WorldWideScience

Sample records for aphrodisiacs

  1. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  2. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2Department of Agriculture, Animal health and Human Ecology, University of South ... ten used as aphrodisiac cross the blood brain barrier and ..... Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats.

  3. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in Blantyre City on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in guinea pigs. ... However, selling of these drugs seems not to be well regulated. Probably the aphrodisiacs that are ...

  4. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated with M. whitei and E. capensis, aloe and pumpkin seeds showing an increase in sexual performance in terms of intromissions and ejaculatory latency which also improved sexual sensation and coupulatory efficiency. The formulations of plants under investigation showed significant aphrodisiac properties.

  5. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, P

    2001-10-01

    The drug Viagra (sildenafil) has drawn public attention to aphrodisiacs. The search for such substances dates back millennia. Aphrodisiacs can be classified by their mode of action into 3 types: those that increase (1) libido, (2) potency, or (3) sexual pleasure. Various substances of animal and plant origin have been used in folk medicines of different cultures; some have been identified pharmacologically, allowing for understanding of their mechanisms of action. For increasing libido, ambrein, a major constituent of Ambra grisea, is used in Arab countries. This tricyclic triterpene alcohol increases the concentration of several anterior pituitary hormones and serum testosterone. Bufo toad skin and glands contain bufotenine (and other bufadienolides), a putative hallucinogenic congener of serotonin. It is the active ingredient in West Indian "love stone" and the Chinese medication chan su. The aphrodisiac properties are likely of central origin, as are the other effects of the drug. For increasing potency, Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine, works as an antioxidant by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium of many organs, including the corpora cavernosa; ginsenosides also enhance acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve stimulation-activated relaxation associated with increased tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate, hence the aphrodisiac properties. For increasing sexual pleasure, cantharidin ("Spanish fly") is a chemical with vesicant properties derived from blister beetles, which have been used for millennia as a sexual stimulant. Its mode of action is by inhibition of phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase activity and stimulation of beta-receptors, inducing vascular congestion and inflammation. Morbidity from its abuse is significant. The ingestion of live beetles (Palembus dermestoides) in Southeast Asia and triatomids in Mexico may have a basis similar to cantharidin. It is of paramount importance for the physician to be

  6. 2. Aphrodisiac Properties of Mutimba Vula and Mwana Apeluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    uSchool of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mulungushi University, P.O. Box 6009 ... work was to determine aphrodisiac properties of MTV ... various walks of life purchase these substances. ... beam balance. .... Asian Journal of Biomedical and.

  7. Natural Aphrodisiacs-A Review of Selected Sexual Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth; Krychman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration defines an aphrodisiac drug product as "any product that bears labeling claims that it will arouse or increase sexual desire, or that it will improve sexual performance." Presently, there are no approved medications for the treatment of lowered desire for women, and many opt for "natural" products. The aim of this article was to review the most popular and currently used aphrodisiac products marketed in the United States. The safety and efficacy of animal- and plant-based aphrodisiacs, vitamins and minerals, and popular over-the-counter combination supplements have been reviewed. An English PubMed literature search was performed using the key words "sexuality," "sex," "aphrodisiac," and "sexual enhancer." Approximately 50 articles were reviewed by the authors. The authors used relevant case series, case-controlled, and randomized clinical trial data. Products were evaluated based on the quality of research, and their known efficacy and safety considerations. Products with low risk and potential benefit for sexual response based on prior research studies were highlighted. Research has demonstrated that the risks of yohimbine, Spanish fly, mad honey, and Bufo toad may outweigh any benefit, and these products should be avoided. Other products, such as Maca, Tribulus, Ginkgo, and ginseng, have limited but emerging data. Randomized clinical trial data are often lacking, but future research should be performed to further elucidate the efficacy and safety of these products. Future randomized clinical trials are warranted before health care practitioners can recommend most aphrodisiac products. There remain some medical concerns with drug interactions, purity, reliability, and safety. West E and Krychman M. Natural aphrodisiacs-A review of selected sexual enhancers.. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  9. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    damiana, ginkgo, tribulus terrestris and yohimbine have been used as aphrodisiacs and the majority of these are Chinese herbs1,2. Currently, prescribed drugs such as Sildenafil, Prostaglandins,. L-arginine, and other hormone replacement therapy are used world wide to increase sexual desire. These drugs are associated ...

  10. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

  11. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrophysiologic similarities of overdose between digoxin and bufadienolides found in a Chinese aphrodisiac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Bressman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically derived from toad venom, bufadienolides are a group of cardioactive steroids with properties similar to digoxin. Some traditional Chinese medications, including several aphrodisiacs, contain bufadienolides. Owing to their physiologic similarities to digoxin, bufadienolides have been shown to produce a toxic profile similar to that of digoxin and there have been multiple case reports of the use of these aphrodisiacs resulting in death. This report will describe a case that illustrates the electrophysiologic similarities between bufadienolide toxicity and digoxin toxicity as well as the treatment of bufadienolide toxicity.

  13. Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, L.; Okunade, I.O.; Balogun, G.I.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34 g g-1) which is more than the amount (95.0 g g-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599 g g-1 and 702 g g-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.

  14. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  15. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment. Both in vitro and in vivo models have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents. Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter, pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count, Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein. This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.

  16. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; HAZAA, M.A.M.; EL-SHALL, S.S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  17. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites.

  18. Aphrodisiac effect of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides in sexually impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-05-01

    The phytochemical constituents of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. Ex Bth. and its aphrodisiac activity on male rat sexual behavior and reproductive hormones in paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction were evaluated. The extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and the reference herbal drug PowmaxM (7.14 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats, once daily for 5 days, and their sexual behavior parameters were monitored and computed. The serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) were determined at the end of treatment period. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, phenolics, saponins, and tannins. Mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculatory frequency (EF), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were reduced significantly (preversed the paroxetine-mediated alterations in MF, IF, EF, mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculatory latency (EL), postejaculatory interval (PEI), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations dose-dependently. The reversal of the male sexual behavior parameters by the extract compared well (psexual competence in sexually impaired rats possibly by increasing sexual drive through enhanced reproductive hormones concentration, particularly testosterone, thus supporting the folkloric claim of the plant for the management of sexual disorder in males.

  19. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  20. Qualitative and quantitative determination of yohimbine in authentic yohimbe bark and in commercial aphrodisiacs by HPLC-UV-API/ MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, Boris; Ndjoko, Karine; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative method based on an HPLC-UV-MS technique with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation for the analysis of yohimbine in a number of commercial aphrodisiac products is reported. HPLC with multiple-stage mass spectrometry experiments allowed the identification of the target compound and increased the selectivity of complex analyses such as those involved with multi-botanical preparations. The precision and the robustness of the method were improved by the use of two internal standards: codeine for UV detection and deuterium-labelled yohimbine for MS detection. Twenty commercial aphrodisiac preparations were analysed and the amount of yohimbine measured and expressed as the maximal dose per day suggested on product labels ranged from 1.32 to 23.16 mg.

  1. A contact anti-aphrodisiac pheromone supplied by the spermatophore in the rove beetle Aleochara curtula: mode of transfer and evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter-Helas, Jerry; Schmitt, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    By reducing the attractiveness of their mating partner via an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone, males can prevent a remating of the female and thus reduce the risk of sperm competition. For females, the main benefit from allowing the chemical manipulation of their attractiveness is probably the avoidance of sexual harassments from rival males. While mating plugs generally constitute a physical barrier which hinders male mating attempts, chemical manipulations must trustfully inform the responding male of the female's reluctance to mate; otherwise, it would be beneficial to ignore the repellent information. In our experiments, males of the polyandrous rove beetle Aleochara curtula chemically manipulated the attractiveness of their mating partner. Coincident with the deposition of a spermatophore into the female genital chamber, an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone was transferred and readily spread onto the female surface, where it was subsequently perceived by rival males via parameres, the claspers of the male genitalia. Males aborted contact with the mated female to avoid further time- and energy-consuming elements of the mating sequence. The chemical mode of action was demonstrated inter alia by spicing virgin females with spermatophore extracts. The action of the anti-aphrodisiac correlated with the persistence of the spermatophore in the female genital chamber and corresponded to the length of stay of the mated female at a carcass, where the density of rival males is highest. The ensuing benefits for all three parties involved in this communication system, which render this post-copulatory mate guarding strategy evolutionary stable, are discussed.

  2. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

  3. The effects of acute administration of Chinese aphrodisiacs sold in Blantyre City on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampiao, F; Matambo, E; Banda, A

    2013-09-01

    Chinese aphrodisiacs have become popular remedy for sexual dysfunction and improvement of libido in men in Malawi. However, selling of these drugs seems not to be well regulated. Probably the aphrodisiacs that are currently on the market have unknown efficacy, potency and safety profiles. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of imported Chinese aphrodisiacs using guinea pigs as a model. Two types of drugs were purchased from vendors in Blantyre City. Tonic tea, which was purported to improve erectile function and libido, and sperm multiplier tablets which were claimed to increase the sperm count. The tonic tea was prepared by soaking one tea bag in 100ml boiling water. The tea was cooled and administered to eight male experimental animals in varying doses. Each animal was introduced into a separate cage with a female guinea pig. Sexual behaviour such as mounting, sniffing behind the female were observed and recorded. Each sperm multiplier tablet was dissolved in distilled water and administered to the experimental animals in the morning and evening for seven days. At the end of the treatment, the experimental and control animals were sacrificed, their semen collected and analysed sperm motility, concentration and morphology. For the tonic tea, there were no statistical differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the number of mountings and sniffing behind the female. The sperm multiplier drug showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control animals in terms of the sperm motility (78.24 ± 1.35 vs. 86.54 ± 1.88, p< 0.05), and concentration (54.28 ± 1.24 vs. 67.59 ± 2.12, p<0.05). The tonic tea did not show any efficacy in improving erection and libido. The sperm multiplier tablets, purported to increase sperm production, significantly increased the sperm motility, sperm concentration in the treated animals.

  4. MAT, a Novel Polyherbal Aphrodisiac Formulation, Enhances Sexual Function and Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway While Reducing Oxidative Damage in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus terrestris are known as the enhancers for sexual health, functional activities, vitality, and longevity. These herbs had been widely used in the Ayurveda medicine as aphrodisiacs through the ages, and their efficacy was also verified separately in our previous publication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Mucuna, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus complexes on sexual function in rats. Twenty-eight male rats allocated to four groups as follows: (i negative control (C; (ii positive control or sildenafil citrate treated group (5 mg/kg (S; (iii MAT1 (combination of 10 mg Mucuna (M + 10 mg Ashwagandha (A + 10 mg Tribulus (T/kg BW; (iv MAT 2 (20 mg Mucuna + 20 mg Ashwagandha + 20 mg Tribulus/kg BW. There was no significant difference found between the MAT1 and MAT2 groups while they showed significantly increased testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels when compared to the negative control. Significant increases in Nrf2/HO1 levels and decreases in NF-κB were detected in MAT groups similar to the decrease in serum and testis malondialdehyde (MDA levels as compared to both controls. The sperm motility, count, and rate also significantly improved in both MAT groups, while ALT, AST, creatinine, ALP, and urea levels did not change in any of the groups. Oral consumption of MATs combination in male rats resulted in inhibition of NF-κB and MDA and also increased sex hormones with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. MAT combinations may improve sexual functions by increasing levels of sexual hormones and regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways.

