for this and other hypotheses by testing the robustness of the tree topology to different tree-building methods and by removing specimens with a potentially hybrid background. These analyses do not unequivocally place the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies within Africa, and are potentially consistent with a variety of hypotheses for honeybee evolution, including an expansion out of Asia. Our analyses also support high divergence between western and eastern European populations of A. mellifera, suggesting they are likely derived from two distinct colonization routes, although the sources of these expansions are still unclear.

  14. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  15. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  16. Polymorphism analysis of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaobo; Yan, Weiyu; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2012-03-01

    The complementary sex determination (csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp). In this study we analyzed the polymorphism of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies. The genomic region 3 of csd gene in these six A. mellifera was cloned, and identified. A total of 79 haplotypes were obtained from these six subspecies. Analysis showed that region 3 of csd gene has a high level of polymorphism in all the six A. mellifera subspecies. The A. m. anatolica subspecies has a slightly higher nucleotide diversity (π) than other subspecies, while the π values showed no significant difference among the other five subspecies. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the csd haplotypes from different A. mellifera subspecies are scattered throughout the tree, without forming six different clades. Population differentiation analysis showed that there are significant genetic differentiations among some of the subspecies. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that the A. m. caucasica and A. m. carnica have the closest relationship, followed by A. m. ssp, A. m. ligustica, A. m. carpatica and A. m. anatolica that were gathered in the tree in turn.

  17. 往复压缩机标准API-618、API-11P的异同点及其应用浅谈%The Similarities and Differences of Reciprocating Compressor Standards of API-618 and API-11P and Discussion of Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明悦; 扈滨

    2011-01-01

    PI Standard 618 and API Specification 11P are the standards for reciprocating compressors by American Petroleum Institute ( API) .This paper has speeified the applications of the two standards in the compressors which used in the Cas Treatment Plant of SES natural gas pmject.And the similarities and differences between them are compared.%API Standard 618和API Specification 11P都是美国石油学会(API)针对往复压缩机制定的标准.结合中海石油SES天然气项目中的气体处理厂压缩机单元对这两个标准的应用,对两者之间的异同点进行比较.

  18. Towards Standardized Patient Data Exchange: Integrating a FHIR Based API for the Open Medical Record System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is essential to address limitations caused by the ad hoc implementation of clinical information systems and the distributed nature of modern medical care. The HL7 V2 and V3 standards have played a significant role in ensuring interoperability for healthcare. FHIR is a next generation standard created to address fundamental limitations in HL7 V2 and V3. FHIR is particularly relevant to OpenMRS, an Open Source Medical Record System widely used across emerging economies. FHIR has the potential to allow OpenMRS to move away from a bespoke, application specific API to a standards based API. We describe efforts to design and implement a FHIR based API for the OpenMRS platform. Lessons learned from this effort were used to define long term plans to transition from the legacy OpenMRS API to a FHIR based API that greatly reduces the learning curve for developers and helps enhance adhernce to standards.

  19. Estudios longitudinales: concepto y particularidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delgado Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se analiza el concepto de estudio longitudinal. Los libros de texto de epidemiología actuales en general no lo definen, mientras que sí lo hacen los tratados de estadística. Se habla más de «datos longitudinales» que de «estudios longitudinales». El estudio longitudinal implica la existencia de medidas repetidas (más de dos a lo largo de un seguimiento. Sería pues un subtipo de estudio de cohortes que, a diferencia de los de tipo tabla de vida, permite inferencias a nivel individual y analizar cambios en diferentes variables (exposiciones y efectos y transiciones entre diferentes estados de salud. Las particularidades de este tipo de diseño hace que se tenga que prestar atención especial al control de calidad durante su ejecución, a los abandonos durante el seguimiento, y a los datos perdidos en algunas de las mediciones. El análisis debe tener en cuenta las medidas repetidas y esto es lo que confiere finalmente a un estudio su carácter longitudinal.

  20. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  1. un objeto de estudio emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Aidée Ramírez Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés de este artículo es mostrar, de manera muy general, los textos que la revista Estudios sobre las Culturas Contemporáneas (ESCC ha publicado desde su creación refi eridas al campo de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC. No se incluyen los estudios sobre la radio y la televisión pues se considera que merecen un tratamiento especial como medios masivos de comunicación con mayor tiempo en el escenario social; se centra, en cambio, en los estudios relativos a las computadoras, Internet, videojuegos, celulares, satélites, redes, chat, lo que se ha dado en llamar Nuevas Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (NTIC.

  2. “Corrosión Inducida por Bacterias Sulfato Reductoras Termófilas de 60°C en la Unión Soldada del Acero API 5L- X60.”

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Romero, Justo Román

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación se estudio el efecto de la corrosión inducida por Bacterias Sulfato Reductoras (BSR) termófilas a 60oC en el metal base (MB) y la unión soldada (US) del acero API X-60. Las bacterias sulfato reductoras fueron aisladas en el medio sólido postgate con la técnica de estriado, y fueron resembradas hasta obtener la misma morfología. El medio postgate fue seleccionado entre otros medios de cultivo, por el óptimo crecimiento que presento la BSR. Se preparar...

  3. Asynchronous API Pattern and its Application%异步接口模式及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华海; 丁柯

    2002-01-01

    In distributed systems,high efficiency can be achieved using asynchronous API between client and server.This paper provides an architectural pattern that implements asynchronous API generally. Asynchronous methods donot execute operations directly,however,they delegate the sending and receiving process to individual threads via aqueue ,the client deals with results by means of callback ,wait or check. Synchronous API is implemented on the baseof asynchronous API. Presently the asynchronous API pattern has been employed in the implementation of messagequeue middleware ISMQ.

  4. Research on API Based on Visual Programming Platforms%基于可视化平台的 API 接口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉蓉

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of visual programming platforms, especially with the external network environment, , a large number of API functions under Windows can help reflect strong advanced programming skills proving to be a multiplier effect. This paper firstly introduces the API function and the dynamic link library DLL, then briefly ex-plains the classification of API functions, and focuses on how to call the API function and its application of API function in the visual platform. The paper finally describes the skills and notes to pay attention for users when call-ing the API function, which enables them to master the advanced programming skills of API interface.%在各种可视化编程平台中,尤其是与外部网络环境相结合,为了体现强大的高级编程能力,可用Windows系统提供的大量API函数,必然会起到事半功倍的效果。本文首先介绍了API函数以及动态链接库DLL,其次简要说明了API函数的分类,然后重点分析了在可视化平台中如何调用API函数及其应用API函数的高级编程能力,最后阐述了用户调用API函数的技巧和注意事项,以提高用户灵活掌握API接口的高级编程应用能力。

  5. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-01

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5high human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5+ refractory tumors. PMID:28092370

  6. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5; AAC-11; FIF) is upregulated in human carcinomas in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Lenka; Chlebova, Katarina; Hyzdalova, Martina; Hofmanova, Jirina; Jira, Miroslav; Kysela, Petr; Kozubik, Alois; Kala, Zdenek; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) is a 55 kDa nuclear protein with potent anti-apoptotic signaling in tumor cells in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the API-5 protein in vivo in a broad spectrum of human carcinomas, including those of the colon, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach and esophagus using tumor tissues obtained during tumor resection. The results showed significant upregulation of API-5 expression in biopsies of lung (23%, n=13) and colorectal tumors (33%, n=27) in comparison with biopsies from the adjacent normal tissue. Colon cancer biopsies were used to study the cell populations with an upregulated level of expression of API-5 more closely. Using a magnetic bead-based selection for the epithelial cell marker EpCAM, we purified epithelial cells from the tumor and control tissues and analyzed these cells for API-5 expression by western immunoblotting. We observed that EpCAM-positive tumor cells expressed API-5 in all three colorectal cancer cases tested, in contrast to the control EpCAM-positive and EpCAM-negative cells isolated from the control or tumor tissues. These data suggest that the expression of the API-5 protein is upregulated in tumor epithelial cells and may serve as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.

  7. api, A novel Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutant impaired in nodule primordium invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillet, Alice; Garcia, Joseph; de Billy, Françoise; Gherardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Barker, David G; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal

    2008-05-01

    Genetic approaches have proved to be extremely useful in dissecting the complex nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium-legume endosymbiotic association. Here we describe a novel Medicago truncatula mutant called api, whose primary phenotype is the blockage of rhizobial infection just prior to nodule primordium invasion, leading to the formation of large infection pockets within the cortex of noninvaded root outgrowths. The mutant api originally was identified as a double symbiotic mutant associated with a new allele (nip-3) of the NIP/LATD gene, following the screening of an ethylmethane sulphonate-mutagenized population. Detailed characterization of the segregating single api mutant showed that rhizobial infection is also defective at the earlier stage of infection thread (IT) initiation in root hairs, as well as later during IT growth in the small percentage of nodules which overcome the primordium invasion block. Neither modulating ethylene biosynthesis (with L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) nor reducing ethylene sensitivity in a skl genetic background alters the basic api phenotype, suggesting that API function is not closely linked to ethylene metabolism or signaling. Genetic mapping places the API gene on the upper arm of the M. truncatula linkage group 4, and epistasis analyses show that API functions downstream of BIT1/ERN1 and LIN and upstream of NIP/LATD and the DNF genes.

  8. Investigation into process-induced de-aggregation of cohesive micronised API particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Magnus; Wray, Patrick S; Gamble, John F; Tobyn, Mike

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of unit processes on the de-aggregation of a cohesive micronised API within a pharmaceutical formulation using near-infrared chemical imaging. The impact on the primary API particles was also investigated using an image-based particle characterization system with integrated Raman analysis. The blended material was shown to contain large, API rich domains which were distributed in-homogeneously across the sample, suggesting that the blending process was not aggressive enough to disperse aggregates of micronised drug particles. Cone milling, routinely used to improve the homogeneity of such cohesive formulations, was observed to substantially reduce the number and size of API rich domains; however, several smaller API domains survived the milling process. Conveyance of the cone milled formulation through the Alexanderwerk WP120 powder feed system completely dispersed all remaining aggregates. Importantly, powder feed transmission of the un-milled formulation was observed to produce an equally homogeneous API distribution. The size of the micronised primary drug particles remained unchanged during powder feed transmission. These findings provide further evidence that this powder feed system does induce shear, and is in fact better able to disperse aggregates of a cohesive micronised API within a blend than the blend-mill-blend step.

  9. EDGE REMOVAL OF 3D POLYGONAL MODEL USING MAYA API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMEER ARORA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.

  10. AES Encryption and Decryption Using Direct3D 10 API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Marius Chiuta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Current video cards (GPUs – Graphics Processing Units are very programmable, have become much more powerful than the CPUs and they are very affordable. In this paper, we present an implementation for the AES algorithm using Direct3D 10 certified GPUs. The graphics API Direct3D 10 is the first version that allows the use of integer operations, making from the traditional GPUs (that works only with floating point numbers, General Purpose GPUs that can be used for a large number of algorithms, including encryption. We present the performance of the symmetric key encryption algorithm – AES, on a middle range GPU and on a middle range quad core CPU. On the testing system, the developed solution is almost 3 times faster on the GPU than on one single core CPU, showing that the GPU can perform as an efficient cryptographic accelerator.

  11. Fragilización por Hidrógeno de los Aceros API 5L X60 y API 5L X80 Hydrogen Embrittlement of API 5L X60 and API 5L X80 Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno A Araújo; Jorge A Palma; Vilar, Eudésio O.; Silva, Antonio A.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha determinado el comportamiento mecánico de los aceros API 5L grados X60 y X80, fragilizados por hidrógeno ambiental y por hidrógeno interno. El potencial y la densidad de corriente para la generación del hidrógeno fueron determinados por polarización potenciodinámica, y el tiempo de saturación estimado a partir de datos de difusividad y solubilidad obtenidos en ensayos de permeación con una célula electroquímica. La carga de hidrógeno para reproducir las condiciones de la fragilización p...

  12. API, Cloud computing, WebGIS and cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the digital mapping processes available on the Internet in order to analyse their cartographic congruence. It will focus on WebGIS-based cartography in relation to what is produced using Mash-up site maps. These websites often use Googlebased maps in order to produce their own cartography. Thus, we can identify two main typologies of Internet mapping sites, which are characterized by the ownership or non-ownership of their cartographic bases. This paper will critically assess the cartography employed in the two different instances. A concise introduction to the Cloud Computing Internet propagated phenomenon is also premised in order to provide the reader with an accurate frame of reference. Cloud Computing has encouraged a significant Internet participation via the Application Programming Interface software (API, leading to mash-up cartographic websites.

  13. Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

  14. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  15. Genetic structure of Apis mellifera macedonica in the Balkan Peninsula based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzunov, Aleksandar; Meixner, Marina D; Kiprijanovska, Hrisula;

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from south eastern Europe was investigated using microsatellite analyses of 107 samples from Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria together with 42 reference samples (Apis mellifera carnica) from Slovenia. Genetic structure...... and spatial analyses of the microsatellite data showed a clear distinction between the Slovenian bees and all other populations, and confirmed the existence of Apis mellifera macedonica as an indigenous honey bee population in the regions that were sampled. In most areas however, varying degrees...

  16. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  17. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Madlen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate structures within the cell. The same signal pattern was found in seedlings stably overexpressing AtAPY1-GFP by indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging. In order to identify the nature of the AtAPY1-positive structures, AtAPY1-GFP expressing seedlings were treated with the endocytic marker stain FM4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl-pyridinium dibromide and crossed with a transgenic line expressing the trans-Golgi marker Rab E1d. Neither FM4-64 nor Rab E1d co-localized with AtAPY1. However, live imaging of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1-GFP and either the fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi marker Membrin 12, Syntaxin of plants 32 or Golgi transport 1 protein homolog showed co-localization. The Golgi localization was confirmed by immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. There was no indication of extracellular AtAPY1 by indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies against SNAP and GFP, live imaging of AtAPY1-GFP and immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. Activity assays with AtAPY1-GFP revealed GDP, UDP and IDP as substrates, but neither ATP nor ADP. To determine if AtAPY1 is a soluble or membrane protein, microsomal membranes were isolated and treated with various solubilizing agents. Only SDS and urea (not alkaline or high salt conditions were able to release the AtAPY1 protein from microsomal membranes. Conclusions AtAPY1 is an integral Golgi protein with the substrate specificity typical for Golgi apyrases. It is

  18. IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Smet, Lina; Rafei-Shamsabadi, David; Blank, Simon; Spillner, Edzard; Ebo, Didier G; Devreese, Bart; Jakob, Thilo; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-02-01

    Api m 10 has recently been established as novel major allergen that is recognized by more than 60% of honeybee venom (HBV) allergic patients. Previous studies suggest Api m 10 protein heterogeneity which may have implications for diagnosis and immunotherapy of HBV allergy. In the present study, RT-PCR revealed the expression of at least nine additional Api m 10 transcript isoforms by the venom glands. Two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of these isoforms: while the previously known variant 2 is produced by an alternative splicing event, novel identified isoforms are intragenic chimeric transcripts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of chimeric transcripts generated by the honeybee. By a retrospective proteomic analysis we found evidence for the presence of several of these isoforms in the venom proteome. Additionally, we analyzed IgE reactivity to different isoforms by protein array technology using sera from HBV allergic patients, which revealed that IgE recognition of Api m 10 is both isoform- and patient-specific. While it was previously demonstrated that the majority of HBV allergic patients display IgE reactivity to variant 2, our study also shows that some patients lacking IgE antibodies for variant 2 display IgE reactivity to two of the novel identified Api m 10 variants, i.e. variants 3 and 4.

  19. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  20. Homology differences between complete Sacbrood virus genomes from infected Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honeybees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) represents a serious threat to the health of managed honeybees. We determined four complete SBV genomic sequences (AmSBV-Kor1, AmSBV-Kor2, AcSBV-Kor3, and AcSBV-Kor4) isolated from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in various regions of South Korea. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the complete genomic sequences of these Korean SBVs (KSBVs) and 21 previously reported SBV sequences from other countries. Three KSBVs (not AmSBV-Kor1) clustered with previously reported Korean genomes, but separately from SBV genomes from other countries. The KSBVs shared 90-98 % identity, and 89-97 % identity with the genomes from other countries. AmSBV-Kor1 was least similar (~90 % identity) to the other KSBVs, and was most similar to previously reported strains AmSBV-Kor21 (97 %) and AmSBV-UK (93 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 region sequences indicated that SBVs clustered by host species and country of origin. The KSBVs were aligned with nine previously reported complete SBV genomes and compared. The KSBVs were most different from the other genomes at the end of the 5' untranslated region and in the entire open reading frame. A SimPlot graph of the VP1 region confirmed its high variability, especially between the SBVs infecting A. mellifera and A. cerana. In this genomic region, SBVs from A. mellifera species contain an extra continuous 51-nucleotide sequence relative to the SBVs from A. cerana. This genomic diversity may reflect the adaptation of SBV to specific hosts, viral cross-infections, and the spatial distances separating the KSBVs from other SBVs.

  1. Estudios de investigación experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Añó, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    En este vídeo se explican las principales características de los estudios de investigación experimentales, en cuanto a diseño y procedimientos. En concreto se consideran los estudios experimentales (ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y no aleatorizados) y los estudios cuasi-experimentales (diseño de series temporales y experimentos cruzados).

  2. Study of sulphate-reducing bacteria corrosion in the weld joint for API X-70 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, J. E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior originated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB was studied in two regions of welded API X-70 steel pipeline. The studies were focused on base material (BM and heat affected zone (HAZ, from the internal region of the pipe. SRB were extracted from oil and grown in a Postgate medium. Corrosion was evaluated at 60 °C for times between 5 and 64 days. Potentiodynamic polarization curves, obtained by electrochemical techniques, indicated surface activation at short times. Structural and morphological characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy (OM. H2S concentration and pH were also measured. Results showed an important increase in the corrosion damage up to 20 days, influenced by the SRB activity, which lead to a maximum of H2S (pH minimum. It was found a localized corrosion attack in the HAZ in a higher quantity compared to BM; and the formation of a thin film on the steel surface, originated by corrosion products and bacterial activity.

    El comportamiento ante la corrosión, originada por bacterias sulfato-reductoras (SRB, fue estudiado en dos regiones de un tubo de acero soldado API X-70. Los estudios se enfocaron en el material base (BM y la zona afectada térmicamente (HAZ, en la parte interna del tubo. Las SRB fueron extraídas del petróleo y cultivadas en un medio Postgate. El comportamiento a la corrosión fue evaluado a una temperatura de 60 °C, por periodos comprendidos entre 5 y 64 días. El análisis de las curvas de polarización potenciodinámicas, obtenidas por técnicas electroquímicas, indicó la activación de la superficie para tiempos cortos. La superficie fue caracterizada estructural y morfológicamente mediante microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM, así como mediante microscopía óptica (OM. La concentración de H2S y el pH también fueron medidos. Los resultados mostraron un aumento importante de la corrosi

  3. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 106 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivanić, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A. mellifera fuera del continente europeo.

  4. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the current fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  5. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the last three fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We...

  6. Bilingual education, indigenous language and culture: the case of Apyãwa Tapirapé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gorete Neto

    Full Text Available Bilingual schools are recognized as an important resource to increase the chances of language survival but in many cases have proven to be ineffective. Within the Apyãwa Tapirapé Indian Tribe (central Brazil, an effective bilingual school does exist; however, this study shows that even a successful school brings complications for the community. Audio-recorded interviews, in which teachers and leaders discuss their bilingual school and its consequences for the Apyãwa Tapirapé people, reveal that they feel that the school has changed the Apyãwa Tapirapé lifestyle in both negative and positive ways. A continuous evaluation and ongoing reconstruction of educational aspects is proposed as a way to both attend to the needs and to relieve the worries of groups like the Apyãwa Tapirapé with respect to the impact of their school on the community.

  7. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  8. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) --- GSM1231690_Slide_43 API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  9. Dosis Letal Media (DL50 de algunos aceites esenciales y biocidas efectivos para el control de Ascosphaera apis en Apis mellifera L. - Median Lethal Dose (LD50 of some essential oils and biocides effective for the control of Ascosphaera apis on Apis mellifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albo, Graciela N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ascofaeriosis o cría yesificada, es una enfermedad de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. causada por el hongo Ascosphaera apis que produce la momificación de las larvas. Los aceites esenciales poseen efectos antimicrobianos y han sido utilizados para el control de cría yesificada. Por otra parte, a nivel mundial se han probado gran cantidad de productos de síntesis, pero ninguno ha resultado 100 % eficaz. SummaryChalkbrood is a disease of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis that transforms larvae into mummies. Essential oils have showed antimicrobial activity and have been used in the control of chalkbrood. Moreover, world-wide, great number of synthesized products have been assayed but no one has resulted 100% effective.

