WorldWideScience

Sample records for aphrodisiacs

  1. Legendary Chemical Aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the literature and a summary of information regarding aphrodisiacs. Chemical compounds are discussed as groups of plant natural products, animal natural products, and synthetic products. (CS)

  2. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.

  3. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabna Kotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido, compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.

  4. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia parviflora

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The increasing prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the limitation of therapeutic efficacy nowadays give rise to the requirement of novel therapeutic strategy. Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai-Dun has been long term used in Thai traditional folklore to treat this condition. Unfortunately, no scientific document is available until now. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on male sexual behavior of aging rats subjected to stress. Approach: Aging rats were divided into 2 groups; the vehicle+stress and the K.parviflora+stress. All animals were administered the assigned substance 45 m before they were subjected to the 12-hr stress exposure for 3 weeks. They were determined male sexual behaviors including both latency and frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation behaviors after single dose and every week until the end of experimental period. In order to investigate the possible underlying mechanism, we also determined the alteration of DA1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Results: Our results showed that after the single administration of the plant extract, the intromission frequency increased, it was also found the rats subjected K.parviflora treatment significantly increased the frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation while decreased the latencies of all sexual behaviors mentioned earlier. Moreover, K.parviflora also increased D1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Therefore, the aphrodisiac activity of K.parviflora might be attributed in part to the enhanced dopaminergic function in hypothalamus. Conclusion: Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract of K.parviflora can enhance male sexual behaviors. Therefore, it will be further developed as the functional food or health product for men especially for men who are risk for sexual dysfunction.

  5. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.

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    Sandroni, P

    2001-10-01

    The drug Viagra (sildenafil) has drawn public attention to aphrodisiacs. The search for such substances dates back millennia. Aphrodisiacs can be classified by their mode of action into 3 types: those that increase (1) libido, (2) potency, or (3) sexual pleasure. Various substances of animal and plant origin have been used in folk medicines of different cultures; some have been identified pharmacologically, allowing for understanding of their mechanisms of action. For increasing libido, ambrein, a major constituent of Ambra grisea, is used in Arab countries. This tricyclic triterpene alcohol increases the concentration of several anterior pituitary hormones and serum testosterone. Bufo toad skin and glands contain bufotenine (and other bufadienolides), a putative hallucinogenic congener of serotonin. It is the active ingredient in West Indian "love stone" and the Chinese medication chan su. The aphrodisiac properties are likely of central origin, as are the other effects of the drug. For increasing potency, Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine, works as an antioxidant by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium of many organs, including the corpora cavernosa; ginsenosides also enhance acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve stimulation-activated relaxation associated with increased tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate, hence the aphrodisiac properties. For increasing sexual pleasure, cantharidin ("Spanish fly") is a chemical with vesicant properties derived from blister beetles, which have been used for millennia as a sexual stimulant. Its mode of action is by inhibition of phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase activity and stimulation of beta-receptors, inducing vascular congestion and inflammation. Morbidity from its abuse is significant. The ingestion of live beetles (Palembus dermestoides) in Southeast Asia and triatomids in Mexico may have a basis similar to cantharidin. It is of paramount importance for the physician to be

  6. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Male sexual (or erectile dysfunction various natural aphrodisiac plants potentials are preferred. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.

  7. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  8. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential:A current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; Gaurav Gupta; Alok Semwal; G Jeyabalan

    2013-01-01

    Aphrodisiac is the word derived fromAphrodite, theGreek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent(food or drug) that arouses sexual desire.Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction.Ayurveda and otherIndian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments.India has about more than45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction.This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  9. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; G. Jeyabalan; Ashraf Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Ma...

  10. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  11. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  12. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to fe

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

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    Javeed Ahmed Wani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus root at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydro-alcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg/kg. body weight and aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight showed moderate aphrodisiac property. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the extracts of Asparagus racemosus exert significant aphrodisiac activity. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in-vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients suffering from sexual disorders.

  14. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

  15. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G. Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutu...

  16. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Gupta, Vipin Bihari; Vyas, Savita

    2011-01-01

    An aphrodisiac is a type of food or drink that has the effect of making those who eat or drink it more aroused in a sexual way. Aphrodisiacs can be categorized according to their mode of action into three groups: substances that increase libido (i.e., sexual desire, arousal), substances that increase sexual potency (i.e., effectiveness of erection) and substances that increase sexual pleasure. Some well-known aphrodisiacs are Tribulus terrestrins, Withania somnifera, Eurycoma longifolia, Avena sativa, Ginko biloba, and Psoralea coryifolia. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants as aphrodisiacs. The paper reviews the recent scientific validation on traditionally used herbal plants as aphrodisiac herbs for the management of sexual disorder erectile dysfunction.

  17. Chemical communication: butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Huigens, Martinus E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2005-02-17

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to female Pieris brassicae butterflies during mating, to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny wasp detects the odour of a mated female butterfly, it rides on her (Fig. 1) to her egg-laying sites and then parasitizes the freshly laid eggs. If this fascinating strategy is widespread in nature, it could severely constrain the evolution of sexual communication between hosts.

  18. Pheromones and their role as aphrodisiacs: A review

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    Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the human existence on the earth reproductive biology remained a main concern of research because of its importance. It is widely recognized and demonstrated that odors play an important role in mammalian reproduction. A large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromones, their properties, mechanism of action, and possible receptors for their action. Till now scientific studies indicated that humans use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones as aphrodisiacs

  19. Aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R. Kumar; D. Laloo; K. Sairam; S. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study represents an interesting case report for a very good aphrodisiac activity observed during an oral glucose tolerance test performed while evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Pedalium murex Linn. fruit. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. was given to the rats followed by administration of 2 g/kg p.o. of glucose 30 min after the administration of extract. Results: Pregnancy was observed in the treated groups after 20-25 days of treatment in females which resulted in birth of pubs ranging upto ten in some females (more significant in case of 500 mg/kg p.o.). The observation also showed a significant increase in weights of pubs along with a normal behavior pattern. The increased pregnancy rate in the drug treated groups may be due to the healthy viable sperm and enhancement of sexual desire of the rats. Conclusion: From the results it may be concluded that the fruits of the plant may be used as a good aphrodisiac agent to promote fertility rate.

  20. The Use of Drugs in the Search for a Human Aphrodisiac Experience

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    Edwards, Ralph

    1971-01-01

    This article delineates man's search for sexual pleasure through the aid of drugs and other substances. While myths prevail that drugs create the sexual libertine spirit, scientific evidence indicates that no known drug serves as an aphrodisiac. (Author)

  1. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

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    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts.

  2. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  3. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review

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    Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA or Carpolobia lutea (CL is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  4. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review.

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    Nwidu, Lucky Lebgosi; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA) or Carpolobia lutea (CL) is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  5. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Aponte Cordero, W.V.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Acces

  6. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de E.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Tric

  7. [Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) : a life with aphrodisiacs].

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    Hatzinger, M; Hatzinger, J

    2009-04-01

    Giacomo Girolamo Casanova was born in Venice, the son of actors, on 2 April 1725. After studying theology and law, he was ordained as an abbé, but after 3 years he left the clergy. In 1742 he graduated with a degree in law but never seriously practiced as an attorney. Occupational episodes included stints as a soldier, secret agent, lottery operator, embassy secretary, and violinist. He became world famous after his escape from "The Leads" (a famous Venetian prison), which he described in detail in his 15-volume, French-language memoirs. Because of his countless romantic adventures, which he also described in great detail, we want to generate a kind of "vita sexualis."His not-so-insignificant medical knowledge, together with his unruly libido as well as his pronounced imagination, led to a more than astonishing career. His experiences and descriptions appear today to be very relevant and testify a great deal about medical laymen's knowledge and ingenuity. For Casanova, the use of different aphrodisiacs or love amulets served only one purpose, and that was to continuously broaden his frivolous adventures.When he died as a result of chronic bladder disease on 4 June 1798 in Bohemia, he left behind - besides the broken hearts of countless women - a fascinating biography that provides a comprehensive and intriguing portrait of the customs of the 18th century.

  8. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines.

  9. Electrophysiologic similarities of overdose between digoxin and bufadienolides found in a Chinese aphrodisiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressman, Maxwell; Repplinger, Daniel; Slater, William; Patt, Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Classically derived from toad venom, bufadienolides are a group of cardioactive steroids with properties similar to digoxin. Some traditional Chinese medications, including several aphrodisiacs, contain bufadienolides. Owing to their physiologic similarities to digoxin, bufadienolides have been shown to produce a toxic profile similar to that of digoxin and there have been multiple case reports of the use of these aphrodisiacs resulting in death. This report will describe a case that illustrates the electrophysiologic similarities between bufadienolide toxicity and digoxin toxicity as well as the treatment of bufadienolide toxicity.

  10. Herbal aphrodisiac use among male adolescents and teenagers in a rural area of Blantyre district, Malawi

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    Fanuel Lampiao

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: This study has shown that many adolescents and teenagers are using traditional herbal aphrodisiacs and that the prescription is not done by an experienced traditional healer. Therefore there is need to sensitize the youths on proper ways of using these herbal medicines. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 581-583

  11. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  12. A case of methemoglobinemia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later proven as dapsone.

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    Lee, S W; Lee, J Y; Lee, K J; Kim, M; Kim, M J

    1999-08-01

    Methemoglobin (MetHb) is an oxidation product of hemoglobin in which the sixth coordination position of ferric iron is bound to a water molecule or to a hydroxyl group. The most common cause of acquired MetHb-emia is accidental poisoning which usually is the result of ingestion of water containing nitrates or food containing nitrite, and sometimes the inhalation or ingestion of butyl or amyl nitrite used as an aphrodisiac. We herein report a case of MetHb-emia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later identified as dapsone by gas chromatograph/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). A 24-year old male was admitted due to cyanosis after ingestion of a drug purchased as an aphrodisiac. On arterial blood gas analysis, pH was 7.32, PaCO2 26.8 mmHg, PaO2 75.6 mmHg, and bicarbonate 13.9 mmol/L. Initial pulse oxymetry was 89%. With 3 liter of nasal oxygen supplement, oxygen saturation was increased to 90-92%, but cyanosis did not disappear. Despite continuous supplement of oxygen, cyanosis was not improved. On the fifth hospital day, MetHb was 24.9%. Methylene blue was administered (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient rapidly improved. We proved the composition of aphrodisiac as dapsone by the method of GC/MSD.

  13. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit f

  14. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  15. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de, Jacques; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the larg...

  16. Aphrodisiac evaluation in non-copulator male rats after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Ngai, T H

    2001-08-01

    The aphrodisiac effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (0.5 g/kg) was evaluated in noncopulator male rats using an electrical cage. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack decreased the hesitation time of noncopulator male rats, throughout the investigation period. Furthermore, it possessed a transient increase in the percentage of the male rats responding to the right choice, more than 50% of the male rats scored "right choice" after 3 weeks post-treatment and the effect became more prominent after 8 weeks post-treatment (only 40-50% of the control male rats responded to the right choice) using the electrical copulation cage. Hence, this study lends further support to the use of the plant by indigenous populations as a traditional medicine for its aphrodisiac property.

  17. Mondia whitei, a medicinal plant from Africa with aphrodisiac and antidepressant properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Mondia whitei, which is also known as Mondia whytei, African ginger or simply as mondia. Mondia is used in many parts of Africa as a traditional remedy to improve appetite and libido, as a galactagogue, as a fertility medication, and as an antidepressant. In African countries, where it is used medicinally, the most commonly cited use is as an aphrodisiac. The scientific studies reviewed in this report employed either in vivo rodent models or isolated organ techniques, and therefore the results cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. Nevertheless, these studies provide scientific evidence that support the traditional uses of mondia as an aphrodisiac and an antidepressant. Based on the safety data available in the literature, mondia is reasonably expected to be safe when prepared and used according to traditional practices.

  18. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal; Jaikishan

    2013-01-01

    Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment.Bothin vitroandin vivomodels have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents.Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter), pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count,Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein.This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.

  19. Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Ikeda, S; Gan, E K

    2001-08-01

    The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.

  20. A novel aphrodisiac compound from an orchid that activates nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoniam, A; Gangaprasad, A; Sureshkumar, P K; Radhika, J; Arun, K B; Arun, B K

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have roles in several crucial biological functions including vasodilation and penile erection. There are neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases that influence the levels of NO in tissues and blood. NO activates guanylate cyclase and thereby increases the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP). Viagra (sildenafil), a top selling drug in the world for erectile dysfunction, inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, which hydrolyses cGMP to GMP. Thus, it fosters an NO-mediated increase in the levels of cGMP, which mediates erectile function. Here, we show the aphrodisiac activity of a novel chemical isolate from the flowers of an epiphytic orchid, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) ex Don, which activates neuronal and endothelial, but not inducible, NO synthases. The aphrodisiac activity is caused by an increase in the level of NO in corpus cavernosum. The drug increases blood levels of NO as early as 30 min after oral administration. The active compound was isolated by column chromatography. Based on the spectral data, the active compound is found to be a new compound, 2,7,7-tri methyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane. We anticipate that our findings could lead to the development of a commercially viable and valuable drug for erectile dysfunction.

  1. Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Broekgaarden, Colette; Bukovinszkine'Kiss, Gabriella; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Huigens, Martinus E; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2008-07-22

    Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects-a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Here, we report the identification of an elicitor of such an oviposition-induced plant response. Eliciting activity was present in accessory gland secretions released by mated female butterflies during egg deposition. In contrast, gland secretions from virgin female butterflies were inactive. In the male ejaculate, P. brassicae females receive the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) that reduces the females' attractiveness for subsequent mating. We detected this pheromone in the accessory gland secretion released by mated female butterflies. When applied onto leaves, BC alone induced phytochemical changes that arrested females of the egg parasitoid. Microarray analyses revealed a similarity in induced plant responses that may explain the arrest of T. brassicae to egg-laden and BC-treated plants. Thus, a male-derived compound endangers the offspring of the butterfly by inducing plant defense. Recently, BC was shown to play a role in foraging behavior of T. brassicae, by acting as a cue to facilitate phoretic transport by mated female butterflies to oviposition sites. Our results suggest that the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone incurs fitness costs for the butterfly by both mediating phoretic behavior and inducing plant defense.

  2. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  3. Aphrodisiac and phytochemical studies ofCocculus hirsutus extracts in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharanabasappaA Patil; SujayaM; SaraswatiB Patil

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate thein vivo aphrodisiac activity of various extracts obtained from aerial partsCocculus hirsutus(C. hirsutus).Methods:We evaluated whether oral administration ofC. hirsutushas spermatogenic activity in male rats.Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extract of aerial parts(stem and leaf) ofC. hirsutus were administered at the dose level of25 mg/100 g body weight to adult male albino rats for30 days.Results:The above said extracts have stimulated the spermatogenic activity and accessory reproductive organs performance in albino rats.Out of the three extracts administered, alcohol extract showed highly stimulant spermatogenic effects in mature male albino rats.Alcohol extract showed potent androgenic activity when treated in immatureAlbino rats.Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals.The increased spermatogenesis in extract treated groups was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatids and caudal spermatozoa.After subjecting to preliminary phytochemical screening, the alcohol extract showed positive tests for steroids, saponins, oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins.Conclusion:C. hirsutus exhibited remarkable increase in spermatogenic activity.These findings support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  4. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Aponte Cordero, Wilma V; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Huigens, Martinus E

    2009-11-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack.

  5. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

  6. 昆虫抑性欲素研究进展%Research advances on insect sexual pheromone anti-aphrodisiac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶龙; 钱明惠; 夏斌; 秦长生; 徐金柱

    2011-01-01

    抑性欲素( anti-aphrodisiac)是雄性昆虫在交配过程中留给雌性的气味物质,该物质可以降低交配过的雌性对其它同种雄性的吸引力.本文综述了有抑性欲素研究报道的昆虫种类、抑性欲素对蝶类性行为的影响以及赤眼蜂对昆虫抑性欲素利用情况的研究进展.%Anti-aphrodisiac is a kind of sexual pheromone of insects, which evolved in males to enhance their post-mating success by reducing the attractiveness of females to conspecific mates. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview about the insect species with research on their anti-aphrodisiac, the influences of anti-aphrodisiac on sexual cooperation/conflict about butterflies, and the exploitation and learning ability of egg parasitoids Trichogramma on Pieris.