  5. MAT, a Novel Polyherbal Aphrodisiac Formulation, Enhances Sexual Function and Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway While Reducing Oxidative Damage in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Akdemir, Fatih; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2018-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus terrestris are known as the enhancers for sexual health, functional activities, vitality, and longevity. These herbs had been widely used in the Ayurveda medicine as aphrodisiacs through the ages, and their efficacy was also verified separately in our previous publication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Mucuna, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus complexes on sexual function in rats. Twenty-eight male rats allocated to four groups as follows: (i) negative control (C); (ii) positive control or sildenafil citrate treated group (5 mg/kg) (S); (iii) MAT1 (combination of 10 mg Mucuna (M) + 10 mg Ashwagandha (A) + 10 mg Tribulus (T)/kg BW); (iv) MAT 2 (20 mg Mucuna + 20 mg Ashwagandha + 20 mg Tribulus/kg BW). There was no significant difference found between the MAT1 and MAT2 groups while they showed significantly increased testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels when compared to the negative control. Significant increases in Nrf2/HO1 levels and decreases in NF-κB were detected in MAT groups similar to the decrease in serum and testis malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to both controls. The sperm motility, count, and rate also significantly improved in both MAT groups, while ALT, AST, creatinine, ALP, and urea levels did not change in any of the groups. Oral consumption of MATs combination in male rats resulted in inhibition of NF-κB and MDA and also increased sex hormones with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. MAT combinations may improve sexual functions by increasing levels of sexual hormones and regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. PMID:29853975

  6. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.

  7. 2. Aphrodisiac Properties of Mutimba Vula and Mwana Apeluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Herbalists, Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have put up many advertisements to spread their market base but all the same without any proven results to show to would-be customers to use a particular product. Two local herbal extracts, Mutimba vula (MTV) and Mwana apeluke (MWN) were studied for the presence of.

  8. Combination with Tadalafil reduces the aphrodisiac activity of Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behavioural parameters of mount latency, mount frequency, genital grooming, anogenital sniffing, and chasing of female animals were recorded in male rats (one hour after administration of extract) by their interaction with a receptive female (1:1) for an observatory period of 1 hour. Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola ...

  9. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/117

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  11. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, V K; Mitev, V I

    2005-10-03

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on androgen metabolism in young males. Twenty-one healthy young 20-36 years old men with body weight ranging from 60 to 125 kg were randomly separated into three groups-two experimental (each n=7) and a control (placebo) one (n=7). The experimental groups were named TT1 and TT2 and the subjects were assigned to consume 20 and 10 mg/kg body weight per day of Tribulus terrestris extract, respectively, separated into three daily intakes for 4 weeks. Testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone levels in the serum were measured 24 h before supplementation (clear probe), and at 24, 72, 240, 408 and 576 h from the beginning of the supplementation. There was no significant difference between Tribulus terrestris supplemented groups and controls in the serum testosterone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 15.75+/-1.75 nmol/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 16.32+/-1.57 nmol/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 17.74+/-1.09 nmol/l) (p>0.05)), androstenedione (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 1.927+/-0.126 ng/ml); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 2.026+/-0.256 ng/ml); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 1.952+/-0.236 ng/ml) (p>0.05)) or luteinizing hormone (TT1 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.662+/-0.274U/l); TT2 (mean+/-S.D.: 4.103+/-0.869U/l); controls (mean+/-S.D.: 4.170+/-0.406U/l) (p>0.05)) levels. All results were within the normal range. The findings in the current study anticipate that Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins possess neither direct nor indirect androgen-increasing properties. The study will be extended in the clarifying the probable mode of action of Tribulus terrestris steroid saponins.

  12. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions: eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells. PMID:22022002

  13. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage.

  14. In search of the perfect aphrodisiac: Parallel use of bitter tonics in West Africa and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Mitchell, S.; Volpato, G.; Vandebroek, I.; Swier, J.; Ruysschaert, S.; Rentería Jiménez, C.A.; Raes, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Enslaved Africans in the Americas had to reinvent their medicinal flora in an unknown environment by adhering to plants that came with them, learning from Amerindians and Europeans, using their Old World knowledge and trial and error to find substitutes for their

  15. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  16. A new magnetic nanodiamond/graphene oxide hybrid (Fe3O4@ND@GO) material for pre-concentration and sensitive determination of sildenafil in alleged herbal aphrodisiacs by HPLC-DAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Demir, Özge; Soylak, Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    A sensitive analytical methodology was investigated to concentrate and determine of sildenafil citrate (SLC) present at trace level in herbal supplementary products. The proposed method is based on simple and sensitive pre-concentration of SLC by using magnetic solid phase extraction with new developed magnetic nanodiamond/graphene oxide hybrid (Fe 3 O 4 @ND@GO) material as a sorbent. Experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency of SLC like; pH, sample volume, eluent type and volume, extraction time and amount of adsorbent were studied and optimized in detail. Determination of sildenafil citrate after magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) was carried out by HPLC-DAD system. The morphology, composition, and properties of the synthesized hybrid material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectrometry (Raman), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mapping photographs, zeta potential analyzer, and BET surface area analysis. Under optimized conditions, linear range was ranged from 5.00 to 250.00 ng mL -1 with R 2 of 0.9952. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.49 ng mL -1 and the recoveries at two spiked levels were ranged from 94.0 to 104.1% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) < 7.1% (n = 5). The enhancement factor (EF) was 86.9. The results show that the combination MSPE with HPLC-DAD is a suitable and sensitive method for the determination of SLC in real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sub-acute hepatotoxicity of Pausinystalia yohimbe bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corynanthe yohibi) (Family, Rubiaceae) is a true aphrodisiac used as a possible treatment for organic, psychogenic and substance induced erectile impotence and other male sexual dysfunctions. It increases blood flow to erectile tissues and exerts its ...

  18. Comparative effects of ethanolic extracts of Ficus carica and Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    thermogenic, emollient, stimulant, purgative, aphrodisiac and diuretic. .... It is probable that the extract may have caused destruction or impaired production of .... Hypoglycemic action of an oral fig-leaf decoction in type-1 diabetic patients ...

  19. fruitless alternative splicing and sex behaviour in insects: an ancient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... gifts, physical touch, and even the use of aphrodisiac sub- stances. ..... male aggressive interaction' behaviour in D. melanogaster. (Lee and Hall 2000; ..... In conclusion, fru with its complex system of multi-level regulation is ...

  20. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the factors affecting the evolution of antler size. Better knowledge of ... elaphus), which is related to our Kashmir hangul (Cerous elaphus hangiu), having very ..... have led to a market in dried antler velvet as an aphrodisiac. Many countries ...

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackar, Djurdjica; Valek Lendić, Kristina; Valek, Marina; Šubarić, Drago; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Nedić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  2. Agro. no 1 June Latest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical effects of aqueous extract of root on sperm production of White albino rats were investigated. The rats ... There is no scientific report on the use of moringa extract in white albino rats as aphrodisiac substances as ..... ejaculation on the Spermiogram of West African Dwarf Goats.Israel Veterinary. Medical ...

  3. [Medical mythology and etymologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albou, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The lecture is an allusion to Sournia's work and his book "Mythologies de la médecine moderne". (P.U.F 1969). The author evokes the origins of medical terms such as psyche, hermaphrodite, nymphomania, aphrodisiac, marcissism, hypnotism, etc.

  4. Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fruits are fig-like, globose, small and purplish when ripe. The bark is astringent, sweet, aphrodisiac and the aqueous extract of it is antibacterial. Leaves and tender shoots are recommended for wounds and skin diseases. Pulverised dried fruit taken in water cures asthma. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and ...

  5. Terminalia mjuna (Roxb.ex DC) Wight & Am. of COl11bretaceae is a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... inflorescences. Fruit is ovoid lrvith 5-7 angles or 'wings. Bark is astringent, sweet, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, demulcent, cardiotonic, antidysenteric, urinary astringent, expectorant, alexiteric and tollie. It is useful ill ulcers, urethrorrhea, leucorrhoea, diabetes, anaemia, cardiopathy, cirrhosis of the liver and hypertension.

  6. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  7. Yakubu and Quadri Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male ...

  8. Pattern and management of priapism in a tertiary hospital of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients (11.5%) developed erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Sickle cell disease is the commonest cause of ischaemic priapism in our practice. Late presentation is common and is usually associated with the development of erectile dysfunction. Keywords: priapism, sickle cell disease, aphrodisiacs, erectile ...

  9. Khan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):60-64 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    alkalinity, chronic catarrh, renal disorders, dyspepsia, bloody dysentery and coronary (Madhavashetty et al., 2008), vomiting (Khan et al., 2013), leucoderma, antiviral, lymphatic glyndular system disease, antidiabetic, rectal prolapsus, aphrodisiac, anti-cholesterol, impetigo and carbubuncles (Nardkarnis, 2008; Pullaiah and ...

  10. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  11. Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory studies of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is a flowering plant used traditionally for the treatment of various disease conditions including hepatitis, dysentery, piles, edema, fever, gastritis, as aphrodisiac, applied to sprains and as a cleanser for washing sores. The aim of the work was to evaluate the ...

  12. Analysis of mercury in Malaysian herbal preparations | Ang | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhizome of Smilax luzonensis is eaten as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian community. This study was conducted to analyse the mercury content of 100 pharmaceutical dosage forms of S. luzonensis that were purchased in the Malaysian market, using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results show that ...

  13. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in Relation to its Aphrodisiac Properties · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Mathur, S Sundaramoorthy, 83-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i1.12 ...

  14. Effect of repeated administration of Damiana on selected kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of repeated oral administration of Damiana, an aphrodisiac, on selected renal function indices of male rats for 20 days was investigated. Male rats were orally administered with appropriate volume corresponding to human therapeutic dose of 3.6mg/kg body weight of diamiana at 24hour intervals. The effects on ...

  15. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  16. Pro-sexual and androgen enhancing effects of Tribulus terrestris L.: Fact or Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, Vladimir; Mitev, Vanyo

    2016-02-17

    Historically, aphrodisiacs have had a reputation for making sex more achievable and satisfying. It has been long believed that Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae, possesses aphrodisiac properties purportedly attributed to its ability to influence levels or mimic function of sex hormones. Due to this appealing beliefs, the popularity of medicinal products from TT is expanding at a remarkable pace among consumers who are attempting to enhance their sexual health. However, reliable scientific evidence supporting these purported bioactivities are scant and far from conclusive. To critically analyze and updated the evidence supporting a role for TT as an aphrodisiac and to reappraise the widely believed view of TT as an androgen enhancing botanical supplement. An extensive review of the literature was carried out based on systematic search of major scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, and Web of Science) for studies of phytochemical, pharmacological and traditional uses of TT published between 1968 and 2015. In addition, the reference lists of the available articles were reviewed and relevant studies including material in journals which are not indexed internationally were reviewed. Analysis of phytochemical and pharmacological studies in humans and animals revealed an important role for TT in treating erectile dysfunction and sexual desire problems; however, empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that this desirable effects are due to androgen enhancing properties of TT is, at best, inconclusive, and analysis of empirical evidence from a comprehensive review of available literature proved this hypothesis wrong. While the mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac activity remain largely unknown, there is emerging compelling evidence from experimental studies in animals for possible endothelium and nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac and pro-erectile activities

  17. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of yohimbe bark and its preparations originating from Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille when used in food, e.g. in food supplements. The bark of the plant contains a number of indole alkaloids of biological relevance and preparations of yohimbe bark have been traditionally used as general tonic, performance enhancer and as an aphrodisiac. Food sup...