  10. S E- GEOD-50881 Study Samples --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  11. A E- GEOD-50881 Gene Chip Assay --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  12. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  13. Three-dimensional model of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 7: structural and functional insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Betzel, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Api m 7 is one of the major protease allergens of the honeybee venom. It consists of a serine protease-like (SPL) and a CUB domain. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api m 7 is limited mainly to its amino acid sequence. Three-dimensional models of the two structural domains were constructed using their amino acid sequences and the crystallographic coordinates of prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF-II) as a template for the SPL domain and the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-II for the CUB domain. The structural organization of Api m 7 suggests that the CUB domain is involved in interactions with natural substrates while the SPL domain probably activates zymogens. IgE epitopes and antigenic sites were predicted. Api m 7 shows structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Possible substrates, function and evolution of the enzyme are discussed in the paper.

  14. Estudios de visitantes a museos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilyn Rodríguez Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un estudio bibliográfico en torno a las investigaciones sobre la relación entre la museografía y sus visitantes. El objetivo central de este documento consiste en elaborar una clasificación de esos estudios en programas de investigación de manera que sirva de punto de partida para la construcción de una pedagogía del Museo. Para este fin, se utiliza la propuesta de Schulman, sobre tipificación de estudios en programas de investigación y, al respecto, se plantean cuatro tipos: investigaciones centradas en lo museográfico, investigaciones centradas en el comportamiento museal, investigaciones centradas en la interacción dispositivo-visitantes y las investigaciones centradas en la evaluación museográfica. Se concluye que los resultados de investigación de estos programas, junto con el conocimiento de las técnicas de diseño y a la teoría educativa, serían la base central de un planteamiento sobre pedagogía museológica.

  15. Antagonistic Effect of Gut Bacteria in the Hybrid Carniolan Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera Carnica, Against Ascosphaera Apis, the Causal Organism of Chalkbrood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed O. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains associated with the gut of the hybrid Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and to determine their in vitro and in vivo potential against Ascosphaera apis, the causal organism of chalkbrood disease, with the purpose of exploring feasible biological control. Six bacterial strains were isolated from healthy worker honey bees by culture-dependent methods. Six fungal strains (A3, A4, A7, A8, A9, and A15 of A. apis were isolated from larvae suffering from chalkbrood disease on Yeast-Glucose-Starch agar (YGPSA medium. All bacteria were identified by a combination of morphology, Gram stain, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and fungal strains were identified by morphology and 5.8S rRNA. In vitro and in vivo inhibition assays were carried out to determine the ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit A. apis, the causal agent of chalkbrood disease. The analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that four bacterial strains (B2, B4, B10, and B100 belong to Bacillus subtilis species, and two strains (P1 and P5 belong to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Significant differences in antagonistic activity of all bacterial strains were observed. B. subtilis isolate B2 showed the highest antagonistic activity, as measured by the inhibition zone against A. apis, followed by the P1 strain of P. fluorescence. SEM analysis also supports the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against A. apis. This study provides a theoretical basis for biological control of honey bee chalkbrood disease.

  16. Revoke and Let Live: A Secure Key Revocation API for Cryptographic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Cortier, Véronique; Steel,Graham; Wiedling, Cyrille

    2012-01-01

    While extensive research addresses the problem of establishing session keys through cryptographic protocols, relatively little work has appeared addressing the problem of revocation and update of long term keys. We present an API for symmetric key management on embedded devices that supports revocation and prove security properties design in the symbolic model of cryptography. Our API supports two modes of revocation: a passive mode where keys have an expiration time, and an active mode where...

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels.

  19. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Brettin, Tom; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Matthews, Hunter; Paczian, Tobias; Wilkening, Jared; Glass, Elizabeth M; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  20. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  1. Using DLL as Interface between API an VC#.NET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for using complex Win32API data structures and functions in Visual C# .NET applications. We built DLL (Dynamic Link Library to manage the API functions and data structures and we used DLL modules in a C# application. This is an easier working way compared with the traditional way of importing and managing API’s functions in C# programs.

  2. Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API particles in a formulated tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets.

  3. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Orion J; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis.

  4. An analysis of multifractal characteristics of API time series in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Huang, Yi; Yan, Ya-ni

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes multifractal characteristics of daily air pollution index (API) records in Nanjing from 2001 to 2012. The entire daily API time series is first divided into 12 parts that serve as research objects, and the generalized Hurst exponent is calculated for each series. And then, the multifractal sources are analyzed and singularity spectra are shown. Next, based on a singularity spectrum, the multifractal-characteristics parameters (maximum exponent α0, spectrum width Δ α, and asymmetry Δ αas) are introduced. The results show that the fractality of daily API for each year is multifractal. The multifractal sources originate from both a broad probability density function and different long-range correlations with small and large fluctuations. The strength of the distribution multifractality is stronger than that of the correlation multifractality. The variation in the structure of API time series with increasing years is mainly related to long-range correlations. The structure of API time series in some years is richer. These findings can provide a scientific basis for further probing into the complexity of API.

  5. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy's RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4phpDatabase URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php.

  6. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  7. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  8. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice, T2 (sugar syrup and T3 (inverted sugar. Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up into the honeybee nest and beeswax built area was measured weekly. Total reducing sugar, calorimetry, dry matter and ashes of all feedings were analyzed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to determine differences among averages. The average consumption of inverted sugar was significantly lower than that of other treatments. The highest beeswax production average occurred in the sugar syrup treatment. The highest average of ashes, dry matter and reducing sugar occurred, respectively, in sugar-cane juice, inverted sugar and sugar syrup. Sugar syrup may be an alternative energy source for beeswax production, although sugar-cane juice may be more profitable.

  9. Web API for biology with a workflow navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeondae; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Kuwana, Yoshikazu; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) provides Web-based systems for biological analysis, called Web APIs for biology (WABI). So far, we have developed over 20 SOAP services and several workflows that consist of a series of method invocations. In this article, we present newly developed services of WABI, that is, REST-based Web services, additional workflows and a workflow navigation system. Each Web service and workflow can be used as a complete service or a building block for programmers to construct more complex information processing systems. The workflow navigation system aims to help non-programming biologists perform analysis tasks by providing next applicable services on Web browsers according to the output of a previously selected service. With this function, users can apply multiple services consecutively only by following links without any programming or manual copy-and-paste operations on Web browsers. The listed services are determined automatically by the system referring to the dictionaries of service categories, the input/output types of services and HTML tags. WABI and the workflow navigation system are freely accessible at http://www.xml.nig.ac.jp/index.html and http://cyclamen.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/, respectively.

  10. The Influence of Niobium on SSC Resistance in API Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malina, J.; Malina, M.; Novosel-Radovic, V. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Metallurgy (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Oil country tubular goods are often exposed to aggressive sour environments in oil wells where H{sub 2}S promotes sulfide stress cracking, SSC. This is one of the most dangerous corrosion phenomena characterized by unpredictable and sudden cracking of steel constructions in service. SSC results in a variety of fracture features having a common relationship to the presence of hydrogen in metal and therefore it belongs to hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, HE. For the production of sulfide stress cracking resistant (SSC) tubing from steels included in Group 3 of API Specification 5CT, in this study two experimental Cr-Mo steels (without niobium and with niobium microalloyed) were tested. The influence of Nb precipitates in pipeline steels on the sensitivity to sulfide stress cracking was examined in laboratory experiments using three point bent beam tests. High mechanical properties were achieved through quenching and tempering procedures. Better corrosion resistance of Nb-containing steel is the consequence of microstructural parameters obtained through strengthening mechanism with microalloying element. Besides the usual mechanical, metallographic, SEM and TEM analyses, as complementary method the X-ray diffraction was used. It was revealed that tetragonality of crystal lattice, dislocation density and residual stresses are in good correlation with Sc-vales from corrosion tests. Nb precipitates (especially niobium carbides) have beneficial influence when producing the steels with low sensitivity to SSC. (authors)

  11. SIP APIs for Voice and Video Communications on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, Carol; Singh, Kundan; Sinnreich, Henry; Wimmreuter, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Existing standard protocols for the web and Internet telephony fail to deliver real-time interactive communication from within a web browser. In particular, the client-server web protocol over reliable TCP is not always suitable for end-to-end low latency media path needed for interactive voice and video communication. To solve this, we compare the available platform options using the existing technologies such as modifying the web programming language and protocol, using an existing web browser plugin, and a separate host resident application that the web browser can talk to. We argue that using a separate application as an adaptor is a promising short term as well as long-term strategy for voice and video communications on the web. Our project aims at developing the open technology and sample implementations for web-based real-time voice and video communication applications. We describe the architecture of our project including (1) a RESTful web communication API over HTTP inspired by SIP message flows, (2)...

  12. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia; Erler, Silvio; Kryger, Per; Lewkowski, Oleg; Müller, Thomas; Widder, Miriam; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host’s apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion. PMID:26445372

  13. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kurze

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.

  14. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  15. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy’s RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. Database URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php PMID:28077564

  16. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual.

  17. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  18. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  19. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana Record of Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the southern Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 10(6 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivani, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A mellifera fuera del continente europeo.During surveys for the detection of protists associated to Apidae in the Pampas region, biconcave oval spores, and spore clumps were observed in the Malpighian tubules of honeybees from Dufaur, Saavedra county, southwestern Buenos Aires province. Mature spores measured 4.8 ± 0.05 x 2.4 ± 0.03 μm, and mean spore load was 5.71 ± 1.49 x 10(6 per honeybee. Detections were from July to October 2006, and prevalence in positive colonies ranged from 1 to 16.7%. Morphology of the spores, the site of development, and the identity of the host species suggest that the isolated microorganism belongs to the genus Nephridiophaga and would be N apis Ivani, the type species, knowledge on which is extremely limited. The finding constitutes the first record of a nephridiophagid in honeybees outside of Europe.

  20. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-07

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  1. The construction of prokaryotic expression system for human Api6 fusion protein%人Api6融合蛋白原核表达系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方严; 练雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To further study the pathophysiological function of human Api6 fusion protein expression using a prokaryotic expression system. Methods: Api6 cDNA was inserted into ppSUMO vector to form recombinant plasmid pp-SUMO-Api6;recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was trans-formed into prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta;prokaryotic expression method was optimized to induce expression of recombi-nant protein Api6 in different conditions of E.coli density,temperature,IPTG concentration and induction time;recombinant protein Api6 was identified by Western blot. Results:The recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was successfully constructed;the recombinant protein Api6 was successfully induced,and the expression of recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 from the prokaryotic expression system was optimized in the condition of OD600=0.5-0.8,16℃,0.5 mmol/L IPTG and 16 h induction.Conclusion:Recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was converted into the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta to get the recombinant strain ppSUMO-Api6-Rosetta.Recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system at the optimal expression conditions.%目的:本研究拟采用蛋白原核表达的方法,诱导表达人Api6(Apoptosis inhibitor 6)融合蛋白,为进一步研究Api6在凋亡抑制、脂质代谢和肿瘤发生中的作用奠定基础.方法:利用PCR技术扩增人Api6基因,将其克隆至原核表达载体ppSUMO,构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;重组质粒转化原核表达宿主菌E.coli Rosetta感受态;采用蛋白原核表达的方法,不同诱导前菌液浓度,不同温度、不同异丙基硫化半乳糖苷(Isopropy 1-β-D-thiogalaotopyrano-side,IPTG)浓度、不同诱导时间,筛选诱导表达Api6重组蛋白的最优条件;Western blot鉴定其表达情况.结果:成功构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;成功诱导Api6重组蛋白的原核表达,表达的最优条件为:OD600=0.5~0.8的重组菌,16℃、0.5 mmol/L IPTG诱导16 h.结论:含有人Api6 c

  2. Estudios de ingresos municipales: Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Teran C.

    2007-01-01

    El estudio abarca tres ámbitos de evaluación y recomendaciones: i) el marco normativo que establece las políticas para las administraciones tributarias municipales; ii) las capacidades de estas administraciones y las condiciones de oferta y demanda de servicios de asistencia para su fortalecimiento; y iii) la evaluación cuantitativa de los ingresos propios municipales, el establecimiento de categorías y las políticas que podrían implementarse a partir de esta información.

  3. LOS ESTUDIOS DE POBREZA URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina De León Herrera

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se intenta mostrar en forma sucinta la evolución de los estudios de pobreza urbana; se retoma para ello la producción escritural de investigadores que han hecho aportes valiosos sobre la temática en diferentes épocas y espacios geográficos. La información se ha organizado en dos unidades de análisis: la producción escritural en los países desarrollados y en los países en desarrollo.

  4. Comparison of API 20E and invA PCR for identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Daniele M; Maddox, Carol W; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia; Weigel, Ronald M

    2006-09-01

    API 20E and invA PCR were evaluated for the identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine farms. API 20E had the highest agreement with other tests at the 99.9% likelihood level. Both tests had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity compared to 16S rRNA sequencing. Compared to serotyping, both tests had 96% sensitivity; specificity was 86% for API 20E and 79% for invA PCR.

  5. Mutational epitope analysis and cross-reactivity of two isoforms of Api g 1, the major celery allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangorsch, Andrea; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Rösch, Paul; Holzhauser, Thomas; Vieths, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    For better understanding the cross-reactivity between the major birch pollen and celery allergens, Bet v 1 and Api g 1, respectively, putative epitope areas and structurally important positions for IgE-binding of the isoforms Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 were point mutated. The IgE binding capacities were measured in ELISA, the IgE cross-reactivity between the isoforms, mutants and Bet v 1 investigated by ELISA-inhibition experiments with serum pools from patients with confirmed celery allergy (DBPCFC). Api g 1.01 displayed a clearly higher frequency and capacity of IgE binding than Api g 1.02. In Api g 1.01, substitution of lysine against glutamic acid at amino acid position 44, a key residue of the Bet v 1 "P-loop", increased the IgE-binding properties. Structural instability due to proline insertion at position 111/112 resulted in loss of IgE binding of Api g 1.01, but not of Api g 1.02. Between Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 only partial cross-reactivity was seen. The data suggest that the IgE epitopes of the two isoforms are distinct and that in contrast to Api g 1.01, the "P-loop" region plays an important role for IgE binding of celery allergic subjects to Api g 1.02. Understanding and investigation of the molecular mechanisms in celery allergy is an important step to generate hypoallergenic proteins for safe and efficacious immunotherapy of food allergy.

  6. Software Defined GPS API: Development and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-18

    NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Software Defined GPS API : Development...and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations The Software Defined GPS API was created with the...ABOVE ADDRESS. Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico 377 Ponce de Leon Ave. Hato Rey, PR 00918 -0000 ABSTRACT Software Defined GPS API : Development and

  7. Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimo bibliotekų tyrimas Windows API Hooking Libraries Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Radvilavičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Nagrinėjamos bibliotekos, skirtos Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimui. Sekų perėmimas gali būti panaudojamas įvairiose srityse: siekiant išsiaiškinti operacinės sistemos veikimo principus, norint atlikti programos derinimą arba pridėti papildomą funkcionalumą prie jau esamo. Straipsnyje apžvelgiamos Windows API ir pateikiamos trečiųjų šalių priemonės funkcijų sekoms  perimti. Aptariamos jų teikiamos galimybės, panaudojimo specifika. Taip pat atlikti testai, siekiant išsiaiškinti, kuri biblioteka su užduotimis susitvarko greičiausiai. Tyrimui pasirinkti du nemokami gaminiai: Microsoft Detours ir EasyHook bibliotekos.

    Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

    The paper describes methods how to apply Windows API hooking with third party libraries and solutions. In this research were used Windows API function SetWindowsHookEx, Detours and EasyHook libraries. Libraries methods, features and advantages were discussed in this paper. The practical part contains libraries tests. In analysis we tested target program start with hooking library and injected function call.

    Article in Lithuanian

  8. Development of API 5 CT grade P110 steel casing; Desenvolvimento de tubos casing API 5 CT grau P110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sergio Seijo; Roza, Juliana Espinossi

    2003-07-01

    This paper has as objective to discuss the results gotten in experiences carried through in industrial scale for the development of pipes class API 5CT P110 (1), with 244 mm of diameter and 12 mm of thickness. The pipes were welded longitudinally by process ERW (electric resistance welding) and submitted to quenching and tempering heat treatments. A C-Mn-Cr alloy with adequate quenching ability was used for the attainment of a martensite microstructure after quenching. The pipes at a temperature of 880 deg C were quenched in water and subsequently tempered at 515 deg C. The integrity of the weld region was evaluated through non destructive tests and flattening tests, Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests (CTOD). The pipes achieved the tension properties stipulated in the standard (yield strength bigger limit of 758 Mpa), and also the energy in the Charpy impact test (transversal), considering that the energy value obtained was 55 J (at 0 deg C) for base metal and 44 J in the weld metal. (author)

  9. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  10. 一种基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统%APISynth:A New Graph-Based API Recommender System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨; 姜伟; 虎嵩林

    2015-01-01

    对象实例化是软件工程类库复用中一个常见、复杂的问题.即根据已知源类型的对象,用户需要编写代码对目标类型进行实例化.研究人员提出了若干种 API 自动推荐系统辅助用户解决上述问题.然而这些系统不能同时兼顾准确率和查全率,因此在一定程度上影响了系统的实用性.该文提出了一种兼顾准确率和查全率,基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统———APISynth.在查全率方面,APISynth 使用一个新颖的全局图模型来表达类库中所有的API 依赖关系和 API 历史使用信息.利用新的全局图模型具有的特殊 Tag 元素和可达性质以避免错误的 API 调用.在准确率方面,APISynth 首先将对象实例化问题建模为 Top-K 子图查询问题,然后设计一种新的支持 DAG 形式解的图搜索算法,避免了传统的最短路径图搜索算法导致的查不准问题.实验结果表明,与现有多种方法相比, APISynth 在准确率和查全率两方面均获得了较大提升.%How to perform object instantiation is a common and complex problem in reusing an existing library.In this problem,given the object of source type,users need to write code to instantiate the destination type.Recently,researchers have proposed a variety of related API automatic recommender systems to fulfill this problem.These systems can assist users to solve the above issue in some degree.However,it is very difficult for such systems to achieve both good recall and precision,which affects the usability.This paper presents APISynth,a new graph-based API recommender system.In order to improve the recall,APISynth utilizes a new global graph model to give a better representation for the API dependencies in the relevant class library,and to include API historical usage information in.A special tag element is added to the new graph together with a new reach ability property to avoid false invocation of APIs

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  12. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  13. Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    Full Text Available Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1 sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1 than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively. Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology.

  14. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  15. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  16. Neutralization of Apis mellifera bee venom activities by suramin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kik, Camila Z; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Gaban, Glauco A; Fonseca, Tatiane F; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Oliveira, Suellen D S; Silva, Claudia L M; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Melo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated the ability of suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea derivative, to antagonize the cytotoxic and enzymatic effects of the crude venom of Apis mellifera. Suramin was efficient to decrease the lethality in a dose-dependent way. The hemoconcentration caused by lethal dose injection of bee venom was abolished by suramin (30 μg/g). The edematogenic activity of the venom (0.3 μg/g) was antagonized by suramin (10 μg/g) in all treatment protocols. The changes in the vascular permeability caused by A. mellifera (1 μg/g) venom were inhibited by suramin (30 μg/g) in the pre- and posttreatment as well as when the venom was preincubated with suramin. In addition, suramin also inhibited cultured endothelial cell lesion, as well as in vitro myotoxicity, evaluated in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle, which was inhibited by suramin (10 and 25 μM), decreasing the rate of CK release, showing that suramin protected the sarcolemma against damage induced by components of bee venom (2.5 μg/mL). Moreover, suramin inhibited the in vivo myotoxicity induced by i.m. injection of A. mellifera venom in mice (0.5 μg/g). The analysis of the area under the plasma CK vs. time curve showed that preincubation, pre- and posttreatment with suramin (30 μg/g) inhibited bee venom myotoxic activity in mice by about 89%, 45% and 40%, respectively. Suramin markedly inhibited the PLA2 activity in a concentration-dependent way (1-30 μM). Being suramin a polyanion molecule, the effects observed may be due to the interaction of its charges with the polycation components present in A. mellifera bee venom.

  17. An Effective Method for Protecting Native API Hook Attacks in User-mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many modern malware developers is taking the advantage of Application Programming Interface (API hook technique to take the control of the victim computer which making it difficult to detect their presence. Because of the sophistication of rootkit tools, a remote attacker can use native API to compromise any computer which can later be used for many illegal activities such as sniffing network lines, capturing passwords, sending spam and DDoS attack, etc. Thus to protect end-system by identifying and preventing native API malicious code hooking is a challenging problem to the defenders. Today, many different malware-analysis tools incur specific features against malwares but manual and error-prone. In this study, we proposed a behavior-based monitoring detection system to effectively deal native API hooks in user-mode. Unlike other malware identification techniques, our approach involved dynamically analyzing the behavior of native API call hooking malwares. Comparing our experimental evaluation results with existing tools show better performance with no false positive.