  7. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Toda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD, is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23+ neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23+ sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  8. The Drosophila female aphrodisiac pheromone activates ppk23(+) sensory neurons to elicit male courtship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J

    2012-06-28

    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23(+) neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23(+) sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  9. Aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondosa Koen. ex Roxb. extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Sridhar, Y; Sam, S Kishore Gnana; Saravanan, M; Leonard, J Thomas; Anbalagan, N; Sridhar, S K

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondonsa Koen. ex Roxb (Papillionaceae) bark extract was investigated. The extract (400 mg/kg body wt./day) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p < 0.05). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (p < 0.05). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats.

  10. The aphrodisiac effect and toxicity of combination Piper retrofractum L, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma domestica infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Rahmawati

    2012-09-01

    is a plant that acts as a stimulant on the body. A preliminary study showed that administration of infusion of 2.1 mg/10 g body weight had androgenic and anabolic effects in white mice. Piperine is the main alkaloid suspected to have an aphrodisiac effect. Centella asiatica and Curcuma domestica are the excipients. The objective of this research was to determine the toxicity and the aphrodisiac effect of a combination infusion of Piper retrofractum L, Centella asiatica and Curcuma domestica on Sprague-Dawley strain male rats.Methods: Parameters for aphrodisiac effect were the frequency of introduction, climbing, and coitus of male rats. The concentration of pre and post-treatment of male rat testosterone hormone was determined using rat testosterone ELISA kit. Sub-chronic toxicity was determined from SGOT, SGPT, urea, and kreatinin concentrations of pre and post treatment of rats orally administered the combination infusion everyday for 3 months.Results: There were signifi cant differences in coitus and climbing frequencies between the male rat group administered combination infusion of Piper retrofractum L., Centella asiatica, and Curcuma domestica and the group not given the infusion (P=0.032. There was no signifi cant difference between testosterone levels of the group administered the infusion and kontrol (P=0.248. Administering high dose (5000 mg/200 g BW of infusion caused a signifi cant difference in levels of SGOT and SGPT between pre and post-treatment.Conclusion: The infusion of 1000 mg/200 g body weight had safe aphrodisiac effect on male Sprague-Dawley rats libido. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:19-22 

  11. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  12. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Anthonotha macrophylla P. Beauv. leaves in female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu; Abdulquadri Funmbi Olutoye

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract ofAnthonotha macrophylaleaves (AEAML) in female Wistar rats. METHODS:Thirty female rats were assigned into fi ve groups of six animals each, such that rats in groups A, B, C, D and E received oraly 1 mL of distiled water only, 5.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Exus Ginseng (a polyherbal formulation), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML, respectively. After 1 h of treatment, female sexual behaviour parameters were monitored for 30 min. Luteinizing hormone (LH), folicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E) and testosterone were also determined using standard methods. RESULTS:Six secondary metabolites were detected in AEAML with alkaloids (13.00 mg/L) being the highest. AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW signifi cantly (P0.05). The 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML did not alter (P>0.05) the sexual behaviour parameters, serum FSH, LH and E contents, whereas testosterone content increased signifi cantly. The ovarian histology of the animals treated with Exus Ginseng, AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW revealed developing and ruptured folicles with numerous corpora lutea in the stroma, whereas the 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML produced fewer folicles and corpora lutea. CONCLUSION:The enhanced proceptive, receptive and orientation components of the female sexual behaviour by the 25 and 50 mg/kg BW of AEAML confers sexual invigorating potential on the plant. This study thus justifi es the folkloric claim of the plant as a female aphrodisiac.

  14. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthaman, K; Adaikan, P G; Prasad, R N V

    2002-08-09

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) has long been used in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments and is popularly claimed to improve sexual functions in man. Sexual behaviour and intracavernous pressure (ICP) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of TT containing protodioscin (PTN) as an aphrodisiac. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and castrated), testosterone treated (normal and castrated, 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, bi-weekly) and TT treated (castrated, 5 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily). Decreases in body weight, prostate weight and ICP were observed among the castrated groups of rats compared to the intact group. There was an overall reduction in the sexual behaviour parameters in the castrated groups of rats as reflected by decrease in mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF) and increase in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, EL) as well as post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). Compared to the castrated control, treatment of castrated rats (with either testosterone or TT extract) showed increase in prostate weight and ICP that were statistically significant. There was also a mild to moderate improvement of the sexual behaviour parameters as evidenced by increase in MF and IF; decrease in ML, IL and PEI. These results were statistically significant. It is concluded that TT extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to androgen increasing property of TT (observed in our earlier study on primates).

  15. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    OpenAIRE

    Ingmar Weiss; Joachim Ruther; Johannes Stökl

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the invest...

  16. In vivo real-time monitoring of aphrodisiac pheromone release of small white cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Mathews, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The study of insect behavior is of practical importance for developing possible control methods in Integrated Pest Management. Currently, one model of butterfly mating behavior suggests that the initial location of potential mates occurs visually followed by the release of one or more short-range male aphrodisiac pheromones. This model is supported by data obtained from field observations and inferences based on the behavioral effects of chemicals extracted or isolated using indirect and offline techniques. In this study, we performed in vivo real-time monitoring of the male aphrodisiac pheromones released by the small white cabbage male butterfly (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) using confined direct analysis in real time (cDART) mass spectrometry. cDART is a new method easily adapted to the study in real time of chemicals released into the environment by virtually any insect. The major compound released by the male Pieris rapae was identified as ferrulactone. The experimental results reported here indicate that the release of ferrulactone occurs less than 1s after the male visualizes its partner, and reaches a maximum after about one half minute. This study is the first reported in vivo detection and monitoring of butterfly male aphrodisiac pheromones in real time.

  17. Potent natural aphrodisiacs for the management of erectile dysfunction and male sexual debilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Singh Akhand; Rajender, Singh

    2012-01-01

    The area of natural product research is rapidly progressing from traditional medicine to modern medicine having proper scientific basis of its usage. However, identifying the active constituent or the basis of its mechanism holds the key to synthesis of these drugs in the laboratory. Traditional Indian literature such as Ayurveda has listed several plant and animal based resources for treatment of almost every ailment. Erectile dysfunction and male sexual debilities are among the most explored areas in traditional medicine. A number of natural products, mostly plant based, have been claimed to cure erectile dysfunction and related male sexual debilities. These products often are aphrodisiac and have multi-fold effects on male reproductive system. This review aims at compiling the animal and plant based resources which bear promise of treating loss of libido and erectile dysfunction. A special emphasis is paid to find out scientific basis of their usage. The identification of potential resources could help undertake further studies to establish their possible mechanism of action; opening the doors to proper clinical trials for human use.

  18. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-02-17

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial.

  19. Structure elucidation of thioketone analogues of sildenafil detected as adulterants in herbal aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reepmeyer, John C; d'Avignon, D André

    2009-01-15

    Two analogues of sildenafil were detected in herbal dietary supplements marketed as aphrodisiacs. Both compounds were identified as thioketone analogues of sildenafil in which the carbonyl group in the pyrimidine ring of sildenafil was substituted with a thiocarbonyl group. The first compound was identified as thiosildenafil, a compound that has recently been reported as an adulterant in health supplements. The structure of the second compound was established using LC-MS, UV spectroscopy, ESI-MS(n), NMR and a hydrolytic process. A detailed study of the hydrolysis products of sildenafil, thiosildenafil, and the second unknown compound proved that the second compound, named thiomethisosildenafil, had a structure analogous to sildenafil in which the N-methylpiperazine moiety had been replaced with 2,6-dimethylpiperazine and the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group in the heterocyclic ring had been replaced with a sulfur atom. Under the hydrolytic reaction conditions employed in this study, thioketones hydrolyze to ketones (e.g., thiosildenafil-->sildenafil), making this a valuable technique for the structure elucidation of thiosildenafil analogues. Ten herbal dietary supplements, each as a capsule dosage form, were found to contain 8-151 mg of thiomethisosildenafil per capsule, and one herbal dietary supplement was found to contain 35 mg of thiosildenafil per capsule.

  20. Aphrodisiac properties of Montanoa tomentosa aqueous crude extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, M; Cervantes, E; Cervantes-Méndez, M; Rodríguez-Manzo, G

    2004-05-01

    Cihuapatli, the Mexican zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) has an extensive ethnomedical history of use as a traditional remedy for reproductive impairments. During the study of the ejaculatory function in rats and by testing a set of Mexican plants with medicinal properties, we observed that crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitated ejaculation. Thus, we decided to analyze the possibility that this plant possessed sexual stimulant properties. To that aim, copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats receiving doses of 38, 75 and 150 mg/kg of the aqueous crude extract of M. tomentosa, as it is prepared in traditional medicine, was assessed. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the 75-mg/kg dose of the extract on males with anesthetization of the genital area and on sexual behavior of sexually inactive male rats (noncopulators). Results showed that acute oral administration of crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitates expression of sexual behavior in sexually active male rats, significantly increases mounting behavior in genitally anesthetized animals and induces the expression of sexual behavior in noncopulating males. Altogether, these data reveal a facilitatory action of this extract on sexual activity and particularly on sexual arousal. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract preparation of M. tomentosa, used as a traditional remedy, possesses aphrodisiac properties.

  1. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  2. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit from polyandry, sexual conflict theory predicts that females should develop mechanisms to counteract AAPs to achieve additional copulations, but no such mechanisms have been documented. Here we show that during copulation Drosophila melanogaster males transfer two AAPs: cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA) to the females' reproductive tract, and 7-Tricosene (7-T) to the females' cuticle. A few hours after copulation, females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract, which results in increased attractiveness and re-mating. Although 7-T remains on those females, we show that it is the combination of the two chemicals that reduces attractiveness. To our knowledge, female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding.

  3. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  4. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  5. Aphrodisiac use associated with HIV infection in elderly male clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu Tang

    Full Text Available Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi.A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years, number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years, and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection.This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08-3.04, never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08-3.07, and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.98 were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02.Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission.

  6. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps.

  7. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  8. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  9. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Katharina C; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-03-22

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative determination of yohimbine in authentic yohimbe bark and in commercial aphrodisiacs by HPLC-UV-API/ MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, Boris; Ndjoko, Karine; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative method based on an HPLC-UV-MS technique with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation for the analysis of yohimbine in a number of commercial aphrodisiac products is reported. HPLC with multiple-stage mass spectrometry experiments allowed the identification of the target compound and increased the selectivity of complex analyses such as those involved with multi-botanical preparations. The precision and the robustness of the method were improved by the use of two internal standards: codeine for UV detection and deuterium-labelled yohimbine for MS detection. Twenty commercial aphrodisiac preparations were analysed and the amount of yohimbine measured and expressed as the maximal dose per day suggested on product labels ranged from 1.32 to 23.16 mg.

  11. 自拟催情散对乏情母猪的疗效验证%Verification of Self-made Aphrodisiac Powder Curative Effect on Anestrus Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彦文; 邹联斌; 胡杰; 莫胜兰; 屈素洁; 吕思明; 陆文俊; 苏凯; 张步娴

    2014-01-01

    随机将30头乏情母猪分为2组,每组15头,Ⅰ组用自拟催情散按2 g/kg·体重拌料内服,每天2次,Ⅱ组用雌二醇按0.1 mg/kg·体重肌肉注射,以观察其对乏情母猪的治疗效果。结果表明:Ⅱ组母猪在用药后5d内全部出现发情症状,但大多数在第1次发情时不能受孕,而Ⅰ组母猪大多在用药后6~10 d内发情,但通常1次配种成功。说明雌二醇的催情效果优于自拟催情散,而自拟催情散促进卵泡发育的功能优于雌二醇。%Randomly average thirty anestrus sows into two groups.GroupⅠwas taken self-made aphrodisiac powder in 2 g/kg proportion twice a day,when Group II was intramuscularly injected with Estradiol in 0.1 mg/kg proportion.Then observe these two methods’ therapeutic effects.The results showed that the sows in GroupIIcompletely appeared estrous signs after five days,but most sows cannot be pregnant at the first time while mostly GroupⅠsows which under treatment after six to ten days could be.It indicated that aphrodisiac effect of estradiol was superior to self-made aphrodisiac powder,while follicle stimulating development effect of self-made aphrodisiac powder was better than estradiol.

  12. A contact anti-aphrodisiac pheromone supplied by the spermatophore in the rove beetle Aleochara curtula: mode of transfer and evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter-Helas, Jerry; Schmitt, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    By reducing the attractiveness of their mating partner via an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone, males can prevent a remating of the female and thus reduce the risk of sperm competition. For females, the main benefit from allowing the chemical manipulation of their attractiveness is probably the avoidance of sexual harassments from rival males. While mating plugs generally constitute a physical barrier which hinders male mating attempts, chemical manipulations must trustfully inform the responding male of the female's reluctance to mate; otherwise, it would be beneficial to ignore the repellent information. In our experiments, males of the polyandrous rove beetle Aleochara curtula chemically manipulated the attractiveness of their mating partner. Coincident with the deposition of a spermatophore into the female genital chamber, an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone was transferred and readily spread onto the female surface, where it was subsequently perceived by rival males via parameres, the claspers of the male genitalia. Males aborted contact with the mated female to avoid further time- and energy-consuming elements of the mating sequence. The chemical mode of action was demonstrated inter alia by spicing virgin females with spermatophore extracts. The action of the anti-aphrodisiac correlated with the persistence of the spermatophore in the female genital chamber and corresponded to the length of stay of the mated female at a carcass, where the density of rival males is highest. The ensuing benefits for all three parties involved in this communication system, which render this post-copulatory mate guarding strategy evolutionary stable, are discussed.

  13. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

  14. Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C

    2000-07-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate.

  15. Standardised extract of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) increases aphrodisiac potential besides being safe in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Singhal, S; Kumar, N; Rao, C M; Sumalatha, S; Dave, J; Dave, R; Nandakumar, K

    2016-12-01

    The standardised extract of root of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) was evaluated for its aphrodisiac potential and safety profile on reproductive system. Wistar albino rats were trained to provide sexual experience under a dim red light (10 W) in a glass tank. Male and female rats were placed periodically in the glass tank in a particular order, that is male followed by introduction of the receptive female. Dosing of extract was carried out for 54 days at 125 and 250 mg kg(-1) p.o to male rats. On 14th and 28th days, the animals were observed from the cage side for sexual behaviours. Safed musli at both dose levels enhanced sexual vigour and libido which might be useful for treatment of sexual dysfunction in male till 28th day. Safety profile was assessed after 54 days of drug treatment, where both doses showed an increase in sperm count and increase in sperm motility. Thus, it can be stated that both doses possessed the spermatogenic potential, which would be highly beneficial in treating oligospermia or low sperm count. After 54 days of study, there was increase in sperm abnormality (%) at both doses, but not more than 10%, which indicated that this formulation will not induce infertility.

  16. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.

  17. Development of validated RP-HPLC method for the estimation of L-Dopa from Mucuna pruriens, its extracts and in Aphrodisiac formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika G. Rathod

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reversed phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of L-Dopa from Mucuna Prurines, its extract and in Aphrodisiac formulation. HPLC analysis was performed on C18 column using a mixture of Water: Acetonitrile: Methanol containing 0.2 % Triethylamine PH adjusted to 3.3 as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml per minute at detection wavelength of 280 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity in accordance with International conference on Harmonization guidelines. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.999 was obtained for calibration plots in the range of 10 – 80 μg/ml. Intraday and Interday RSD of retention times and peak areas were less than 2.0 %. Average Percent Recovery was 98.83 %. The method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of this marker compound in Polyherbal formulation.