  18. Folk medicinal plants of Nushki, district Chagai, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.I.; Taj, A.M.; Hussain, F.

    2003-01-01

    Ethno botanical survey conducted in Nushki, District Chagai revealed that the local people use 50 species of plants in traditional heath care system. The most important health problems cured by the traditional use of plants include stomach related disorders, malarial, typhoid and common fevers, liver and kidney disorders, cough and related ailments, aphrodisiac, gonorrhea, diuretic, diabetes, eye diseases, skin allegories, rashes, diarrhea and dysentery etc. Elders, especially women, appeared to be more knowledgeable. Most plants had multiple uses. (author)

  19. Capsule Formulation of Ethanolic Extract of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma Longifolia Jack.,) and its Effect on Human Health Vital Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Hayu Nurani; Eka Kumalasari; Abdul Rohman; Sitarina Widyarini

    2017-01-01

    Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia) has the potential to be developed as antihypertensive, antipyretic, aphrodisiacs and health supplements. The use of E. longifolia as a traditional medicine needs to be pursued in the form of more effective and appropriate formulation. The capsule preparations are easy to make and can cover the bitter taste of E. longifolia. Clinical trials in this study use design pre-post treatment in healthy humans. Subjects used were male - healthy men and healthy women ...

  20. Ginger From Ancient Times to the New Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believ...

  1. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Raffaella Lampariello; Alessio Cortelazzo; Roberto Guerranti; Claudia Sticozzi; Giuseppe Valacchi

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In ad...

  2. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.T.Jayasree; Dr.Shaikh Ubedulla; Dr.Harini K; Dr.Shankar.J

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae) commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim...

  3. Growing technology earthy Tribulus terrestris (Tribulus terrestris L.) and its use

    OpenAIRE

    HUDSKÁ, Miluše

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) as for planting, content substances, pharmacological use and with influences of planting technology or elicitors upon the active substance contents. Saponines, flavonoids, and phytosterols are the main active substances of Puncturevine. The saponines act as aphrodisiacs, the flavonoids treat with heart diseases and the phytosterols decrease the cholesterol concentration in blood plasma. The active substance contents depend on ...

  4. Extinciones históricas: el caso de la enigmática planta del Silfio

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Ruiz, Segundo

    2016-01-01

    This review refers to the Silphium (Apiaceae), one of the most enigmatic plants in the history of the Mediterranean. In Greco-Roman world, it was a panacea and especially, a powerful aphrodisiac which left many written historical references, in addition to their image mosaics and coins. Silphium extinction, due to over-exploitation is certainly a good example for the conservation of biodiversity and for the defense of sustainable use of natural resources.

  5. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time. 30 male mature SD rats were used, kept in individual cages, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum, divided into 3 groups (G; c, a and b received placebo and oral doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of TT, SID for 8weeks .Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. Testicular weigh with and without epididymis was recorded then histopathologic slides prepared with H&E and Masson trichrome, and focused on seminiferous tube diameter, epithelial layer thickness, interstitial space length, testicular capsule thickness. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Data statistically analyzed by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  6. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  7. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of the genus Turnera (Passifloraceae) with a focus on damiana--Turnera diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Zidorn, Christian

    2014-03-28

    Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women׳s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives. Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera. Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients Turnera diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides Turnera diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive principle of Turnera diffusa. In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from

  8. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  9. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  10. Relaxant mechanisms of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone on isolated human cavernosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansakul, Chaweewan; Tachanaparuksa, Kuldej; Mulvany, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effects and mechanisms responsible for the activity of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on isolated human cavernosum. PMF is the major flavone isolated from Kaempferia parviflora claimed to act as an aphrodisiac. PMF caused relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted...... Krebs solution with nifedipine (blocker of L-type Ca2þ channels), or in Ca2þ-free Krebs solution, PMF caused a further inhibition of human cavernosum contracted with phenylephrine. In human cavernosum treated with thapsigargin (inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2þ-ATPase) in Ca2þ-free medium, PMF...

  11. Preliminary ecological study of plant species of Lokame Natural Forest (Nord Ubangi Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo): A special emphasis on Non-timber Forest Products

    OpenAIRE

    Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua,

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary ecological study with a special emphasis on Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was conducted between 2014 and 2015 on both anks of Lokame River in Lokame forest. The results showed that the Lokame natural forest has a very rich and diversified in NTFPs. Data collected over a total area of 2 ha identified 20 families and 25 different plant species producing NTFPs and 914 individuals, of which 39% are food, 38% for different uses, 14% for aphrodisiacs and 9% as medicinal. A compar...

  12. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  13. Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick stabilizes biomembrane and rejuvenates sexual competence in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S; Ashafa, A O T

    2017-06-09

    Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40

  14. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C

    2002-03-01

    According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.

  15. Individual prolactin reactivity modulates response of nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli during acute cannabis intoxication: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androvicova, R; Horacek, J; Tintera, J; Hlinka, J; Rydlo, J; Jezova, D; Balikova, M; Hlozek, T; Miksatkova, P; Kuchar, M; Roman, M; Tomicek, P; Tyls, F; Viktorinova, M; Palenicek, T

    2017-07-01

    Self-report studies indicate that cannabis could increase sexual desire in some users. We hypothesized that intoxication increases activation of brain areas responsive to visual erotica, which could be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a condition marked by a lack of sexual desire. The aim of this study is to assess the aphrodisiacal properties of cannabis. We conducted an open-randomized study with 21 heterosexual casual cannabis users. A 3T MRI was used to measure brain activation in response to erotic pictures. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of cannabinoids, cortisol and prolactin. Participants were grouped according to whether they had ever experienced any aphrodisiacal effects during intoxication (Group A) or not (Group non-A). Intoxication was found to significantly increase activation in the right nucleus accumbens in the Group A while significantly decreasing activation in the Group non-A. There was also a significant interaction between the group and intoxication, with elevated prolactin in the Group non-A during intoxication. No intoxication-related differences in subjective picture evaluations were found. Cannabis intoxication increases activation of the right nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli. This effect is limited to users whose prolactin is not elevated in response to intoxication. This effect may be useful in the treatment of low sexual desire.

  16. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed.

  17. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A J

    1994-01-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid derived mainly from the bark of the African tree, Pausinystalia yohimbe. Although many pharmacological properties of yohimbine have been described, at the plasma concentration attained at recommended dosages in man the predominant activity is antagonism of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. For more than 70 years yohimbine has been used as a treatment for male and female sexual difficulties. It has enjoyed a reputation as an aphrodisiac although no effect on sexual drive in humans has been adequately demonstrated. Yohimbine has been evaluated in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials. It does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK.

  18. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus: A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Bozorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

  19. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  20. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  2. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.

  3. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meydia Meydia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally istraded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroidcompounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract thesteroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexaneand get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid ofgamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent duringthe first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids onlydissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable.Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf =0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  4. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  5. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Raffaella Lampariello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  6. The Aqueous Crude Extracts of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Reduce Immobility Faster Than Fluoxetine Through GABAA Receptors in Rats Forced to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Flores-Aguilar, Luis Ángel; Rosas-Sánchez, Gilberto Uriel; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7.14 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The participation of GABA A receptor in the effects produced by the treatments was explored. Montanoa extracts reduced immobility since day 1 of treatment, while fluoxetine and Remotiv required 14 days. The GABA A antagonism blocked the effects of Montanoa extracts, but not of fluoxetine or Remotiv. Montanoa extracts prevented quickly the stress-induced behaviors in the swimming test through action at the GABA A receptor, exerting a protective effect different to the typical antidepressants drugs.

  7. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cysts and Primary Infertility by Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehdi; Setayesh, Mohammad; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and psychosocial problem with a high prevalence. There are different treatments for this problem in Iranian traditional medicine. A 28-year-old woman presented with the complaints of 4 emergency operations of the left ovarian cyst during 4 years and infertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed an ovarian cyst, adhesion, and endometriosis. Hysteroscopy was unremarkable. After 2 months of letrozole administration, the ovarian cyst ruptured again. Considering the failure of conventional treatments, Iranian traditional medicine products were administered to the patient. After 3 months, the patient conceived and delivered a healthy boy through normal vaginal delivery. These compounds may help with pregnancy as a uterine tonic, vitalizer, and aphrodisiac with brain and cardiac tonic properties. PMID:27932523

  8. Use of Poppers (Amyl Nitrite: Unpleasant Side Effects in a Brothel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kofler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various agents can lead to an acquired methaemoglobinaemia (MHB with potentially fatal consequences. There is a lack of literature on the formation of methaemoglobin (MH in the blood after the intake of poppers (amyl nitrite. Poppers are a popular aphrodisiac agent. Case description: A 56-year-old diabetic called an ambulance after using poppers in a brothel with subsequent associated acrocyanosis, confusion and headache. The paramedics reported tachycardia and blood glucose of 3.8 mmol/l. The arterial blood gas analysis in the Emergency Department (ED revealed a MHB of 23.1%. MH levels decreased rapidly without antidotal therapy. The patient was discharged the next day free of symptoms. Discussion: This case illustrates the potential risks of taking poppers. A wide spectrum of symptoms were present in our patient. For the differential diagnosis of acquired MHB, poppers should be considered.

  9. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  10. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  11. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  12. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  13. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  14. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2010-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article

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    B. Marjan Razavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Crocus sativus L. Commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stem less herb of the iridaceae family, widely cultivated in Iran and other countries. It is used as a flavoring and coloring agent for many thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron has been used for various purposes including abortion, as a fever reducer, an analgesic, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, sedative, digestive and a carminative. Various pharmacological studies have been described that saffron and its constituents exhibit different beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiischemic, antigenotoxic, antidote, antiapoptotic, antitussive, antidepressive, sedative and hypnotic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects. Research projects have also revealed that saffron also exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including cardiac ischemia, arrhythmia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review article, the effects of saffron and its active constituents on cardiovascular system were introduced.