  18. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. = Natural products in the defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Leonardo Lomele

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a influência de produtos naturais como capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, folhas de abacateiro (Persea americana, casca de café (Coffea arabica e sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis na defensividade de Apis mellifera, e avaliar o efeito destes produtos no desenvolvimento populacional da colmeia. O comportamento defensivo foi avaliado por meio do tempo da primeira ferroada (TPF, número de ferrões (NFB e, o desenvolvimento populacional, pela área de cria aberta e fechada. Observou-se que o tratamento fumaça + sete sementes de mamona apresentou aumento significativo no TPF, em relação ao tratamento sem e com fumaça de maravalha. Com relação ao NFB, verificou-se que os tratamentos fumaça de maravalha + sete sementes de mamona e fumaça de maravalha + 20% de folhas de café foram diferentes do tratamento sem e com fumaça. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram significativamente em relação ao uso da fumaça ou sua ausência. A casca de café e a semente de mamona nãointerferiram no desenvolvimento populacional, sugerindo que estes compostos não foram tóxicos. Pode-se concluir que o uso de sementes de mamona e casca de café na fumaça pode representar importante ferramenta para a redução da defensividade, sem promover toxicidade para A. mellifera.The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves (Persea americana, coffee husk (Coffea arabica and castor bean (Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive. Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting (TFS and number of stingers (NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. It was observed that the treatment with smoke + seven castor beans presented significant increase in the TFS, for treatment without and with smoke. Regarding NS, it was verified

  19. [New Approach to the Mitotype Classification in Black Honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera and Iberian Honeybee Apis mellifera iberiensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyasov, R A; Poskryakov, A V; Petukhov, A V; Nikolenko, A G

    2016-03-01

    The black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera L. is today the only subspecies of honeybee which is suitable for commercial breeding in the climatic conditions of Northern Europe with long cold winters. The main problem of the black honeybee in Russia and European countries is the preservation of the indigenous gene pool purity, which is lost as a result of hybridization with subspecies, A. m. caucasica, A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. armeniaca, introduced from southern regions. Genetic identification of the subspecies will reduce the extent of hybridization and provide the gene pool conservation of the black honeybee. Modern classification of the honeybee mitotypes is mainly based on the combined use ofthe DraI restriction endonuclease recognition site polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA COI-COII region. We performed a comparative analysis of the mtDNA COI-COII region sequence polymorphism in the honeybees ofthe evolutionary lineage M from Ural and West European populations of black honeybee A. m. mellifera and Spanish bee A. m. iberiensis. A new approach to the classification of the honeybee M mitotypes was suggested. Using this approach and on the basis of the seven most informative SNPs of the mtDNA COI-COII region, eight honeybee mitotype groups were identified. In addition, it is suggested that this approach will simplify the previously proposed complicated mitotype classification and will make it possible to assess the level of the mitotype diversity and to identify the mitotypes that are the most valuable for the honeybee breeding and rearing.

  20. API SPEC 5L会标认证审核企业需做的主要准备工作%The Main Preparatory Work for Enterprise API SPEC 5L Monogram Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓东

    2009-01-01

    随着TSG Z0004标准实施和API SPEC 5L以及API SPEC Q1标准的换版,当前申请API SPEC 5L会标使用许可证的企业应及时做好各项准备工作,接受审核组的审核.审核前需做的准备工作主要包括:①及时与审核员充分沟通;②各种审核文件的整理和完善;③维护和保养生产现场设备,完善各岗位现场作业指导文件,确保现场各种记录完整清楚.%Along TSG Z0004 standard implement and renewal edition of API SPEC 5L and API SPEC Q1,enterprises should make all preparations for applying API SPEC 5L monogram use permit right to receive auditor check.The main preparatory work include:①to completely communicate with auditor in time;②to file and improve all kinds of documents which will be checked;③to maintain equipments in production site,improve each job-site guidance document,and insure all kinds of records integrity and clarity. Key words:certification audit;API SPEC 5L;API SPEC Q1;monogram use permit

  1. A Comparison of Article Search APIs via Blinded Experiment and Developer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rochkind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at perceived user preference between products that can provide a scholarly article search service via an application programming interface (API. The study set up a blinded review and asked users at Johns Hopkins to select the service that provided the most useful results. Few statistically significant preferences were detected, and some interpretation is provided of what the results might tell us. The specific products evaluated for this study are: Serials Solutions Summon, Ex Libris Primo, EBSCO EDS, EBSCOHost ‘traditional’ API, and Elsevier Scopus. Re-usable open source tools for implementing article search were created to support the study and future development, and a developer review of the APIs is included based on the developer's experience in this implementation.

  2. Studi Eksperimen Distribusi Temperatur Nyala Api Kompor Bioetanol Tipe Side Burner dengan Variasi Diameter Firewall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vienna Sona Saputri Soetadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendapatkan kompor bioetanol efisiensi thermal maksimal diperlukan penelitian komprehensif. Salah satunya adalah penelitian terhadap posisi peletakkan beban pada kompor bioetanol kompak. Pengujian dilakukan pada kompor uji bioetanol dengan kadar 99%, yaitu kompor bioetanol tipe side burner dengan firewall 2.5 inci dan firewall 3 inci. Pengukuran temperatur api dengan 13 thermocouple K dengan pengukuran searah api keatas setiap 5 mm-an. Kemudian, water boiling test dilakukan untuk mendapatkan daya dan beban dan dilanjutkan mengukur waktu pendidihan air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gambaran total distribusi temperatur nyala api difusi. Hasil menunjukkan untuk kompor 2.5 inci dengan daya 1.6 kW mempunyai temperatur 542 ºC dengan jarak ketinggian 5 mm dari rim kompor sedangkan kompor 3 inci menghasilkan daya 2.38 kW dengan temperatur 516 ºC.

  3. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-02-26

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to

  4. The SEMAINE API: Towards a Standards-Based Framework for Building Emotion-Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SEMAINE API, an open source framework for building emotion-oriented systems. By encouraging and simplifying the use of standard representation formats, the framework aims to contribute to interoperability and reuse of system components in the research community. By providing a Java and C++ wrapper around a message-oriented middleware, the API makes it easy to integrate components running on different operating systems and written in different programming languages. The SEMAINE system 1.0 is presented as an example of a full-scale system built on top of the SEMAINE API. Three small example systems are described in detail to illustrate how integration between existing and new components is realised with minimal effort.

  5. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-11-06

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast.

  6. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible and ...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms.......The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...

  7. APIS : a value-added database of HST UV planetary auroral observations acquired since 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, L.; Henry, F.; Prangé, R.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2014-04-01

    The APIS service http://lesia.obspm.fr/apis/ (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy), aimed at facilitating the use of planetary auroral observations, was presented at EPSC last year, following its opening to the community in July 2013. This facility consists of : - a high level database derived from public Far-UV observations of Jupiter, Io, Ganymede, Saturn, Titan and Uranus acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope since 1997 (36 observational campaigns so far) ; - a specific search interface (Figure 1), aimed at browsing the database freely, quickly and efficiently through relevant search criteria (as planetary longitudes, moon or spacecraft ephemeris etc.). - Virtual-Observatory tools which enable the user to interactively work with images and spectra online. We will present the updated capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples. Several tutorials are also directly available online.

  8. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaun Rosebeck; Megan S Lim; Kojo SJ Elenitoba-Johnson; Linda MMcAllister-Lucas; Peter C Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor(TNF) receptor associated factor(TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1(RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While theintrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for noncanonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase(NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to generate

  9. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells.

  10. The Design and Implementation of Cryptographic API%加密API的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2004-01-01

    文章设计了一种简单易用、可扩展和可移植的加密API,简称SEPC-API.SEPC-API采用标准的C/C++来编写,并使用抽象密钥类分层结构来构造.文中详细描述了SEPC-API的设计和实现,并给出了应用示例.此外,SEPC-API中的多数函数设计遵循微软Crypto API的语法,这意味着微软Crypto API用户只需修改很少的代码就可以移植到SEPC-API.

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, andParameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  12. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halstead Matt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API, and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions.

  13. There-apy: The Use of Task, Imagery, and Symbolism To Connect the Inner and Outer Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein-Naveh, A. Rosa

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of therapy called there-apy, which weaves together the use of task, symbolism, and imagery into an ongoing process. Concrete tasks take on symbolic meaning, and symbolism gets actualized through achieving concrete tasks. There-apy connects the individual's outside and inside worlds and often involves the partner or family in the…

  14. Physicochemical characterisation and investigation of the bonding mechanisms of API-titanate nanotube composites as new drug carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Barbara; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Kónya, Zoltán; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza; Sovány, Tamás

    2017-02-25

    Titanate nanotube (TNT) has recently been explored as a new carrier material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The aim of the present work was to reveal the physicochemical properties of API-TNT composites, focusing on the interactions between the TNTs and the incorporated APIs. Drugs belonging to different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classes were loaded into TNTs: diltiazem hydrochloride (BCS I.), diclofenac sodium (BCS II.), atenolol (BCS III.) and hydrochlorothiazide (BCS IV.). Experimental results demonstrated that it is feasible for spiral cross-sectioned titanate nanotubes to carry drugs and maintain their bioactivity. The structural properties of the composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, DSC, TG-MS, etc. The interactions between APIs and TNTs were identified as electrostatic attractions, mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. Based on the results, it can be stated that the strength of the association depends on the hydrogen donor strength of the API. The drug release of incorporated APIs was evaluated from compressed tablets and compared to that of pure APIs. Differences noticed in the dissolution profiles due to incorporation showed a correlation with the strength of interactions between the APIs and the TNTs observed in the above analytical studies.

  15. A geographical information system using the Google Map API for guidance to referral hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujioka, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Yuji; Inoue, Michiyoshi; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Miyoshi, Akira

    2010-12-01

    Our hospital acts as a regional core hospital through inter-hospital collaboration. Geographical information is necessary to guide patients to the other hospitals. Although paper maps, which contain directions, nearest public transportation, etc., are usually provided to guide patients to the hospitals, the geographical information tends to change daily. However, updating the geographical information on the maps is costly. We constructed an electronic geographical information system using the Google Map API ( http://code.google.com/apis/maps/ ) with open source software to improve our ability to collaborate with other clinics.

  16. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) attracts drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Ono, M; Asada, S; Yoshida, T

    1991-12-01

    The discovery that drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) pollinate the oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) is reported. Drones are attracted to the orchid flower aroma mainly during their mating flights in April through May. Some drones cluster on the flower racemes and others insert their heads deep into the flowers. Drones with pollinia on their scutellum visit other orchids, which facilitates pollination. Individual workers and swarming colonies are also strongly attracted by the flower aroma, but the allopatric western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is not attracted.

  17. When is it Biased? Assessing the Representativeness of Twitter's Streaming API

    OpenAIRE

    Morstatter, Fred; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Liu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Twitter has captured the interest of the scientific community not only for its massive user base and content, but also for its openness in sharing its data. Twitter shares a free 1% sample of its tweets through the "Streaming API", a service that returns a sample of tweets according to a set of parameters set by the researcher. Recently, research has pointed to evidence of bias in the data returned through the Streaming API, raising concern in the integrity of this data service for use in res...

  18. Develop 3G Application with The J2ME SATSA API

    Science.gov (United States)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the Security and Trust Services API for J2ME (SATSA) to develop mobile applications. for 3G networks. SATSA defines a set of APIs that allows J2ME applications to communicate with and access functionality, secure storage and cryptographic operations provided by security elements such as smart cards and Wireless Identification Modules (WIM). A Java Card application could also work as an authentication module in a J2ME-based e-bank application. The e-bank application would allow its users to access their bank accounts using their cell phones.

  19. Heterosis en la longevidad de obreras Apis mielífera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares AE.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la media y la heterosis de la longevidad en obreras de abejas Apis mellifera. El expe-rimento fue desarrollado en el Apiario del Departamento de Genética de la Facultad de Medi-cina de la USP-Ribeirão Preto-Brasil y en Jaboticabal-SP, de 03/1997 a 05/1999. Seleccionamos 8 matrices inseminadas del apiário-USP (2africanizadas, 2italianas, 2cárnicasy 2italianas*cárnicos y 2 matrices (grupo-testigo de abejas Africanizadas-Silvestres.

  20. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. METHODS: HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified...

  1. The Assessment of DNA in Royal Jelly from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana by RAPD markers%中蜂与意蜂王浆中DNA的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 黄康; 颜伟玉; 曾志将

    2007-01-01

    以中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)和意大利蜜蜂( Apis mellifera ligustica)王浆为材料,用改进的苯酚-氯仿法提取蜂王浆中的DNA,利用35个随机引物对提取出来的DNA进行RAPD扩增,结果表明:有6个随机引物能扩增出谱带,其中1个引物对所有王浆DNA样品的扩增结果完全相同,5个引物出现多态性.共检测到32条扩增谱带,其中24条为多态带.

  2. An example of how to handle amorphous fractions in API during early pharmaceutical development: SAR114137--a successful approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Christine; Bley, Oliver; Byard, Stephen J; Andert, Doris; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Feth, Martin Philipp

    2014-04-01

    The so-called pharmaceutical solid chain, which encompasses drug substance micronisation to the final tablet production, at pilot plant scale is presented as a case study for a novel, highly potent, pharmaceutical compound: SAR114137. Various solid-state analytical methods, such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Water Vapour Sorption Gravimetry (DWVSG), hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) were applied and evaluated to characterise and quantify amorphous content during the course of the physical treatment of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). DSC was successfully used to monitor the changes in amorphous content during micronisation of the API, as well as during stability studies. (19)F solid-state NMR was found to be the method of choice for the detection and quantification of low levels of amorphous API, even in the final drug product (DP), since compaction during tablet manufacture was identified as a further source for the formation of amorphous API. The application of different jet milling techniques was a critical factor with respect to amorphous content formation. In the present case, the change from spiral jet milling to loop jet milling led to a decrease in amorphous API content from 20-30 w/w% to nearly 0 w/w% respectively. The use of loop jet milling also improved the processability of the API. Stability investigations on both the milled API and the DP showed a marked tendency for recrystallisation of the amorphous API content on exposure to elevated levels of relative humidity. No significant impact of amorphous API on either the chemical stability or the dissolution rate of the API in drug formulation was observed. Therefore, the presence of amorphous content in the oral formulation was of no consequence for the clinical trial phases I and II.

  3. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves mo...

  4. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  5. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  6. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  7. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  8. ApiNATOMY: a novel toolkit for visualizing multiscale anatomy schematics with phenotype-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Bernard; Grenon, Pierre; Sammut, Stephen John

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of biomedical resources carries information that cross references to anatomical structures across multiple scales. To improve the visualization of such resources in their anatomical context, we developed an automated methodology that produces anatomy schematics in a consistent manner,and provides for the overlay of anatomy-related resource information onto the same diagram. This methodology, called ApiNATOMY, draws upon the topology of ontology graphs to automatically lay out treemaps representing body parts as well as semantic metadata linking to such ontologies. More generally, ApiNATOMY treemaps provide an efficient and manageable way to visualize large biomedical ontologies in a meaningful and consistent manner. In the anatomy domain, such treemaps will allow epidemiologists, clinicians, and biomedical scientists to review, and interact with, anatomically aggregated heterogeneous data and model resources. Such an approach supports the visual identification of functional relations between anatomically colocalized resources that may not be immediately amenable to automation by ontology-based inferencing. We also describe the application of ApiNATOMY schematics to integrate, and add value to, human phenotype-related information—results are found at http://apinatomy.org. The long-term goal for the ApiNATOMY toolkit is to support clinical and scientific graphical user interfaces and dashboards for biomedical resource management and data analytics.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of metal concentrations in adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have great potential for detecting and monitoring environmental pollution, given their wide-ranging foraging behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that concentrations of metals in adult honeybees were significantly higher at polluted than at control locations. T

  10. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelcskei, E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Suevegh, K. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Marek, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Regdon, G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Pintye-Hodi, K., E-mail: klara.hodi@pharm.u-szeged.h [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air. -- Highlights: {yields} The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. {yields} The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration (). {yields} The API distorts the original polymer structure, but as time goes by, the metastable structure relaxes and it is almost totally restored after 3 weeks of storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% RH).

  11. ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.

    2004-07-01

    An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.

  12. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  13. Identification of clinical yeasts by Vitek MS system compared with API ID 32 C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Valle, M Teresa; Sanz-Rodríguez, Nuria; Muñoz-Paraíso, Carmen; Almagro-Moltó, María; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    We performed a clinical evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with the commercial database version 2.0 for rapid identification of medically important yeasts as compared with the conventional phenotypic method API ID 32 C. We tested 161 clinical isolates, nine isolates from culture collections and five reference strains. In case of discrepant results or no identification with one or both methods, molecular identification techniques were employed. Concordance between both methods was observed with 160/175 isolates (91.42%) and misidentifications by both systems occurred only when taxa were not included in the respective databases, i.e., one isolate of Candida etchellsii was identified as C. globosa by Vitek MS and two isolates of C. orthopsilosis were identified as C. parapsilosis by API ID 32 C. Vitek MS could not identify nine strains (5.14%) and API ID 32 C did not identify 13 (7.42%). Vitek MS was more reliable than API ID 32 C and reduced the time required for the identification of clinical isolates to only a few minutes.

  14. Continuous API-crystal coating via coacervation in a tubular reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, M O; Thurnberger, A; Hohl, R; Faulhammer, E; Rattenberger, J; Khinast, J G

    2014-11-20

    We present a proof-of-concept study of a continuous coating process of single API crystals in a tubular reactor using coacervation as a microencapsulation technique. Continuous API crystal coating can have several advantages, as in a single step (following crystallization) individual crystals can be prepared with a functional coating, either to change the release behavior, to protect the API from gastric juice or to modify the surface energetics of the API (i.e., to tailor the hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, flowability or agglomeration tendency, etc.). The coating process was developed for the microencapsulation of a lipophilic core material (ibuprofen crystals of 20 μm- to 100 μm-size), with either hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) or Eudragit L100-55. The core material was suspended in an aqueous solution containing one of these enteric polymers, fed into the tubing and mixed continuously with a sodium sulfate solution as an antisolvent to induce coacervation. A subsequent temperature treatment was applied to optimize the microencapsulation of crystals via the polymer-rich coacervate phase. Cross-linking of the coating shell was achieved by mixing the processed material with an acidic solution (pH<3). Flow rates, temperature profiles and polymer-to-antisolvent ratios had to be tightly controlled to avoid excessive aggregation, leading to pipe plugging. This work demonstrates the potential of a tubular reactor design for continuous coating applications and is the basis for future work, combining continuous crystallization and coating.

  15. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  16. An Auto-Configuration System for the GMSEC Architecture and API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholt, Joseph; Mayorga, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on an automated configuration concept for The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture and Application Program Interface (API) is shown. The topics include: 1) The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC); 2) Automated Configuration Concept; 3) Implementation Approach; and 4) Key Components and Benefits.

  17. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  18. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  19. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  20. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Ascosphaera apis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette B; Welker, Dennis L; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    was then compared among the different loci, and three were found to have the greatest detection power for identifying A. apis haplotypes. The described loci can help to resolve strain differences and population genetic structures, to elucidate host–pathogen interaction and to test evolutionary hypotheses...

  1. Funciones profesorales: un estudio factorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. de VICENTE RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por la «cantidad» ha privado durante mucho tiempo en el ámbito educativo; ha sido considerado esencial por los gobiernos la consecución de una «educación para todos». Sin embargo, el aumento de los costos no ha conllevado una mejora sustancial, una disminución efectiva de la ineficacia de los sistemas tradicionales de enseñanza; de ello dan fe las tasas de abandonos y repeticiones de curso. Esto conduce a considerar que la falta de correspondencia entre el aumento de los recursos destinados a educación y el rendimiento de las instituciones educativas sea un problema de «calidad» más que de «cantidad». De ahí que se hable hoy insistentemente de la mejora de la calidad de la educación. Al tema de la «calidad de la educación» se dedicó en 1981 un seminario organizado por la Escuela Asturiana de estudios Hispánicos. En él, Víctor García Hoz definía la calidad educativa «como el modo de ser de la educación que reúne las características de integridad, coherencia y eficacia»1, entendiendo la eficacia como la denotación de que el fin perseguido ha sido alcanzado, más que como producción de algo material, con lo que es posible hablar en términos de eficacia refiriéndose tanto a lo cuantitativo como a lo cualitativo.

  2. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  3. Alteration Summary of the 8th Edition API SPEC Q1 as Opposed to the 7th Edition%API SPEC Q1第8版相对第7版变更摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓东

    2009-01-01

    @@ API SPEC Q1是API标准中一项重要的技术政策性标准,通用于API的所有产品规范.API Q1第8版于2007年12月发布, 2008年6月15日生效.2008年6月15日以后对申请会标公司质量管理体系的审核,将按API Q1第8版的要求进行.