  18. Screening of Indian aphrodisiac ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products for adulteration with sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil using LC/PDA and extracted ion LC-MS/TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Akash A; Shah, Ravi P; Prasad, Bhagwat; Singh, Saranjit

    2010-07-08

    Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products are considered safe under the impression that they are derived from natural products. But recently, there have been several reports worldwide on the adulteration of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors in aphrodisiac herbal formulations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the presence of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil) in ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products sold in Indian market for aphrodisiac/related uses. In total, 85 herbal formulations (HFs) were included in the study. The formulations were extracted with methanol and subjected to centrifugation. The supernatant was analysed by HPLC and LC-MS/TOF. Early detection of the presence of sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil in the herbal samples was done by the study of extracted ion mass chromatograms at the m/z values of respective parent ions, and two prominent fragments of each. In case of sildenafil and tadalafil, adulteration was also detected by comparing the relative retention times (RR(T)) and UV spectra. Further substantiation was done through comparison of accurate mass spectra with those of the two available standards. Of the 85 HFs tested, only one was eventually found to be adulterated with sildenafil. The extent of adulterant in this sample was determined to the therapeutic dose in the formulation. The study thus indicates emergence of the problem of adulteration of Indian herbal products with PDE-5 inhibitors.

  19. 15种壮阳类保健品中西地那非和他达那非的含量分析%Content Analysis of Sildenafil and Tadalafi in 15 Aphrodisiac Health Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝晖; 赵宏冰; 蒋晓煌; 石继连

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the situation of the available aphrodisiac health products in which sildenafil and tadalafi were illegally added to provide the basis for the safety management. Method: Fifteen kinds of available aphrodisiac which was neither drug or health food were randomly examined by the following HPLC method: a C18 column ( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) was used, methanol-0.01 mol · L-1 ammonium acetate solution ( 65: 35 ) was used as the mobile phase, the flow rate was 1.0 mL · min-1 and the detec-tion wavelength was at 284 nm. Result: All the products illegally contained sildenafil and tadalafi with different content. Conclusion: The illegal adding of western medicines in the "three without" aphrodisiac products is common, and the supervision department should strengthen the power of investigation and punishment.%目的:了解市售壮阳保健品中非法添加西地那非和他达那非的情况,为安全监管提供依据.方法:随机抽检市售既非药品也非保健食品的15种壮阳产品,采用C18色谱柱 (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:甲醇-0.01 mol·L-1醋酸铵溶液(65:35),流速:1.0 ml·min-1;检测波长:284 nm;柱温为35℃.结果:15种产品均非法含有不同含量的西地那非和他达那非.结论:非法添加西药成分的现象在"三无"壮阳产品中普遍存在,监管部门应加强查处力度.

  20. Use of a hydrolytic procedure and spectrometric methods in the structure elucidation of a thiocarbonyl analogue of sildenafil detected as an adulterant in an over-the-counter herbal aphrodisiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reepmeyer, John C; D'Avignon, D André

    2009-01-01

    A sildenafil-related compound was detected in an herbal dietary supplement marketed as an aphrodisiac. The compound was identified as an analogue of sildenafil in which the carbonyl group in the pyrimidine ring of sildenafil was substituted with a thiocarbonyl group, and the methyl group on the piperazine ring was substituted with a hydroxyethyl group. Based on this structure, the compound was named thiohydroxyhomosildenafil. The structure of the compound was established using HPLCIMS, UV spectrometry, electrospray ionization-MS/MS, NMR spectrometry, and a hydrolytic process. One key product of hydrolysis was 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine; the identification of this product defined the amine portion of the compound. Another key product of hydrolysis was hydroxyhomosildenafil, generated by hydrolysis of the thiocarbonyl group to a carbonyl group (C = S --> C = O). Hydroxyhomosildenafil was detected as a minor component in the dietary supplement.

  1. Aphrodisiac drug-induced hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnikowicz, Ruth; Amitai, Yona; Bentur, Yedidia

    2004-01-01

    Volatile alkyl nitrites have been used during the past decades for "recreational purposes," and for intensifying sexual experience. Their use has been associated with methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. We report three patients who presented over the past year with acute hemolysis after inhalation of butyl nitrite, two of them had glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

  2. 短期补饲结合药物催情对提高母牛繁殖率效果的观察%Effects of Short-term Supplementary Feeding Combined with Drug Aphrodisiac on Improvement of Cow Reproductive Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 成立新; 栾庆江; 田春英; 祁云霞; 李晓凯

    2013-01-01

    The major problem for beef cattle industry in our country is currently facing with tension of commercial cattle sources and insufficiency of beef supply. Low reproductive rate of basic cows is an important factor causing tension of cattle sources. Therefore, improving cow reproductive rate is of great significance to alleviating tension of cattle sources, improving farming income and promoting healthy development of the industry. In this experiment, the combination of short-term aphrodisiac fodder and aphrodisiac drug was used to improve cow reproductive rate. The results showed that aphrodisiac fodder combined with aphrodisiac drug made cow estrus rate reach 81.8% and percent pregnancy rate reach 63.6% within two months. Estrus and pregnancy rates were improved significantly. Compared with the present mode of production, the technology solution has obvious effects and can significantly improve the breeding economic benefits.%我国肉牛业目前面临的主要问题是商品牛源紧张、牛肉供应不足。基础母牛繁殖率低是造成牛源紧张的重要因素。因此,提高母牛繁殖率对于缓解牛源紧张、提高养殖效益、促进产业健康发展具有重要意义。试验通过在短期内补饲催情饲料结合药物诱导催情的方法,来提高母牛繁殖率。结果表明,饲料催情结合药物催情2个月内母牛发情率达到81.8%,妊娠率为63.6%;发情率和妊娠率均有明显提高。对比目前生产模式,该技术方案使用效果比较明显,可以显著提高肉牛养殖的经济效益。

  3. 液相色谱-质谱联用法检测壮阳类中成药中西地那非的含量%Quantitative Determination of Sildenafil in Aphrodisiacs by LC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓银华; 章为

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立液相色谱-质谱联用(LC-MS)法检测壮阳类中成药中非法添加西地那非含量的方法。方法采用 Waters BEH C18色谱柱(50 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm),流动相:含0.1%醋酸的0.02 mol·L-1乙酸铵溶液-乙腈(7030),流速为0.2 mL·min-1,柱温为35℃;质谱采用电喷雾离子源,多反应监测模式(正离子),两通道475寅100,475寅283。结果西地那非在0.1986~1.986 ng 内线性关系良好,回归方程为 Y=27750X+15232(r=0.9952),平均回收率为96.6%,RSD 为1.8%(n=9),分析方法的定量下限为0.04 ng,检测限为0.01 ng。10批样品中有4批检测出非法添加了西地那非,含量为每次服用量25或50 mg。结论该方法灵敏度高,结果准确可靠,适用于壮阳类中成药中非法添加西地那非的含量检测。%Objective To establish a method for the quantitative determination of sildenafil in aphrodisiacs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Methods Chromatography was carried on a Waters BEH C18 column (50 mmí2. 1 mm,1. 7 μm) with the column temperature being 35 ℃ and 0. 02 mol·L-1 ammonium acetate water solution (containing 0. 1% acetic acid)-acetonitril (7030) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0. 2 mL·min-1 . Determination was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode in two channels,475→100,475→283,using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. Results Sildenafil had a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 1986-1. 986 ng with the linear regression equation being Y=27 750X+15 232 (r=0. 995 2). The average recovery was 96. 6% with RSD being 1. 8% (n=9). The limits of quantitation and detection were 0. 04 ng and 0. 01 ng,respectively. Conclusion The determination results of 10 batches of samples show that the method is sensitive and accurate and can be used as an appropriate technique to detect sildenafil in aphrodisiacs.

  4. Simultaneous determination of 17 aphrodisiac chemical drugs illegally added in health products and Chinese patent medicines by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定保健品及中成药中非法添加的17种壮阳类化学药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 吴惠勤; 黄晓兰; 罗辉泰; 朱志鑫; 林晓珊; 马立果; 蒋娅兰

    2016-01-01

    A method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of seventeen aphrodisiac chemical drugs which were illegally mixed into the health products and Chinese patent medi-cines by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ( HPLC-MS/MS ). The extraction,chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometry parameters were optimized in order to separate three groups of isomers. The drugs were extracted with methanol under ultra-sonic condition,separated on an Agilent Extend C18 chromatographic column( 100 mm × 2. 1 mm,3. 5 μm ) with acetonitrile and water ( additional 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate ) as mobile phases under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0. 25 mL/min. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monito-ring( MRM)mode. The method made seventeen aphrodisiac chemical drugs as well as the three groups of isomers to get the ideal separation and accurate quantitative. The method was proved to be rapid,selective,sensitive and stable,and it has been applied to the screening and detec-tion of aphrodisiac chemical drugs illegally added in health products and Chinese patent medi-cines. All the tested samples show that the aphrodisiac chemical drugs have a high detection rate in the recent three years. The relevant regulatory authorities should pay more attention to it.%建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱( LC-MS/MS)同时测定补肾壮阳类保健品及中成药中非法添加的17种壮阳化学药的定性、定量分析方法。实验优化了前处理方法,并针对几对同分异构体成分优化了分离条件和质谱参数。样品经甲醇超声萃取,提取液经 Aglient Extend C18色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,3.5μm)分离,流动相为乙腈和水(含有10 mmol/L乙酸铵),梯度洗脱,流速为0.25 mL/min,以电喷雾离子源正离子多反应监测( MRM)模式进行MS/MS检测。该方法能很好地分离并定量17种壮

  5. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E; Amato, M; Izzo, A A

    2000-08-01

    Ginseng is the root of the perennial herbs of Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng which contain a series of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) as active ingredients. It is considered a tonic or adaptogenic that enhances physical performance (including sexual), promotes vitality and increases resistance to stress and ageing. The adaptogenic properties of ginseng are believed to be due to its effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevated plasma corticotropin and corticosteroids levels. When used appropriately, ginseng appears to be safe. Nevertheless, documented side effects include hypertension, diarrhoea, restlessness, mastalgia and vaginal bleeding.

  6. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Semecarpus anacardium an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The chloroform extract of Semecarpus anacardium was administered (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Mice. Mounting behavior & mating performance were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. The extracts of the Semecarpus anacardium were found to stimulate the mounting behavior of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The extracts Semecarpus anacardium enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  7. A potential aphrodisiac for female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertovaara, Antti; Linnankoski, Ilkka; Artchakov, Denis; Rämä, Pia; Carlson, Synnöve

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists may enhance sexual activity in human and nonhuman male primates. It is not known whether these compounds influence the sexual behavior of female primates. We determined whether the administration of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole), a dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), or their combination to female Macaca arctoides (stumptail macaque) monkeys produces changes in sexual behavior of the female with a male. Following the administration of drugs to the female, the behavior of the female with a male stumptail was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.03-0.3 mg/kg im) increased short-time mounting behavior of the male and the total number of copulations. Apomorphine alone (0.125-0.25 mg/kg) or in combination with atipamezole had no significant effects on sexual behavior. The result indicates that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist administered in the female stumptail increases sexual behavior of the male with the female. A plausible explanation for this finding is that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist increases sexual arousal in female stumptails and this, possibly due to a change in psychosocial behavior of the female, triggers increased sexual activity in males.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Dapoxetine and 4 PDE5 Inhibitors in Aphrodisiac Health-Care Products by RP-HPLC%反相高效液相色谱法同时测定壮阳类保健品中达泊西汀和4种 PDE5抑制剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 罗进; 耿萌辉; 赵海能; 罗茜; 李扬; 刘尧

    2014-01-01

    提出了反相高效液相色谱法同时测定壮阳类保健品中4种 PDE5抑制剂和达泊西汀含量的方法。样品溶于水中,再加甲醇提取。分取10μL 提取液进样,并用 Inertsil ODS-SP 色谱柱为分离柱和由(A)三乙胺-乙酸-水(8+4+988)混合液,(B)乙腈和(C)0.02%(φ)磷酸溶液三者按不同比例相混的混合液作流动相进行梯度淋洗和分离。在检测波长290 nm 处进行测定。他达那非的质量浓度在1.25~25.0 mg·L-1范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,其余4种化合物的质量浓度在5.0~100 mg·L-1范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)在0.05~0.2 mg· L-1之间。加标回收率在94.1%~109%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=6)均小于1.0%。%A method for simultaneous determination of dapoxetine and 4 PDE5 inhibitors in aphrodisiac health-care products by RP-HPLC was proposed.The sample was dissolved in water and extracted with methanol. The extract (10 μL)was introduced and separated by using Inertsil ODS-SP chromatographic column as stationary phase and mixtures of 0.8% (φ)triethylamine-0.4% (φ)acetic acid,acetonitile and 0.02% (φ)H3 PO4 solution with different mixing ratios as mobile phase in the gradient elution.UV-detection at 290 nm was adopted in the determination.Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of tadalafil was kept in the range of 1.25-25.0 mg·L-1 and for the other 4 compounds in the same range of 5.0-100 mg·L-1 .Detection limits (3S/N)found were ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 mg·L-1 .Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range of 94.1%-109%,with values of RSD′s (n=6)less than 1.0%.

  9. A viral aphrodisiac in the cricket Gryllus texensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Easy, Russell H; Stoltz, Don

    2014-06-01

    We identified the insect iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV as a pathogen of the cricket Gryllus texensis using electron microscopy (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. EM showed that the virus attacks the fat body, an organ important for protein production, immune function and lipid storage. During infection the fat body hypertrophied, but egg production withered, leaving the lateral oviducts empty of eggs; the females were effectively sterile. EM of the testis of infected males suggests that the testis was not invaded by the virus, although sperm taken from the spermatophores of infected males showed little or no motility. Nevertheless, males and females continued to mate when infected. In fact, infected males were quicker to court females than uninfected controls. The virus benefits from the continued sexual behaviour of its host; transmission studies show that the virus can be spread through sexual contact. Sickness behaviour, the adaptive reduction of feeding and sexual behaviour that is induced by an activated immune system, was absent in infected crickets. Total haemolymph protein was reduced, as was phenoloxidase activity, suggesting a reduction in immune protein production by the fat body. The evidence suggests that during IIV-6/CrIV infection, the immune signal(s) that induces sickness behaviour is absent. Curtailment of a host's sickness behaviour may be necessary for any pathogen that is spread by host sexual behaviour.

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; R. K. NEMA

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  11. Pheromones and their role as aphrodisiacs: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the human existence on the earth reproductive biology remained a main concern of research because of its importance. It is widely recognized and demonstrated that odors play an important role in mammalian reproduction. A large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromones, their properties, mechanism of action, and possible receptors for their action. Till now scientific studies indicated that humans use olfactory communi...

  12. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (Paphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  14. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits.

  15. Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Broekgaarden, C.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Mumm, R.; Huigens, M.E.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects¿a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid Trichogra

  16. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance.

  17. Hidden Sidenafil in Aphrodisiac%僞冒壯陽藥中的昔多芬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩堅

    2004-01-01

    在醫藥界中,壯陽藥佔據一個獨特的神秘領域.它有著龐大的市場價值,因此,假冒和僞冒的商品不少;其次,有關它的藥理和效能,更是醫學界中的研究課題之一.

  18. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/117

  19. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage.

  20. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Smith; André Luiz Atroch

    2010-01-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content w...

  1. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rajendar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT could protect the cadmium (Cd-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl 2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week. In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage, respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results : In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions : eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells.