  17. Pharmacognostic and clinical aspects of Cydonia oblonga: A review

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    Sidra Sabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (C. oblonga is considered as an important medicinal plant throughout the world. It is native to Mediterranean region and Central Asia having a long term history of medicinal and ethnobotanical use. C. oblonga is well known for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiallergic, antihemolytic, aphrodisiac and UV protectant activity. It is a good and low cost natural source of metabolites with interesting biological properties. Extensive research has been performed on the metabolic profile and biological potential of this species. In particular, quince leaves reveal to constitute a promising natural source of bioactive phytochemicals and are suitable for application in nutritional/pharmaceutical fields. Mostly it is grown for fruit and also serves as rootstock for pear. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on plant C. oblonga.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

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    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  20. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  1. Documentation and quantitative analysis of the local knowledge on medicinal plants in Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Ravichandran, K; Sakthivel, B

    2014-11-18

    The aim of the present study was to document the medicinal plants by the traditional medical practitioners from Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. Quantitatively analyses of the data were made to acquire some useful leads for further studies. Successive free listing was the method adopted for the interview. In this study, 54 traditional healer medical practitioners were included and their knowledge on medicinal plants was gathered. The data were assessed with the help of two indices viz., informant consensus factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement on Remedies (IAR). The present survey is in accordance with some of the aspects of our previous surveys. Regarding the demography of the informants, it exhibited unevenness in male-female ratio and majority of the informants were poorly educated. Practicing this system of medicine as part time job by majority of the informants might indicate the reduced social status of this medicinal system. The present study had recorded the usage of 81 species, which in turn yielded 1073 use reports. The major illness category 'aphrodisiac, hair care and endocrinal disorders' hold a high Fic values. Among the other illness categories, gastro-intestinal ailments, genito-urinary ailments and dermatological infection ailments have a high percentage of use reports. Eye ailments, general health, kapha ailments, psychological ailments and skeleton muscular system ailments were the other illness categories with high Fic values. Some of the claims viz., Argyrolobium roseum (aphrodisiac ailments), Rosa brunonii (eye ailments) Hibiscus surattensis (dermatological infections ailments), Bauhinia variegata (neurology Ailments), Cotinus coggygria (circulatory system/cardiovascular ailments) and Uvaria narum (gastro-intestinal ailments) which have relatively high consensus can be taken up for further biomedical studies, since no substantial studies have been conducted on them. Based on the results of our present study, we have

  2. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali: Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

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    Shaheed Ur Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali, a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500–2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents’ identification, determination, further development and most

  3. Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum): a review of its botany, ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Zakia; Singh, Ompal; Singh, Rampal; Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq

    2013-11-25

    Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) is an eminent medicinal plant of India and considered as a 'white gold' or 'divya aushad' in Indian systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Chlorophytum borivilianum belongs to the group of "Vajikaran Rasayana" corroborated to its rejuvenating, aphrodisiac, natural sex tonic properties and effective in alleviating sexual disorders. It is largely used as ethnic medicine by local healers of indigenous communities of India. A thorough bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted scientific data base (Pub Med, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science), thesis, recognized books, non impact and non indexed journals. Traditionally, Chlorophytum borivilianum is well known for treating male impotency in India. The multi therapeutic and nutritional importance of Chlorophytum borivilianum is attributed to the rich source of phytochemicals particularly saponins. Recently, Chlorophytum borivilianum has gained a well established domestic (Indian) and international market for being the herbal alternative of "Viagra" without any side effects. Under the trade name 'Nai Chetna', the state government of Gujarat, India, has launched a novel potency drug from Chlorophytum borivilianum. Modern pharmacological studies of Chlorophytum borivilianum have demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities, most importantly aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. The increased commercial exploitation of Chlorophytum borivilianum and low productivity of this endangered plant has raised the concern over its conservation. It has been envisaged that efforts should be made to standardize, encourage and popularize the cultivation of Chlorophytum borivilianum as a commercial crop. The analysis of previous pharmacological investigations suggested lack of substantial scientific evidences in various studies and do not stand the test of critical assessment. Due to high economic value, Chlorophytum borivilianum has also

  4. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  5. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  6. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug.

  7. Effects of Ferula assa-foetida extract on spermatogenesis of rats

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    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula assa-foetida is an herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to Apiaceae family. It is native to the east and central parts of Iran. This old traditional medicine has been used as antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, sedative, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. In addition to the several therapeutic effects of the plant, it is known as an aphrodisiac herb traditionally; therefore, the present study has evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of F. assa-foetida on spermatogenesis of rats. Methods: The seeds of the plant (500 g were identified and extracted by aqueous ethanol 80% using maceration methods (3×48 h.Adult male rats (6 weeks were orally treated with 50 mg/kg body weight of extract for 6 weeks. The extract was dispersed in distilled water. Control group received distilled water for the same duration. Some fertility parameters including sperm count, morphology and mobility of sperms with serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were evaluated using immunoassay methods.  Results: Sperm parameters and levels of testosterone and LH were significantly improved in the treated group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that extract of F. assa-foetida significantly (p

  8. Process standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokarn, Rohit A; Gokarn, Supriya R; Hiremath, Shobha G

    2014-01-01

    Rajata Sindura (RS) is a mercurial preparation, known for its properties like Rasayana (rejuvinating), Balya (strengthening), Vrushya (aphrodisiac), Medhya (increasing intellect) and can cure various diseases when used with appropriate adjuvant. It is prepared with Hingulottha Parada (purified mercury), Shuddha Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and Shuddha Rajata (purified silver) in a proportion of 1:1:4. Process standardization and characterization of RS are not reported until date. Pharmaceutical standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura. Purified mercury and silver were triturated to form amalgam, followed by the addition of purified sulfur to prepare Kajjali and lavigated with Vatankura (leaf buds of Ficus benghalensis Linn.) swarasa (juice). This Kajjali was processed by Kupipakwa method. RS was prepared in 33 h with 20.25% yield. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis has shown Mercury 86.21%, sulfur 13.27% as major elements; iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silver were other detected minor elements. X-ray diffraction report revealed the chemical nature of RS as HgS compound, having cubic crystal structure.

  9. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei; Niu, Zichang; Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiu Mei

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p + (p + induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol may have anti-stress and the potential anti-depression-like effects

  10. Application of LC-ESI-MS-MS for detection of synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Maciej J; Hassan, Huda; Al-Enazi, Eid; Ibrahim, Zuhour; Al-Tufail, Mohammed

    2006-05-03

    Adulteration of allegedly "natural herbal medicines" with undeclared synthetic drugs is a common and dangerous phenomenon of alternative medicine. The purpose of the study was to develop a procedure for detection of most common synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies, using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Eighty drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes were included in the study. For most drugs two transitions were monitored, using protonated or deprotonated molecules as precursor ions. The drugs were isolated from herbal remedies using simple methanol extraction. Chromatographic separation was done in gradient of acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0). Drugs tested were grouped in suites, comprising analgesic drugs, antibiotics, antidiabetic drugs, antiepileptic drugs, aphrodisiacs, hormones and anabolic drugs, psychotropic drugs, and weight reducing compounds. These suites were used according to the declared benefits of examined preparations. Limits of detection ranged from 5 pg to 1 ng per injected sample. Drug-free herbal remedy spiked with eight various pharmaceuticals occurring in adulterated herbal preparations was used for internal proficiency testing. The recoveries of spiked drugs ranged from 63 to 100%. The procedure was applied in everyday casework. Several undeclared drugs were identified in "herbal" remedies, like e.g. sildenafil, tadalafil, testosterone, or glibenclamide. Pharmacological properties of detected drugs always corresponded with the claims of the "natural" remedies. The method presents a valuable extension of standard GC-MS screening used for this purpose.

  11. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  12. Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: Unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Giovanni; Guerrini, Monica; van Grouw, Hein; Gupta, Brij K.; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Al-Sheikhly, Omar F.; Awan, Muhammad N.; Khan, Aleem A.; Zeder, Melinda A.; Barbanera, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th–20th century) specimens from across the species’ current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity. PMID:25733899

  13. EFEK ANTIFERTILITAS EKSTRAK AKAR SOM JAWA (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L. JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetri Widiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Talinum paniculatum Gaertn commonly is used as aphrodisiac herb. Phytosterol, saponin, flavonoid and tannin of the herb have a certain bioactivity and may affect to the body system. The objective of this research was to examine the antifertility effects of sam jawa (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. root extract (SJRE on male mice (Mus musculus L.. Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups randomly with 5 replications. SJRE was dissolved in aquadest and given orally everyday for 34 days. The treatment dosages were 0 (control, 100,200, and 300 mg/kg BW. At 35th day mice were sacrificed and sectioned to remove testes and epididymis spermatozoas. Testes were sectioned using paraffin method and stained using Haematoxyllin-Eosin. Spermatogenic cells in each seminiferous tubule were counted to investigated spermatogenesis activity of testes. Epididymis sperm suspension was used to investigate sperm quality i.e: morphology, velocity and motility. Quantitatives data were analized using ANOVA and continued DMRT on 5% significance level. The result showed SJRE had antifertility effects on male mice (Mus musculus L. could inhibit spermatogenesis (decrease the spermatogenic cells count and decrease the sperm quality (increase percentage of abnormal sperm, decrease sperm motility and also decrease sperm velocity.

  14. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  15. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  16. Antidiabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Sanjay Khedekar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting Streptozotocin in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on Day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On 21st day animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, Glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride, and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. Study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(2.000: 162-167

  17. Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Giovanni; Guerrini, Monica; van Grouw, Hein; Gupta, Brij K; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Al-Sheikhly, Omar F; Awan, Muhammad N; Khan, Aleem A; Zeder, Melinda A; Barbanera, Filippo

    2015-03-17

    Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th-20th century) specimens from across the species' current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity.

  18. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

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    Rajesh Bhati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.

  19. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Chagharzai valley, district Buner, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ilyas, M.; Ullah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants was recorded during summer 2004, in 22 villages of Chagharzai valley, District Buner. The study revealed 141 plant species belonging to 120 genera and 26 families are being used as medicine. The local people know the prospect and nature of the plant utilization, through personal experiences and ancestral prescriptions. The study also revealed that old aged people particularly women posses strong folk love of medicinal plants in comparison to young people. It was concluded that some plants are used singly while many other are used in combination. Similarly few plant species are used for the treatment of a specific disease, while several other have multiple uses. The plants were mainly used as stomachic, anti-allergic, antineuralgia, vermifuge, narcotic, laxative, anti jaundice, emollient, hypnotic, diuretic, digestive, demulcent, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-diabetic, anthelmentic, anodyne and alterative. The present investigation will help in the preservation of indigenous knowledge of the local people, which is depleting day by day. (author)

  20. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Asha Jyoti; Bansal, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  1. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

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    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  2. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

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    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  3. RNA-Seq mediated root transcriptome analysis of Chlorophytum borivilianum for identification of genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kalra, Shikha; Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Avneesh; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important species of liliaceae family, owing to its vital medicinal properties. Plant roots are used for aphrodisiac, adaptogen, anti-aging, health-restorative and health-promoting purposes. Saponins, are considered to be the principal bioactive components responsible for the wide variety of pharmacological properties of this plant. In the present study, we have performed de novo root transcriptome sequencing of C. borivilianum using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform, to gain molecular insight into saponins biosynthesis. A total of 33,963,356 high-quality reads were obtained after quality filtration. Sequences were assembled using various programs which generated 97,344 transcripts with a size range of 100-5,216 bp and N50 value of 342. Data was analyzed against non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), and enzyme commission (EC) databases. All the genes involved in saponins biosynthesis along with five full-length genes namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, cycloartenol synthase, β-amyrin synthase, cytochrome p450, and sterol-3-glucosyltransferase were identified. Read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)-based comparative expression profiling was done to study the differential regulation of the genes. In silico expression analysis of seven selected genes of saponin biosynthetic pathway was validated by qRT-PCR.