  4. Small Molecule APY606 Displays Extensive Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer via Impairing Ras-MAPK Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Liu, Zuojia; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has been found with abnormal expression or mutation in Ras proteins. Oncogenic Ras activation exploits their extensive signaling reach to affect multiple cellular processes, in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling exerts important roles in tumorigenesis. Therapies targeted Ras are thus of major benefit for pancreatic cancer. Although small molecule APY606 has been successfully picked out by virtual drug screening based on Ras target receptor, its in-depth mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein assessed the antitumor activity of APY606 against human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and SW1990 cell lines and explored the effect of Ras-MAPK and apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of APY606. APY606 treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cancer cell viability. Additionally, APY606 exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reduction in tumor cell invasion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential but also by alteration in several apoptotic indexes. Furthermore, APY606 treatment directly inhibited Ras-GTP and the downstream activation of MAPK, which resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c and Caspase 3) and of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin A, E. These data suggest that impairing Ras-MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism of action for APY606 during therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27223122

  5. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  6. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil Variação morfogeométrica das abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.Apis mellifera L., 1758 têm sido alvo de muitos estudos morfométricos principalmente pela sua importância ecológica, pela sua grande capacidade de adaptação, sua ampla distribuição e por serem capazes de se estabelecer eficientemente em diversas regiões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as variações da forma em asas e corbículas de operárias de Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 provenientes das cinco regiões biogeográficas do Brasil utilizando análises morfogeométricas, a fim de verificar a existência de padrões de variação de forma e tamanho das abelhas africanizadas no Brasil após 16 anos do estudo clássico realizado com esta espécie, possibilitando uma análise espaço-temporal comparativa utilizando recursos tecnológicos atuais para a avaliação de dados morfom

  7. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  8. OpenSearch (ECHO-ESIP) & REST API for Earth Science Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide a brief technical overview of OpenSearch, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federated Search framework, and the REST architecture; discuss NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse’s (ECHO) implementation lessons learned; and demonstrate the simplified usage of these technologies. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. As a technical solution, SOAP has been a reliable framework on top of which many applications have been successfully developed and deployed. However, as interest grows for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” the SOAP API loses its appeal. Lightweight and simple are the vogue characteristics that are sought after. Enter the REST API architecture and OpenSearch format. Both of these items provide a new path for application development addressing some of the issues unresolved by SOAP. ECHO has made available all of its discovery, order submission, and data management services through a publicly accessible SOAP API. This interface is utilized by a variety of ECHO client and data partners to provide valuable capabilities to end users. As ECHO interacted with current and potential partners looking to develop Earth Science tools utilizing ECHO, it became apparent that the development overhead required to interact with the SOAP API was a growing barrier to entry. ECHO acknowledged the technical issues that were being uncovered by its partner community and chose to provide two new interfaces for interacting with the ECHO metadata catalog. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. Leveraging these two items, a client (ECHO-ESIP) was developed with a focus on simplified searching and results presentation. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Leveraging the REST architecture, a

  9. Polinização de morangueiro por Apis mellifera em ambiente protegido Strawberry polinization through Apis mellifera in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos comerciáveis no morangueiro, em ambiente protegido, utilizando a espécie de abelha Apis mellifera em relação à ausência de um agente polinizador. Foram instalados dois experimentos, utilizando-se das cultivares Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante e Aromas (tratamentos, no período de 05 de maio a 19 de dezembro de 2006. No primeiro experimento, não havia polinizadores (testemunha. O segundo foi polinizado pela espécie de abelha Apis mellifera. Os tratamentos (cultivares foram dispostos, em cada experimento, em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com seis repetições. Foram avaliadas características de rendimento, bem como análise físico-química dos frutos de cada cultivar. Quanto ao rendimento, a maior produção obtida foi com a cultivar Camarosa tanto na ausência quanto na presença de polinizadores (907,46 g. planta-1 e 1.054,93 g. planta-1, respectivamente, ao passo que a cultivar Oso Grande apresentou menor número de frutos deformados.This work objectified to compare the productivity and the quality of the strawberry marketable fruits in protected environment, using the species of bee Apis mellifera in relation of the absence of a polinizator agent. It was installed two experiments using the cultivates Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante and Aromas (treatments, in the period of May 5 th until December 19th of 2006. The first experiment did not have polinizatores agents (control. The second was polinizated by the species of bee Apis mellifera. The treatments (cultivars had been arranged, in each experiment in a randomized blocks with 6 repetitions. They were evaluated income characteristics, as well as analysis physicist-chemistry of the fruits of each cultivar. For the income, the biggest production was gotten in cultivar Camarosa, for the first and the second experiment (907,46 g. plant-1 and 1054,93 g. plant-1, respectively, in the way that the cultivate

  10. NCG61/12: Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Ingleses por la Universidad de Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Ingleses por la Universidad de Granada. RESOLUCI??N de 12 de abril de 2012, de la Universidad de Granada, por la que se hace p??blico el Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Ingleses por la Universidad de Granada

  11. NRE57/17: Plan de estudios del M??ster en Estudios Superiores de Lengua Espa??ola

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Plan de estudios del M??ster en Estudios Superiores de Lengua Espa??ola. Resoluci??n de 7 de febrero de 2012, de la Universidad de Granada, por la que se publica el plan de estudios de M??ster en Estudios Superiores de Lengua Espa??ola

  12. NCG61/11: Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Franceses por la Universidad de Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Franceses por la Universidad de Granada. RESOLUCI??N de 12 de abril de 2012, de la Universidad de Granada, por la que se hace p??blico el Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Estudios Franceses por la Universidad de Granada

  13. Development of a GIS-Based Online Discussion System for Scientists with Google Earth API and Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, S.; Demura, H.; Hirata, N.; Terazono, J.

    2011-03-01

    This study has developed an online discussion system cooperating with GIS for researchers in planetary sciences. We focused on mushup approach with the existing web services; Google Earth API and Twitter.

  14. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  15. Construction and assembly of pipelines using API 5L grade X80 tubes - considerations to be observed with high-strength steels; Construcao e montagem de dutos terrestres utilizando tubos API 5L Gr. X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ailton C. de; Rabello, Jose Mauricio B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80, at the point of view of designer allows: reduction of wall thickness and pipe weight or increase of design pressure. In the pipeline construction point of view, the use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80 provide some advantages, however some difficulties must be expected in several stages of the construction and assembly. The implications in cost, productivity, inspection and integrity, with the application of these high resistance steels, complying with PETROBRAS Standard N - 464 Construcao, Montagem e Condicionamento de Dutos Terrestres (Rev. H - 2004 Dec) and the experience consolidated in pipelines construction abroad were presented. At the design stage, a comparison between pipelines designed using API 5L-X70 and API 5L-X80 was carried out approaching the aspects of variation of thickness, pressure design and design factor. An evaluation of the expected gains when choosing API 5L Grade X80 steels were done, regarding reduction of costs and pipe weight. Regarding API 5L-X80 pipe fabrication, the obtained results were reported, proving that this aspect was already overcome, showing the viability of its production in Brazil. Difficulties were detected regarding construction and assembly stage and showing the need of revision of PETROBRAS standard N-464. (author)

  16. PERLETAKAN STASIUN KERETA API DALAM TATA RUANG KOTA-KOTA DI JAWA (KHUSUSNYA JAWA TIMUR PADA MASA KOLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handinoto Handinoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway Company in Indonesia started in 1860's. They were held by both government (SS- Staad Spoorwegen and private (NIS, etc. The same happened as in Europe after rev. industry, railway station's placement as new kind of building became very important in urban planning. Faster progression,in railway services in Indonesia in the begining 20 th century, that reached almost all of town in Java; caused railway station's placement, either in larger city or Kabupaten city will be importance. In the end of 19 th and 20 th century, railway transportation was one of important infrastructure.But in the second part of 20 th century, after independence, the roadway progression caused railway services become come down, so railway stations were careless. In the end of 20 th century, the dense of roadway in Java caused railway's function raise again. In general towns has been develop, so railway station placement which been though exactly in urban planning, become to make trouble for city trafic. The scoupe of this paper covered about the placement of railway station in the past, as input for development city in Java for the future. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Per kereta api an di Indonesia baru dimulai pada th. 1860 an. Perusahaan kereta api ditangani oleh dua instansi yaitu oleh pihak pemerintah (seperti: S.S - Staad Spoorwegen dan pihak swasta (seperti :NIS - Nederlandsch Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij, dan sebagainya. Seperti halnya di Eropa setelah revolusi industri, perletakkan stasiun sebagai suatu jenis bangunan baru, menjadi sangat penting dalam tata ruang kota. Dengan makin majunya per kereta api an di Indonesia pada awal abad ke 20, yang hampir mencapai seluruh kota di Jawa, maka penempatan stasiun kereta api baik di kota-kota besar maupun kota Kabupaten menjadi suatu pemikiran yang penting. Pada akhir abad ke 19 dan abad ke 20, angkutan dengan kereta api, menjadi salah satu sarana yang sangat penting, baik angkutan barang maupun manusia. Tapi

  17. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers.

  18. 环境空气中臭氧API评价探讨%Study on Air Ozone API Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平

    2012-01-01

    Air ozone API evaluation is considered that area of influence on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality, ozone API correction on hours on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality and Ozone average concentration exceed ambient air quality.%环境空气中臭氧API评价应考虑臭氧超标影响范围、臭氧超标小时数和超标平均浓度对臭氧API修正.

  19. Test-retest reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt in chronic schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    2001-09-01

    This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  20. OWL应用接口的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of APIs for OWL Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振辉; 于娟

    2015-01-01

    The paper comparatively analyzes three types of APIs for OWL, including Jena API、Protégé API and OWL API, from aspects of characteristics, platforms which they base on, languages which they can process and OWL ontology models. It focuses on commonly-used functions of OWL API and obtains related conclusions: (1) Jena API cannot achieve all functions of OWL because it bases on RDF triple;(2) OWL API is specifically designed for OWL and it supports structural specification of OWL2 which is the latest edition of OWL;(3) current APIs for OWL ontology mostly base on Java platform, whereas APIs base on other platforms (e.g. .net plat-form) have not appeared.%比较分析了Jena API、Protégé API、OWL API这三种OWL应用接口(API)的特点、所基于的平台、可处理的语言以及描述OWL本体的模型,重点介绍了OWL API的常用基本功能,得出了相关结论:(1)Jena API基于RDF三元组的特点使其不能实现OWL语言的全部功能;(2)OWL API针对OWL语言设计,且支持最新的OWL2语言的结构规范;(3)目前这些API都是基于Java平台的,对于其它平台(如.net平台),尚未见有成熟的API出现。

  1. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  2. The API2-MALT1 fusion exploits TNFR pathway-associated RIP1 ubiquitination to promote oncogenic NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, S; Rehman, A O; Apel, I J; Kohrt, D; Appert, A; O'Donnell, M A; Ting, A T; Du, M-Q; Baens, M; Lucas, P C; McAllister-Lucas, L M

    2014-05-08

    The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-08-21

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites.

  4. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  5. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, F B; Koeniger, N; Tingek, S; Moritz, R F A

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N (e)=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  6. Opening the Door: A First Look at the OCLC WorldCat Metadata API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Reese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries have long relied on OCLC’s WorldCat database as a way to cooperatively share bibliographic data and declare library holdings to support interlibrary loan services. As curator, OCLC has traditionally mediated all interactions with the WorldCat database through their various cataloging clients to control access to the information. As more and more libraries look for new ways to interact with their data and streamline metadata operations and workflows, these clients have become bottlenecks and an inhibitor of library innovation. To address some of these concerns, in early 2013 OCLC announced the release of a set of application programming interfaces (APIs supporting read and write access to the WorldCat database. These APIs offer libraries their first opportunity to develop new services and workflows that directly interact with the WorldCat database, and provide opportunities for catalogers to begin redefining how they work with OCLC and their data.

  7. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  8. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-07-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/.

  9. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  10. Genetic reincarnation of workers as queens in the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Tan, K; Wang, Z; Oldroyd, B P; Beekman, M

    2015-01-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis, or the asexual production of female offspring, is rare in the animal kingdom, but relatively common in social Hymenoptera. However, in honeybees, it is only known to be ubiquitous in one subspecies of Apis mellifera, the Cape honeybee, A. mellifera capensis. Here we report the appearance of queen cells in two colonies of the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana that no longer contained a queen or queen-produced brood to rear queens from. A combination of microsatellite genotyping and the timing of the appearance of these individuals excluded the possibility that they had been laid by the original queen. Based on the genotypes of these individuals, thelytokous production by natal workers is the most parsimonious explanation for their existence. Thus, we present the first example of thelytoky in a honeybee outside A. mellifera. We discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of thelytoky in A. cerana, in particular the role thelytoky may play in the recent invasions by populations of this species.

  11. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  12. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  13. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings.

  14. Efeitos de atrativos e repelentes sobre o comportamento da abelha (Apis mellifera, l. Effect of attractants and repellents on the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellipera, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. MALERBO-SOUZA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio foi testar diversas substâncias e verificar sua atratividade e repelência para abelhas, Apis mellifera, L. Para isso, foram realizados testes em discos próximos às colméias e em cana picada oferecida como alimentação para gado bovino confinado. Nos discos próximos à colméia, o produto mais atrativo foi Bee-Here e o mais repelente foi o óleo de citronela. No cocho para bovinos, o repelente mais efetivo foi n-octyl-acetato.The experiment aimed to study honey bee (Apis mellifera attractants and repellents in vitro and on chopped sugar cane for bovine feeding. Tests were performed on plates located near to the hives and on bovine-hods. On plates, Bee-Here® was the most attractive and citronela oil the most repellent. On bovine-hods the most effective was n-octyl-acetate.

  15. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are acquired that render the lymphoma antigen-independent. The recurrent translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with failure to respond to antibiotic therapy and increased rate of dissemination. This translocation creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein, which comprises the amino terminus of inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (API2 or cIAP2) fused to the carboxy terminus of MALT1. A common characteristic of chromosomal translocations in MALT lymphoma, including t(11;18), is that genes involved in the regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor are targeted by the translocations, and these genetic perturbations thereby result in deregulated, constitutive NF-κB stimulation. In the last decade, great insights into the roles of API2 and MALT1 in NF-κB signaling have been made. For example, recent pivotal studies have uncovered the long sought-after proteolytic activity of MALT1 and have demonstrated its critical involvement in the survival of certain lymphomas. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MALT1 in normal lymphocyte function and lymphomagenesis. We then highlight our recent work that has revealed an intriguing link between the proteolytic activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion and its ability to influence lymphomagenesis by cleaving a key NF-κB regulatory protein, NF-κB-inducing kinase.

  16. Manipulating API and AOD data to distinguish transportation of aerosol at high altitude in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Holben, B.

    2014-02-01

    Air pollution index (API) is an index commonly used in Malaysia to determine the air quality level. It is a ground truth data measurement which is unable to unambiguously quantify air quality level at higher atmosphere. On the other hand, aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET data obtained using sun photometer provides reading of the air quality for a column of atmosphere from ground surface. We first determine the quantitative correlation between the API and AOD data collected in Penang, Malaysia, between January - September, 2012, using two independent methods, one based on regression analysis and the other interpolation. Our purpose is to establish a systematic numerical procedure to determine whether aerosol transported in high altitude from other location has occurred. Two independent methods for establishing the quantitative relationship between the API and AOD data were used as a way to facilitate the verification of our approach. In our method, data from southwest monsoon period (August to September) were used as "calibration dataset" to establish the quantitative correlation between the AOD and API data. The established calibrated coefficients is then used to predict the AOD of other months, which are then compared against the data actually measured. Discrepancy between the predicted and measured AOD data can then be interpreted as an indication of whether the atmosphere at high altitude is polluted by aerosol transported from other location. If the predicted AOD is much larger than that measured, back trajectory analysis was applied to identify the aerosol transported source. This procedure is very helpful to investigate the aerosol transportation and distribution patterns during monsoon and non monsoon periods.

  17. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Steeve H Thany; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldw...

  18. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2014-01-01

    The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identif...

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of two API steels for iron ore pipelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid,Leonardo Barbosa; Cândido,Luiz Cláudio; Toffolo,Rodrigo Vicente Bayão; Barbosa,Luiz Henrique Soares

    2014-01-01

    This research compares the mechanical behavior of two API steels (X60 and X70) used in the longest pipeline in the world for the conveyance of iron ore. Tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, CTOD tests and fatigue crack growth tests are performed at ambient temperature. Metallographic examination showed a banded microstructure consisting of polygonal ferrite and pearlite in both steels, with smaller grain size and the presence of a small quantity of bainite in the X70 steel. All the mechanical ...

  20. Galenics: studies of the toxicity and distribution of sugar substitutes on Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    RADEMACHER, Eva; Fahlberg, Anja; Raddatz, Marlene; Schneider, Saskia; Voigt, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to find a substitute to sugar water in medicinal treatments of honey bee colonies with the same properties but without being ingested by bees or being toxic to them. Tylose MH, sorbitol and glycerol were tested for their attractiveness to Apis mellifera, their application ability, toxicity via individual application and distribution in small groups respectively a small colony. Neither of the substances proved attractive or toxic. All had good ...

  1. Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Ethem; YENİNAR, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the fall. Twenty honeybee colonies, in wooden Langstroth hives, were used in this experiment. Average Varroa infestation levels (%) of the OA and control groups were 25.87% and 24.57% on adult workers before the treatments. The OA treatments were applied twice, on 3 November and 13 November 2006. Average Varroa infestation ...

  2. Phosphorus 30 CH to control Varroa population in Apis mellifera colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Moscatelli, Francesca; Pietropaoli, Marco; Brocherel, Giuseppina; Martini, Andrea; Formato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is considered to be the main cause of European honeybee (Apis mellifera ssp. Linnaeus 1758) colony losses. The use of homeopathic products in veterinary practices has consistently increased in the last 50 years, but limited data are available on the application of homeopathic treatments to honeybees. The aims of this study were to investigate the acaricide efficacy and tolerability for honeybees treated for 35 days with the homeopathic product Phosphorus 30 CH. Methods...

  3. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    OpenAIRE

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Jones, Beryl M.; Walton, Alexander; Schwan, Melissa R; Kirk E Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays ...

  4. Studies of the eddy structure in the lower ionosphere by the API technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennadii I.; Lapin, Victor G.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new application of the API technique to study of turbulent phenomena in the lower ionosphere. The main objective of these studies is experimental diagnostics of natural ordered eddy structures at the altitudes of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, such as those that occur when internal gravity waves propagate in stratified flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. To this end, we considered the impact of eddy motions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere on the relaxation time and the frequency of the signal scattered by periodic irregularities. Theoretical study of eddy structures base on experiments using SURA heating facility (56,14 N; 44,1 W). It is known, artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) are formed in the field of the powerful standing wave as a result of the interference of the incident wave and reflected from the ionosphere (Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - 2002. Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. Copernicus GmbH. 160 p.). The relaxation or decay of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the amplitude and decay time of the API scattered signal in comparison with the diffusion time. We found a relation between the eddy period and the characteristic decay time of scattered signal, for which the synchronism of the waves scattered by a periodic structure is broken. Besides, it is shown, when the eddy structure moves by a horizontal wind exists at these heights, the frequency of the radio wave scattered by API structure will periodically increase and decrease compared with the frequency of the radiated diagnostic (probing) radio-wave. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant No 14-12-00556.

  5. Comparison of ground based indices (API and AQI) with satellite based aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Cao, Chun-Xiang; Singh, Ramesh P

    2014-08-01

    Air quality in mega cities is one of the major concerns due to serious health issues and its indirect impact to the climate. Among mega cities, Beijing city is considered as one of the densely populated cities with extremely poor air quality. The meteorological parameters (wind, surface temperature, air temperature and relative humidity) control the dynamics and dispersion of air pollution. China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) started air pollution index (API) as of 2000 to evaluate air quality, but over the years, it was felt that the air quality is not well represented by API. Recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) started using a new index "air quality index (AQI)" from January 2013. We have compared API and AQI with three different MODIS (MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer, onboard the Terra/Aqua satellites) AOD (aerosol optical depth) products for ten months, January-October, 2013. The correlation between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be reasonably good as compared with API, mainly due to inclusion of PM2.5 in the calculation of AQI. In addition, for every month, the correlation coefficient between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be relatively higher in the month of February to May. According to the monthly average distribution of precipitation, temperature, and PM10, the air quality in the months of June-September was better as compared to those in the months of February-May. AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD show highly polluted days associated with dust event, representing true air quality of Beijing.