  2. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuntha G

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  3. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. In search of the perfect aphrodisiac: Parallel use of bitter tonics in West Africa and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Mitchell, S.; Volpato, G.; Vandebroek, I.; Swier, J.; Ruysschaert, S.; Rentería Jiménez, C.A.; Raes, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Enslaved Africans in the Americas had to reinvent their medicinal flora in an unknown environment by adhering to plants that came with them, learning from Amerindians and Europeans, using their Old World knowledge and trial and error to find substitutes for their homel

  5. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  6. Analysis of the phallus anxiety in the aphrodisiac advertisement%壮阳药广告中的男根焦虑分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃文芝; 王进鑫

    2015-01-01

    本文从男根在传统文化中的重要性入手,分析构建出传统文化中男性气质是在家庭中男主外女主内,社会中男尊女卑。当今社会中的壮阳药广告的四种类型均指向男性气质,甚至对女性的成功产生了严重的社会焦虑。本文定义了男根焦虑,是指当前社会环境下,为了维持男性的尊严和社会统治地位,无形中形成的超出男性所能承受的生殖器大小、性活动时间长短以及勃起硬度的要求,最终以满足女性性需求为衡量标准的焦虑。男根焦虑的实质是对男性立命之本的逐渐丧失或者说男女地位逐渐平等产生的不安和焦虑。本文分析了社会中出现的男根焦虑现象,并提出对性和男根应作出本真还原。

  7. 壮阳中药中甾体类化合物的研究进展%Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine with Aphrodisiac Nonsteroidal Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阿琴; 朱本贺; 何立巍

    2016-01-01

    甾体类成分是一类具有重要生物学活性的天然产物,广泛分布于自然界中。据不完全统计,已在90多种植物中发现其存在,其中又以百合科、茄科、薯蓣科等植物报道较多。文章通过查阅近10年国内外相关文献资料,对部分具有壮阳作用中药中甾体类化合物的研究进展进行了综述。%Steroidal composition is a kind of important biological activities of natural products, which is widely distributed in nature. According to incomplete statistics, it has been found among more than 90 kinds of plants, and it is commonly reported in the lily family, solanaceae, yam and such plants. Through the related literatures at home and abroad in recent 10 years, the paper reviews the research progress of some steroidal compounds in traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  9. Pheromone production in the butterfly Pieris napi L

    OpenAIRE

    Murtazina, Rushana

    2014-01-01

    Aphrodisiac and anti-aphrodisiac pheromone production and composition in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi L. were investigated. Aphrodisiac pheromone biosynthesis had different time constraints in butterflies from the diapausing and directly developing generations. Effects of stable isotope incorporation in adult butterfly pheromone, in the nectar and flower volatiles of  host plants from labeled substrates were measured by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass s...

  10. An Evaluation of Sea Turtle Populations and Survival Status on Vieques Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-22

    widespread Latin American (indeed, pantropical) belief in 3 the aphrodisiac qualities of turtle eggs had not yet reached Vieques. In any event...to select customers who are known or trnsted by the owner. Belief in the aphrodisiac qualities of turtle .1 eggs has also now reached Vieques. Also...34the turtle penis is considered 3 a powerful aphrodisiac . They get ten dollars an inch for one. They’ll eat it (as is) or put it in a bottle of rw

  11. 中药"催情散"治疗不发情母牛的临床试验%Clinical Trials to Anestrus Cow by Treating Chinese Medicine "Aphrodisiac Powder"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国仓

    2009-01-01

    [目的]提高母畜的发情率,提高经济效益.[方法]应用中药"催情散"进行母牛催情试验.[结果]试验研究对24例不发情母牛用药试验,采取中药"催情散"治疗母牛不发情,经服药后配种,发情率和受配率都达到87.5%.[结论]"催情散"具有催情功效,适用于母畜不发情的病症.

  12. Observation of the ED effect of aphrodisiac seminiferous pills together with wanaike on male%壮阳生精片联合万艾可治疗男性ED疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万卫斌; 张励

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨壮阳生精片联合万艾可治疗男性勃起功能障碍(ED)的疗效.方法:758例ED病人口服壮阳生精片,1日3次,每次10片,连续服用3个月.其间每次性生活时加服万艾可50mg.结果:总有效率为95.9%.结论:壮阳生精片联合万艾可对男性ED患者有良好的疗效.

  13. 两种不同催情方式对母猪繁殖性能的影响%Influence of Two Kinds of Aphrodisiac Way to the Sow Reproductive Performance0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张闯; 邹小峰; 张守石; 张玉民; 成建全; 刘国良

    2011-01-01

    试验旨在研究不同的催情方式对长期空怀母猪的诱导发情及排卵效果的影响.将300头断奶后7 d未发情的母猪随机分为空白对照组、运动增加光照组、公猪试情组,观测3组母猪的繁殖情况.结果表明,运动并增加光照催情效果显著,而且可以改善活仔率,提高母猪的生产效益.

  14. Effects of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix ET Rhizoma extracts on the aphrodisiac qualities of male mice%红景天提取物对雄性小鼠性行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东升; 张帝; 唐芙蓉; 杨慧; 罗麒; 黄刚; 刘振中

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨红景天提取物对雄性小鼠性行为的影响。方法将50只雄性小鼠按体重随机分为红景天低、中、高剂量组,男宝胶囊组,正常对照组,每组10只。红景天低、中、高剂量组灌胃红景天提取物稀释液0.05、0.20、0.80 g/kg,男宝胶囊组灌胃男宝胶囊混悬液2.00 g/kg,正常对照组灌胃等体积生理盐水。2次/d,连续21 d。末次给药后,各组雄性小鼠进行交配实验及抗疲劳实验;处死后取睾丸、脾脏,计算脏器指数,并分别检测睾丸、肝组织 SOD、MDA 水平。结果与正常对照组比较,红景天低、中剂量组雄性小鼠扑捉潜伏期[(20.88±19.94)s、(35.40±22.02)s 比(78.11±43.33)s]缩短(P<0.05或P<0.01);红景天中剂量组雄性小鼠睾丸系数[(0.72±0.10)%比(0.64±0.08)%]增加(P<0.05);红景天中、高剂量组、男宝胶囊组睾丸 SOD[(152.71±38.10)U/mg、(122.32±52.76)U/mg、(94.38±22.20)U/mg 比(25.30±14.21)U/mg]水平升高(P<0.01);红景天中剂量组及男宝胶囊组肝组织SOD[(77.71±26.35)U/mg、(74.10±26.04)U/mg)比(57.92±17.17)U/mg]水平升高(P<0.05)。结论红景天提取物可提高雄性小鼠的性行为能力及小鼠睾丸和肝组织的抗氧化能力。%Objective To study the effects of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix ET Rhizoma extracts on sexual behavior of male mice.Methods 50 healthy male mice were randomly divided into the low dose, middle dose and the high dose Rhodiola group, theNanbao capsules group and the normal control group, 10 mice per group. The low dose, middle dose and high dose group were drenched with 0.05, 0.20 and 0.80 g/kg Rhodiola diluent respectively. TheNanbao capsules group mice were drenched with 2.00 g/kg turbid liquid. The normal control group were drenched with saline in the same volume. Liquid is drenched two times each day for 21 days. After 21 days, 50 female mice were matched with to the ratio of 1:1. The number of free movement and swimming test were observed before execution. After the execution, the organ indexes were calculated, and then the contents of SOD and MDA in the testis and liver were measured.Results Compared with the normal control group, capturing latency period of low dose group and middle dose group (20.88 ± 19.94 s, 35.40 ± 22.02 svs.78.11 ± 43.33 s) significantly decreased (P<0.05 orP<0.01). Testicular coefficient of the middle dose group (0.72% ± 0.10 %vs. 0.64% ± 0.08%) was significantly increased (P<0.05); the content of SOD in testicular of the middle dose group, the high dose groups and theNanbao capsules group (152.71 ± 38.10 U/mg, 122.32 ± 52.76 U/mg, 94.38 ± 22.20 U/mgvs. 25.30 ± 14.21 U/mg) increased (P<0.01); the content of SOD in liver of the middle dose group and theNanbaocapsules group (77.71 ± 26.35 U/mg, 74.10 ± 26.04 U/mgvs. 57.92 ± 17.17 U/mg) significantly increased (P<0.05).Conclusion Rhodiola extract can improve the ability of sexual behavior of male mice, and improve the antioxidant capacity of testis and liver.

  15. 壮阳药中枸橼酸西地那非和淫羊藿的鉴别%Identification of Acid citric sildenafil and Korean epimedium herb in Aphrodisiac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萍; 张连玉

    2006-01-01

    目的测定海马多鞭丸中枸橼酸西地那非和淫羊藿以控制产品质量.方法采用TLC法和HPLC法,HypersilBDS-C18(4mm×250mm,5μm)色谱柱;以乙腈-水(25:75)为流动相;流速:1.0ml·min-1;检测波长:270nm;柱温:室温.结果及结论该方法样品的回收率高,准确、重现性好,可以做为壮阳药质量控制的一种方法.

  16. HPLC- TOF/MS determination of sildenafil and tadalafil in the capsule of aphrodisiacs%HPLC-TOF/MS检测补肾强身胶囊中西地那非和他达那非

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维; 冉兰; 魏伯平; 杜钢

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立液相色谱飞行时间质谱联用法(HPLC-TOF/MS)测定补肾强身胶囊中非法添加西地那非和他达那非的定性定量分析方法.方法:以HPLC-TOF/MS通过色谱保留时间,小于3 ppm的质量精度测定,样品与对照品源内碰撞诱导解离(CID)及同位素丰度比来进行定性分析;再以被测物提取离子的峰而积进行定量分析.结果:供试品中两地那非、他达那非与对照品色谱峰的保留时间一致,质量精度小于2.5 ppm;对照品与样品源内CID碎片离子相似;同位素丰度比推测结果相似;提取离子的回归方程分别为Y=9.92×105C-4.51×105,r=0.9994(n=5) ,Y=1.96×105C-2.70×103,r=0.9990(n=5);线性范围分别为0.0715~35.75和0.1006~50.30μg·mL-1;最低检测限(以信噪比为3:1计)分别为4和6 ng·mL-1;精密度RSD(n=5)分别为2.0%和0.97%;重复性RSD(n=5)分别为2.0%和3.7%;回收率分别为98.9%和90.9%(n=9).结论:该方法简便、快速、灵敏、准确,适于同时对补肾强身胶囊中西地那非和他达那非定性、定量.

  17. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. (a) Any product that bears labeling claims that it will arouse or increase sexual desire, or that it will improve sexual performance, is an...

  18. 中国古代小说以"物"写"人"传统的形成与发展——以"紧箍儿"、"胡僧药"与"冷香丸"为例%The Birth and Growth of Describing a Character by an Object in Ancient Chinese Novels —Tight Hoop, Aphrodisiac and Cold Fragrance Pill as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜贵晨

    2012-01-01

    中国古代小说以"物"写"人"的传统自唐代发生,至元明间《三国演义》、《水浒传》逐渐被突出起来,但至明中叶《西游记》写"紧箍儿"始,才有了真正作用于人物性格命运的物象设计,至《金瓶梅》写"胡僧药"、《红楼梦》写"冷香丸"而渐次发扬光大.其后先相承,显示了中国古代小说在"文学是人学"方向上的进步,而其为物之来历与作用大都神异怪诞,表明中国古代小说人物尤其是中心人物形象,虽在细节的写实上可能精妙绝伦,但其基本性格命运却多因作者的意图而成,很大程度上是作家理念的产物,与西方所谓"现实主义"的风格相去甚远.我们切不可只是套用西方文论来解读中国古代小说,而应从文本出发,适当参照西方理论,独立自主地发现中国古代小说的民族特点与独特内涵.

  19. The Aphrodisiac Effect of Honey-Lycium Barbarum-Tomato Juice in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice Models%蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有军; 孙秀婷; 严群超; 刘均

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用.方法 取NIH小鼠50只随机分为对照组、模型组、蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高(24.804 g/kg)、中(12.402 g/kg)、低(6.201 g/kg)剂量组,分别灌胃给样40 d.考察蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖衰老模型小鼠血清中丙二醛(MDA)水平、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、血清和睾丸组织中睾酮水平、精液乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)水平以及精子活动率的影响.结果 模型组小鼠血清中MDA水平高于对照组,血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高剂量组小鼠血清中睾酮水平高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁中剂量组小鼠血清中MDA水平低于模型组,SOD活性高于模型组,精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁低剂量组小鼠血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠具有壮阳作用.

  20. 广西低档场所中老年男性使用壮阳药与HIV感染的相关因素研究%Risk factors of aphrodisiac use associated with HIV infection among middle-aged and the elderly men of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴华; 唐振柱; 沈智勇; 张鸿满; 陆华湘; 陈欢欢; 罗柳红; 黄慧; 阮玉华

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解广西农村中老年男性使用壮阳药的情况,初步探索使用壮阳药与艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染间的关系.方法 对广西4市9县区的低档商业性交易场所的中老年(≥50岁)男性进行问卷调查,获取社会人口学、行为学和壮阳药使用史等信息,采集5mL静脉全血样本检测HIV抗体.在研究地点调查药店、街边药摊和私人诊所,购买壮阳药样本,用高效液相色谱法检测主要功效成分.用PASW Statistics 18.0软件进行统计分析.结果 共调查研究地点药店315家,街边药摊240个,个体诊所233家,销售壮阳药的药店占64.8%(204家)、药摊52.1%(125个),私人诊所5.6%(13家);共采集壮阳药样品83个品种154份,平均价格1.5元/粒,主要成分为西地那非,样品西地那非规格40~560mg/g.调查中老年男性3485人,HIV阳性率2.96%(103/3485),平均年龄(63.4±8.6)岁,29.7%o的研究对象(1036人)使用过壮阳药,≥80岁和70~79岁组使用壮阳药的比例较高,分别为42.5%和39.0%,年龄与壮阳药使用比例呈正相关(r=0.162,P=0.000).52.9%的壮阳药使用者表示使用壮阳药后增加了找小姐的频率,壮阳药使用者中“近一个月使用壮阳药的次数”与“近一个月嫖娼次数”呈正相关(r=0.483,P=0.000).风险分析结果显示,使用壮阳药[比值比(OR)=1.80,95%可信区间(CI):1.21~2.69)、从未使用安全套(OR=1.88,95%CI:I.25~2.82)]是嫖客感染HIV的危险因素.结论 广西农村地区壮阳药价格低廉、种类繁多且易于购买,主要成分为西地那非;低档场所相当比例的中老年男性使用过壮阳药.相关分析提示,使用壮阳药、未使用安全套可能是经商业性途径感染HIV的危险因素.

  1. Determination of 5 aphrodisiacs illegally adulterated into Chinese proprietary medicine by LC/MS (n) Trap%LC/MS(n)法检测补肾壮阳类中成药和保健食品中非法添加5种性功能类化学药品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 夏晶; 胡青; 季申

    2009-01-01

    目的:利用LC/MS(n))对补肾壮阳类中成药和保健食品中添加的性功能类化学药品阿朴吗啡、育亨宾、伐地那非、西地那非和前列地尔的检测方法进行了研究.方法:采用ZORBAX SB C18(150mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-0.5%甲酸,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min;采用离子阱质谱,ESI(±)检测,建立了包含保留时间与MS(n)谱图的标准谱库.结果:阿朴吗啡、育亨宾、伐地那非和西地那非均产生[M+H]+分子离子峰,前列地尔产生[M-H]-分子离子峰;MS(n)谱图的特征碎片离子明显.结论:方法简便、可靠、准确.可作为检测补肾壮阳类中成药和保健食品中非法添加化学药品的方法.

  2. The correspondence analysis on HIV infection and relevant risk factors of aphrodisiac use among middle-aged or elderly male clients in Guangxi%广西中老年嫖客使用壮阳药及艾滋病感染的对应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢欢; 左梦玲; 陆华湘; 陈礼; 罗柳红; 黄慧; 韦舒琳; 吴兴华

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解广西中老年嫖客壮阳药使用情况及相关影响因素,探索使用此类药物与中老年嫖客感染HIV的关系.方法 在调查地区走访药店、私人门诊和街边药摊,采集壮阳药标本.同时在低档暗娼场所对≥50岁嫖客进行问卷调查,获取社会人口学、行为学及壮阳药使用史等信息,采集血样标本进行HIV和梅毒抗体检测,用对应分析方法分析老年嫖客使用壮阳药相关影响因素及艾滋病感染的关系.结果 本研究共调查当地458家药店,269家私人门诊,264个街边药摊,销售壮阳药的药店占57.0%(261/458)、私人门诊4.8%(13/269)和街边药摊56.4% (149/264).收到3485份有效问卷,其中1 040人(29.84%)使用过壮阳药,并检出HIV阳性病例103例(2.96%).结果显示无固定性伴、不知道艾滋病、读书≤5年、身体不健康、性功能不好和≥70岁等特征人群使用壮阳药的风险较高;而有固定性伴、知道艾滋病、读书>5年、身体健康、性功能好和50~59岁等特征人群使用壮阳药的风险较低;且使用壮阳药的老年嫖客感染艾滋病毒的风险高于未使用者.结论 广西壮阳药分布广泛,价格便宜容易获得.中老年嫖客使用者主要集中年龄较大,文化程度较低,无固定性伴和艾滋病相关知识了解较少的人群,壮阳药的使用可能对人群感染HIV起到推助作用.