  4. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Cempaka Mohd Yusof; Sobri Hussein; Salmah Moosa; Salahbiah Badul Majid; Azhar Mohammad; Foziah Ali; Shafii Khamis; Rusli Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  5. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and extraction of bioactive compounds from Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) using cell and organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack or better known in Malaysia as Tongkat Ali is an important herbal plant that owes its popularity locally and worldwide to its aphrodisiac claim and has been sought after as an essential component for the treatment of anti-malarial, anti-ulcer, anti-tumour promoting and anti-parasitic agent and also as health supplements. Quassinoids and canthin-6-one alkaloids contained in Tongkat Ali roots are the main substances having active functions for human body. Propagation is commonly done through seeds or some vegetative means such as cuttings of stems and root, grafting or layering. However, propagation by conventional method is inadequate to meet the demand due to low viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting and long life cycle. Tissue culture has been successfully applied for mass production of plantlets and extraction of many useful secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals, pigments and other fine chemicals. Tongkat Ali active substances have also been derived through cell culture technology but its processes need to be optimized before the product can be commercialized. Cell and organ cultures have been proven to be an efficient alternative method for biomass production due to its fast growth and stable metabolite production. In view of its potential commercial value as a plantation crop as well as to conserve its germplasm, micropropagation technique using cell culture system is an attractive method for regeneration and mass propagation. (Author)

  7. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

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    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  8. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

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    Meydia Meydia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally is traded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroid compounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract the steroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid of gamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent during the first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids only dissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable. Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf = 0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  9. A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

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    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.

  10. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

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    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  11. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-02-01

    Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believed that ginger was a vermifuge as well as a remedy for paralysis and obstructive jaundice. They also revealed that this phytomedicine cures diarrhea due to corrupted food. This study aimed to compare the medicinal properties (afaal) of ginger in ITM with those indicated in modern research. Results of this study showed that the modern phytotherapy confirmed some of the properties of ginger. In addition, some of the properties of this phytomedicine have not been studied yet. By studding the ITM literature, herb elements or in other words ITM keywords, researchers can predict and state some unknown or less known potential pharmacologic effects of medicinal plants.

  12. Mating in the Closest Living Relatives of Animals Is Induced by a Bacterial Chondroitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznica, Arielle; Gerdt, Joseph P; Hulett, Ryan E; Clardy, Jon; King, Nicole

    2017-09-07

    We serendipitously discovered that the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri induces sexual reproduction in one of the closest living relatives of animals, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. Although bacteria influence everything from nutrition and metabolism to cell biology and development in eukaryotes, bacterial regulation of eukaryotic mating was unexpected. Here, we show that a single V. fischeri protein, the previously uncharacterized EroS, fully recapitulates the aphrodisiac-like activity of live V. fischeri. EroS is a chondroitin lyase; although its substrate, chondroitin sulfate, was previously thought to be an animal synapomorphy, we demonstrate that S. rosetta produces chondroitin sulfate and thus extend the ancestry of this important glycosaminoglycan to the premetazoan era. Finally, we show that V. fischeri, purified EroS, and other bacterial chondroitin lyases induce S. rosetta mating at environmentally relevant concentrations, suggesting that bacteria likely regulate choanoflagellate mating in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on histopathological and biochemical features in the rat model of ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Vanishri S; Kumar, Nitesh; D'Souza, Antony S; Nayak, Sunil S; Cheruku, Sri P; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2017-12-13

    Stroke is considered to be one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Global ischemia causes widespread brain injury and infarctions in various regions of the brain. Oxidative stress can be considered an important factor in the development of tissue damage, which is caused because of arterial occlusion with subsequent reperfusion. Kapikacchu or Mucuna pruriens, commonly known as velvet bean, is well known for its aphrodisiac activities. It is also used in the treatment of snakebites, depressive neurosis, and Parkinson's disease. Although this plant has different pharmacological actions, its neuroprotective activity has received minimal attention. Thus, this study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the neuroprotective action of M. pruriens in bilateral carotid artery occlusion-induced global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. The carotid arteries of both sides were occluded for 30 min and reperfused to induce global cerebral ischemia. The methanolic plant extract was administered to the study animals for 10 days. The brains of the Wistar rats were isolated by decapitation and observed for histopathological and biochemical changes. Cerebral ischemia resulted in significant neurological damage in the brains of the rats that were not treated by M. pruriens. The group subjected to treatment by the M. pruriens extract showed significant protection against brain damage compared with the negative control group, which indicates the therapeutic potential of this plant in ischemia.

  14. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-05-12

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Tamarix nilotica flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzid, Sameh; Sleem, Amany

    2011-04-01

     Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge (Tamaricaceae) is used in the Egyptian traditional medicine as an antiseptic agent. This plant has been known since pharaonic times and has been mentioned in medical papyri to expel fever, relieve headache, to draw out inflammation, and as an aphrodisiac. No scientific study is available about the biological effect of this plant.  This study aimed to evaluate the hydro-alcoholic extract (80%) of T. nilotica flowers for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.  Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats by monitoring biochemical parameters. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tissue glutathione were determined in all groups.  Carbon tetrachloride (5 mL/kg body weight) enhanced the SGOT, SGPT, and ALP levels. There was a marked reduction in tissue glutathione level in diabetic rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of T. nilotica (100 mg/kg body weight) ameliorated the adverse effects of carbon tetrachloride and returned the altered levels of biochemical markers near to the normal levels.

  16. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  17. [Poisoning with "poppers", a rare cause of methemoglobinemia observed in emergency cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staïkowsky, F; Perret, A; Péviriéri, F; Zanker, C; Zerkak, D; Pelloux, P; Danhiez, F

    1997-10-04

    Methemoglobulinemia should be entertained as a differential diagnosis in patients with cyanosis. Recently in France there has been an increase in the number of cases of acquired methemoglobulinemia due to inhalation of poppers. Four patients were admitted to the emergency room of a Paris hospital in a state of unconsciousness with cyanosis. All four patients had inhaled poppers shortly before admission. The clinical course was rapidly favorable after intravenous infusion of methylene blue in 3 cases. Poppers are inorganic aliphatic nitrites used for their relaxing effect on smooth muscle and for their aphrodisiac effect. One poorly recognized effect is the development of methemoglobulinemia. Tissue hypoxia results because methemoglobulin cannot bind oxygen, leading to a brown or blue coloration of the blood. Methemoglobulin usually results from exposure to a wide variety of oxidizing compounds including certain drugs. Methylene blue is the specific treatment for symptomatic methemoglobulinemia. These four cases emphasize the toxic effect of products sold in sex shops and calls attention to the life-threatening risks involved.

  18. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  19. Effects of aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca root on testicular function parameters of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oyeyipo, Theo Oyetayo; Quadri, Ayodeji Luqman; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    There is an age-long claim that the Musa paradisiaca root is used to manage reproductive dysfunction, most especially sexual dysfunction (as an aphrodisiac), but there are no data in the open scientific literature that have refuted or supported this claim and the effects of M. paradisiaca root on the testes. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca root on the testicular function parameters of male rat testes. Sexually matured male albino rats (138.67±5.29 g) were randomly assigned into four groups, A, B, C, and D, that respectively received 0.5 mL (3.6 mL/kg body weight) of distilled water and 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract, orally, once daily, for 14 days. The extract significantly increased (pparadisiaca root extract at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight enhanced the testosterone-dependent normal functioning of the testes. Overall, the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stimulated the normal functioning of the testes and exhibited both androgenic and anabolic properties. The results may explain the rationale behind the folkloric beneficial effect of the plant in the management of reproductive dysfunction.

  20. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus

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    Shruti Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger, an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund′s adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm. Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. Conclusion : The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.

  1. Solvent-free sample preparation by headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, J; Daenens, P

    1996-01-01

    The most common alkyl nitrites encountered in forensic toxicology are iso-butyl, n-butyl and iso-pentyl(amyl) nitrites. All have become popular as an aphrodisiac, especially among the homosexual population. Alkyl nitrites are a volatile and unstable group of compounds, which hydrolyse in aqueous matrices to the alcohol and nitrite ion. Here we describe a fast, clean and sensitive procedure for the detection of hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite in whole human blood using a new, solvent-free sampling technique, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HSPME), combined with GC/FID analysis. Sample preparation was investigated using two different stationary phases (100 microns polydimethylsiloxane and 85 microns polyacrylate), coating a fused silica fibre. The effect of different sampling times at fixed temperatures was also studied. Our results demonstrate that the HSPME/GC/FID procedure allows tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse and detects hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite, i.e., released n-butanol, in whole blood at the 1 ng/mL level.

  2. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumyia; Ziada, Amal; Al Salam, Suhail; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Blunden, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract and anthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls.

  3. Medicinal properties, phytochemistry and pharmacology of tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Bakht, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine) belongs to family Zygophyllaceae and it is a herbaceous, mat forming plant in nature. It extensively grows in warm dry tropics all over the world and ecologically adaptated as a typical C4 xeromorphic plant. T. terrestris is a noxious weed along with its use in many countries as a folk medicine for different purposes from time immemorial. Ancient records describe various medicinal properties of T. terrestris as a popular source to cure variety of different disease conditions in China, India, and Greece. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a main component for production of a number of medicines and food supplements such as for physical rejuvenation, therapy for the conditions affecting liver, kidney, cardiovascular system and immune systems. Also it is used as a folk medicine for increased muscle strength, sexual potency and in treatments of urinary infections, heart diseases and cough. It is considered invigorating stimulant, aphrodisiac, and nutritive. This review discusses the most commonly recognized medicinal properties of this herb. The chemistry of T. terrestris extracts to establish the relationship between medicinal properties of this important plant will also be reviewed. (author)

  4. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  5. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  6. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  7. Chromatographic isolation and spectroscopic identification of phytoconstituents of jujuba seeds (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Manowwar Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seeds of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae are astringent, aphrodisiac, tonic; used to cure cough, asthma, vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, leucorrhoea, and eye infections in traditional systems of medicine. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of seeds of Z. jujuba was partitioned into petroleum ether and water soluble fractions. Isolation of compounds was performed by silica gel column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Results: Chromatographic separation of methanolic extract of seeds yielded three new phyto-constituents characterized as 3, 5, 7-trimethoxy-8, 3′, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy flavone-6-oxy hexahydrobisabolene ether (4, 1, 9-dihydroxy tetrahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (5 and terahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl (2a→1b-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2b→1c-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2c→1d-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2d→1e-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2c→f-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2f-benzoate (6 along with five known compounds, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl arachidoyl glyceride (1, tetratriacontenoic acid (2, palmitoyl oleoyl linolenoyl glyceride (3, hexanyl tetraglucoside (7 and pentasaccharide (8. Conclusion: This is the first report of saturated monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives from jujuba seeds.