  6. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  7. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  8. PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK APLIKASI LAPORAN KRIMINAL BERBASIS ANDROID PADA POLRESTABES MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismayani Rismayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polrestabes Makassar adalah institusi negara yang berada di bawah naungan kepolisian daerah Sulawesi Selatan yang memiliki tugas dan tanggung jawab untuk melayani masyarakat kota Makassar dalam proses penanganan berbagai macam permasalahan keamanan dan kriminalitas pada masyarakat kota Makassar. Adapun permasalahan pada penelitian ini adalah bagaimana masyarakat dapat melaporkan tindak kriminal yang terjadi di sekitar mereka tanpa harus datang ke kantor polisi dan bagaimana aparat dapat menerima langsung laporan kriminal dari masyarakat tanpa harus bertemu dan dapat melihat kejadian  dari foto yang dikirimkan serta dapat mengetahui lokasi kejadian tindak kriminal di wilayah kota Makassar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat aplikasi berbasis android dengan memanfaatkan teknologi Google Maps API untuk mengirim laporan kriminal dalah bentuk foto serta mengirimkan lokasi kejadian tindak kriminal dari masyarakat ke aparat kepolisian. Adapun metode atau teknologi yang digunakan adalah Google Maps API dan berbasis Android, google maps api adalah adalah sebuah jasa peta global virtual gratis dan online yangdisediakan oleh perusahaan Google. Google Maps yang dapat ditemukan di alamat http://maps.google.com  dan berbasis android adalah sistem operasi berbasis Linux yang dirancang untuk perangkat bergerak layar sentuh seperti telepon pintar dan komputer tablet. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah dengan adanya aplikasi tersebut maka masyarakat dapat melaporkan tindak kriminal yang terjadi di sekitar mereka tanpa harus datang ke kantor polisi dan memudahkan para aparat kepolisian untuk melihat laporan kriminal dari masyarakat dengan melihat gambar dan lokasi kejadian kriminal.

  9. CernVM WebAPI - Controlling Virtual Machines from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, I.; Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.; Segal, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lately, there is a trend in scientific projects to look for computing resources in the volunteering community. In addition, to reduce the development effort required to port the scientific software stack to all the known platforms, the use of Virtual Machines (VMs)u is becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately their use further complicates the software installation and operation, restricting the volunteer audience to sufficiently expert people. CernVM WebAPI is a software solution addressing this specific case in a way that opens wide new application opportunities. It offers a very simple API for setting-up, controlling and interfacing with a VM instance in the users computer, while in the same time offloading the user from all the burden of downloading, installing and configuring the hypervisor. WebAPI comes with a lightweight javascript library that guides the user through the application installation process. Malicious usage is prohibited by offering a per-domain PKI validation mechanism. In this contribution we will overview this new technology, discuss its security features and examine some test cases where it is already in use.

  10. Estudios previos de cimientos y muros

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategui Berasategui, Delfina; Espuga Bellafont, Jaime; Gibert Armengol, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Estudios previos, primeros de una serie que publicará nuestra cátedra, pretenden ser algo más que unos apuntes de clase. Intentan exponer, de la manera más clara posible, dado que van destinados a los alumnos de Construcció I, una serie de aspectos en materia de cimientos superficiales y directos, por un lado, y de los muros de sostenimiento en general por otro. Creemos que se ha conseguido conceptualizar la materia de cimientos y muros en el contenido de los estudios previos, con el fin de h...

  11. Estudio del etiquetado de los alimentos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado González, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    El estudio del etiquetado de los alimentos, fundamentalmente de los alimentos funcionales, se basa en el estudio previo de éstos. Dentro de este grupo podemos encontrarnos distintos componentes como polioles, aminoácidos, ácidos grasos insaturados, fitoesteroles, vitaminas, minerales, bacterias ácido-lácticas, fibra, entre otros. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos, bacterias acido lácticas saprófitas para nuestro organismo y que nos ayudan a mejorar ciertas funciones como las gastro...

  12. Estudio de variables de responsabilidad social universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Noguera, Juan José; Martí Vilar, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    El estudio de la Responsabilidad Social Universitaria (RSU) implica la investigación sobre las variables psicológicas que intervienen en la adquisición y desarrollo de comportamientos socialmente responsables por parte del alumnado, como finalidad de la educación superior de formar a personas responsables, procurando que la educación cívica en la juventud universitaria tenga un impacto en las futuras generaciones de profesionales. Este estudio ha identificado como variables psicológicas e...

  13. A Sensor Observation Service Extension for the GeoServices REST API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, A.; Sankaran, S.; Jirka, S.; Wytzisk, A.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation demonstrates an extension for the GeoServices REST API implemented on the ArcGIS server platform to provide near real time environmental data. The software has been developed by 52° North in context of a project with the European Environment Agency (EEA). The EEA collects huge amounts of environmental data from various agencies of the different EU member states and needs to redistribute them to decision makers as well as the general public. The key element of EEA's strategy to distribute these data is the compliancy to open standards. Relevant standards are developed and governed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC); on the one hand the GeoServices REST API, currently making its way through the standardization process, and on the other hand the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a web service interface specialized for the retrieval of sensor observations. In this work, we have combined these two standards. Therefore, we have extended the GeoServices REST API to support the provision of sensor observations, by resembling the functionality of the SOS 2.0 interface. The defined extension for the GeoServices REST API offers a simple request and response encoding of the SOS 2.0. It is aligned with the abstract service model of the SOS 2.0 specification, but provides a new implementation of this standard which complies to the GeoServices REST API. The SOS extension allows querying of observations, metadata about sensors, as well as descriptions of features observed by the sensors. These data sets are made available as resources. Either all available resource instances can be queried or the resources can be filtered with powerful query operations. The software is implemented as a so-called Server Object Extension, or short SOE, for ArcGIS Server 10.1. This presentation will demonstrate the SOE deployed for air quality observations measured from a network of over 1.500 stations all across Europe. In the coming weeks, the SOS Extension will be further

  14. Los Estudios Organizacionales. Un campo de conocimiento comprensivo para el estudio de las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego René Gonzales-Miranda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un texto introductorio para comprender qué son los Estudios Organizacionales. Además, se realiza una contextualización histórica de los Estudios Organizacionales, para luego discutir sus dimensiones ontológicas, epistemológicas y metodológicas, así como su objeto de estudio y los marcos teóricos que se inscriben en este campo de conocimiento. Asimismo, se destacan su carácter pluridisciplinario y su postura crítica como características propias. El artículo termina con una reflexión en torno a las posibilidades que tienen de ser un complemento para la formación en Administración y la importancia de divulgar este campo de conocimiento comprensivo para el estudio de las organizaciones en América Latina.

  15. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MARCANGELI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05% ± 3,39 (rango = 79,5 – 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (p< 0,05. No seobservaron efectos negativos del producto sobre la cría de abejas en desarrollo. Estos resultados demuestran que este producto es efectivo para el control de la parasitosis.

  16. Estudio del sistema NADP/tiorredoxina de trigo

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha desarrollado un estudio del sistema NADP/Tiorredoxna constituido por una Tiorredoxina H una RADPH Tiorredoxina reductosa (NTR), fundamentalmente en la semilla de trigo. Los puntos principales del estudio han sido: ... nt-family: 'Ti

  17. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  18. Effects of Microsatellite Genetic Polymorphisms of Apis mellifera ligustica on Nutritional Crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica%中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对意蜂微卫星遗传多态性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭江; 汪志平; 秦秋红; 吴小波; 陈利华

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we breed hybridizing queen of the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 and French Apis mellifera ligustica through the technology of artificially feeding royal jelly of Apis cerana cerana, and then the genetic polymorphisms of microsatellite of the workers were measured. The workers were from the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 colonies, French Apis mellifera ligustica colonies, local Apis cerana cerana colonies, the 1 hybridizing offspring as well as the 4 consecutive hybridizing offspring of nutritional crossbreeding French Apis. merllifera. L queen and the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 drone colonies. The results showed that the genetic distance of parents and hybridizing offspring was varied, and the unique DNA bands of Apis cerana cerana and Apis melli fera ligustica were shifted.%通过人工添加中华蜜蜂王浆技术来培育江山2号与法国意蜂的杂交蜂王,并测定江山2号、法国意蜂、中华蜜蜂、营养杂交子1代和子4代工蜂的微卫星遗传多态性.结果表明,经过营养杂交,亲本蜜蜂与营养杂交子代的遗传距离发生明显的变化,中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂的特有DNA条带发生了转移.说明通过蜂种之间的营养杂交可以改变其微卫星多态性.

  19. JUPITER: Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability - An Application Programming Interface (API) for Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Poeter, Eileen P.; Doherty, John E.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability Application Programming Interface (JUPITER API) improves the computer programming resources available to those developing applications (computer programs) for model analysis. The JUPITER API consists of eleven Fortran-90 modules that provide for encapsulation of data and operations on that data. Each module contains one or more entities: data, data types, subroutines, functions, and generic interfaces. The modules do not constitute computer programs themselves; instead, they are used to construct computer programs. Such computer programs are called applications of the API. The API provides common modeling operations for use by a variety of computer applications. The models being analyzed are referred to here as process models, and may, for example, represent the physics, chemistry, and(or) biology of a field or laboratory system. Process models commonly are constructed using published models such as MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Harbaugh, 2005), MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1996), HSPF (Bicknell et al., 1997), PRMS (Leavesley and Stannard, 1995), and many others. The process model may be accessed by a JUPITER API application as an external program, or it may be implemented as a subroutine within a JUPITER API application . In either case, execution of the model takes place in a framework designed by the application programmer. This framework can be designed to take advantage of any parallel processing capabilities possessed by the process model, as well as the parallel-processing capabilities of the JUPITER API. Model analyses for which the JUPITER API could be useful include, for example: * Compare model results to observed values to determine how well the model reproduces system processes and characteristics. * Use sensitivity analysis to determine the information provided by observations to parameters and predictions of interest. * Determine the additional data needed to improve selected

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection and differentiation of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda

    2014-08-01

    Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae.

  1. Fast assessment of the surface distribution of API and excipients in tablets using NIR-hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch-Lage, Felicidad; Amigo, José Manuel; Skibsted, Erik; Maspoch, Santiago; Coello, Jordi

    2011-06-15

    The inclusion of hyperspectral imaging systems in the manufacturing and development of pharmaceutical products is allowing a successful improvement in the quality control of solid dosage forms. The correct distribution not only of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) but also of the rest of excipients is essential to assure the correct behavior of the tablet when ingested. This is especially relevant in tablets with low content of potent APIs, in which the prescribed intake dosage frequently corresponds to half-a-tablet. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the surface distribution of the compounds in tablets with low API content. The proposed procedure includes the scanning of the tablet surface using near infrared hyperspectral spectroscopy in association with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) techniques to obtain selective pictures for each individual compound and to allow the fast assessment of their distribution in the measured surface. As an example, a set of commercial Lorazepam tablets (approximately 1% mass fraction of API, and four excipients) were analyzed. The results obtained show the capacity of the proposed methodology as an expedite approach to evaluate the uniformity of the contents between and within tablets. A method to estimate the homogeneity distribution of API in the two halves of the tablet is also proposed.

  2. Surface acidity and solid-state compatibility of excipients with an acid-sensitive API: case study of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Ramprakash; Landis, Margaret; Hancock, Bruno; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the apparent surface acidity of common excipients and to correlate the acidity with the chemical stability of an acid-sensitive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in binary API-excipient powder mixtures. The acidity of 26 solid excipients was determined by two methods, (i) by measuring the pH of their suspensions or solutions and (ii) the pH equivalent (pHeq) measured via ionization of probe molecules deposited on the surface of the excipients. The chemical stability of an API, atorvastatin calcium (AC), in mixtures with the excipients was evaluated by monitoring the appearance of an acid-induced degradant, atorvastatin lactone, under accelerated storage conditions. The extent of lactone formation in AC-excipient mixtures was presented as a function of either solution/suspension pH or pHeq. No lactone formation was observed in mixtures with excipients having pHeq > 6, while the lactone levels were pronounced (> 0.6% after 6 weeks at 50°C/20% RH) with excipients exhibiting pHeq 6, 3-6, and API, were identified based on pHeq measurements. The incompatibility prediction was confirmed in the chemical stability tests using AC as an example of an acid-sensitive API.

  3. Mechanical properties of API X80 steel pipe joints welded by Flux Core Arc Weld Process; Propriedades mecanicas de juntas de tubos de aco API X80 soldadas com arame tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Robert E. Cooper; Silva, Jose Hilton F.; Trevisan, Roseana E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Fabricacao

    2003-07-01

    Flux Core Arc Welding processes (FCAW) are beginning to be applied in pipeline welds, however, very limited experimental data regarding mechanical properties of pipeline weld joints with these processes are available in the literature. In this paper, the effects of preheat temperature and type of FCAW on mechanical properties (microhardness and tensile strength) of API X80 weld joint steel are presented. FCAW processes with gas protection and self-shielded were used. Multipasses welding were applied in 30'' diameter and 0,625'' thickness tubes. Influence factors were: FCAW type and preheat temperature. Acceptance criteria of welded joints were evaluated by API 1104 standard for tensile strength test and ASTM E384-99 for microhardness test. The results obtained showed that FCAW type and preheat temperature have no influence on mechanical properties of API X80 joint steel. (author)

  4. Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Head, Krista; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Colwell, Megan J; Levitt, Abby L; Ostiguy, Nancy; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi) and Varroa destructor (mites). Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%). Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray), tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0%) were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3%) had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%). Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively) with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present.

  5. Drug Leads Agents from Methanol Extract of Nigerian Bee (Apis mellifera Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Propolis is a Bee (Apis mellifera product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literatures to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial and animal study. Objectives In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was determined GC-MS study. Methods The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals and GC and ndash;MS using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins and steroids while GC and ndash;MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing sixty (60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (13.33s were Methyl tetradecanoate, Tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, Decanoic acid, methyl ester while Squalene, All-trans-Squalene, 2,6,10-Dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E- and Farnesol isomer a took longest retention time (23.647s to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, Methyl isoheptadecanoateand Methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01% while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (Peak height 0.81% constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 43-48

  6. Sensor Observation Service API for Providing Gridded Climate Data to Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassarin Chinnachodteeranun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC. The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications.

  7. Accessing the SEED Genome Databases via Web Services API: Tools for Programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonstein Veronika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SEED integrates many publicly available genome sequences into a single resource. The database contains accurate and up-to-date annotations based on the subsystems concept that leverages clustering between genomes and other clues to accurately and efficiently annotate microbial genomes. The backend is used as the foundation for many genome annotation tools, such as the Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology (RAST server for whole genome annotation, the metagenomics RAST server for random community genome annotations, and the annotation clearinghouse for exchanging annotations from different resources. In addition to a web user interface, the SEED also provides Web services based API for programmatic access to the data in the SEED, allowing the development of third-party tools and mash-ups. Results The currently exposed Web services encompass over forty different methods for accessing data related to microbial genome annotations. The Web services provide comprehensive access to the database back end, allowing any programmer access to the most consistent and accurate genome annotations available. The Web services are deployed using a platform independent service-oriented approach that allows the user to choose the most suitable programming platform for their application. Example code demonstrate that Web services can be used to access the SEED using common bioinformatics programming languages such as Perl, Python, and Java. Conclusions We present a novel approach to access the SEED database. Using Web services, a robust API for access to genomics data is provided, without requiring large volume downloads all at once. The API ensures timely access to the most current datasets available, including the new genomes as soon as they come online.

  8. Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Shutler

    Full Text Available Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi and Varroa destructor (mites. Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%. Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray, tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie, and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0% were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3% had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%. Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present.

  9. The novel Akt inhibitor API-1 induces c-FLIP degradation and synergizes with TRAIL to augment apoptosis independent of Akt inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ren, Hui; Yue, Ping; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2012-04-01

    API-1 (pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines) is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of Akt, which acts by binding to Akt and preventing its membrane translocation and has promising preclinical antitumor activity. In this study, we reveal a novel function of API-1 in regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, independent of Akt inhibition. API-1 effectively induced apoptosis in tested cancer cell lines including activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It reduced the levels of c-FLIP without increasing the expression of death receptor 4 (DR4) or DR5. Accordingly, it synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP did not attenuate API-1-induced apoptosis but inhibited its ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that downregulation of c-FLIP mediates enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by API-1 but is not sufficient for API-1-induced apoptosis. API-1-induced reduction of c-FLIP could be blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, API-1 increased c-FLIP ubiquitination and decreased c-FLIP stability. These data together suggest that API-1 downregulates c-FLIP by facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Because other Akt inhibitors including API-2 and MK2206 had minimal effects on reducing c-FLIP and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, it is likely that API-1 reduces c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis independent of its Akt-inhibitory activity.

  10. Estudios de competitividad en sistemas urbano - territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Soms García

    2015-03-01

    El Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación de Chile, ha desarrollado varios estudios relacionados con la competitividad regional, destinados a pronosticar y evaluar los impactos positivos y negativos que podrían derivarse de los recientes Acuerdos de Libre Comercio suscritos por Chile con la Comunidad Europea, Estados Unidos y Corea, más los acuerdos ad portas con los Países de la APEC. En lo referente a competitividad urbana, destacan algunos estudios y proyectos relacionados con el programa gubernamental "Ciudades para el Bicentenario", impulsado el Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo y los Gobiernos Regionales de Antofagasta, Bio Bio, Valparaíso y Santiago.

  11. Estrategia organizacional: una propuesta de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Lucía Noguera Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de estrategia en el contexto de las organizaciones empresariales es uno de los temas que genera gran interés en los asuntos del management. Sin embargo, la proposición de nuevos enfoques no ha aportado significativamente al avance en el estudio de este concepto. El estancamiento se hace evidente, razón por la cual el presente documento esboza una propuesta que reúne algunos de los retos para el estudio de la estrategia. En él se presenta una revisión que deja por sentados los posibles caminos a seguir, los cuales contribuyen a la perdurabilidad de las organizaciones.

  12. Hydrolases in the hypopharyngeal glands of workers of Scaptotrigona postica and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosiléia A C; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2005-12-30

    Hydrolytic enzymes from hypopharyngeal gland extracts of newly emerged, nurse and foraging workers of two eusocial bees, Scaptotrigona postica, a native Brazilian stingless bee, and the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera) in Brazil, were compared. The hypopharyngeal gland is rich in enzymes in both species. Fifteen different enzymes were found in the extracts, with only a few quantitative differences between the species. Some of the enzymes present in the extracts may have intracellular functions, while others seem to be digestive enzymes. Scaptotrigona postica, had lower beta-glucosidase and higher lipase esterase activities than A. mellifera. The differences may be due to different feeding habits and behavioral peculiarities of the two species.

  13. Comparing the LibraryThing, OCLC, and Open Library ISBN APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fiander

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available LibraryThing, OCLC, and the Open Library project all provide ISBN services that take an ISBN and return information about related works for that ISBN. This article compares the license terms, quality of the data returned, documentation available, and details of the APIs for the three products. The article focuses on ease of use for developers, restrictions on types of use (and assumptions about types of use built into the license or terms of use, and cost of the services.

  14. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA-Unidad Altamira-Tamaulipas, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Industrial, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Meneses, C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M., E-mail: earce@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  15. Physicochemical composition of Apis mellifera honey samples from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Marchini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research, developed with Apis mellifera honey samples from producers of São Paulo State, Brazil, has the objective of verifying how eucalyptus, wild flower, and orange honey samples would be clustered, based on physicochemical characteristics. All the orange honey samples and some wild flower ones formed distinct groups, thus confirming that the floral source interferes with honey characteristics. Eucalyptus and some of the wild flower honey samples were clustered together because of the great floral source variation in the latter ones. The characteristics that influence sample clustering are acidity and electric conductivity on the X axis, and total sugars and pH on the Y axis.

  16. zorder-lib: Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lucy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bethel, Edward W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This document describes the motivation for, elements of, and use of the zorder-lib, a library API that implements organization of and access to data in memory using either a-order (also known as "row-major" order) or z-order memory layouts. The primary motivation for this work is to improve the performance of many types of data- intensive codes by increasing both spatial and temporal locality of memory accesses. The basic idea is that the cost associated with accessing a datum is less when it is nearby in either space or time.

  17. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed.

  18. MORPHOMETRIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HONEY BEES (Apis mellifera carpatica POPULATIONS FROM TRANSYLVANIAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. AL. MĂRGHITAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The result of the long evolutionary process formed, by natural selection, variable races and ecotypes which are biological and ecological differentiated. The Romanian, Apis mellifera carpatica is the most adapted and the most efficient species at the local conditions. Morphometric measurements were the major criteria for classification described by Ruttner (1988 and are the basis of our study. In this way 8 morphometric characters of honeybees from Transylvanian region were measured. The data obtained show that the honeybees’ ecotype genes are mixed due to the migratory beekeeping.