  3. 超高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器法快速测定保健食品中违法添加的14种性功能药物%Rapid Determination of 14 Illegally Added Aphrodisiac Drugs in Functional Foods by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳; 李涛; 耿庆光; 刘海静; 朱小红; 王松

    2014-01-01

    建立超高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器检测方法同时、快速测定抗疲劳类及增强免疫力类保健食品中违法添加的14种性功能类化学药物(那红地那非、红地那非、伐地那非、羟基豪莫西地那非、枸橼酸西地那非、豪莫西地那非、氨基他达拉非、他达拉非、硫代艾地那非、伪伐地那非、那莫西地那非、康力龙、丙酸睾酮、苯丙酸诺龙).采用ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱,流动相A:乙腈-甲醇(90:10,V/V),B:0.7%三乙胺溶液(pH 2.8),梯度洗脱,流速0.35 mL/min.采集230 nm波长处的色谱图进行初筛和定量.根据14种药物的光谱特征建立光谱库,确证检出化合物.结果表明:14种性功能药物在15.0 min内可有效分离,在8~80 μg/mL的线性范围内相关系数均大于0.999 5,平均回收率为90.1%~106.5%,相对标准偏差为0.7%~4.9%,检测限为2~3 ng.该方法简便、快速、灵敏度高且重复性好,可作为检测抗疲劳类及增强免疫力类保健食品中违法添加化学药物的快速测定方法.

  4. Rapidly Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of 3 Kinds of Drugs which were Illegally Added in Dietary Supplement of Aphrodisiacs%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定保健食品中3种违禁药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振世; 林东波; 徐端琼; 卢文斌; 许琨琨; 池秀珍

    2016-01-01

    目的 建立保健食品中他达拉非、西地那非和伐地那非3种违禁药物的高效液相色谱-串联质谱检测方法.方法 样品采用乙腈提取,经超声,Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(4.6×150mm,5.μm)分离,等度洗脱,在LC-MS/MS多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行定性及定量分析.结果 3种药物的检出限:他达拉非0.0166mg· kg-1,西地那非为0.0075mg·kg-1,伐地那非为0.0204mg·kg-1,在10~ 100ng·mL-1范围内,10ng·mL-1、50ng·mL-1、100ng·mL-13个添加水平的平均回收率为93.9%~98.8%,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=3)为1.7% ~3.1%.结论 该方法能够快速、准确、灵敏地对保健食品中非法添加的他达拉非、西地那非和伐地那非进行定性及定量测定.

  5. "补肾、壮阳"类保健品中添加违禁药品枸橼酸西地那非的调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Illegal Addition of Sildenafil Citrate into "Aphrodisiac" and "Kidney Restorative" Health Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斯幸

    2004-01-01

    @@ 枸橼酸西地那非片(商品名万艾可,俗称伟哥)是国家药品监督管理局批准上市的治疗男性性功能障碍的药品,属于二类精神药管理范围,不得在药店零售,只有二级及其以上医院心血管内科、内分泌科、神经内科、精神科和老年科具有主治医师及其以上专业技术职务任职资格并经执业注册的医师,可开具该药处方[1].

  6. Increase of the ejaculatory potency by the systemic administration of aqueous crude extracts of cihuapatli (Montanoa genus) plants in spinal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Franco, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Peña, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, evidence on the aphrodisiac activity of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora and a comparison with the aphrodisiac activity of Montanoa tomentosa is presented. By using the fictive ejaculation model in spinal male rats, electromyographic recordings of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation were obtained in the bulbospongiosus muscles and analyzed after the intravenous injection of aqueous crude extracts of Montanoa tomentosa, Montanoa frutescens, and Montanoa grandiflora. Results showed that the systemic administration of the aqueous crude extracts of Montanoa plants elicits a significant increase in the ejaculatory capacity of spinal male rats with very robust ejaculatory motor patterns that included the expression of tonic penile erections and penile movements and the potent expulsion of urethral contents. In conclusion, Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora increase the ejaculatory potency with aphrodisiac activity similar to Montanoa tomentosa.

  7. Relaxant mechanisms of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone on isolated human cavernosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansakul, Chaweewan; Tachanaparuksa, Kuldej; Mulvany, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effects and mechanisms responsible for the activity of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on isolated human cavernosum. PMF is the major flavone isolated from Kaempferia parviflora claimed to act as an aphrodisiac. PMF caused relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted h...

  8. The Administrative Power Grab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  9. Anti-Aromatase Activity of the Constituents from Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult) has traditionally been used as an herbal aphrodisiac. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from T. diffusa. Material and me...

  10. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Ackar; Kristina Valek Lendić; Marina Valek; Drago Šubarić; Borislav Miličević; Jurislav Babić; Ilija Nedić

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  11. [Medical mythology and etymologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albou, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The lecture is an allusion to Sournia's work and his book "Mythologies de la médecine moderne". (P.U.F 1969). The author evokes the origins of medical terms such as psyche, hermaphrodite, nymphomania, aphrodisiac, marcissism, hypnotism, etc.

  12. Curculigo orchioides: the black gold with numerous health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (family Amaryllidaceae) is an endangered rasayana herb which is popularly known as "Kali Musli". The plant is native to India, and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations and is considered to have aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Various chemical constituents like mucilage, phenolic glycosides, saponins and aliphatic compounds from the plant have been reported. The plant is also considered as an important component of various herbal preparations of the Chinese and Kampo medicine. The present review is an attempt to enumerate various biologically tested activities and evaluation of different phytochemicals present in this important medicinal plant.

  13. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Hot Louisiana chef Dan Segall has been doing his research and come up with a list of the most saucy, aphrodisiacal foods you'll find this side of Paris. Succulent oysters, rich truffles infused with foie gras, creamy chocolate-all served for two on a single plate to help get you in the sharing mood! The sensational meal is accompanied by live music and a glass of

  14. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam, P. V.; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  15. Intravenous injection of elemental mercury: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of intravenous injection of elemental mercury are described in this report. One patient succumbed and the other remains asymptomatic two years after the surgical removal of all the injected mercury. Management of intravenous injection of elemental mercury (intended to be an aphrodisiac in these two cases is discussed here and the need for surgical removal of all accessible mercury has been emphasized.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of yohimbe bark and its preparations originating from Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille when used in food, e.g. in food supplements. The bark of the plant contains a number of indole alkaloids of biological relevance and preparations of yohimbe bark have been traditionally used as general tonic, performance enhancer and as an aphrodisiac. Food sup...

  17. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

    OpenAIRE

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In ad...

  18. A Review of the Ethnobotany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    John Prosper Kwaku Adotey; Genevieve Etornam Adukpo; Yaw Opoku Boahen; Frederick Ato Armah

    2012-01-01

    Alstonia boonei De Wild is a herbal medicinal plant of West African origin, popularly known as God's tree or “Onyame dua”. Within West Africa, it is considered as sacred in some forest communities; consequently the plant parts are not eaten. The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as echitamidi...

  19. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  20. Extinciones históricas: el caso de la enigmática planta del Silfio

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This review refers to the Silphium (Apiaceae), one of the most enigmatic plants in the history of the Mediterranean. In Greco-Roman world, it was a panacea and especially, a powerful aphrodisiac which left many written historical references, in addition to their image mosaics and coins. Silphium extinction, due to over-exploitation is certainly a good example for the conservation of biodiversity and for the defense of sustainable use of natural resources.

  1. Growing technology earthy Tribulus terrestris (Tribulus terrestris L.) and its use

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) as for planting, content substances, pharmacological use and with influences of planting technology or elicitors upon the active substance contents. Saponines, flavonoids, and phytosterols are the main active substances of Puncturevine. The saponines act as aphrodisiacs, the flavonoids treat with heart diseases and the phytosterols decrease the cholesterol concentration in blood plasma. The active substance contents depend on ...

  2. EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B. T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant

  3. A review of pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Lagenaria siceraria: A miracle herb

    OpenAIRE

    Solangi, Muhammad Aslam; Najam, Rahila

    2013-01-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd) class Magnoliopsida family Cucurbitaceae is an excellent fruit in the nature consisting of all the essential constituents that are necessary for normal and good health of human beings. Lagenaria siceraria is official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Traditionally, Lagenaria siceraria fruits had been used as a general tonic, cardiotonic, and cardioprotective drug. In addition, it had also been used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, antidote to certain poisons, scorpion st...

  4. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubeh Bozorgi; Zahra Memariani; Masumeh Mobli; Mohammad Hossein Salehi Surmaghi; Mohammad Reza Shams-Ardekani; Roja Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the w...

  5. Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D.Ramasooriya; M.G.Dharmasiri

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally treated with 1500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. Results: The 1500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. Conclusion: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.

  6. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  7. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

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    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  8. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajesh; Sellaturay, Senthy; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing', we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing' (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a 'crystal-like belly' to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

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    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  10. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

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    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  11. Contact Dermatitis Associated with Mandragora Plant

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    Yavuz Katırcı

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandragora plant contains 80 different substances including alkoloids such as mandragorine, hiyosiyamine, and skapolamine. It presents sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic effects. In our presentation, we studied the case of a 58-year-old female patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis following the application of Mandragora roots to the skin for the treatment of leg pains. Plants such as Mandragora, which contain many chemicals, must be used carefully. Further, emergency physicians must be aware of the side effects of plants used in traditional medicine and show great accuracy at the diagnosis-treatment point.

  12. Hygrophila spinosa : A comprehensive review

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    A D Kshirsagar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T Ander, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is a promising medicinal plant with great economic potential. The medicinal value of H. spinosa has been appreciated in the ancient medical literature. The plant contains terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and is traditionally known as an aphrodisiac, renal tonic, and for its health-promoting properties. The plant is cultivated throughout India. However, systematic information on the different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

  13. Effect of Curculigo orchioides rhizomes on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N S; Rao, Ch V; Dixit, V K

    2007-12-01

    The rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides have been traditionally used as aphrodisiac. In the present study ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on sexual behavior in rats. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract change significantly the sexual behavior as assessed by determining parameters such as penile erection, mating performance, mount frequency and mount latency. Moreover a pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect was evidenced by weight gains of reproductive organs. The treatment also markedly affected sexual behavior of animals as reflected in reduction of mount latency, an increase in mount frequency and enhanced attractability towards female. Penile erection index was also incremented in treated group.

  14. Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium Aromaticum and its Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Debjit bhowmik; K. P. Sampath Kumar; Akhilesh Yadav; Shweta Srivastava; Shravan Paswan; Amit sankar Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum), many medicinal uses have been most famously applied to toothache, and for mouth and throat inflammation. The dove has been used in India and China, for over 2,000 years, as a spice to check both tooth decay and counter halitosis that is bad breath. In Persia and China, it was considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian). In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every ...

  15. COMPARATIVE L-DOPA AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL CONTENTS IN SEED MATERIALS OF MARKET SAMPLES OF MUCUNA PRURIENS (L) DC

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayambika C; Jegadeesan M; Ganthi A. Saravana

    2010-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Papilionaceae) is used in male impotency, as aphrodisiac, in sexual debility, and as nervine tonic. It also possesses anti-parkinson property, possibly due to the presence of L-DOPA. Market samples of ‘Atmagupta’ (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC) an Indian Ayurvedic and Siddha drug contain seeds of seven taxa. The dried powders of commercial and genuine samples were analysed for anti-nutritional factors and L–DOPA content. Raw M. deeringiana seeds were rich in Tannin, Hydro...

  16. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CHLOROPHYTUM GLAUCUM DALZ. – A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT

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    Patil V. N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum glaucum Dalz. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum glaucum has been carried out in this study.

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHLOROPHYTUM LAXUM R. BR.

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    Patil Vishal Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum laxum R. Br. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum laxum has been carried out in this study.

  19. Pheromones and their role as aphrodisiacs:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Semwal; Ratendra Kumar; Udai Vir Singh Teotia; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the human existence on the earth reproductive biology remained a main concern of research because of its importance.It is widely recognized and demonstrated that odors play an important role in mammalian reproduction.A large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromones, their properties, mechanism of action, and possible receptors for their action.Till now scientific studies indicated that humans use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones.This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones as aphrodisiacs.

  20. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  1. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. De...

  2. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Devi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

  3. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  4. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. sweet: A comprehensive review

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    V J Galani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

  5. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

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    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  6. Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: chemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities - a review Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: química, usos tradicionais e medicinais e suas atividades farmacológicas - uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. The seeds are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative, used for diseases of the blood. The plant is known to possess antitumor, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and haematopoietic activity. It contains lupeol, stigmasterol, butelin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. The present review article is focused on phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects of Talimakhana.Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, é a fonte do medicamento ayurvédico "Kokilaaksha", e da droga Unani, Talimakhana. As sementes têm de sabor acre e amargas, são afrodisíacas, tônicas, calmantes, e usadas para doenças do sangue. A planta é conhecida por possuir propriedades antitumorais, hipoglicêmica, afrodisíaca, anti-bacteriana, na eliminação de radicais livres e peroxidação lipídica, atividade hepatoprotetora e hematopoiéticas. Ele contém lupeol, estigmasterol, butelina, ácidos graxos e alcaloides. Este trabalho apresenta estudos químicos, farmacológicos e outros aspectos importantes da Talimakhana.

  7. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed.

  8. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

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    Jameel Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. Traditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and urinary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

  9. Management of priapism in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeke, Onyeanunam N; Omunakwe, Hannah E; Eke, Ndu

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to present the management of priapism in adult men in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. All patients who presented with priapism in 2 hospitals in Port Harcourt from July 2007 to April 2014 were prospectively studied. Treatment was assigned based on clinical presentation. Data analyzed included: age on clinical presentation, risk factor, mode, and outcome of management. There were 18 patients aged 17 to 60 years (median age: 30 years). Three patients (16.7%) presented with stuttering priapism. Most of the patients presented after 24 hours of onset. Sixteen patients (89.9%) had hematological disorders. Five patients (27.8%) took suspected aphrodisiac medications. Seven patients (38.9%) were managed conservatively. The rest achieved detumescence following glandulo-cavernous shunting. Erectile function after treatment was satisfactory in 5 patients (27.8%). The commonest cause of priapism in Port Harcourt was hematological disorder. Most of the patients presented late. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction after treatment was high.

  10. Adaptogenic herb ginseng (Panax) as medical food: Status quo and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here. In this regard, the recent publications on health benefits of ginseng have been extracted from NCBI and ScienceDirect database. The claimed antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue, antidiabetic, antitumor, immunomodulation, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and aphrodisiac properties have been analyzed. This review presents a fair assessment and insights on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) potential of this herb.

  11. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Mohan Maruga Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f. (Nymphaeaceae is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  12. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  13. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  14. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  15. Antiinflammatory sesquiterpenes from the root oil of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroushi, Afaf; Auzi, Abdurazag A; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem; Elzawam, Fawzi; Elsherif, Akram; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2011-05-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae), commonly known as 'Shilsh-el-zallouh', 'Hashishat-al-kattira' or 'The Lebanese viagra', is a small shrub that grows abundantly on the Hermon Mountain between Syria and Lebanon. The seeds and roots of this plant have long been used in the Middle East as an aphrodisiac, and for the treatment of frigidity and impotence for both men and women. The antiinflammatory properties of three major daucane esters, ferutinin (1) teferin (2) and teferidin (3), isolated from the root oil of Ferula hermonis, were assessed by the carrageenan-induced oedema model in rats. The antiinflammatory effect of both 1 and 2 was observed with a dose of 100 mg/kg, while compound 3 did not show any antiinflammatory activity; conversely it produced a significant proinflammatory effect 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection.