  8. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  9. Comparison of Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Bioactive for the Eurycoma longifolia jack using different Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Maizatul Akmam Md Nasir

    2011-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia jack (Tongkat Ali, Genus: Eurycoma; Family, Simaroubaceae) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants. The plant contains a series of quassinoids, which are mainly responsible for its bitter taste. The plant extract, especially roots, are exclusively used (traditionally) for enhancing testosterone levels in men. The roots also have been used in indigenous traditional medicines for its unique anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties. As part of an on-going research on the bioactive compound of Eurycoma longifolia and evaluation for an optimized analysis method and parameter that influence in LC-MS analysis were carried out. Identification of the bioactive compounds was based on comparison of calculated retention time and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the Eurycoma longifolia sample showed some variations and differences in terms of parameters in LC-MS. However, combined method using methanol as the solvent with injection volume 1.0 μL and analysis in ultra scan mode and acetic acid as acidic modifier is the optimum method for LCMS analysis of Eurycoma longifolia because it successfully detected the optimum mass of compounds with good resolution and perfectly separated within a short analysis time. (author)

  10. Melatonin: the dark force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, W H; Hakanson, D O

    1998-01-01

    Although the pineal gland was described 2,300 years ago, its functions remained obscure and productive research was limited until 1958, when Lerner and associates defined melatonin. In 1965 Wurtman and Axelrod advanced the "melatonin hypothesis," according to which the pineal gland acts as a transducer responding to changes in circumambient light by changing its rates of melatonin output. Sites and mechanisms of melatonin action are still poorly understood. Two consistent effects are the induction of sleep and an antigonadotropic influence on reproductive structure and behavior. The former is demonstrable and clinically useful in human subjects; the latter has been shown in birds, rodents, and sheep. Alteration of skin color by the contraction of melanophores was effected by pineal extracts before the discovery of melatonin. This phenomenon, seen in reptiles, amphibians, and fish, has received little recent attention. Areas of greater interest and potential importance include the antimitotic effects of melatonin on some types of tumor cells in culture and the apparent in vivo protection of immunocompetent lymphocytes during chronic stress, which reduces the functional capacity of lymphocytes in control rodents. Clinical application of the antimitotic and immunosupportive properties of melatonin seems likely in the near future. Unfortunately, this innocent molecule has been touted in two recent books and many advertisements as an aphrodisiac, rejuvenator, protector against disease, and general wonder-worker. Because interest in melatonin is high, all physicians can expect questions and may have use for the information provided in this review.

  11. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  12. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Colombo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  14. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Bhargav; Pillai, A P G; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-04-01

    Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.

  15. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  16. Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chromosomal Status and Natural Propagation of Some Plants of Lahaul-Spiti and Adjoining Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study documented the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of plants from an ecologically fragile cold desert area of Lahaul-Spiti (Himachal Pradesh, India. Local people use plants for curing the stomach troubles, pain reliever, cough, gastric disorders, and aphrodisiac and other household purposes. In addition, chromosome numbers, male meiosis, and natural propagation were also investigated in these ethnobotanically used plants. Present investigations also form the basis for exploitation of intraspecific chromosomal variation/new cytotypes recorded in some of the presently studied species to detect biochemical diversity in the medicinally important plants. For documentation of ethnobotanical information, personal observations and interviews were conducted with medicine men, hakims, farmers, shepherds, local healers, and old aged people. This study identified 40 plant species under 33 genera belonging to 17 families which have been used locally for curing various diseases and other purposes. All the chromosome counts are new to the study area. On worldwide basis, meiotic chromosome counts of n=14 and n=8 in Rosularia alpestris and Corydalis govaniana, respectively, are the first ever reports. The present study indicates that the people of the area possess good knowledge about the different uses of plants in the area. It has been noticed that due to the lack of interest among younger generations in the preservation of invaluable ethnic knowledge, there is every possible chance of losing such a rich heritage of knowledge. It is very urgent to conserve such invaluable ethnic knowledge before it gets lost.

  17. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  18. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Elham; Raisi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Hosseini, Hamed; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghobadi, Ali

    2014-04-28

    Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.

  19. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry.

  20. Penile erection responses of Nigella sativa seed extract on isolated rat corpus cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminyoto, M.; Ismail, S.

    2018-04-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) from Ranunculaceae family is known as black cumin in Indonesia. The seed has been used as an aphrodisiac in ethnobotanical studies and reported to have pharmacological activities such as antihypertensive through the relaxant effect of vascular smooth muscles but the direct effect to the blood vessels of the corpus cavernosum is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of NS seed extract on penile erection in vitro. NS seeds were macerated in ethanol solvent for three days in room temperature and repeated for two times. Penile erection responses was assessed using isolated rat corpus cavernosum in Krebs-Henseleit solution, temperature 37°C, pH 7.4, aerated with carbogen gas. After acclimation, corpus cavernosum was contracted with a phenylephrine solution. Ethanolic extract of NS seeds or control solution were given after reaching the plateu phase of the highest contraction. This study showed that the contraction response of the corpus cavernosum decreased after addition of NS extract and this action was increased with the addition of the extract concentration. This study concluded that NS seed ethanol extract affects the penile erection response directly through the relaxation of blood vessels in the corpus cavernosum.

  1. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants

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    Asha Jyoti Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Objective: To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Materials and Methods: Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Results: Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. Conclusion: The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  2. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

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    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  3. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Jay K. Udani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali, which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P<0.05 for all. Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  4. It's All in the Mix: Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly

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    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Eriksson, Kerstin; Liblikas I, Ilme; Wiklund, Christer; Borg-Karlson, Anna K.; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas; Carlsson, Mikael A.

    2016-01-01

    Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time. PMID:26973536

  5. IT’S ALL IN THE MIX: BLEND-SPECIFIC BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE TO A SEXUAL PHEROMONE IN A BUTTERFLY

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    Helena eLarsdotter-Mellström

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioural response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer and neral (Z-isomer in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behaviour, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to ,for example, plant-related compounds, i.e. no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time.

  6. Is the use of plants in Jordanian folk medicine for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction scientifically based? Review of in vitro and in vivo human and animal studies.

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    Abbas, M A

    2017-04-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  8. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

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    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  9. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

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    Akhand Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD, and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ethinyl estradiol (EE was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  10. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

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    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  11. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women.

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    Stojanovska, L; Law, C; Lai, B; Chung, T; Nelson, K; Day, S; Apostolopoulos, V; Haines, C

    2015-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women's Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life. There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment. Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.

  12. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

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    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda): A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects.

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    Adkar, Prafulla P; Bhaskar, V H

    2014-01-01

    Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. (family: Pandanaceae) is traditionally recommended by the Indian Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold/flu, epilepsy, wounds, boils, scabies, leucoderma, ulcers, colic, hepatitis, smallpox, leprosy, syphilis, and cancer and as a cardiotonic, antioxidant, dysuric, and aphrodisiac. It contains phytochemicals, namely, lignans and isoflavones, coumestrol, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, proteins, amino acids as well as vitamins and nutrients, and so forth. It is having immense importance in nutrition. A 100 g edible Pandanus pericarp is mainly comprised of water and carbohydrates (80 and 17 g, resp.) and protein (1.3 mg), fat (0.7 mg), and fiber (3.5 g). Pandanus fruits paste provides 321 kilocalories, protein (2.2 g), calcium (134 mg), phosphorus (108 mg), iron (5.7 mg), thiamin (0.04 mg), vitamin C (5 mg), and beta-carotene (19 to 19,000 μg) (a carotenoid that is a precursor to vitamin A). Pandanus fruit is an important source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and so forth, usually prepared as a Pandanus floured drink. Traditional claims were scientifically evaluated by the various authors and the phytochemical profile of plant parts was well established. The methods for analytical estimations were developed. However, there is paucity of systematic compilation of scientifically important information about this plant. In the present review we have systematically reviewed and compiled information of pharmacognostic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional aspects, and analytical methods. This review will enrich knowledge leading the way into the discovery of new therapeutic agents with improved and intriguing pharmacological properties.

  14. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on oxidative stress mediated damage in aged rat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2010-02-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn., a leguminous plant, has been recognized as an aphrodisiac and spermatogenic agent. Protective efficacy of M. pruriens on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathophysiological alterations in structural and functional integrity of epididymal sperm in aged Wister albino rat was analysed. Animals were grouped as groups I, II, III and IV, i.e. young (control), aged, aged treated with ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg b.w.) of M. pruriens and young rats treated with M. pruriens, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, i.e. after 60 days animals were sacrificed, epididymal sperm were collected and subjected to count, viability, motility, morphology and morphometric analysis. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential were estimated. Results obtained from the aged animals showed significant reduction in sperm count, viability and motility, increased morphological damage and an increase in the number of sperm with cytoplasmic remnant, and these alterations were significantly reversed in M. pruriens treated group. Significant increase in LPO, HO and H(2)O(2) production and significant decline in the levels of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in the aged animals. Supplementation of M. pruriens significantly reduced ROS and LPO production and significant increase in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels. There were significant DNA damage, loss of chromosomal integrity and increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability in aged rat sperm. This was significantly reduced in group III. Present observation indicates the antioxidant enhancing property, free radical quenching ability and spermatogenic efficacy of the M. pruriens. Collectively, sperm damage in ageing was significantly reduced by quenching ROS, improving antioxidant defence system and mitochondrial function.

  15. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2009-04-21

    According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual

  16. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th) day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro-spermatogenic properties of M. pruriens. The manuscript bears CDRI

  17. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-06-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

  18. Documentation and quantitative analysis of local ethnozoological knowledge among traditional healers of Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappandian, M; Pandikumar, P; Mutheeswaran, S; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Prabakaran, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2014-05-28

    This study investigated the use of animals among the traditional healers in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. The data regarding the medicinal animals/animal products were documented and their usages were analyzed quantitatively. Based on free list interviews with the traditional healers, we documented the medicinal usage of animals/animal products and calculated the indices such as informant consensus factor (Fic) to determine the consensus over the species for an illness category, as well as the Index Agreement on Remedies (IAR) to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. In this study, 69 medicinal animals/animal products were documented with the help of standardized questionnaires among the local healers. The results were tabulated and Fic value for each illness category was calculated. Three illness categories viz., jaundice (milk of Capra aegagrus hircus), orthopedics (egg white and meat of Gallus gallus domesticus) and pediatrics (milk of Equus africanus asinus) had got high Fic values. Fifteen illness categories had moderate Fic values. Highly cited animals in these illness categories were: Rusa unicolor (antiemetic), Reticulitermes spp. (diabetes), flesh of Varanus benghalensis (oral ailments), milk (eye ailments, fever) and urine (antidote) of Homo sepians, meat of Trachypithecus johnii (respiratory ailments), various parts of C. aegagrus hircus (blood ailments, coolants, diarrhea, pulmonary and urinary ailments), flesh of Chamaeleon zeyalnica (neural ailments), meat of Passer domesticus (aphrodisiac), curd and dung of Bos primigenius taurus (dermatological ailments), meat of G. domesticus (musculo-skeletal disorders, analgesic), meat of Lissemys punctata (hemorrhoids), and Pherthima posthuma (psychological ailments). Six illness categories had low Fic values. This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Theni district, to treat various illnesses. Cross-disciplinary approaches to explore the

  19. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  20. Structural characterization of monoterpene indole alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of Rauwolfia species by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Awantika Singh; Vikas Bajpai; Mukesh Srivastava; Bhim Pratap Singh; Brijesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Rauwolfia species (Apocynaceae) are medicinal plants well known worldwide due to its potent bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. Reserpine, ajmalicine and ajmaline are powerful antihypertensive, tranquilizing agents used in hypertension. Yohimbine is an aphrodisiac used in dietary supplements. As there is no report on the comparative and comprehensive phytochemical investigation of the roots of Rauwolfia species, we have developed an efficient and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for ethanolic root extract of Rauwolfia species to elucidate the fragmentation pathways for dereplication of bioactive MIAs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–QTOF–MS/MS) in positive ion mode. We identified and established diagnostic fragment ions and fragmentation pathways using reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. The MS/MS spectra of reserpine, ajmalicine, and ajmaline showed C-ring-cleavage whereas E-ring cleavage was observed in serpentine via Retro Diels Alder (RDA). A total of 47 bioactive MIAs were identified and characterized on the basis of their molecular formula, exact mass measurements and MS/MS analysis. Reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine were unambiguously identified by comparison with their authentic standards and other 42 MIAs were tentatively identified and characterized from the roots of Rauwolfia hookeri, Rauwolfia micrantha, Rauwolfia serpentina, Rauwolfia verticillata, Rauwolfia tetraphylla and Rauwolfia vomitoria. Application of LC–MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA) has been successfully used to discriminate among six Rauwolfia species.