  19. Application and API for Real-time Visualization of Ground-motions and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Kubo, T.; Nakamura, H.; Azuma, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the recent progress of seismograph and communication environment, real-time and continuous ground-motion observation becomes technically and economically feasible. K-NET and KiK-net, which are nationwide strong motion networks operated by NIED, cover all Japan by about 1750 stations in total. More than half of the stations transmit the ground-motion indexes and/or waveform data in every second. Traditionally, strong-motion data were recorded by event-triggering based instruments with non-continues telephone line which is connected only after an earthquake. Though the data from such networks mainly contribute to preparations for future earthquakes, huge amount of real-time data from dense network are expected to directly contribute to the mitigation of ongoing earthquake disasters through, e.g., automatic shutdown plants and helping decision-making for initial response. By generating the distribution map of these indexes and uploading them to the website, we implemented the real-time ground motion monitoring system, Kyoshin (strong-motion in Japanese) monitor. This web service (www.kyoshin.bosai.go.jp) started in 2008 and anyone can grasp the current ground motions of Japan. Though this service provides only ground-motion map in GIF format, to take full advantage of real-time strong-motion data to mitigate the ongoing disasters, digital data are important. We have developed a WebAPI to provide real-time data and related information such as ground motions (5 km-mesh) and arrival times estimated from EEW (earthquake early warning). All response data from this WebAPI are in JSON format and are easy to parse. We also developed Kyoshin monitor application for smartphone, 'Kmoni view' using the API. In this application, ground motions estimated from EEW are overlapped on the map with the observed one-second-interval indexes. The application can playback previous earthquakes for demonstration or disaster drill. In mobile environment, data traffic and battery are

  20. Casa – estudio en Utrecht – Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingemans en de Vries, Arquitectos

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available This building has a semibasement, a ground floor, a first floor and a small tower-like top level. The semibasement contains a number of rooms related to the study, such as a room for showing slides, and archives. The ground floor is totally devoted to the study and comprises a waiting room, main office, other offices, and photographic study. The living zone is situated on the first floor, and is divided into living, reception and study, and bedroom zones. This house constitutes a good solution for the professionals who wish to place under the same roof both the working space and their home.Consta de semisótano, planta baja, primera planta y un torreón. La planta de semisótano contiene: una serie de dependencias anexas al Estudio: sala para proyectar diapositivas; archivo; e tc. La planta baja, destinada íntegramente a estudio, comprende: sala de espera; despacho principal; oficinas; cuarto para laboratorio fotográfico; etc. La planta primera, dedicada a «vivienda», en su zonificación se pueden distinguir claramente las siguientes zonas: de estancia; de recepción y estudio, y de dormitorios. Esta edificación constituye una feliz solución para los profesionales que deseen alojar en el mismo edificio dos actividades diferentes: trabajo y vivienda.

  1. 2个芹菜品种泛变应原Api g 4基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of panallergen Api g 4 gene from two cultivars of Apium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦瑶; 王枫; 侯喜林; 蒋倩; 马静; 熊爱生

    2013-01-01

    从芹菜(Apium graveolens Linn.)品种‘津南实芹’(‘Jinnanshiqin’)和‘美国西芹’(‘Meiguoxiqin’)中分别克隆获得泛变应原基因Api g 4;2个品种的Api g4基因均包含1个长度为405 bp的开放阅读框,二者间有3个核苷酸位点的差异.2个品种的Api g4基因均能编码134个氨基酸,但二者编码的氨基酸序列有2个位点的差异.多重比对以及进化树分析结果均表明:2个芹菜品种Api g 4基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他植物的泛变应原氨基酸序列同源性较高,氨基酸序列高度保守;与同科植物欧芹[Petroselinum crispum (Miller) Nyman ex A.W.Hill]和胡萝卜(Daucus carota Linn.)的泛变应原氨基酸序列的同源性均达到90%以上,在进化树上也归为同一支.2个品种的泛变应原Api g 4均为疏水性蛋白,具有相似的三维空间结构,均包含3个α螺旋和7个β折叠.实时定量PCR分析结果显示:Api g 4基因在‘津南实芹’和‘美国西芹’根中的表达水平均最高,在茎和茎尖分生组织中的表达水平相对较低,在叶中的表达水平很弱,且2个品种间同一组织的Api g4基因表达水平也有差异,表明Api g 4基因的表达具有明显的组织特异性.

  2. Apis mellifera capensis蜜蜂失控自复制导致的正常群落破坏%LOSE CONTROL OF SELF-REPRODUCTION OF APIS MELLIFERA CAPENSIS HONEYBEE AND THE REDUCED DEATH OF NORMAL COLONIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培培; 许田; 何阅; 何大韧

    2003-01-01

    提出对Apis mellifera capensis蜂造成Apis mellifera scutellata蜂群破坏的机制的一种新猜测,并根据logistic模型分别讨论这种猜测和已有的MARTIN猜测所导致的不同性质和规律,对2种猜测进行了比较.加强对社会成员之间信息网络的管理和监督,这也许是更加有效地防止破坏性子群体泛滥的途径.

  3. Estudios de Usuarios Revisión de Literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Alvarado, Lucía

    1991-01-01

    Los estudios de usuarios son un método de medición que había sido usado en las bibliotecas durante muchos años normalmente, incluyen estudios de usuarios circulación de la biblioteca. Estos estudios de circulación son los que usualmente se han asociado con este término. Sin embargo, los estudios de usuarios no son tan simples como estudios de usuarios de circulación; tiene un significado más amplio dependiendo de lo que se quiere evaluar. User studies are a method of measurement that had b...

  4. Design and Implement AN Interoperable Internet of Things Application Based on AN Extended Ogc Sensorthings Api Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Wu, C. H.

    2016-06-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an infrastructure that interconnects uniquely-identifiable devices using the Internet. By interconnecting everyday appliances, various monitoring and physical mashup applications can be constructed to improve people's daily life. However, IoT devices created by different manufacturers follow different proprietary protocols and cannot communicate with each other. This heterogeneity issue causes different products to be locked in multiple closed ecosystems that we call IoT silos. In order to address this issue, a common industrial solution is the hub approach, which implements connectors to communicate with IoT devices following different protocols. However, with the growing number of proprietary protocols proposed by device manufacturers, IoT hubs need to support and maintain a lot of customized connectors. Hence, we believe the ultimate solution to address the heterogeneity issue is to follow open and interoperable standard. Among the existing IoT standards, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) SensorThings API standard supports comprehensive conceptual model and query functionalities. The first version of SensorThings API mainly focuses on connecting to IoT devices and sharing sensor observations online, which is the sensing capability. Besides the sensing capability, IoT devices could also be controlled via the Internet, which is the tasking capability. While the tasking capability was not included in the first version of the SensorThings API standard, this research aims on defining the tasking capability profile and integrates with the SensorThings API standard, which we call the extended-SensorThings API in this paper. In general, this research proposes a lightweight JSON-based web service description, the "Tasking Capability Description", allowing device owners and manufacturers to describe different IoT device protocols. Through the extended- SensorThings API, users and applications can follow a coherent protocol to control Io

  5. A Web-Based Interactive Mapping System of State Wide School Performance: Integrating Google Maps API Technology into Educational Achievement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Mulvenon, Sean W.; Stegman, Charles; Anderson, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface), released in late June 2005 by Google, is an amazing technology that allows users to embed Google Maps in their own Web pages with JavaScript. Google Maps API has accelerated the development of new Google Maps based applications. This article reports a Web-based interactive mapping system…

  6. 基于API依赖关系的代码相似度分析%Code Similarity Analysis Based on API Dependence Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚新磊; 庞建民; 岳峰; 余勇

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of API feature obfuscation caused by API noise and API rearrangement which traditional System Call Dependence Graph(SCDG) can not eliminate, this paper presents a malicious code similarity analysis method based on API dependence. The method uses a program behavior description based on SCDG composed of control dependence and four types of data dependence between APIs. API noise and API rearrangement are eliminated through data dependence analysis and control dependence normalization. Experimental results show that, compared with API sequence similarity analysis method, this method significantly improves the accuracy of the similarity analysis of malicious code.%针对传统系统调用依赖图(SCDG)不能很好地消除API噪声、API重排等API特征混淆的问题,提出一种基于API依赖关系的恶意代码相似度分析方法.采用由API控制依赖关系和4类数据依赖关系组成的SCDG程序行为描述方式,通过数据依赖关系分析和控制依赖关系归一化,消除SCDG中的API噪声和API重排.实验结果表明,与API序列相似度分析方式相比,该方法能提高恶意代码相似度分析的准确性.

  7. Application of Google Maps API service for creating web map of information retrieved from CORINE land cover databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilibarda Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Google Maps API application based on Ajax technology as standard web service; facilitate users with publication interactive web maps, thus opening new possibilities in relation to the classical analogue maps. CORINE land cover databases are recognized as the fundamental reference data sets for numerious spatial analysis. The theoretical and applicable aspects of Google Maps API cartographic service are considered on the case of creating web map of change in urban areas in Belgrade and surround from 2000. to 2006. year, obtained from CORINE databases.

  8. Distribution and prevalence of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in temperate and subtropical eco-regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Adriana; Mira, Anabela; Molineri, Ana; Giacobino, Agostina; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Aignasse, Andrea; Zago, Luis; Izaguirre, Mercedes; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Pietronave, Hernan; Russo, Romina; Scannapieco, Alejandra; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Schnittger, Leonhard; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    A total of 361 colonies from 59 apiaries located in two temperate and three subtropical eco-regions were examined during the post-harvest period to determine distribution and prevalence of Nosema spp. Apiaries from subtropical eco-regions showed a lower spore count than those from temperate eco-regions. Pure N. ceranae and co-infection were detected in apiaries from all regions. In contrast, pure N. apis infection was exclusively observed in the subtropical study region. The predominant detection of N. apis in a subtropical region joining a southern temperate region where mainly co-infected apiaries were identified is in contrast to previous reports.

  9. Pacientų, kuriems atliekami rentgeno diagnostikos tyrimai, informuotumo apie radiacinę saugą tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    SANTRAUKA Darbo tikslas. Įvertinti pacientų, kuriems atliekami rentgeno diagnostikos tyrimai, informuotumą apie radiacinę saugą. Metodika. Tyrimo objektas – pacientų, kuriems atliekami rentgeno diagnostikos tyrimai, informuotumas apie radiacinę saugą. Tyrimo metodai: mokslinės literatūros analizė, anoniminė anketinė apklausa, statistinių duomenų analizė, naudojant aprašomąją statistiką. Tyrimui atlikti gautas raštiškas ligoninių vadovų sutikimas. Rezultatai. Didžioji dalis pacientų mano, jog ...

  10. Infestation levels of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in worker and drone honey bee (Apis mellifera) brood in France and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez B., William; Navarro F., Juan R

    2016-01-01

    En un muestreo de varios centenares de celdillas, las larvas de abejas obreras (Apis mellifera mellifera) en Francia. contenían un mayor número de hembras colonizadoras del ácaro Varroa jacobsoni que sus equivalentes "africanas" en Brasil (Apis mellifera scutellala). Las larvas de zángano de ambos subespecies fueron igualmente colonizadas por el ácaro. Cuando hubo larvas de zángano adyacentes a larvas de obrera en el mismo panal de abeja africana. se encontró un número mayor de ácaros en las ...

  11. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucaet Yves

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. Results MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle, interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates. Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. Conclusions An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup. The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers

  12. Relación entre el apiñamiento y la erupción de los terceros molares

    OpenAIRE

    Homs Asensio, D.; Sánchez Molins, Meritxell; Vázquez Salceda, María del Carmen; Ustrell i Torrent, Josep Maria, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica de la relación existente entre la erupción de los terceros molares y la posibilidad de que aparezca un apiñamiento anterior (normalmente inferior). El apiñamiento es una malposición dental muy frecuente en la población, por lo que si realmente se puede relacionar con la erupción del tercer molar, el tratamiento precoz en dichos casos evitaría la aparición de esta malposición dental. Conoceremos las posturas de los diferentes au...

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANTIMICROBIANA Y FISICOQUÍMICA DE PROPÓLEOS DE Apis mellifera L. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE DE LA REGIÓN ANDINA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTHER MARGARIDA ALVES FERREIRA BASTOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propóleos de Apis mellifera provenientes de la región Andina colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y fisicoquímico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco-difusión, frente a las especies Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans . Para la caracterización fisicoquímica se evaluaron el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenido de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y 23,5 mm para S. aureus . No se observó ninguna actividad contra C. albicans . Los parámetros fisicoquímicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al fisicoquímico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.

  14. Recenzija. Monografija apie filosofijos ir literatūros giminystę

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prieš keletą metų neoficialiame pokalbyje J. Baranova prasitarė, kad nėra didesnio malonumo už rašymą. Tiesą sakant, buvau sužavėtas ir priblokštas ne tik dėl šios ištaros asimetrijos R. Barthes’o minčiai apie skaitymo malonumą (net erotinį. Visai kitaip apie rašymą atsiliepia A. Šliogeris (kurio filosofi jos apmąstymui J. Baranova pelnytai skiria daug dėmesio: jis mieliau nerašytų nei rašytų. Tokiais atvejais prisimenu M. Bulgakovą, kuris „tempiąs save už plaukų prie rašomojo stalo“. Rašymas daug kam siejasi su disciplina, prievarta savęs atžvilgiu, geriausiu atveju – kasdieniu įpročiu.

  15. HTTP-based Search and Ordering Using ECHO's REST-based and OpenSearch APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, K.; Newman, D. J.; Pilone, D.

    2012-12-01

    Metadata is an important entity in the process of cataloging, discovering, and describing Earth science data. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse (ECHO) acts as the core metadata repository for EOSDIS data centers, providing a centralized mechanism for metadata and data discovery and retrieval. By supporting both the ESIP's Federated Search API and its own search and ordering interfaces, ECHO provides multiple capabilities that facilitate ease of discovery and access to its ever-increasing holdings. Users are able to search and export metadata in a variety of formats including ISO 19115, json, and ECHO10. This presentation aims to inform technically savvy clients interested in automating search and ordering of ECHO's metadata catalog. The audience will be introduced to practical and applicable examples of end-to-end workflows that demonstrate finding, sub-setting and ordering data that is bound by keyword, temporal and spatial constraints. Interaction with the ESIP OpenSearch Interface will be highlighted, as will ECHO's own REST-based API.

  16. Corrosion of API XL 52 steel in presence of Clostridium celerecrescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, O.A. Ramos; Ordaz, N. Ruiz; Ramirez, C. Juarez [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Mexico D. F., C. P. 11340 (Mexico); Gayosso, M.J. Hernandez; Olivares, G. Zavala [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo Corrosion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D. F., C. P. 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    During the characterization of sediments formed in pipelines transporting hydrocarbons, the knowledge of the microbiological diversity becomes very interesting, especially when it is related to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The presence of microorganisms is considered as one of the factors that affect the corrosion processes occurring at the pipeline; therefore, their corrosiveness must be determined. In this way, the identification of new species affecting the MIC processes is still considered relevant. In this work, the effect of Clostridium celerecrescens upon the corrosion of API KL 52 steel was evaluated. This microorganism was isolated and identified from the sediments collected during the inner cleaning procedures of a gas pipeline. The polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were considered to estimate the microorganism behavior during the corrosion process. The results were complemented with a metal surface analysis, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The resistance values induced by the presence of the microorganisms clearly indicated that C. celerecrescens has an effect on the corrosion process occurring at the API XL 52 steel surface. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera; Vasa and Nanos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Peter K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

  18. Modular and scalable RESTful API to sustain STAR collaboration's record keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    STAR collaboration's record system is a collection of heterogeneous and sparse information associated to each members and institutions. In its original incarnation, only flat information was stored revealing many restrictions such as the lack of historical change information, the inability to keep track of members leaving and re-joining STAR, or the ability to easily extend the saved information as new requirements appeared. In mid-2013, a new project was launched covering an extensive set of revisited requirements. The requirements led us to a design based on a RESTful API, back-end storage engine relying on key/value pair data representation model coupled with a tiered architecture design. This design was motivated by the fact that unifying many STAR tools, relying on the same business logic and storage engine, was a key and central feature for the maintainability and presentation of records. This central service API would leave no ambiguities and provide easy service integration between STAR tools. The new design stores the changes in records dynamically and allows tracking the changes chronologically. The storage engine is extensible as new field of information emerges (member specific or general) without affecting the presentation or the business logic layers. The new record system features a convenient administrative interface, fuzzy algorithms for data entry and search, and provides basic statistics and graphs. Finally, this modular approach is supplemented with access control, allowing private information and administrative operations to be hidden away from public eyes.

  19. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones.

  20. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Retschnig

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone and female (worker honey bees (Apis mellifera, inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV. These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  1. Streamlining Metadata Ingest and Discovery Using ECHO's REST-based API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, R.; Baynes, K.; Pilone, D.

    2012-12-01

    Enabling user access to Earth science data is a primary goal of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information Systems (EOSDIS) programs. NASA's Earth Observing System ClearingHOuse (ECHO) acts as the core metadata repository for EOSDIS's data centers, providing a centralized mechanism for metadata and data discovery and retrieval. ECHO has recently made strides to restructure its API; allowing data partners to streamline and synchronize their metadata ingest using RESTful web services. ECHO's legacy ingest process involves data uploads via FTP with asynchronous result reporting. Data centers provide single xml files or compressed data (zip) files that are unpacked, indexed and stored in ECHO data tables for future search and retrieval. Any problems related to metadata validation and ingest are reported after batch processing of discrete jobs have been completed. With ECHO's new REST-based web services, data providers will receive immediate feedback about the status of their ingested data and can ensure that their data exports are successful as soon as the data is posted to our repository. This presentation will introduce ECHO's potential new and existing data partners to the process of implementing data ingest via its RESTful web services API, providing real-world examples of end-to-end metadata management. Examples of ECHO's support of multi-format metadata ingest using both ECHO10 and ISO 19115 metadata formats will be showcased. This presentation will also pay special attention to tuning a provider's metadata, making it more easily searched and accessed via ECHO's various interfaces.

  2. The sex determination gene shows no founder effect in the giant honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All honey bee species (Apis spp share the same sex determination mechanism using the complementary sex determination (csd gene. Only individuals heterogeneous at the csd allele develop into females, and the homozygous develop into diploid males, which do not survive. The honeybees are therefore under selection pressure to generate new csd alleles. Previous studies have shown that the csd gene is under balancing selection. We hypothesize that due to the long separation from the mainland of Hainan Island, China, that the giant honey bees (Apis dorsata should show a founder effect for the csd gene, with many different alleles clustered together, and these would be absent on the mainland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled A. dorsata workers from both Hainan and Guangxi Provinces and then cloned and sequenced region 3 of the csd gene and constructed phylogenetic trees. We failed to find any clustering of the csd alleles according to their geographical origin, i.e. the Hainan and Guangxi samples did not form separate clades. Further analysis by including previously published csd sequences also failed to show any clade-forming in both the Philippines and Malaysia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from this study and those from previous studies did not support the expectations of a founder effect. We conclude that because of the extremely high mating frequency of A. dorsata queens, a founder effect does not apply in this species.

  3. Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tajabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of cDNA Encoding MRJP3 of Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Song-kun; ZHNEG Huo-qing; CHEN Sheng-lu; ZHONG Bo-xiong; Stefan Albert

    2005-01-01

    By screening the worker (Apis cerana cerana) heads cDNA library using a fragment of the mrjp3 gene ofApis cerana as probe, 120 positive clones were obtained. The clone containing A. cerana cerana MRJP3 (AccMRJP3) cDNA was selected. Based on the sequencing of the inserts of the positive clone, a sequence of AccMRJP3 cDNA which is 1 887 bp long including a poly (A) tail was obtained. The AccMRJP3 cDNA encompassed an open-reading frame (ORF) with 1 779 bp encoding 593 amino acids. The un-translated regions (UTR) of the 5' end and 3' end are 46 bp and 160 bp in length,respectively. Similar to AmMRJP3 and AdMRJP3, the putative AccMRJP3 also has a repetitive region. The comparison of the repetitive region of AccMRJP3, AmMRJP3 and AdMRJP3 shows some differences between them.

  5. PAT for tableting: inline monitoring of API and excipients via NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick R; Fruhmann, Georg; Sacher, Stephan; Straka, Gerhard; Sowinski, Sebastian; Khinast, Johannes G

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the application and implementation of inline NIR spectroscopy in an industrial tablet press. The content uniformity of a powder was analyzed via a NIR probe mounted on the feed frame. A PLS model with four latent variables (R(2)=0.97, Q(2)=0.95) was developed for the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and two main excipients (EX1, EX2), according to the mixture DoE. The RMSEP corresponded to the relative errors of 2.7% for API, 1.7% for EX1 and 2.6% for EX2, compared to the nominal formulation. Transfer of the model, from the lab to an inline setup for manufacturing was achieved using local centering. There was a good agreement between the results of inline NIR and drawn tablets analyzed via UV-Vis. Notably, NIR indicated stochastic segregation behavior of the powder toward the end of the process, which was confirmed by the UV-Vis analysis. The outcome of our work was related to the recently published Ph. Eur. chapter 2.9.47 "Demonstration of uniformity of dosage units using large sample sizes".