  16. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  17. Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with tribulus alatus extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. El-Tantawy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.

  18. 高效液相色谱法测定保健食品中西地那非的不确定度评定%Evaluation of Uncertainty for Determination of Sildenafil Citrate Added in Health Products by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲; 吴嫣艳; 张妤琳; 鲁寅生

    2012-01-01

    The uncertainty of HPLC method for determination of sildenafil citrate illegally added in aphrodisiac products was evaluated. A mathematical model was established by analysis of the uncertainty sources and the combined uncertainty was finally obtained by investigating the uncertainties of various component variables,%评价了高效液相色谱法测定壮阳类保健食品中掺入的枸橼酸西地那非含量的测量不确定度,通过不确定度来源分析,建立不确定度评定的数学模型,并考察影响不确定度的因素,计算出测定的不确定度结果.

  19. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklis, R.M.; Bellerive, M.R.; Humm, J.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation.

  20. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ′curiosity plant′. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  1. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and HOMO, LUMO analysis of yohimbine hydrochloride by density functional theory and ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2011-11-01

    Yohimbine hydrochloride (YHCl) is an aphrodisiac and promoted for erectile dysfunction, weight loss and depression. The optimized geometry, total energy, potential energy surface and vibrational wavenumbers of yohimbine hydrochloride have been determined using ab initio, Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A complete vibrational assignment is provided for the observed Raman and IR spectra of YHCl. The UV absorption spectrum was examined in ethanol solvent and compared with the calculated one in gas phase as well as in solvent environment (polarizable continuum model, PCM) using TD-DFT/6-31G basis set. These methods are proposed as a tool to be applied in the structural characterization of YHCl. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap are presented.

  2. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  3. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

  4. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  5. On Ethics Culture Color for Farewell Music%论离别音乐题材的伦理色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳

    2015-01-01

    离别是人类共有真挚的心理感受和社会文化现象,也是艺术重要题材。优秀离别音乐起始于崇高的道德“完善动机”,本质上都是善的自为。在道德催情,音乐化善作用下,蕴藉着澄怀咏象的个人体验和斑斓的伦理文化色彩。%Parting is mankind the true feelings and psychological phenomenon of social culture, but also the important theme of works of art, showing at all times and in all countries people inherent experience, position, culture differences. Excellent farewell music in moral aphrodisiac, music good role, Yun Cheng Huai Yong like personal experience and ethical culture color.

  6. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meydia Meydia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally istraded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroidcompounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract thesteroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexaneand get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid ofgamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent duringthe first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids onlydissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable.Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf =0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  7. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  8. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Saccharum spontaneum (L. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. known as Kasa (Family: Poaceae is a traditional herb, it has excellence medicinal value; has been advocated in the treatment gynaecological troubles, respiratory disease. Roots are used as galactagogue and diuretic and in ayurveda system roots are also used as astringent, emollient, refrigerant, diuretic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles and sexual weakness. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis as well as extractive value and quantitative phytochemical screening of different extractives were studied. The major components of the extractives like total phenolic, total flavonoids were also estimated respectively. The characteristic of microscopy, physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and quantitative chemical screening were performed in root extractives of the plant material as a mean of authentication.

  9. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE RAW DRUG SOURCES OF PRASARINI USED IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rema Shree et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to classical texts Paederia foetida is used as the genuine source plant of the drug Prasarini, it posses properties like astringent, aphrodisiac, laxative, bitter etc. In Ayurvedic practitioners Merremia tridentata ssp. tridentata and Merremia tridentata ssp. hastata are used as the source plant of this drug. However no conclusive pharmacognostic study of these plants has been performed yet. The present investigation deals with the comparative study of morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical characters of these three plants. Three plants show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical levels. Anatomically these three plants show differences in many characters. But phytochemical studies revealed that these plants show much similarity. - sitosterol was present in all the three plants but their concentrations shows differences. The parameters used in this study will help to identify the genuine and substitute source plants of the drug prasarini for the preparation of ayurvedic medicines and to ensure the quality of formulations.

  10. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiranda Devaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd. DC (Fabaceae, Adenia hondala (Gaertn. de Wilde (Passifloraceae and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR primers (IM1F and IM1R were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

  11. PERUBAHAN SEBARAN SEL-SEL ASIDOFIL DAN BASOFIL HIPOFISA PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PASAK BUMI (Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurip Pratomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi is popular as an aphrodisiac in the traditional medical herb. Boiled drink water of the root powder of pasak bumi is believed can increase the secondary reproduction characters such as libido and the duration of erection. This article is part of the research report that focus on: the distribution of hypophysis acidophil and basophil cells caused of the pasak bumi optimal dose treatment. Research carried out in an experiment using Hemaktosilin Eosin(HE staining method to study micromorphological distribution of the acidophil and basophil cells of the male rat hypophysis after pasak bumi treatment (the dose of 18 mg pasak bumi/200 g body weight during three days, and the control of 1 ml aquadest. Result of the research showed that: Basophyl cells increased significantly in the third days of pasak bumi administered. Meanwhile acidophyl cells decreased in the third days of pasak bumi administered.

  12. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociception, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve and anti-inflammatory effects. This review is elaborately describing the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. This review would assist researchers to search scientific information in the future.

  13. A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Priyashree

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica.

  14. Effects of Light Intensity on the Growth, Photosynthetic Characteristics, and Flavonoid Content of Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqian Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo is used in traditional medicine as an aphrodisiac and to strengthen muscles and bones. Several recent reports have shown that flavonoids from Epimedium also significantly affect the treatment of breast cancer, liver cancer, and leukemia. However, few studies have examined the medicinal-ingredient yield of Epimedium, a light-demanding shade herb, under different light intensities. To investigate the effects of light intensity on medicinal-ingredient yields, Epimedium was exposed to five levels of light intensity until harvest time. Leaf dry biomass under L4 was the highest among different light treatments. L4 was also associated with the highest net photosynthetic rate. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that L3 produced the highest amount of epimedin C, and that flavonoid content responded to light levels differently. Results indicated that L3 and L4 were the optimal light levels for medicinal-ingredient yield.

  15. Phenanthrenes of Eulophia ochreata Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pawra tribe of Satpuda mountain ranges that belong to Maharashtra region, India, is known to use tubers of Eulophia ochreata for rejuvenating and aphrodisiac properties and also for curing rheumatism. For systematic scientific validation of folk claims of E. ochreata tubers, we report here the collection, extraction, isolation and spectral characterization of molecules and also its evaluation for free radical scavenging activity. Isolation of molecules was carried out on activity-guided fractionation in 2,2 ′ -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. This is the first report of isolation of 9,10-Dihydro-2,5-Dimethoxyphenanthrene-1,7-diol and 5,7-Dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,6-diol from this orchid.

  16. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A J

    1994-01-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid derived mainly from the bark of the African tree, Pausinystalia yohimbe. Although many pharmacological properties of yohimbine have been described, at the plasma concentration attained at recommended dosages in man the predominant activity is antagonism of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. For more than 70 years yohimbine has been used as a treatment for male and female sexual difficulties. It has enjoyed a reputation as an aphrodisiac although no effect on sexual drive in humans has been adequately demonstrated. Yohimbine has been evaluated in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials. It does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK.

  17. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  18. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  19. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  20. A review of the potential of medicinal plants in the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, N; Malviya, S; Jain, S; Vyas, S

    2016-10-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a common disorder that appears to be a consequence of a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Due to mental stress, insufficient physical exercise and various aetiological factors, human being's life is becoming less pleasant, which leads to incapability to have sexual pleasure. The allopathic drugs used for sexual dysfunction are believed to produce a variety of side effects and affect other physiological processes and, ultimately, general health. Therefore, the search for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified probably because of less side effects availability and affordability. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants traditionally used as aphrodisiacs but only few of them are scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. This article has summarised the medicinal plants traditionally recommended and scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction.

  1. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Yadav, Jyoti; Kaushik, Pawan; Sacher, Disha; Rani, Ruby

    2011-10-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules. Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, carminative, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, heart diseases, chronic enteritis, renal calculus, diabetes, rheumatism and kidney disorders. It was reported to contain, among other components, essential oils, tannins, phenol, glycosides, monoterpenes and carbohydrates. In the last few years, new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside, galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol, galangin, alpinin, zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A. galanga. Therefore, the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A. galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.

  2. A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

  3. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  4. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae, commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  5. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN.: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

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    Prajapati PK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality of life. gokshura  (Tribulus terrestris Linn. one of such plants, is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for  various therapeutic properties like balya (strengthening, brimhana (nutritive, rasayana (rejuvenator, mootrala (diuretic, shothahara (anti-inflammatory, vajikarana (aphrodisiac etc. and useful in the management of mutrakrichhra (dysurea, ashmari (renal calculi etc. It is a perennial plant, grown predominantly in India and Africa. Its extract contains alkaloids, saponins, resins, flavanoids and nitrates. Considering its therapeutic values, a review has been done to gather information on different aspects of gokshura. Besides Ayurvedic references, the present paper also emphasizes on recent researches carried out on this plant for its clinical and pharmacological evaluation.

  6. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): a review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

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    Bozorgi, Mahbubeh; Memariani, Zahra; Mobli, Masumeh; Salehi Surmaghi, Mohammad Hossein; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Roja

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

  7. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus: A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

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    Mahbubeh Bozorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

  8. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

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    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  9. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats.

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    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Pholpramool, C

    2008-10-01

    Krachaidum (KD, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker), a native plant of Southeast Asia, is traditionally used to enhance male sexual function. However, only few scientific data in support of this anecdote have been reported. The present study investigated the effects of feeding three different extracts of KD (alcohol, hexane, and water extracts) for 3-5 weeks on the reproductive organs, the aphrodisiac activity, fertility, sperm motility, and blood flow to the testis of male rats. Sexual performances (mount latency, mount frequency, ejaculatory latency, post-ejaculatory latency) and sperm motility were assessed by a video camera and computer-assisted sperm analysis respectively, while blood flow to the testis was measured by a directional pulsed Doppler flowmeter. The results showed that all extracts of KD had virtually no effect on the reproductive organ weights even after 5 weeks. However, administration of the alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 4 weeks significantly decreased mount and ejaculatory latencies when compared with the control. By contrast, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters. All types of extracts of KD had no effect on fertility or sperm motility. On the other hand, alcohol extract produced a significant increase in blood flow to the testis without affecting the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. In a separate study, an acute effect of alcohol extract of KD on blood flow to the testis was investigated. Intravenous injection of KD at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow to the testis. The results indicate that alcohol extract of KD had an aphrodisiac activity probably via a marked increase in blood flow to the testis.

  10. An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg

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    Qasmi Iqbal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg has been mentioned in Unani medicine to be of value in the management of male sexual disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aphrodisiac effect of 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg along with its likely adverse effects and acute toxicity using various animal models. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. to different groups of male rats daily for seven days. The female rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were studied and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Likely adverse effects and acute toxicity of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, produced significant augmentation of sexual activity in male rats. It significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, Intromission Latency and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. It also significantly increased Mounting Frequency with penile anaesthetisation as well as Erections, Quick Flips, Long Flips and the aggregate of penile reflexes with penile stimulation. The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and acute toxicity. Conclusion The resultant significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous adverse effects indicates that the 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing both libido and potency, which might be attributed to its nervous stimulating property. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of nutmeg in the management of male sexual disorders.

  11. New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.

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    Nunes, Kenia P; Torres, Fernanda S; Borges, Marcia H; Matavel, Alessandra; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria E

    2013-07-01

    The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide

  12. [Chemical and DNA analyses for the products of a psychoactive plant, Voacanga africana].

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    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Maruyama, Takuro; Miyashita, Akinori; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-08-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is a small tropical African tree. The root bark and seeds of this tree contain a number of alkaloids, including ibogaine (a hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac compound in bark), tabersonine (a major constituteent of seeds) and other voacanga alkaloids, traditionally used in Africa for religious purposes. Recently, some kinds of products containing this plant (root bark and seeds) have been distributed in the drug market in expectation of its hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac effects. There has been no report that has discussed quantitative analyses of these alkaloids in the products and their botanical origins. In this study, to investigate the trend of such a non-controlled psychotropic plant of abuse, a simultaneous analytical method was developed using LC/MS for the voacanga alkaloids including ibogaine and tabersonine in the commercial products of V. africana. Moreover, the botanical origins of these products were investigated by DNA analyses. As a result of the LC/MS analyses, the products were classified into two chemical types; an ibogaine-type and a tabersonine-type. The samples of the ibogaine-type contain ibogaine (0.05-0.6%) and other voacanga alkaloids; voacamine, voacamidine and voacangine, while those of the tabersonine-type mainly contain tabersonine (0.6-1.6%). The sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA, trnL-F region suggested that most of the products were derived from V. africana or closely related plants. They were classified into four genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the trnL-F IGS region. The proposed methods of chemical and DNA analyses would be useful for investigating the trend in the distribution of the products of V. africana.

  13. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  14. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali: Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

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    Shaheed Ur Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali, a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500–2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents’ identification, determination, further development and most

  15. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  16. Phytoestrogens from Psoralea corylifolia reveal estrogen receptor-subtype selectivity.

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    Xin, D; Wang, H; Yang, J; Su, Y-F; Fan, G-W; Wang, Y-F; Zhu, Y; Gao, X-M

    2010-02-01

    The seed of Psoralea corylifolia L. (PCL), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been applied as a tonic or an aphrodisiac agent and commonly used as a remedy for bone fracture, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in China. In our study, the estrogen receptor subtype-selective activities of the extracts and compounds derived from PCL were analyzed using the HeLa cell assay. The different fractions including petroleum ether, CH(2)Cl(2) and EtOAc fractions of the EtOH extract of PCL showed significant activity in activating either ERalpha or ERbeta whereas the n-BuOH fraction showed no estrogenic activity. Further chromatographic purification of the active fractions yielded seven compounds including the two coumarins isopsoralen and psoralen, the four flavonoids isobavachalcone, bavachin, corylifol A and neobavaisoflavone, and the meroterpene phenol, bakuchiol. In reporter gene assay, the two coumarins (10(-8)-10(-5)M) acted as ERalpha-selective agonists while the other compounds (10(-9)-10(-6)M) activated both ERalpha and ERbeta. The estrogenic activities of all compounds could be completely suppressed by the pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suggesting that the compounds exert their activities through ER. Only psoralen and isopsoralen as ERalpha agonists promoted MCF-7 cell proliferation significantly. Although all the compounds have estrogenic activity, they may exert different biological effects. In conclusion, both ER subtype-selective and nonselective activities in compounds derived from PCL suggested that PCL could be a new source for selective estrogen-receptor modulators.

  17. EVALUATION OF NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF STEPHANIA VENOSA HERB CONSUMPTION IN HEALTHY RATS

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    Terdthai Tong-Un

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders especially anxiety and depression. Most of the drugs for these conditions used nowadays have adverse side effects so the need for newer, better-tolerated and more efficacious treatments is remaining high. Growing attention is being paid to traditional herbal medicines. Stephania venosa Spreng (S. venosa; SV is a Thai traditional herb which has been used for cancer treatment as well as an aphrodisiac. In addition, accumulating lines of evidence reported that the ethanol extract of SV exhibited an antioxidant and exerted acetylcholinesterase inhibitory. However, the in vivo neurophamacological activities of this plant have never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the neurophamacological effects of a crude extract of SV introduced orally at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1 BW once daily for a period of 2 weeks. The anxiolytic and anti-depression like activities were determined after single administration, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment using elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Only SV 20 mg kg-1 treated rats exhibited a significant anxiolytic effect at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anti-depression like activity. Our findings provide a potential of the SV consumption might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for the anti-anxiety disorder. However, further investigations about possible active ingredients and the precise underlying mechanisms are still necessary.