  1. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  2. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  3. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  4. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  5. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  6. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

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    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  7. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

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    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  9. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities' gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard

  10. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  11. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  12. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  13. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BUAH PISANG (Musa acuminate L DAN BUAH ALPUKAT (Persea americana Mill TERHADAP BERAT HATI MENCIT (Mus musculus BETINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Utami Ningsih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive ability ability has a linear correlation with libido and testosterone. Both are associated with various things main food consumption such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Aphrodisiac  is an ingredient or drug that arouses sexual arousal or libido. Pumpkin is an example of food from plants with the highest content of zinc. This study was to determine whether there is a difference between the content of zinc on the peel, flesh and pumpkin seeds against sexual activity of mice. The experimental animals used were 24 male, group I mice as control group, Group II was grouped with pumpkin peel extract, Group III was grouped with extract of pumpkin flesh, Group IV was grouped with extract of pumpkin seeds. The dose used is 2gr / kg BB and volume of 0.2 ml is given for 35 days. Sexual Activity is observed every day  by the position of male mice riding females. Based on Anova One Way test results showed there are differences in sexual activity  mice males in each group (ρ 0.000. The difference of the result of the number of mounts indicated that the giving of yellow pumpkin extract had an effect on the increase of mating behavior of male mice. The group treated with the extract of pumpkin flesh showed the highest number of mice mounts (mean = 24,1667.Further research is needed to get a clearer picture of the composition of the pumpkin nutrients that indirectly affect fertility in men.

  14. EFEKTIVITAS MIKRONUTRIEN ZINC DARI EKSTRAK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita Moschata D TERHADAP PERILAKU KAWIN MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Prasetyaning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive ability ability has a linear correlation with libido and testosterone. Both are associated with various things main food consumption such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Aphrodisiac  is an ingredient or drug that arouses sexual arousal or libido. Pumpkin is an example of food from plants with the highest content of zinc. This study was to determine whether there is a difference between the content of zinc on the peel, flesh and pumpkin seeds against sexual activity of mice. The experimental animals used were 24 male, group I mice as control group, Group II was grouped with pumpkin peel extract, Group III was grouped with extract of pumpkin flesh, Group IV was grouped with extract of pumpkin seeds. The dose used is 2gr / kg BB and volume of 0.2 ml is given for 35 days. Sexual Activity is observed every day  by the position of male mice riding females. Based on Anova One Way test results showed there are differences in sexual activity  mice males in each group (ρ 0.000. The difference of the result of the number of mounts indicated that the giving of yellow pumpkin extract had an effect on the increase of mating behavior of male mice. The group treated with the extract of pumpkin flesh showed the highest number of mice mounts (mean = 24,1667.Further research is needed to get a clearer picture of the composition of the pumpkin nutrients that indirectly affect fertility in men.

  15. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety.

  16. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  17. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects

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    Prafulla P. Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. (family: Pandanaceae is traditionally recommended by the Indian Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold/flu, epilepsy, wounds, boils, scabies, leucoderma, ulcers, colic, hepatitis, smallpox, leprosy, syphilis, and cancer and as a cardiotonic, antioxidant, dysuric, and aphrodisiac. It contains phytochemicals, namely, lignans and isoflavones, coumestrol, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, proteins, amino acids as well as vitamins and nutrients, and so forth. It is having immense importance in nutrition. A 100 g edible Pandanus pericarp is mainly comprised of water and carbohydrates (80 and 17 g, resp. and protein (1.3 mg, fat (0.7 mg, and fiber (3.5 g. Pandanus fruits paste provides 321 kilocalories, protein (2.2 g, calcium (134 mg, phosphorus (108 mg, iron (5.7 mg, thiamin (0.04 mg, vitamin C (5 mg, and beta-carotene (19 to 19,000 μg (a carotenoid that is a precursor to vitamin A. Pandanus fruit is an important source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and so forth, usually prepared as a Pandanus floured drink. Traditional claims were scientifically evaluated by the various authors and the phytochemical profile of plant parts was well established. The methods for analytical estimations were developed. However, there is paucity of systematic compilation of scientifically important information about this plant. In the present review we have systematically reviewed and compiled information of pharmacognostic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional aspects, and analytical methods. This review will enrich knowledge leading the way into the discovery of new therapeutic agents with improved and intriguing pharmacological properties.

  18. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Touhara, Kazushige; Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment. PMID:26252206

  19. Preparation and characterization of Tribulus terrestris-loaded nanoparticles

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    M. Khanavi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Tribulus terrestris is a flowering herb (Zygophyllaceae with several properties in folk medicine such as diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, and stomachic-lithotripter activities. Although, some extracts and phytochemicals represent excellent bio-activity in vitro, less or no in vivo activity is observed due to their improper molecular size. The intend of this research was investigation of the feasibility of encapsulating T. terrestris into [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid] PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with aqueous ethanol 85% by percolation apparatus. The nanoparticles of T. terrestris-loaded were prepared using a modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. Elucidations were made on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The content of nanoparticles was analyzed by HPLC with indirect method. Results: The results stated that increasing the portion of plant extract could cause bigger size with no considerable increase in polydispersity index (PDI. The encapsulation efficiency of T. terrestris-loaded nanoparticles was 40.3 to 78.5 and the drug loadings were 0.806 to 6.104, with different ratios of extract. The overall pattern of the release in SDS 1% in dialysis bag in all formulations showed similar and biphasic release kinetic, an initial burst release in the first day followed by constant release over 10 days. Conclusion: An effective approach for the preparation of T. terrestris-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was performed. The controlled release profile showed that these biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles had great potential and should be given particular consideration in further biological researches.

  20. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

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    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  1. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg(-1), orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg(-1) for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility.

  2. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

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    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  3. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  4. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2013-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T. terrestris extract may improve erectile function.

  5. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  6. Sildenafil-associated hepatoxicity: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, S; Montana, A; Zaami, S; Rotolo, M C; Minutillo, A; Busardò, F P; Marinelli, E

    2017-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) is a vasoactive agent available worldwide since 1998 for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5-enzyme inhibitor able to potentiate the downstream effects of nitric oxide on smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation through its effects on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) pathway in the erectile tissue of the penis. When sildenafil is orally administered, it is rapidly absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration achieved within 1 h and has a terminal half-life of between 3 to 6 h. The drug is extensively and rapidly metabolized by the liver, primarily by the CYP3A4 enzyme. Although the drug is well tolerated, specific adverse events have been observed, like flushing, headaches, dyspepsia, and visual disturbances. Liver toxicity related to sildenafil consumption has been considered a very rare event. However, in the last decade, some cases of sildenafil-associated hepatotoxicity have been reported. Furthermore, some hepatic intoxications have been reported after the intake of "natural" or "herbal" aphrodisiac supplements sold through Internet, sex shops, social media, and by word-of-mouth found to contain sildenafil and other phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Studies investigating a possible link between sildenafil use and liver damage are limited, and the underlying mechanism responsible for hepatotoxicity is still missing. Studies in animals evidence that the hematopoietic function of the liver may have severely been affected as a result of a probable toxic effect of sildenafil. Here, the studies reporting liver toxicity by sildenafil in humans and in animals are reported and discussed.

  7. [The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniel, T; Dannon, P

    2001-08-01

    The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum--used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian--is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng--another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it's chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in

  8. Medicinal plants of genus Curculigo: traditional uses and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan; Dong, Xin; He, Yongjing; Yuan, Tingting; Han, Ting; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2013-06-03

    In the genus Curculigo, Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, Curculigo capitulata (Lour) O. Ktze and Curculigo pilosa (Schumach. & Thonn.) Engl are often used in traditional medicine. Curculigo orchioides is used for the treatment of impotence, limb limpness, arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints, and watery diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine, and also used as a potent immunomodulator and aphrodisiac in the Ayurvedic medical system. Curculigo capitulata is used for the treatment of consumptive cough, kidney asthenia, impotence and spermatorrhea, hemorrhoids, asthma, jaundice, diarrhea, colic and gonorrhea in traditional Chinese and India medicine, and to treat urinary tract infection, acute renal pelvis and nephritis, nephritis-edema, cystitis, nephrolithiasis, hypertension and rheumatic arthritis in traditional Dai medicine. Curculigo pilosa are applied to treat gastrointestinal and heart diseases in Africa. This review aims to exhibit up-to-date and comprehensive information about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of medicinal plants in the genus Curculigo, and has an insight into the opportunities for the future research and development of Curculigo plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on Curculigo plant from worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo). Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. Curculigo orchioides, Curculigo capitulata and Curculigo pilosa have been used as traditional medicine to treat kinds of diseases such as impotence, limb limpness, gastrointestinal and heart diseases, etc. Phytochemical investigation of eight species of the genus Curculigo has resulted in identification of more than 110 compounds. The content of curculigoside is used as an indicator to evaluate the quality of rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. The medicinal

  9. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  10. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  11. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on oxidative stress-induced structural alteration of corpus cavernosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications of diabetes. Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens), a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and fertility enhancing properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. The objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on free radicals-mediated penile tissue alterations in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods.  Male albino rats were divided as group I (sham) control, group II (STZ) diabetes-induced (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight [bw] in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III (STZ + MP) diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV (STZ + SIL) diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate, group V (sham + MP) administered with 200 mg/kg bw of extract alone, and group VI (sham + SIL) administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate. The M. pruriens and sildenafil citrate were given (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. At the end of 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and subjected to analysis of reactive oxygen species levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels, levels of NOx, histological, and histomorphometrical study of penile tissue. Remedial use of M. pruriens seed extract on diabetes-induced erectile tissue damage. Significantly high levels of oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants in the penile tissue seem to contribute to the increased collagen deposition and fibrosis of erectile tissue in STZ rats. Relatively, there was increased damage in STZ + SIL group. Supplementation of M. pruriens in STZ + MP group has revealed the potency to overcome oxidative stress, and good preservation of penile histoarchitecture.  The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed significantly recovered or protected erectile tissue from the oxidative stress-induced degeneration by its antioxidant potentials. These findings propound to serve mankind by the treatment of

  12. Consensus analysis of sastric formulations used by non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners of Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutheeswaran, S; Pandikumar, P; Chellappandian, M; Ignacimuthu, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Logamanian, M

    2014-04-11

    Siddha system of traditional medicine has been practiced in Tamil Nadu. This system of medicine has a high number of non-institutionally trained practitioners but studies on their traditional medicinal knowledge are not adequate. The present study is aimed to document and analyze the sastric (traditional) formulations used by the non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners in Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India. After obtaining prior informed consent, interviews were conducted with 115 non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners about the sastric formulations used by them for the treatment. Successive free listing method was adopted to collect the data and the data were analyzed by calculating Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR). The study documented data regarding 194 sastric formulations and they were classified into plant, mineral and animal based formulations. Quantitative analysis showed that 62.5% of the formulations were plant based, while the mineral based formulations had a high mean number of citations and versatile uses. Gastrointestinal (12.0%), kapha (11.3%) and dermatological (10.8%) ailments had a high percentage of citations. Jaundice had a high Fic value (0.750) followed by the dermatological ailments. The illness categories with high Fic values under each type of formulation were as follows: jaundice, aphrodisiac and urinary ailments (plant based); jaundice, cuts & wounds and dermatological ailments (mineral based); and hemorrhoids, kapha ailments and heart ailments (animal based formulations). The scientific studies conducted with important formulations under each illness category are discussed. The present study indicated the importance of some illnesses over the others and inclusion of new illnesses under each formulation. The ingredients used to prepare these formulations have shown varying degrees of scientific evidence; generally limited studies were available

  13. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Methods: Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Results: Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Conclusion: Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude

  14. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. Materials and Methods The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Results Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. Conclusions The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T

  15. Dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on the anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T

    2015-02-01

    scientific rationale for its traditional use as an aphrodisiac or for sexual disorders.