  6. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  7. Nectar Sources for the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera adansonii Revealed by Pollen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola ADEKANMBI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nectar sources for the African honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii were investigated. The work involved analysis of three honey samples bought from open markets in Lagos, Nigeria. The pollen sediment of the honeys was acetolysed, mounted on slides and pollen types were identified and counted to determine the relative frequency of the different pollen types in the honey samples. The proportion of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 196 in sample A, 280 in sample B to 238 in sample C. The most abundant taxa identified from the honey samples were Tridax procumbens and Elaeis guineensis belonging to the families Asteraceae and Palmae. The highest proportion of Palm pollen grain was recorded in sample B with one hundred and ten (110 pollen grains per slide. The pollen grains in the families Palmae and Asteraceae are of great importance to the bees for honey production, this can be seen in the abundance displayed in sample B and C. Other pollen taxa recovered belong to the families Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae providing a clue on the ecological origin of the pollen grains in the honey sample. Pollen analysis of honey proved to be useful in deciphering nectar sources of Apis mellifera adansonii.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of soil stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of API grade steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, A.H.S.; Castro, B.B.; Ponciano, J.A.C. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). COPPE

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon steels is a form of deterioration that can occur during the service life of a pipeline that is exposed to mechanical stress and strains. A study was conducted to investigate SCC and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of API grade steels in contact with soil. The physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics of different soil samples were determined. Slow strain rate tests were performed using electrolytes obtained in the soil samples taken from different points near buried pipelines. Stress versus strain curves were obtained at different electrode potentials for API X46, X60 and X80 steels. The results showed the conjoint incidence of SCC and HE, depending on the potential imposed. It was revealed that HE contributes to the initiation of cracking and crack propagation. Cracking morphology was similar to the SCC found in field situations where transgranular cracking was detected in a pipeline that had collapsed as a result of land creeping. The material exhibited signs of secondary cracking and lower ductility, even under cathodic potentials. It was noted that the methodology used in this study was not able to reproduce the possible effect of microbial induced corrosion. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Optimization of γ-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Naser; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Baradaran, Ali; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-04-15

    Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM) in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  10. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  11. Platform requalification in three regions: Economics and API RP 2A Section 17 draft guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, M.J.K. [Unocal Corporation, Lafayette, LA (United States); Miller, T.M. [Unocal Corporation, Brea, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several offshore platforms have remained in operation past their original intended service life. Government regulations will be implemented in the near future requiring the demonstration of these platforms` continued structural fitness for purpose. Currently, draft reassessment guidelines have been written and issued as Section 17 of API`s RP 2A. Operators have been performing reassessments of existing structures over the past few years for economic reasons, prior to enforcement of new government regulations. UNOCAL has been developing and implement reassessment techniques in the Gulf of Mexico, offshore Southern California, and in the Cook Inlet, Alaska, as part of the company`s overall loss control program. These techniques have included deterministic and probabilistic methods, and have used such tools as linear and non-linear time history analysis, ultimate capacity (pushover) analysis, economic importance and structural reliability matrices, probability of failure calculations, and the evaluation of total system risk. Within the three regions mentioned, wave, seismic, and ice loads have been investigated. Structural upgrades, and load and consequence reduction measures, have been implemented where deemed necessary. Work on some of UNOCAL`s West Coast facilities is summarized in Bea and Craig, 1993. In this paper, relevant draft Section 17 guidelines will be compared against previous requalification work done in each of these regions. Key reassessment issues will also be highlighted, and improvements to draft Section 17 guidelines will be outlined.

  12. Consequences of new approach of chemical stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena eJamrógiewicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need of broaden look on stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs in comparison with current requirements contained in pharmacopoeia. By usage of many modern analytical methods the conception of monitoring the changes of APIs during initial stage of their exposure to harmful factors has been developed. New knowledge must be acquired in terms of identification of each degradation products, especially volatile ones. Further research as toxicology prediction during in silico studies of determined and identified degradation products is necessary. In silico methods are known as computational toxicology or computer-assisted technologies which are used for predicting toxicology of pharmaceutical substances such as impurities or degradation products. This is a specialized software and databases intended to calculate probability of genotoxicity or mutagenicity of these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. Applying of new analytical approach is proposed as the usage of PAT tools, XRD, HS-SPME GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS for stability testing. Described improvements should be taken into account in case of each drug existing already in the market as well as being implemented as new one.

  13. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jokinen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Signals from sulphuric acid clusters up to tetramer accompanied by ammonia were also obtained but these were found to result from naturally charged clusters formed by ion induced clustering in the atmosphere during nucleation. Opposite to earlier studies with cluster mass spectrometers, we had no indication of neutral clusters. The reason is either less efficient charging of clusters in comparison to molecular sulphuric acid, or in low concentration of neutral clusters at our measurement site during these particular nucleation events. We show that utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry is crucial in separating the weak sulfuric acid cluster signal from the other compounds.

  14. Seasonal prevalence of pathogens and parasites in the savannah honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ursula; Human, Hannelie; Gauthier, Laurent; Crewe, Robin M; Dietemann, Vincent; Pirk, Christian W W

    2013-09-01

    The loss of Apis mellifera L. colonies in recent years has, in many regions of the world, been alarmingly high. No single cause has been identified for these losses, but the interactions between several factors (mostly pathogens and parasites) have been held responsible. Work in the Americas on honeybees originating mainly from South Africa indicates that Africanised honeybees are less affected by the interplay of pathogens and parasites. However, little is known about the health status of South African honeybees (A. m. scutellata and A. m. capensis) in relation to pathogens and parasites. We therefore compared the seasonal prevalence of honeybee pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and parasites (mites, bee lice, wax moth, small hive beetles, A. m. capensis social parasites) between sedentary and migratory A. m. scutellata apiaries situated in the Gauteng region of South Africa. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of pathogens and parasites between sedentary and migratory apiaries. Three (Black queen cell virus, Varroa destructor virus 1 and Israeli acute paralysis virus) of the eight viruses screened were detected, a remarkable difference compared to European honeybees. Even though no bacterial pathogens were detected, Nosema apis and Chalkbrood were confirmed. All of the honeybee parasites were found in the majority of the apiaries with the most common parasite being the Varroa mite. In spite of hosting few pathogens, yet most parasites, A. m. scutellata colonies appeared to be healthy.

  15. VIPERdb2: an enhanced and web API enabled relational database for structural virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Shepherd, Craig M; Borelli, Ian A; Venkataraman, Sangita; Lander, Gabriel; Natarajan, Padmaja; Johnson, John E; Brooks, Charles L; Reddy, Vijay S

    2009-01-01

    VIPERdb (http://viperdb.scripps.edu) is a relational database and a web portal for icosahedral virus capsid structures. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource specific to the needs of the virology community, with an emphasis on the description and comparison of derived data from structural and computational analyses of the virus capsids. In the current release, VIPERdb(2), we implemented a useful and novel method to represent capsid protein residues in the icosahedral asymmetric unit (IAU) using azimuthal polar orthographic projections, otherwise known as Phi-Psi (Phi-Psi) diagrams. In conjunction with a new Application Programming Interface (API), these diagrams can be used as a dynamic interface to the database to map residues (categorized as surface, interface and core residues) and identify family wide conserved residues including hotspots at the interfaces. Additionally, we enhanced the interactivity with the database by interfacing with web-based tools. In particular, the applications Jmol and STRAP were implemented to visualize and interact with the virus molecular structures and provide sequence-structure alignment capabilities. Together with extended curation practices that maintain data uniformity, a relational database implementation based on a schema for macromolecular structures and the APIs provided will greatly enhance the ability to do structural bioinformatics analysis of virus capsids.

  16. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  17. Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API fragmentation: comparison with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2016-08-01

    Although the fragmentation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a phenomenon that is mentioned in many literature sources, no well-suited analytical tools for its investigation are currently known. We used the hot-stage microscopy method, already presented in our previous work, and studied the real fragmentation of the tadalafil particles in model tablets which were prepared under different compaction pressures. The morphology, spectral imaging and evaluation of plastic and elastic energies were also analyzed to support the hot-stage method. The prepared blend of tadalafil and excipients was compacted under a several forces from 5 to 35 kN to reveal the trend of fragmentation. The exact fragmentation of tadalafil with increased compaction pressure was revealed by the hot-stage microscopic method and it was in good agreement with plastic and elastic energies. Conversely, spectral imaging, which is being used for this analysis, was considered to be inaccurate methodology as mainly agglomerates, not individual particles, were measured. The availability of the hot-stage microscopic method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment technique that will more reliably determine the fragmentation of the API in finished tablets and the behavior of the particles when compacted.

  18. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites infecting Apis mellifera colonies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in honey bee health and distribution in the world is not well understood. Therefore, we carried out a molecular survey for the presence of Crithidia mellificae and Apicystis bombi in the colonies of both non-native Apis mellifera and native Apis cerana japonica in Japan. We found that A. mellifera, but not A. c. japonica, colonies are parasitized with C. mellificae and A. bombi. Their absence in A. c. japonica colonies indicates that A. mellifera is their native host. Nevertheless, the prevalence in A. mellifera colonies is low compared with other pathogens such as viruses and Nosema microsporidia. Japanese C. mellificae isolates share well-conserved nuclear-encoded gene sequences with Swiss and US isolates. We have found two Japanese haplotypes (A and B) with two nucleotide differences in the kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequence. The haplotype A is identical to Swiss isolate. These results demonstrate that C. mellificae and A. bombi distribute in Asia, Oceania, Europe, and South and North Americas.

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the Levant Region honeybee, Apis mellifera syriaca (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal

    2016-11-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Levant Region honeybee, Apis mellifera syriaca, is analyzed and presented for the public for the first time. The genome of this honeybee is 15,428 bp in its length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition is A (42.88%), C (9.97%), G (5.85%), and T (41.3%), the percentage of A and T being higher than that of G and C. Percentage of non-ATGC characters is 0.007. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes and eight tRNA genes. The publication of the mitochondrial genome sequence will play a vital role in the conservation genetic projects of A. mellifera, in general, and Apis mellifera syriaca, in particular; moreover, it will be useful for further phylogenetic analysis.

  20. Molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in Apis mellifera colonies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2012-07-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (-) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985-2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  1. Exploring poisonous mechanism of honeybee, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, caused by pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Diao, Qingyun; Dai, Pingli; Chu, Yanna; Wu, Yanyan; Zhou, Ting; Cai, Qingnian

    2017-01-01

    As the important intracellular secondary messengers, calcium channel is the target of many neurotoxic pesticides as calcium homeostasis in the neuroplasm play important role in neuronal functions and behavior in insects. This study investigated the effect of deltamethrin (DM) on calcium channel in the brain nerve cells of adult workers of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola that were cultured in vitro. The results showed that the intracellular calcium concentration was significantly elevated even with a very low concentration of the DM (3.125×10(-2)mg/L). Further testing revealed that T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), except for sodium channels, was one of the target of DM on toxicity of Apis mellifera, while DM has no significant effect on the L-type VGCCs, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-gated calcium channels and calcium store. These results suggesting that the DM may act on T-type VGCCs in brain cells of honeybees and result in behavioral abnormalities including swarming, feeding, learning, and acquisition.

  2. Using Errors by Guard Honeybees (Apis mellifera) to Gain New Insights into Nestmate Recognition Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, Duccio; Martin, Stephen J; Dani, Francesca R

    2015-11-01

    Although the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the world most studied insects, the chemical compounds used in nestmate recognition, remains an open question. By exploiting the error prone recognition system of the honeybee, coupled with genotyping, we studied the correlation between cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile of returning foragers and acceptance or rejection behavior by guards. We revealed an average recognition error rate of 14% across 3 study colonies, that is, allowing a non-nestmate colony entry, or preventing a nestmate from entry, which is lower than reported in previous studies. By analyzing CHCs, we found that CHC profile of returning foragers correlates with acceptance or rejection by guarding bees. Although several CHC were identified as potential recognition cues, only a subset of 4 differed consistently for their relative amount between accepted and rejected individuals in the 3 studied colonies. These include a unique group of 2 positional alkene isomers (Z-8 and Z-10), which are almost exclusively produced by the bees Bombus and Apis spp, and may be candidate compounds for further study.

  3. Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Okonkwo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism.

  4. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jokinen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3.6 × 104 molecules cm−3 for 15 min averaging. Signals from sulphuric acid clusters up to tetramer containing ammonia were also obtained but these were found to result from naturally charged clusters formed by ion induced clustering in the atmosphere during nucleation. Opposite to earlier studies with cluster mass spectrometers, we had no indication of neutral clusters. The reason is either less efficient charging of clusters in comparison to molecular sulphuric acid, or the low concentration of neutral clusters at our measurement site during these particular nucleation events. We show that utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry is crucial in separating the weak sulfuric acid cluster signal from other compounds.

  5. ESTUDIOS TRANSCULTURALES DEL BURNOUT: LOS ESTUDIOS TRANSCULTURALES BRASIL-ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gálvez Herrer

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios transculturales no son un ejercicio secundario y complementario en el estudio de la psicología; un modelo antropológico de la conducta humana obliga a plantear que las variables culturales no son secundarias sino primarias. Por estas razones el estudio del “burnout†o desgaste profesional puede profundizarse mediante la utilización de los métodos transculturales. No es suficiente con la simple comparación de resultados, sino que es necesario buscar instrumentos propios de cada cultura y establecer la comparación no sólo del síndrome de desgaste profesional sino de todos los diferentes elementos del proceso. El trabajo presentado establece las bases teóricas de este planteamiento, y expone, mediante un ejemplo, algunas de las vías posibles para una psicología transcultural del burnout.

  6. Estudios transculturales del burnout: Los estudios transculturales Brasil-España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Moreno Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios transculturales no son un ejercicio secundario y complementario en el estudio de la psicología; un modelo antropológico de la conducta humana obliga a plantear que las variables culturales no son secundarias sino primarias. Por estas razones el estudio del “burnout” o desgaste profesional puede profundizarse mediante la utilización de los métodos transculturales. No es suficiente con la simple comparación de resultados, sino que es necesario buscar instrumentos propios de cada cultura y establecer la comparación no sólo del síndrome de desgaste profesional sino de todos los diferentes elementos del proceso. El trabajo presentado establece las bases teóricas de este planteamiento, y expone, mediante un ejemplo, algunas de las vías posibles para una psicología transcultural del burnout

  7. Kombinasi Boraks dan Asam Borat sebagai Bahan Penghambat Api dan Antirayap Pada Kayu Meranti Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kayu mempunyai sifat yang mudah terbakar dan sebagian besar mempunyai keawetan alami yang rendah. Perbaikan kualitas kayu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kelemahan tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengimpregnasikan bahan kimia yang bersifat menghambat api dan beracun terhadap organisme perusak kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat kemampuan boraks:asam borat (1:1 untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering dan mengetahui proses pengawetan yang efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan kayu meranti merah (Shorea spp berukuran 6 x 15 x 500 cm. Waktu pengawetan adalah 1, 2, dan 3 jam serta konsentrasi bahan pengawet 7% dalam 5 ulangan. Metode pengawetan menggunakan metode sel kosong dengan tekanan 12 kg/cm2 . Pengujian ketahanan terhadap api mengacu pada ASTM E 69-02 prosedur B, pengujian ketahanan terhadap rayap kayu kering mengacu pada metode rayap makan tanpa pilihan. Parameter yang diamati ialah absorpsi, retensi aktual, intensitas bakar, suhu pembakaran maksimal, lama pembaraan, mortalitas rayap kayu kering, pengurangan berat contoh uji, derajat kerusakan dan kondisi fisik sampel setelah uji bakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi boraks:asam borat (1:1 memiliki efektivitas yang tinggi untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering. Proses pengawetan yang paling efektif adalah lama penekanan 2 jam dengan absorpsi 331 kg/m3 ; retensi aktual 28,8 kg/m3 ; intensitas bakar 10,9%; suhu pembakaran maksimal 140ºC; lama pembaraan 1,03 menit; mortalitas rayap kayu kering 100%; pengurangan berat contoh uji 0,002%; serta derajat kerusakan kategori ringan. Katakunci: penghambat api, anti rayap, boraks, Shorea spp, Cryptotermes cynocephalus   Borax and Boric Acid Combination As Fire Retardant and Anti-termite Agents on Red Meranti Wood Abstract Woods have properties which are easy to be ignited by fire and most of them have a low natural durability. Therefore, it is required to

  8. Detección de Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidaede Argentina Detection of Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su rol como polinizador y productor de miel, la abeja Apis mellifera L. es considerado un insecto beneficioso. Si bien Argentina juega un papel de liderazgo en la producción de miel, existe un considerable vacío en el conocimiento acerca de las enfermedades de etiología protista que afectan las abejas en el país. La ameba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell es un protista entomopatógeno que invade los túbulos de Malpighi de las abejas e interfiere con el proceso de excreción, debilitando al huésped y posiblemente facilitando la acción de otros patógenos. En esta contribución se presentan los primeros hallazgos de M. mellificae en Argentina y se brindan datos iniciales acerca de su frecuencia, intensidad de las infecciones, y co-ocurrencia con Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae se halló en dos de 36 localidades prospectadas: San Cayetano, al Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires y San Carlos de Bariloche, en el Oeste de la provincia de Río Negro.Due to its role as a pollinator and honey producer, the honey bee Apis mellifera L. is considered a beneficial insect. Although Argentina plays a leading role in honey production, there is a considerable gap in knowledge regarding protistan diseases that affect honey bees in the country. The amoeba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell is an entomopathogenic protist that invades the Malpighian tubules of honey bees and interferes with the excretory process, debilitating the host and possibly facilitating the action of other pathogens. In this contribution, we present the first reports of M. mellificae in Argentina, and provide some initial data about its frecuency, infection intensity, and co-occurrence with Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae was found in two out of 36 localities surveyed: San Cayetano, in southern Buenos Aires province, and San Carlos de Bariloche, in western Río Negro province.

  9. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  10. Auctions API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA Auctions offers Federal personal property assets ranging from common place items (such as office equipment and furniture) to more select products like scientific...

  11. API TPCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2011-01-01

    API是美国石油学会(American Petroleum Institute)的英文缩写。API建于1919年,是美国第一家国家级的商业协会,也是全球石油行业公认的权威机构。API的任务主要负责石油和天然气工业政策的制定及API标准的制定和维护工作,

  12. Auto-ubiquitination-induced degradation of MALT1-API2 prevents BCL10 destabilization in t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Noels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The translocation t(11;18(q21;q21 is the most frequent chromosomal aberration associated with MALT lymphoma and results in constitutive NF-kappaB activity via the expression of an API2-MALT1 fusion protein. The properties of the reciprocal MALT1-API2 were never investigated as it was reported to be rarely transcribed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data indicate the presence of MALT1-API2 transcripts in the majority of t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphomas. Based on the breakpoints in the MALT1 and API2 gene, the MALT1-API2 protein contains the death domain and one or both immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1 (approximately 90% of cases--mediating the possible interaction with BCL10--fused to the RING domain of API2. Here we show that this RING domain enables MALT1-API2 to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for BCL10, inducing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in vitro. Expression of MALT1-API2 transcripts in t(11;18(q21;q21-positive MALT lymphomas was however not associated with a reduction of BCL10 protein levels. CONCLUSION: As we observed MALT1-API2 to be an efficient target of its own E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, our data suggest that this inherent instability of MALT1-API2 prevents its accumulation and renders a potential effect on MALT lymphoma development via destabilization of BCL10 unlikely.

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of the PR-10 allergens Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 and pH-dependence of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and recombinant Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, and homologous allergens, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, from celery and carrot, respectively, were studied by CD spectroscopy under conditions of varying denaturant concentration, pH and temperature to determine fundamental thermodynamic param

  14. Toxic Tripterygium hypoglaucum Honey Effect the Lifespan of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana%昆明山海崇蜜对中蜂和意蜂生命力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玉凤; 汪正威; 杨爽; 胡宗文; 谭垦

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of honeybees (Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica) were fed with the normal and toxic honey respectively in the same concentration in order to compare their lethal rate in this experiment. The results demonstrated the lethal rate of A.cerana fed with the toxic honey was the highest (100%), while that of A. mellifera fed with the normal honey was the lowest in the later period, and they could survive with an extraordinary long time. The results suggested that the lethal rate of honeybees, no matter it's A.cerana or A. mellifera with the toxic honey was significantly higher than those with the normal honey.%用相似糖浓度的昆明山海棠蜜与藿香蜜分别饲喂中蜂和意蜂(Apis cerana cerana,Apis mellifera ligustica),比较2种蜜蜂的致死率,结果表明在第6天时饲喂山海棠蜜的中蜂致死率高达100%,饲喂藿香蜜的意蜂致死率则为(35.08±0.91)%,且存活时间最长。无论是中蜂还是意蜂,

  15. Harm of introducing the western honeybee Apis mellifera L. to the Chinese honeybee Apis cerana F. and its ecological impact%引入西方蜜蜂对中蜂的危害及生态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠煌

    2005-01-01

    作者阐述自1896年中国引进西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera L.的优良品种如意大利蜂Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola和喀尼阿兰蜂Apis mellifera Carnica Pollmann以来,使当地的东方蜜蜂Apis cerana F.受到严重危害,其分布区域缩小75%以上,种群数量减少80%以上.使山林植物授粉总量减少,导致植物多样性减少.文中提出:建立自然保护区保存本地蜜蜂遗传特性,和采用基因转移等技术,培育具有西方蜜蜂优良生产性能的中蜂新品种,逐步恢复中蜂的种群数量.