  18. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

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    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  19. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  20. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

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    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  1. Effect of Ferula hermonis root extract on rat skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2011-12-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. is an aphrodisiac plant that grows in the Mediterranean region. It has been reported that treatment with acetonic extract from the root of this plant acutely increases serum testosterone in the rat. This study investigated the effects of F. hermonis extract alone or combined with exercise on rat skeletal muscle fibers. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control-sedentary (CS) that had no treatment or exercise; ferula-sedentary (FS) that was orally treated with ferula extract at a dose of 60 mg/kg/rat every other day over a period of 20 d; control-exercised (CE) that was trained by swimming for 40 min every other day; and ferula-exercised (FE) that received ferula and performed exercise. At the end of experiments, the fiber diameter and number of muscle nuclei of tibialis anterior were measured by using immunofluorescent techniques and software analyses. The FE group showed significant increases in muscle weight, fiber size and nuclear number compared with the other groups. However, no significant changes in the aforementioned parameters were found among the CS, FS and CE groups. Ferula treatment and exercise were additive to each other. In conclusion, short-term exercise combined with administration of F. hermonis extract was more effective in enhancing the growth of skeletal muscle fibers than exercise alone.

  2. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

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    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  3. Indian folklore medicine in managing men's health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Balasubramanian, K; Ansari, A S

    2016-10-01

    India is a home for a large variety of plants with remarkable medicinal and pharmacological value. Traditional medicine in the form of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani has used many of these plants since ancient days for treating and curing various ailments of the body. When it comes to issues related to reproductive health, people still hesitate to discuss and/or accept it openly and hence look for alternate and natural remedies. The various tribal populations distributed across different parts of the country still use these plant extracts in various formulations for maintenance of good health. The medical utilities of several of these plants have been documented; however, there are many more, whose potential is yet to be explored. This review discusses the role of various plants grown in the Indian subcontinent that have been widely used in maintaining various aspects of reproductive health in men such as infertility, aphrodisiac, contraception, libido, sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract cancers as well as in treating chronic disorders.

  4. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  5. Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward

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    Suresh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward (Turneraceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety neurosis, and as an aphrodisiac. Mother tinctures (85% ethanol extracts of T. aphrodisiaca have also been used for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. In the present investigation, T. aphrodisiaca mother tinctures formulated by three reputed manufacturers of homoeopathic medicines (NLK, DWSG and SBL were evaluated for their anxiolytic activity. Dried mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca were subjected to anxiolytic activity evaluation at various doses, i.e. 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 mg/kg p.o. in mice using elevated plus maze apparatus. Dried mother tinctures exhibited significant anxiolytic activity at 50 mg/kg (NLK, 75 mg/kg (DWSG and 125 mg/kg (SBL, respectively, with reference to control as well as standard (diazepam, 2 mg/kg p.o.. Mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca available in the market, have significant anxiolytic activity. Amongst the three mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca analyzed, the dry residue of NLK possesses the highest amount of anxiolytic constituent(s. To ensure uniformity and consistency of biological effects in herbal formulations, these should be standardized on the basis of bioactive markers. The authors are actively involved in isolating the bioactive constituent(s from T. aphrodisiaca so that the plant can be standardized on the basis of biologically active constituent(s.

  6. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

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    Meydia Meydia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally is traded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroid compounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract the steroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid of gamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent during the first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids only dissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable. Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf = 0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  7. Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chromosomal Status and Natural Propagation of Some Plants of Lahaul-Spiti and Adjoining Hills

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    Puneet Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study documented the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of plants from an ecologically fragile cold desert area of Lahaul-Spiti (Himachal Pradesh, India. Local people use plants for curing the stomach troubles, pain reliever, cough, gastric disorders, and aphrodisiac and other household purposes. In addition, chromosome numbers, male meiosis, and natural propagation were also investigated in these ethnobotanically used plants. Present investigations also form the basis for exploitation of intraspecific chromosomal variation/new cytotypes recorded in some of the presently studied species to detect biochemical diversity in the medicinally important plants. For documentation of ethnobotanical information, personal observations and interviews were conducted with medicine men, hakims, farmers, shepherds, local healers, and old aged people. This study identified 40 plant species under 33 genera belonging to 17 families which have been used locally for curing various diseases and other purposes. All the chromosome counts are new to the study area. On worldwide basis, meiotic chromosome counts of n=14 and n=8 in Rosularia alpestris and Corydalis govaniana, respectively, are the first ever reports. The present study indicates that the people of the area possess good knowledge about the different uses of plants in the area. It has been noticed that due to the lack of interest among younger generations in the preservation of invaluable ethnic knowledge, there is every possible chance of losing such a rich heritage of knowledge. It is very urgent to conserve such invaluable ethnic knowledge before it gets lost.

  8. Spermatogenic activity of rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn in male rats

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    N S Chauhan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on orientation behavior and spermatogenesis in albino rats. A change in orientation behavior was assessed by orientation towards female, towards environment, towards self and type of mobility. Administration of 100 mg/Kg b. w. of ethanolic extract had pronounced effect on orientation of male towards the female rats. Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals. The increased spermatogenesis in treated group was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatocyte and spermatids. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac.   Industrial relevance: Study proposes to elucidate and demarcate the potential of Rasayan herbs in the treatment as well as uprooting the causes of disease; which is the underlying principle of Rasayana therapy. This leads to discovery of newer phytoconstituents with better activities and provide source of new biomolecules for biotechnologists to work on. The study explore the utilization of Rasyana herbs for effective management of sexual dysfunction.  It brings out a competent literature on rasayana, validating their utilization. It gives a larger platform for the herbal cultivators by providing scientific support and data to the traditional unvalidated herbal drugs as rejuvenative tonics.

  9. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

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    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  10. EFFECT OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS KOEN ON REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF FEMALE ALBINO MICE

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    Haque Ansarul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Costus speciosus Koen. Retz. belongs to family Zingiberaceae. It is known as Crepe zinger in English and Jom lakhuti in Assamese. Traditionally, rhizome of this plant is used as ethno-medicine for curing different health ailments. This plant is widely used for fertility control in women by the rural people of Rangia Sub-division of Kamrup District, Assam. In ayurveda, the rhizomes are ascribed to be bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, purgative, antihelminthic, depurative, febrifuge, expectorant and tonic. The methanolic rhizome extract was investigated for its effect on ovary and uterus of Gonado-intact female adult mice. The extract at two different doses (250 mg/kg, 500mg/kg body weight for 10 days has showed significant decrease in ovarian weight and increase in uterine weight in comparison to normal control. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites i.e., alkaloids and flavonoids. The finding of the present study put some light showing the endocrine active effects of the Costus speciosus in animal model.

  11. A review on plants used for improvement of sexual performance and virility.

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    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V K; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.

  12. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk)

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    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-01-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate. PMID:27965755

  13. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

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    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  14. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.

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    Inamdar Faiyyaz B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are effective in the treatment of infections because of their selective toxicity that is they have the ability to injure or kill an invading microorganism without harming the cells of the host. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae is parasitic plant. It is used as anthelmintic, carminative, purgative, constipation, aphrodisiac, alterative in different disorder. Ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. were prepared by soxhlet extraction method. The qualitative and quantitative, macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical, physicochemical, analysis of plant has been studied. Antimicrobial activity of stems of cuscuta reflexa Roxb were studied using ethanolic extract against Gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa as well as on some fungal strains like Penicillium citrium, Aspargillus niger using standard (Penicillin. Sterile nutrient agar plates were prepared by using Pour plate & Spread plate method. The ethanolic extracts were poured into the wells of sterile nutrient agar medium using agar cup plate method. The results were analysed by using zone of inhibitions and it was observed that Gram negative and Fungal strains showed more antimicrobial activity as compared to the Gram positive bacteria.

  15. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

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    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  16. Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract

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    Yeng eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized Eurycoma longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes.

  17. MSM POEMS: A case of identity

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonight at a classical dance recital symbolizing the eternal quest of the soul-force for God I too raised for myself some questions As I saw the dancer adopt body twisted beautifully gymnastic postureslike a question mark put before me -who am I?Am I the inquisitive streetwalker listening at pavements to snake charmers' aphrodisiac calls, watching indolently as the fast cycling rogue whirling past knocks her off, squeezes her breasts, makes off and leaves me to pacify her smothered adolescence. Or am I the automaton That hangs on to footboards and breezes past in fast trains every morning and evening the only sensation left in me being in my hands holding on for dear life, and in my lips wolf whistling as I swirl past platforms. Or just the nimble fingers typing away at jet-speed, taking down bosses' notes, thumbing across wads of money, hand shaking with prospective customers. Or just tongues, tongues and more tongues with mounds and mounds of sugar and ghee and adulterated oils pouring it all into unknowing ears furthering business prospects feeding everyone around in slow poison doses and fattening on pure ghee, purity of expression, conscience. So that I can decorate my drawing room with costly paintings and upholstery watch expensive dance recitals and answer question marks once in a while.

  18. Dracaena arborea extracts delay the pro-ejaculatory effect of dopamine and oxytocin in spinal male rats.

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    Watcho, P; Modeste, W-N; Albert, K; Carro-Juarez, M

    2014-01-01

    Dracaena arborea is a medicinal plant with ethnopharmacological aphrodisiac reputation. In the present study, the effect of an intravenous administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the dried roots of this plant on the ejaculatory pattern of spinal cord-transected and urethane-anaesthetized rats was investigated. In addition, the effects of these extracts were also determined on dopamine and oxytocin-induced ejaculation. Systemic administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (5, 20, 60, 100 mg kg(-1)) of D. arborea did not activate fictive ejaculation, whereas dopamine (0.1 μM kg(-1)) and oxytocin (0.5 UI kg(-1)) provoked ejaculation evidenced by the rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles accompanied with penile erection and sometimes with expulsion of the seminal plugs. Pretreatment of spinal rats with D. arborea extracts dose-dependently blocked the pro-ejaculatory activity of dopamine and oxytocin. In conclusion, the present study shows that the bioactive substances present in the extracts of D. arborea inhibit the activity of the bulbospongiosus muscles through the blockade of dopaminergic and oxytocinergic receptors in rats.

  19. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

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    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  20. Anticancer Effect of Ferulago Mughlea Peşmen (Apiaceae) on Cancer Cell Proliferation

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    Filiz, Bakar; Songül, Karakay; Bostanlık, Delimustafaoğlu; Gül, Fatma; Ceyda Sibel, Kılıç

    2016-01-01

    Ferulago W. Koch. (Apiaceae) genus is represented by approximately 50 taxa throughout the world. Ferulago species are known as “Çakşır” or “Çağşır” in Turkey and mostly known for their aphrodisiac effects. However recent reports emphasize the activity of various Ferulago species against cancer, as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lyophilized extract of F. mughlea Peşmen, a species endemic for Turkey, on cancer cell proliferation. For this purpose human prostate (PC-3) and colorectal (SW-480) carcinoma cells were used to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of Ferulago W. Koch and the measurements were performed via MTT test. Lyophilized extracts obtained from aerial parts and the roots exhibited potent inhibitor effects on cell proliferation. Aerial part of the plant inhibited the proliferation of SW-480 cell at 48th hour with a 0.119 mg/mL IC50 value. PMID:27980585

  1. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

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    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; van Wijk, Michiel; Ke, Gao; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far. We tested the hypothesis that the male sex pheromone in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens perfumes the female and functions as an anti-aphrodisiac. Indeed, virgin females perfumed with male pheromone extract, or with its main component, mated significantly less than control virgin females, and this effect persisted for two successive nights. This chemical mate guarding strategy was disadvantageous for H. virescens females, because the reproductive output of twice-mated females was significantly higher than that of once-mated females. Since the female and male sex pheromones are biosynthetically related in this and other moth species, chemical mate guarding may also impose selection pressure on the long-range female sex pheromone channel and consequently affect the evolution of sexual communication. PMID:27934963

  2. Improvement of penile erection, sperm count and seminal fructose levels in vivo and nitric oxide release in vitro by ayurvedic herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, M; Thompson, D; Connellan, P; Deseo, M A; Morris, C; Dixit, V K

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, the effect of four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs on penile erection, sperm count, seminal fructose content in vivo and nitric oxide (NO) release in vitro was assessed. Lyophilised aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. (CB), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (CO), and Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (DH) were orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar strain male albino rats. Penile erection index and sperm count were determined by visual observation; the seminal fructose concentration was measured spectrophotometrically using resorcinol reagent; and NO release was assessed in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264) spectrophotometrically using a commercial Griess reagent kit. Penile erection index, sperm count, seminal fructose concentration and in vitro NO release were the parameters measured. A significant effect on the sperm count, seminal fructose content and penile erection index was observed upon treatment with the extracts. The effect of extracts on inducible NO release in vitro directly correlated with the enhanced erectile function in vivo. The aphrodisiac claims attributed to the four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs were tested and a distinctive effect of all extracts tested was observed, with C. borivilianum showing a highly significant response for all parameters measured in vivo and in vitro. The present study also provides a good correlation between the in vivo improvement of penile erection and in vitro NO releasing activity of the extracts. Increase in seminal fructose levels and sperm count further validates the role of these herbs in improving reproductive function.

  3. GOLDEN EYE GRASS - A MAGICAL REMEDY BY NATURE

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    Nidhi Soni et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Curculigo orchioides, Amaryllidaceae also known as “Golden eye grass”. It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The rhizome is rich in Curculigoside, other glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the rhizome shows antioxidant, anti inflammatory, spermatogenic, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiasthamatic, supporting its traditional uses. In this review article, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, tissue culture study and its reported pharmacological properties.

  4. Syzygium aromaticum extracts as good source of betulinic acid and potential anti-breast cancer

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    Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae, is an evergreen tree with anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the anti-breast cancer effect of extracts from leaves, stem and bark of S. aromaticum and to develop a method for preparation of betulinic acid fraction from the leaves. Betulinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents of the extracts were determined by HPLC. A betulinic acid fraction was prepared by simple crystallization of leaves extract and was characterized by HPLC and mass analysis. Anti-breast cancer effects were studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The extracts were found to contain high levels of betulinic acid particularly the leaves extract which contained 17% wt/wt. The betulinic acid fraction contains 75% betulinic acid. Cytotoxicity testing reveals high and selective cytotoxic effect of the stem extract on MCF-7 cells with IC50 33±1.6 µg/mL. Cytotoxic effect of the stem extract was due to activation of apoptotic machinery of cell death. Combination studies of stem extract with tamoxifen reveals antagonistic effect at high concentration of tamoxifen and enhancement effect at low concentration. The selective cytotoxicity of the stem extract of S. aromaticum on MCF-7 is not due to betulinic acid but due to other constituents yet to be discovered.

  5. EFEK ANTIFERTILITAS EKSTRAK AKAR SOM JAWA (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L. JANTAN

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    Tetri Widiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Talinum paniculatum Gaertn commonly is used as aphrodisiac herb. Phytosterol, saponin, flavonoid and tannin of the herb have a certain bioactivity and may affect to the body system. The objective of this research was to examine the antifertility effects of sam jawa (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. root extract (SJRE on male mice (Mus musculus L.. Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups randomly with 5 replications. SJRE was dissolved in aquadest and given orally everyday for 34 days. The treatment dosages were 0 (control, 100,200, and 300 mg/kg BW. At 35th day mice were sacrificed and sectioned to remove testes and epididymis spermatozoas. Testes were sectioned using paraffin method and stained using Haematoxyllin-Eosin. Spermatogenic cells in each seminiferous tubule were counted to investigated spermatogenesis activity of testes. Epididymis sperm suspension was used to investigate sperm quality i.e: morphology, velocity and motility. Quantitatives data were analized using ANOVA and continued DMRT on 5% significance level. The result showed SJRE had antifertility effects on male mice (Mus musculus L. could inhibit spermatogenesis (decrease the spermatogenic cells count and decrease the sperm quality (increase percentage of abnormal sperm, decrease sperm motility and also decrease sperm velocity.