  16. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  17. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Niu, Zichang [First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Gao, Xiu Mei, E-mail: gaoxiumei@tjutcm.edu.cn [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China)

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p < 0.01), while it reduced 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) (p < 0.01), 100 μM veratridine (Ver) (p < 0.01) and 56 mM K{sup +} (p < 0.05) induced CA secretion, respectively. We also found that the stimulation of basal CA secretion by bakuchiol may act through estrogen-like effect and the JNK pathway in an extra-cellular calcium independent manner. Further, bakuchiol elevated tyrosine hydroxylase Ser40 and Ser31 phosphorylation (p < 0.01) through the PKA and ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Bakuchiol inhibited ACh, Ver and 56 mM K{sup +} induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion

  18. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário da raiz e do caule de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae Anatomic study of secundary xylem of root and stem of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ressiliane Ribeiro Prata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis é uma planta medicinal, conhecida popularmente por chichuá, possuindo ação analgésica, antiinflamatória, afrodisíaca e antireumática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características estruturais, da raiz e caule desta espécie como contribuição aos trabalhos anatômicos já realizados para o gênero. O material botânico foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus/AM onde foram selecionados três indivíduos e de cada um deles retirados fragmentos de 1cm³ do caule e raiz. Amostras foram seccionadas em micrótomo de deslize e coradas com safranina e azul de astra. A análise estrutural revelou-se de acordo com o registrado pela literatura para o gênero. O xilema secundário da raiz e do caule apresentam parênquima axial apotraqueal, raios multisseriados, heterogêneos, vasos solitários, de distribuição difusa, uniforme, seção circular, com parede delgada, pontoações intervasculares alternas e areoladas.Maytenus guyanensis, known popularly as chichuá, possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and anti-rheumatic agents. The object of this present wor was the anatomical analysis of material collected of this species at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. Stem and root fragments of 1cm were removed from 3 selected individuals. Sections from the stem and root were cut with slide microtome, and stained with astra blue and safranin. The structural analysis of stems and roots was in accordance with the literature available for the Maytenus genus. The secondary xylem of the root and stem presented parenchyma axial apotracheal, multiseriates, heterogeneous rays, solitary vessels, of diffuse distribution, uniform, circular section, with thin wall, bordered and alternate intervascular pits.

  19. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/ Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  20. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  1. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  2. Quantitative ethnobotany of traditional Siddha medical practitioners from Radhapuram taluk of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappandian, M; Mutheeswaran, S; Pandikumar, P; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to document the knowledge of traditional Siddha medical practitioners from Radhapuram taluk of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, India, and to quantitatively analyze the data to identify some useful leads for further studies. Successive free listing was the method adopted for the interview. In this study, 84 traditional Siddha medical practitioners were included and their knowledge on medicinal plants was gathered. The data were assessed with the help of two indices viz., Informant Consensus Factor (F(ic)) and Informant Agreement on Remedies (IAR). The present survey is in accordance with some of the aspects of our previous surveys. Regarding the demography of the informants, it exhibited unevenness in male-female ratio and majority of the informants were poorly educated. Practicing this system of medicine as part time job by majority of the informants might indicate the reduced social status of this medicinal system. The present study had recorded the usage of 217 species which were used to prepare 448 formulations, which in turn yielded 812 use reports. Conversion of use reports had yielded a total of 625 claims and 84.16% of the claims were 'singletons'. The illness category 'adjuvants' holds a high F(ic) value. Among the other illness categories, kapha ailments and dermatological ailments have a high percentage of use-reports. Ailments of blood, jaundice and fever were the other illness categories with high F(ic) values. Some of the claims viz., Mukia madarasepatana (kapha ailments), Mollugo nudicaulis (febrifuge), Indigofera asphalathoides (dermatological ailments), Aerva lanata (urinary ailments), Abutilon indicum (hemorrhoids) and Hybanthus enneaspermus (aphrodisiac), which have relatively high consensus can be taken up for further biomedical studies, since no substantial studies have been conducted on them. One of the major aims of National Rural Health Mission is to implement traditional Indian system of medicines into

  3. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    controlled telescope near Los Angeles (where it was still dark for some reason), but gloom quickly replaced by encouraging notion that with 200 billion other stars in our galaxy you could put money on the existence of extraterrestrial life and thus of potential Mr Right out there somewhere. Then really fascinating lunchtime lecture by dishy New Scientist editor Jeremy Webb about how racy covers can even sell 'serious' magazines. Made copious notes in order to impress Daniel (my boss) and might even consider buying it to improve image. Wasn't sure I'd have the stamina for an afternoon talk by chemist John Emsley (from Cambridge so must be really brainy), but it was surprisingly interesting—about things called 'mollycules' which are everywhere. Apparently finger-nails have same ones as rhino horn, so can get aphrodisiac kick with a quick chew and do my bit for conservation all in one go. Brilliant! Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! David Smith and friends Highgate School, London

  4. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Shruti; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-01-30

    Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp. has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1300-2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led

  5. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  6. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Wandji, Jean; Sewald, Norbert; Nahar, Lutfun; Martin, Claire; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-08-22

    Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments. Some Drypetes species are used to protect food against pests, as an aphrodisiac, a stimulant/depressant, a rodenticide and a fish poison, against insect bites, to induce conception and for general healing. This review deals with updated information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Drypetes species, in order to provide an input for the future research opportunities. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognized databases e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, www.theplantlist.org and www.gbif.org, as well as the Herbier National du Cameroun (Yaoundé) and Botanic Gardens of Limbe databases on the uses and bioactivity of various species of the Drypetes was undertaken. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the Subsaharan African and Asian species of the genus Drypetes, e.g., Drypetes aubrévillii, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri, D. gerrardii, D. gossweileri, D. ivorensis, D. klainei, D. natalensis, D. pellegrini (all endemic to Africa) and D. roxburghii (Asian species), for the treatment of multiple disorders. From a total of 19 species, more than 140 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes (friedelane, oleanane, lupane and hopane-type), flavonoids, lignans

  7. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ven Murthy, M R; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Ramassamy, Charles; Deshpande, Manasi

    2010-09-01

    normal habitats in different areas of the world, as well as the common synonyms by which they are known, are shown in the Table 1. The scientific investigations concerning the best known and most scientifically investigated of these herbs, Ashwagandha will be discussed in detail in this review. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, WS), also commonly known, in different parts of the world, as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. It is also known in different linguistic areas in India by its local vernacular names [6]. It grows prolifically in dry regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, particularly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Congo and Jordon [7]. In India, it is cultivated, on a commercial scale, in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat and Rajasthan [6]. In Sanskrit, ashwagandha, the Indian name for WS, means "odor of the horse", probably originating from the odor of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse. The name"somnifera" in Latin means "sleep-inducer" which probably refers to its extensive use as a remedy against stress from a variety of daily chores. Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is used in India, in a way similar to how ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a large variety of human diseases [8]. Ashwagandha is a shrub whose various parts (berries, leaves and roots) have been used by Ayurvedic practitioners as folk remedies, or as aphrodisiacs and diuretics. The fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, in order to leach out undesirable constituents. The berries are sometimes used as a substitute to coagulate milk in cheese making. In Ayurveda, the herbal preparation is referred to as a "rasayana", an elixir that works, in a nonspecific, global fashion, to increase human health and longevity. It is also considered an adaptogen, a

  8. Influência de diferentes meios de cultura sobre o crescimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae para conservação in vitro Influence of different culture media on the growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pendersen (Amaranthaceae for conservation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.N. Alves

    2010-12-01

    and gallery forests. It is a hydrophyte and heliophyte species. The roots of the genus Pfaffia are used in Brazilian folk medicine especially as tonic, aphrodisiac and to control diabetes. The aim of this work was to establish an in vitro germplasm bank for Pfaffia glomerata. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with six treatments: 1 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 2 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 3 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 4 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 5 DM + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 6 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Scott Knott test for mean grouping. Treatments 1, 3 and 4 had a significantly larger number of nodal segments per stem, compared to Treatments 2, 5 and 6. Treatment 2 was the most appropriate for the in vitro conservation of this species since it led to the lowest growth (3.1±1.9 cm height, high survival rate, 100% explants with sprouting, and the largest number of sprouts per explant after six months of culture. All seedlings produced root and showed no formation of calluses or hyperhydricidity under the evaluated treatments. Acclimatized plants showed 100% survival in the ex vitro environment. Maintaining P. glomerata accessions in an in vitro germplasm bank is viable both economically and for conservation.

  9. Spice and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin

    2017-01-01

    than an addiction. It was also believed that ingesting spices was a way to im ̄prove one’s health and that they could cure every ̄thing from gangrene and paralysis to constipation and lung disease. Then there’s sex. Spice has long been associated with eroticism, including recent examples like the pop-music sex kittens the Spice Girls and the Spice soft-porn cable TV station. In the Middle Ages—when noblemen’s fear of infertil ̄ity ran rampant—spices were widely believed to serve as aphrodisiacs. It was these very qualities, that led many medieval Christian leaders to de ̄nounce spices—ginger in particular—arguing that their corrupting influence undermined monks’ vows of celibacy, with one mystic even comparing them to the forbidden apple of Eden. Others claimed their overuse could lead to drying out, derange ̄ment, and even death. The most puritanical critics saw spice as nothing less than an affront to God, who had already met man’s basic needs by provi ̄ding local foods, a gift cooks were now tampering with by introducing foreign flavors. Moreover, spice served as a medieval perfume, with the most spicy, most expensive varieties favored among the social elite. And spice was also used in mummifi ̄cation and embalming techniques that continued in future centuries. For instance, the practice dates back to Ramses II, an Egyptian pharaoh who died in 1224 b. c.; an examination of his remains re ̄vealed peppercorns stuffed up his large, and crooked nose, a discovery which startled scien ̄tists. Despite efforts by the Dutch to maintain their monopoly over spice plantations and prevent propa ̄gation, products like cloves and nutmeg eventually spread to other regions of the world. This was largely due to Spanish and Portuguese smugglers—who reduced them to mere commodities and dimin ̄ished their intrigue and notoriety, not to mention their cost. By the mid-1600s, pepper in particu ̄lar had long since become available to the Europe ̄an masses