  16. ESTUDIO DE FRACCIONES EN CONTEXTOS SONOROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Conde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo resaltamos los vínculos cognitivos entre las matemáticas y la música, que pueden favorecer procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las fracciones en la matemática escolar. Las actividades exhibidas provienen de una investigación que promueve experiencias sensoriales en el campo rítmico para favorecer la construcción de nociones matemáticas. Dichas actividades posibilitan un engranaje armónico entre las matemáticas y la música convergentes en el tiempo y el sonido como los objetos de estudio común entre éstas disciplinas. El análisis de la investigación que aquí reportamos es producto de la aplicación de las actividades en diferentes programas de formación de profesorado de México y Francia, alrededor de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas en contextos interdisciplinarios. Este análisis se desarrolló desde tres categorías referentes a las nociones de unidad relativa, relación parte-parte y equipartición, las cuales son nociones fundamentales para el estudio de las fracciones en la matemática escolar. Encontramos que la enseñanza con enfoque integrador requiere no solo conocimientos especializados, sino un cambio de creencias en torno a las opiniones del profesorado sobre la organización del currículo, su enseñanza y la manera en que aprende la población estudiantil. Un aporte de esta experiencia es ofrecer a docentes elementos teóricos y didácticos para el estudio de las fracciones en contextos interdisciplinarios.

  17. Estudio de un caso de control interno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pirela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se efectuó con el objetivo de analizar el control interno en el Almacén de la Facultad de ciencias Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad del Zulia. La metodología fue descriptiva. Se utilizó como población a todo el personal del almacén. Los resultados arrojaron que el control del almacén no cuenta con un sistema de control interno integrado que le permita llevar con efectividad las actividades de recepción, almacenamiento y despacho de la mercancía.

  18. Distimia: estudio descriptivo y rasgos de personalidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Ocio León; Graciano Fernández García

    1994-01-01

    Se exponen los resultados de una investigación sobre una muestra de pacientes distímicos, diagnosticados siguiendo criterios CIE-10, Ya los que se realizó la sección E (Depresión) de la CIDI Medular (primera versión autorizada de la Entrevista Diagnóstica Compuesta). Los datos en que se ha centrado el estudio son: sociodemografía, antecedentes de trastorno psiquiátrico, características clínicas y rasgos de personalidad (según el cuestionario de personalidad 16-PF). Los resultados nos acercaro...

  19. Estudio retrospectivo de 145 dientes supernumerarios

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Montenegro, P.; Valmaseda Castellón, E.; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: El presente estudio retrospectivo pretende describir la distribución de los dientes supernumerarios en una población de pacientes que acuden a una Unidad ambulatoria de Cirugía Bucal. Introducción: Los dientes supernumerarios y la hiperodoncia múltiple se asocian normalmente con diferentes síndromes como el de Gardner o con fisuras faciales; sin embargo, pueden aparecer en pacientes sin ningún tipo de patología. Su prevalencia oscila entre el 0,5 y el 3,8% en la dentición permane...

  20. Debate sobre estudios postcoloniales y subalternos

    OpenAIRE

    David Morris; McLean, Ian S.; Hillel Eyal; Ivette Hernández; Richard W. Slata; Betsy Campisi; Jackson, Robert H; William Patterson; Kathryn Lehman; Chad Black; Michelle Molina; Ann Twinam; Dennis Hidalgo

    2001-01-01

    A partir de los comentarios a la reseña elaborada por Ian S. Mclean sobre el libro: Cuerpos incas y el cuerpo de Cristo. El Corpus Christi en Cuzco colonial, Perú, escrito por Carolyn Dean, surge un debate sobre los Estudios Postcoloniales y Subalternos, que se desarrolló entre el 12 de agosto y el 3 de septiembre de 2001, a través de la lista de correo electrónico de H-Latam, grupo de discusión dedicado a la historia latinoamericana. En él participaron destacados especial...

  1. Estudio ergonómico espacio reducido

    OpenAIRE

    Bianciotto, María Gracia; Mantovani, Constanza; Mobili, Sofía

    2015-01-01

    Las particulares características de riesgo en trabajos realizados en espacios reducidos y la gravedad de los accidentes y afecciones que puedan producirse en los trabajadores, plantea la necesidad de desarrollar este estudio para poder establecer las medidas de prevención y protección especiales. Los trabajos en espacios reducidos implican la potencialidad de diferentes riesgos: como son atmósferas peligrosas por falta de oxígeno, mala iluminación, la amplificación de otros riesgos ...

  2. Urolitiasis obstructiva en ovinos: estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Un ovino macho de 5 meses de edad fue presentado para su estudio patológico. La historia clínica del animal incluía: postración, dificultad para incorporarse, distensión abdominal severa, pérdida de apetito, estranguria, poliaquiuria y hematuria. A la necropsia se observó la presencia de 8 litros aproximadamente de orina en cavidad abdominal y una membrana fibrino-hemorrágica flotante adherida a la vejiga a nivel de la lesión de ruptura, por una sobre distensión provocada por la presencia obs...

  3. Diabetes en México. Estudio CARMELA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña; Luisa Virginia Buitrón-Granados; Jesús Cenobio Ramírez-Martínez; Raymundo Chavira-Mejía; Herman Schargrodsky; Beatriz Marcet Champagne

    2011-01-01

    Introducción, La diabetes ha mostrado un crecimiento epidémico en México, país que ocupa uno de los primeros lugares en el mundo en cuanto a su frecuencia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la prevalencia de la diabetes tipo 2 en la Ciudad de México y su asociación con algunos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos, Se realizó un estudio transversal. Se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 1722 adultos de 25 a 64 años de edad, de uno y otro sexo. Se estimó la prevalencia de diab...

  4. Centro de estudios avanzados, Baquedano (Navarra)

    OpenAIRE

    Damià Vera, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Cabe destacar la intención de camuflar el edificio e integrarlo en el entorno para que el impacto visual sea mínimo, ya que se encuentra ubicado en una reserva natural de la biosfera. La cubierta está concebida como quinta fachada. El programa de laboratorios se completa con una biblioteca y una pequeña cafetería. Ciafarone, AC. (2011). Centro de estudios avanzados. Baquedano, Navarra. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/15652. Archivo delegado

  5. Determination of acoustoelastic constant in API-5L-X70 welded pipes; Determinacao da constante acustoelastica de tubos API-5L-X70 com solda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz; Fonseca, Manoel Antonio da Costa [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Francisco de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To preserve the environment and avoid financial losses resulting from leaks in the transport of natural oil and gas the industry is particularly concerned to ensure the structural integrity of their pipelines. Grounded pipes may be exposed to damages due to unstable soil movement, and in extreme cases, to failure. Then, techniques to assess stress in pipelines are of central importance. The ultrasonic birefringence technique is an efficient method to measure residual stress. It is based on the changing velocity of the shear wave when it crosses a material under stress; this phenomenon is known as acoustoelasticity. The knowledge of the parameter called acoustoelastic constant is necessary to measure stress using this technique. By the mechanical conformation in the manufacture of welded tubes, from rolled plates, different anisotropy degrees are showed around the cross section of these tubes. In this paper it was studied the acoustoelastic constant for the API-5L-X70 steel pipes, with different thicknesses, diameters and manufacturing processes so as to be able to use this technique to stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  6. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  7. Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, p

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  9. Honey bee stock genotypes do not affect the level of physiological responses to chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding honey bees (Apis mellifera) for physiological resistance to diseases is a highly desirable and environmentally safe approach to increasing colony survival. Selection of desirable traits is a critical element of any breeding program. In this study we investigate whether honey bee stocks dif...

  10. Diseño e implementación de una API para la Gestión Documental

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Disseny i implementació d'una API JAVA per a la gestió documental. Es realitzen tres versions, segons si els documents es guarden com a FileSystem, BLOBs o SecureFile per comprovar quina és la millor opció.

  11. Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, de J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We therefo

  12. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  13. Middle School Characteristics That Predict Student Achievement, as Measured by the School-Wide California API Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Josie Abaroa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through quantitative research, effective middle school characteristics that predict student achievement, as measured by the school-wide California API score. Characteristics were determined using an instrument developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), which asked middle…

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  15. Estudio de egresados, un indicador de pertinencia y calidad. Estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel del Carmen Valencia Gutiérrez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo presenta un estudio de egresados para valorar la pertinencia y calidad del programa educativo de la carrera de ingeniero bioquímico ambiental en la Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, empleando el instrumento de acopio de información propuesto por la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el cual fue diseñado para medir la pertinencia y la calidad de las instituciones educativas en contraste con algunas adecuaciones adaptadas al contexto de su aplicación. Para ello, se consideraron 51 alumnos egresados de cinco generaciones (2004 - 2009. Los resultados muestran que 64 % de los egresados ejercen una actividad remunerada en el mercado laboral, siendo los porcentajes más altos los de jefes de oficina, supervisores y funcionarios públicos; 46.2 % afirma que existe total coincidencia de su actividad laboral con sus estudios de licenciatura, sin embargo, 51.9 % manifestó que no labora en su área de estudio. Este porcentaje habla de la necesidad de rediseñar el plan de estudios para que se considere un programa educativo pertinente y de calidad.

  16. Debate sobre estudios postcoloniales y subalternos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morris

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los comentarios a la reseña elaborada por Ian S. Mclean sobre el libro: Cuerpos incas y el cuerpo de Cristo. El Corpus Christi en Cuzco colonial, Perú, escrito por Carolyn Dean, surge un debate sobre los Estudios Postcoloniales y Subalternos, que se desarrolló entre el 12 de agosto y el 3 de septiembre de 2001, a través de la lista de correo electrónico de H-Latam, grupo de discusión dedicado a la historia latinoamericana. En él participaron destacados especialistas en el tema, quienes analizaron, entre otras cuestiones, el uso de la jerga y las formas de escritura, la novedad de sus planteamientos, sus influencias filosóficas y epistemológicas, su pretensión de captar el punto de vista de los vencidos y subordinados, la pertinencia de unas ideas originalmente desarrolladas para el estudio del colonialismo inglés y luego aplicadas al colonialismo español en América Latina.

  17. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be

  18. A Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach to control a new API manufacturing process: development, validation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Cédric; Clicq, David; Lecomte, Clémence; Merschaert, Alain; Norrant, Edith; Fotiadu, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality-by-Design (QbD) concepts promoted by the regulatory agencies, aiming the building of the quality directly into the product by combining thorough scientific understanding and quality risk management. An analytical method based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed as a PAT tool to control on-line an API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) manufacturing crystallization step during which the API and residual solvent contents need to be precisely determined to reach the predefined seeding point. An original methodology based on the QbD principles was designed to conduct the development and validation of the NIR method and to ensure that it is fitted for its intended use. On this basis, Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed and optimized using chemometrics methods. The method was fully validated according to the ICH Q2(R1) guideline and using the accuracy profile approach. The dosing ranges were evaluated to 9.0-12.0% w/w for the API and 0.18-1.50% w/w for the residual methanol. As by nature the variability of the sampling method and the reference method are included in the variability obtained for the NIR method during the validation phase, a real-time process monitoring exercise was performed to prove its fit for purpose. The implementation of this in-process control (IPC) method on the industrial plant from the launch of the new API synthesis process will enable automatic control of the final crystallization step in order to ensure a predefined quality level of the API. In addition, several valuable benefits are expected including reduction of the process time, suppression of a rather difficult sampling and tedious off-line analyses.

  19. Conversion of the LIMA1 tumour suppressor into an oncogenic LMO-like protein by API2-MALT1 in MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zilin; Du, Ming-Qing; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C; Bailey, Nathanael G; Hogaboam, Cory M; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2015-01-08

    MALT1 is the only known paracaspase and is a critical mediator of B- and T-cell receptor signalling. The function of the MALT1 gene is subverted by oncogenic chimeric fusions arising from the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) aberration, which is the most frequent translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. API2-MALT1-positive MALT lymphomas manifest antibiotic resistance and aggressive clinical behaviour with poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying API2-MALT1-induced MALT lymphomagenesis are not fully understood. Here we show that API2-MALT1 induces paracaspase-mediated cleavage of the tumour suppressor protein LIMA1. LIMA1 binding by API2-MALT1 is API2 dependent and proteolytic cleavage is dependent on MALT1 paracaspase activity. Intriguingly, API2-MALT1-mediated proteolysis generates a LIM domain-only (LMO)-containing fragment with oncogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, primary MALT lymphomas harbouring the API2-MALT1 fusion uniquely demonstrate LIMA1 cleavage fragments. Our studies reveal a novel paracaspase-mediated oncogenic gain-of-function mechanism in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma.

  20. 中意蜂混合饲养对意蜂蜂螨寄生率的影响%Effect of Mixed Colony of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica on the Percent of Mite Parasitism of Apis mellifera ligustica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘益波; 曾志将

    2009-01-01

    In this study, four Apis mellifera ligustica colonies were established which were at the same level of population, then the percent of the mite parasitism was measured. After that two frames with Apis cerana cerana brood were inserted into two of the colonies. 30 days later, the percent of the mite parasitism was measured again. The results showed that the percent of mite parasitism decreased after inserting the frames with that brood and the mite - resistant ability of the colony was improved.%选取4群群势相当的意大利蜂群(Apis mellifera ligustica),测定其蜂螨寄生率.然后在其中两群蜂中各加入一块带封盖子脾的中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)巢脾,使中意蜂合群饲养,30 d后再次测定4群蜂的蜂螨寄生率.结果表明:与对照组相比,加入中蜂子脾的两群蜂的蜂螨寄生率显著(P<0.05)或者极显著(P<0.01)下降.这说明往意蜂群中加入中蜂封盖子脾,可以提高意蜂蜂群的抗螨力.

  1. Morphotypes of Varroa destructor collected in Apis mellifera colonies from different geographic locations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías D; Sardella, Norma H; Ruffinengo, Sergio R; Eguaras, Martín J

    2009-11-01

    Parasites display considerable phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits such as, body size. Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite of the western honey bee Apis mellifera. Several studies have reported that in V. destructor, there is a wide phenotypic plasticity within a population of mites. However, it is unknown if there are morphologic variations in V. destructor populations affecting different A. mellifera populations. A morphometric study of V. destructor populations was conducted to provide information concerned to the relationships among parasite populations found in different geographic locations from A. mellifera colonies of Argentina. The hypothesis tested was different morphotypes of V. destructor populations parasitizing different A. mellifera populations from Argentina exist. A discriminant analysis employing eight morphologic variables revealed that it is possible to differentiate morphotypes of mites in Argentina. However, the level of discrimination detected among mites population varied according to the grouping of mite's population. Possible causes explaining the morphometric variability in the V. destructor populations were discussed.

  2. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  3. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Koetz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia, which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.

  4. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  5. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers.

  6. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  7. Gene expression in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae exposed to pesticides and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorc, Aleš; Evans, Jay D; Scharf, Mike; Ellis, James D

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae reared in vitro were exposed to one of nine pesticides and/or were challenged with the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Total RNA was extracted from individual larvae and first strand cDNAs were generated. Gene-expression changes in larvae were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting transcripts for pathogens and genes involved in physiological processes, bee health, immunity, and/or xenobiotic detoxification. Transcript levels for Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein (PGRPSC), a pathogen recognition gene, increased in larvae exposed to Varroa mites (Ppesticide treated larvae. As expected, Varroa-parasitized brood had higher transcripts of Deformed Wing Virus than did control larvae (Ppesticides and Varroa parasitism on honey bee larval gene expression were demonstrated. Interactions between larval treatments and gene expression for the targeted genes are discussed.

  8. Effects of captan on Apis mellifera brood development under field conditions in California almond orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everich, R; Schiller, C; Whitehead, J; Beavers, M; Barrett, K

    2009-02-01

    Three almond field trials were conducted during 2003 and 2004 at two locations in central (Fresno County) and northern (Yolo County) California to evaluate the potential effects of commercial applications of Captan on honey bees, Apis mellifera L. Captan was applied at 5.0 kg (AI)/ha during bloom. Hives were evaluated for hive health and brood development parameters for approximately 2 mo after application. This study showed that the application of Captan was not harmful to foraging honey bees or their brood. No treatment-related effects were noted on hive weights, dead bee deformity, number of dead bees, survival of individual larvae, weight of individual emerging adults, and other hive health parameters.

  9. Purification and characterization of α-glucosidase in Apis cerana indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanpen Chanchao; Suwisa Pilalam; Polkit Sangvanich

    2008-01-01

    Apis cerana indica foragers were used for the isolation of a full-length α-glucosidase cDNA,and for purification of the active nascent protein by low salt extraction of bee homogenates,ammonium sulphate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Superdex 200 chromatographies.The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolution,and the pH,temperature,incubation,and substrate optima for enzymic activity were determined.Conformation of the purified enzyme as α-glucosidase was performed by BLAST software homology comparisons between matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy analysed partial tryptie peptide digests of the purified protein with the predicted amino acid sequences deduced from the α-glucosidase eDNA sequence.

  10. Modeling the HTML DOM and Browser API in Static Analysis of JavaScript Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm; Madsen, Magnus; Møller, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Developers of JavaScript web applications have little tool support for catching errors early in development. In comparison, an abundance of tools exist for statically typed languages, including sophisticated integrated development environments and specialized static analyses. Transferring...... such technologies to the domain of JavaScript web applications is challenging. In this paper, we discuss the challenges, which include the dynamic aspects of JavaScript and the complex interactions between JavaScript, HTML, and the browser. From this, we present the first static analysis that is capable...... of reasoning about the flow of control and data in modern JavaScript applications that interact with the HTML DOM and browser API. One application of such a static analysis is to detect type-related and dataflow-related programming errors. We report on experiments with a range of modern web applications...

  11. Heritable variation for latent inhibition and its correlation with reversal learning in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S B; Hosler, J S; Smith, B H

    2000-03-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) in honeybees (Apis mellifera) was studied by using a proboscis extension response conditioning procedure. Individual queens, drones, and workers differed in the degree to which they revealed LI. The authors hypothesized that individual differences would have a substantial genetic basis. Two sets of progeny were established by crossing virgin queens and individual drones, both of which had been selected for differential expression of inhibition. LI was stronger in the progeny from the queens and drones that had shown greater inhibition. The expression of LI was also dependent on environmental factors that are most likely associated with age, foraging experience outside of the colony, or both. Furthermore, there was a correlated response in the speed at which progeny reversed a learned discrimination of 2 odors. These genetic analyses may reveal underlying mechanisms that these 2 learning paradigms have in common.

  12. uPy: a ubiquitous CG Python API with biological-modeling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Ludovic; Johnson, Graham; Hake, Johan; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The uPy Python extension module provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs (called hosts), including Blender, Maya, Cinema 4D, and DejaVu. A plug-in written with uPy can run in all uPy-supported hosts. Using uPy, researchers have created complex plug-ins for molecular and cellular modeling and visualization. uPy can simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multihost distribution. It's available at http://upy.scripps.edu. The first featured Web extra is a video that shows interactive analysis of a calcium dynamics simulation. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/wvs-nWE6ypo. The second featured Web extra is a video that shows rotation of the HIV virus. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/vEOybMaRoKc.

  13. uPy: a ubiquitous computer graphics Python API with Biological Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, L.; Johnson, G.; Hake, J.; Olson, A.; Sanner, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe uPy, an extension module for the Python programming language that provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs called hosts, including: Blender, Maya, Cinema4D, and DejaVu. A plugin written with uPy is a unique piece of code that will run in all uPy-supported hosts. We demonstrate the creation of complex plug-ins for molecular/cellular modeling and visualization and discuss how uPy can more generally simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multi-host distribution. uPy is available at http://upy.scripps.edu PMID:24806987

  14. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  15. 浅析应用程序接口(API)的可版权性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晨恩

    2014-01-01

    目前原来越多的软件开发者开始利用开放性应用程序接口(API)设计各类网络应用.API是指供编程人员调用系统资源的一种函数.开发者与使用者之间围绕API的开放与使用产生了一系列纠纷,其中一个重要问题是API是否构成作品.具有独创性的API固然可以受著作权法保护,但根据思想表达二分法和API的特性,仍有部分情况下API是不受著作权保护.因此就需要对API的可版权性进行研究.

  16. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L.; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins. PMID:28350872

  17. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Haddad, Nizar; Noureddine, Adjlane; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Ren-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Guan, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xi; Niu, Hua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, is analyzed for the first time. The results show that this genome is 16,336 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (43.2%), C (9.8%), G (5.6%), and T (41.4%), so the percentage of A and T (84.6%) is considerably higher than that of G and C. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes (12S and 16S rRNA), and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in A. m. intermissa.

  19. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  20. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.