  6. EFFECT OF CATHA EDULIS ON INSULIN, RESISTIN AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NON-DIABETICS

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    Mohamed Ibrahem Kotb El-Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the biochemical effects of Catha edulis leaves chewing (as psycho stimulant and aphrodisiac on the serum concentration of resistin, insulin, cortisol, zinc, calcium, copper and blood glucose in both healthy individuals and type 2 diabetic patients were examined. 80 male subjects aged 35-55 years were recruited in this study, 40 of them were previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetics and the other 40 were healthy non-diabetics. The above two groups were subdivided into two subgroups (n = 20 in accordance on whether they were regular and chronic khat chewers or none into NNK; healthy non-khat chewers, NK; healthy khat chewers, DNK; type 2 diabetic non-khat chewers and DK; type 2 diabetic khat chewers. Khat chewing resulted in elevated resistin, cortisol, FBG, PBG levels and HOMA-IR in either diabetics or healthy khat chewers than those of non-khat chewers and generally in diabetics than healthy. In addition, khat chewing resulted in a significant increase in calcium and copper serum levels. In contrast, serum zinc and insulin levels in diabetic chewers were significantly lower than those of diabetic’s non-chewers. Catha edulis Forsk chewing adds additional toxic effects to type 2 diabetics by increasing cortisol and resistin levels while decreasing insulin secretion and sensitivity.

  7. [Current knowledge on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1 ,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Mallaret, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an old anaesthetic drug which was misused in the 80-90's as an anabolic agent (bodybuilding), recreational drug (drunkenness, euphoric, disinhibiting and aphrodisiac effects) and as a date rape drug (disinhibiting, hypnotic and amnesic effects). Its use in the general population is low, and mainly concerns gay population in nightclubs and young people in parties. The intoxications, above all with alcohol combination, can be severe, with coma and breathing depression, or even fatal. Chronic use leads to psychic and physical dependence; withdrawal syndrome can be severe, with agitation and delirium. In 1999, GHB classification as a narcotic resulted in the increased use of GHB prodrugs gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which were easily commercially available as solvent and cleaning products. Like GHB, they have a narrow window of use, and share similar toxicity. Their increased cases of recreational use and of severe drug intoxication, abuse and dependence, led the French Ministry of Health in 2011 to prohibit their sale and transfer to the public.

  8. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  9. Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Giovanni; Guerrini, Monica; van Grouw, Hein; Gupta, Brij K; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Al-Sheikhly, Omar F; Awan, Muhammad N; Khan, Aleem A; Zeder, Melinda A; Barbanera, Filippo

    2015-03-17

    Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th-20th century) specimens from across the species' current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity.

  10. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

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    Kuntal Ghosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benincasa hispida (Thunb. of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral, Aphrodisiac (vrishya, Appetizer (dipana; used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta, Purpura (Raktapitta, Emaciation (Kshaya, Mental disorder (Chetovikara, etc. In the present study fruit of Benincasa hispida was authenticated Pharmacognostically in the department of Pharmacognosy, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurveda University of Pharmacy, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Each and every drug has its own physical and chemical characteristics that help for separating it from other closely related drugs. Hence physicochemical studies of a particular drug by making use of various parameters help in standardizing the drug and validate it. Chromatographic techniques were adopted for the separation of active principles present in the fruit powder. Therefore, an attempt has been made to standardize Kushmanda powder, an Ayurvedic medicine based on the TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profile.

  11. Antispasmodic Effects and Action Mechanism of Essential Oil of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray on Rabbit Ileum

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    Daniel Zavala-Mendoza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (C. mexicana plant is used in folk medicine to treat fever and rheumatism; it is used as a diuretic, antispasmodic; and it is used for its aphrodisiac properties. This study investigates the effects of the essential oil of C. mexicana (EOCM on the contractility of rabbit ileum and the mechanisms of action involved. Muscle contractility studies in vitro in an organ bath to evaluate the response to EOCM were performed in the rabbit ileum. EOCM (1–100 µg·mL−1 reduced the amplitude and area under the curve of spontaneous contractions of the ileum. The contractions induced by carbachol 1 µM, potassium chloride (KCl 60 mM or Bay K8644 1 µM were reduced by EOCM (30 µg·mL−1. Apamin 1 µM and charybdotoxin 0.01 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. The d-cAMP 1 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. l-NNA 10 µM, Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS 1 µM, d,l-propargylglycine 2 mM, or aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride 2 mM did not modify the EOCM effect. In conclusion, EOCM induces an antispasmodic effect and could be used in the treatment of intestinal spasms or diarrhea processes. This effect would be mediated by Ca2+, Ca2+-activated K+ channels and cAMP.

  12. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  13. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

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    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  14. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-09-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far.

  15. Pedalium murex Linn.:An overview of its phytopharmacological aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel; Damiki Laloo; Rajesh Kumar; Siva Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly,P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article forP. murex published so far.

  16. Morphoanatomy and pharmacognostic study of the wood of Croton echioides, the Northeastern Marapuama

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    Cláudio R. Novello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton echioides Baill., Euphorbiaceae, is a small tree found in Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Its stem bark has been widely sold as an aphrodisiac and tonic, as a substitute for the roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. Olacaceae, the Amazon Muira Puama or Marapuama, and C. echioides is characterized as the "Northeastern Marapuama". This contribution describes a morphoanatomical analysis and pharmacognostic study of stem bark of this species. The stem has a thick cortex with compound starch grains and laticifers; a sclerenchymatic sheath which consists of brachysclereids with large crystals externally to the phloem, and abundant fiber in the secondary xylem, as the main features of the species. The data obtained for water content (9.26±0.07%, water-soluble extractives (3.92±0.19%, total ash (1.24±0.06% and acid-insoluble ash (0.16±0.01%, together with the chromatographic profile obtained by TLC, contribute to the quality control and standardization for the plant drug. The pharmacological screening indicated LD50 values above 500 mg/kg orally and equal to 500 mg/kg by the i.p. route, as well as some stimulant potential, depending on the dose.

  17. Is the use of plants in Jordanian folk medicine for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction scientifically based? Review of in vitro and in vivo human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M A

    2017-04-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system.

  18. 母猪繁殖障碍治疗效果观察%Treatment Effect of Sow Reproduction Disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丰; 张丁华; 曹智高; 银岭; 桂启胜; 朱金凤

    2014-01-01

    Using western medicine to flush or perfuse the uterus,Yimu biochemistry powder and aphrodisi-ac powder mixture feeding sows form “triple therapy”to treat sow reproduction disturbance respectively. The hormone therapy was as the control group to evaluate the effect of the “triple therapy”,and the cure rate was 90.42%.Treatment course lasted 2-7 days.Compared with the control group,the difference was extremely significant(P < 0.01).The results suggests that “triple therapy”for reproductive barriers has good curative effect and can be applied in clinic.%利用西药冲洗子宫或子宫灌注、益母生化散与催情散拌料内服组成的“三联疗法”治疗母猪繁殖障碍,以激素疗法为对照组,评价“三联疗法”的治疗效果。结果表明,“三联疗法”的治愈率90.42%,疗程2 d~7 d,与对照组相比差异极显著(P <0.01)。“三联疗法”对母猪繁殖障碍具有较好的疗效,可以在临床上推广应用。

  19. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

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    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  20. Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-02-01

    Since ancient times, saffron, the dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L. has been extensively used as a spice and food colorant; in folk medicine it has been reputed to be efficacious for the alleviation and treatment of ailments. In addition to the three founded major constituents including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, presence of carotenoids, carbohydrates, proteins, anthocyanins, vitamins and minerals provide valuable insights into the health benefits and nutritional value of saffron. Of the carotenoids present in saffron, highly water-soluble crocin (mono and diglycosyl esters of a polyene dicarboxylic acid, named crocetin) is responsible for the majority of its color, and appears to possess various health-promoting properties, as an antioxidant, antitumor, memory enhancer, antidepressant, anxiolytic and aphrodisiac. It is also worth noting that the crocin principle of saffron exhibited high efficacy along with no major toxicity in experimental models. We would be remiss to not consider the great potential of saffron and crocin, which benefits the cuisine and health of human life throughout the world. The present study provides a comprehensive and updated report of empirical investigations on bioactivities and biological characteristics of crocin.

  1. VAJIKARANA: A UNIQUE THERAPY OF AYURVEDA

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    Bagde A. B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved, the science of life deals with every aspect of life and Vajikarana is one of its eight branches being practiced since time immemorial. Ayurveda has two aims i.e. protection and promotion of health and secondly cure from diseases. Vajikarana may be employed for fulfilling both of them i.e. promotion of sexual health and curing the sexual diseases. Sexuality and reproduction are so vital in Ayurveda that an entire discipline, known as Vajikarana, is dedicated to enhancing fertility and rejuvenating sexual and reproductive energy. Vajikarana deals with the preservation and amplification of sexual potency of a healthy man and conception of healthy progeny as well as management of defective semen, disturbed sexual potency and spermatogenesis along with treatment of seminal related disorders in man. Vajikarana promotes the sexual capacity and performance as well as improves the physical, psychological and social health of an individual. Factually the Vajikarana is not exactly aphrodisiac but the current connotational meaning is same. Vajikarana therapy may minimize occurrence of congenital disorders besides it may also boost the genetic constitution of baby. Sexual intercourse commonly plays a strong role in human bonding, usually being used solely for pleasure and often leading to stronger emotional bonds.

  2. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds.

  3. Enhancement of erectile function of sexually naïve rats by β-sitosterol and α-β-amyrin acetate isolated from the hexane extract of Mondiawhitei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Watcho; Fabien Zelefack; Silvere Ngouela; Telesphore Benot Nguelefack; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Albert Kamanyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prosexual activity of two compounds isolated from the hexane extract of the dried roots of Mondia whitei in rats. Methods: β-sitosterol and the mixture of α and β-amyrin acetate were isolated and characterised using several reagents, chromatography, mass spectrometry and physical analysis (RMN, 1H and 13C). Sexually inexperienced adult male rats were orally treated with these compounds at doses of 0mg/kg (control), 10mg/kg or 50mg/kg. 1h after the treatment, mount and intromission latencies and frequencies, penile erection, ejaculation latency and post-ejaculatory interval were measured for 60 minutes. Results: β-sitosterol and the mixture of α and β-amyrin acetate significantly increased the mount frequency (p0.05) when compared to control. The two purified compounds were efficient at the lower dose (10 mg/kg b.w) with β-sitosterol being the most potent. Conclusion:Results of the present work give added value to the aphrodisiac property of Mondia whitei and further justify its popular use as a sex stimulant.

  4. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry.

  5. CAN AYURVEDA BE AN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE?

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    Bali Yogitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of EBM empower us to formulate appropriate clinical questions, appraise the literature using the hierarchy of evidence and apply the study results to their practice. With the ever increasing demands to adopt EBM in practice, healthcare providers require educational resources that present the concepts of the EBM, research methodology and guides to publishing medical research in a simple and easy to understand format. EBM also promotes critical thinking by clinicians. It requires that clinicians have the open-mindedness to look for and try new methods scientifically supported by the literature and it asks the clinical interventions be scrutinized and proven effective. In addition, EBM offers ways to critically evaluate the enormous amount of medical literature for value. In this way, clinical interventions and treatments are not just accepted because someone speaks of their anecdotal effectiveness, but a rigorous standard is applied to scientific data to determine whether the information has merit and applicability. Ayurveda is an Ancient Asian practice. It’s a traditional medical system used by a majority of India’s 1.1 billion populations. Ayurveda is being seen as a rich resource for new drug development by modern day pharmacologists. Ayurveda, the science of life is a branch of Atharvanaveda. It has eight specialized branches such as kayachikitsa (internal medicine, Salakya (ENT, salya tantra (ayurvedic surgery, Agada tantra (toxicology and forensic medicine, bhuta vidya (treatment of psychic diseases, kaumarabhrutya (paediatrics,rasayana tantra (rejuvenation treatments and vajikarana (aphrodisiacs.

  6. A LITERATURE REVIEW ON ARGYREIA NERVOSA (BURM. F. BOJER

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    Meher Ashutosh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal drugs individually or in combination have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Argyreia nervosa Burm. F. (Syn. Argyreia speciosa commonly known as ‘Vridha daraka’ in Sanskrit belongs to family Convolvulaceae has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain several phytochemical constituents like Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Tannins, amber-colored resin, Sterols, Saponin. Economically it is used as folklore medicine as well as for ornamental purpose. Argyreia nervosa is an important source of compounds like 1-triacontanol, ß-sitosterol, epifriedeline, Kaemperol-3-o-l-rhamnopyranoside, agroclavine, ergine, isoergine, isolysergic acid amide, pennidavine, caffeic acid, Et-caffeate, chanoclavine-I, chanoclavine-II, racemic chanoclavine-I, festuclavine, lysergine, lysergol, isolysergol, molliclavine, penniclavine, steoclavine, isosetoclavine, tetradecanyl palminate, 5,8-oxidotetraco san-10-one, stigmasteryl p-hydroxycinnamate, n-tricontanol, β-sitosterol and p-hydroxy innamoyloctadecanolate which are useful as Aphrodisiac, Immunomodulators, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycemic, Anti Inflammatory, Anticonvulsant and Nootropic etc.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

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    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  8. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  9. THE IN-VIVO EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED SUB-FRACTION (TAF2 OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA ROOTS ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGY PARAMETERS

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    Narazah Mohd Yusoff et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and anticancer activities. As yet, no study has been done on biosafety of partially purified sub-fraction (TAF2 of the crude methanolic extract of E. longifolia roots. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effects of TAF2 on the haematological, biochemical and histology parameters in nude mice. Male nude mice were treated orally with TAF2 (200 mg/Kg/mouse every other day for 16 days. Untreated mice were used as controls. Blood samples were collected by intra-cardiac puncture and haematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by using animal blood counter and automated chemistry analyzer, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin stain (H&E was used to evaluate the histopathology changes. Blood cells morphology was assessed by Wright stain of the thin blood films. The results showed normal blood haematology and clinical chemistry. Histological examination of TAF2 treated vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen of mice showed no apparent change with the dose used. In conclusion, E. longifolia root methanolic extract is safe on short-term exposur.

  10. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

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    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  11. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA

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    Maisale A B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Cordia dichotoma Forst belonging to family Boraginaceae are used traditionally as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmentic activities. Pulp obtained after separation of seeds was shade dried, powdered and subjected to successive hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether (40-60 C ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant activity than ethanolic extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed fruits of Cordia dichotoma possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The fruit pulp extract of Cordia dichotoma also showed presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  12. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity

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    Andréia G. Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD, plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.

  13. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

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    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  14. Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Physicochemical Analysis of Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae

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    Annan K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current resurgence of public interest in herbal medicines calls for heightened studies on their quality and safety. The major setback in promoting the use of these herbal medicines is the lack of standardization and the confusion in the identification and authentication of these plants and their substitutes or adulterants. In this study, the pharmacognostic and physicochemical features of the leaves, stem bark and roots of Paullinia pinnata, an African shrub used traditionally for wound healing, treatment of dysentery and also as an aphrodisiac, was evaluated. The study included macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Physicochemical parameters evaluated varied widely among the various parts studied which could be used in their identification. The study also revealed the presence of acicular calcium oxalate crystals, anomocytic stomata, wavy anticlinal walled epidermal cells and unicellular and multicelluar uniserate clothing trichomes in the leaves. Morphological, anatomical and physicochemical studies of P. pinnata provides simple and reliable standards which could be useful for the proper identification of P. pinnata.

  15. Chios mastic, a natural supplement for zinc to enhance male sexuality and prostate function.

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    Sawidis, Thomas; Yurukova, Lilyana; Askitis, Thanos

    2010-01-01

    Mastic is a natural resin extracted from the stem of the evergreen tree Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (Duham) (Anacardiaceae). For a long time, mastic has been esteemed for its aphrodisiac properties. To test this hypothesis, the trace element zinc was determined while the quantity released after a certain time of chewing was studied. For comparison, three commercial chewing-gums were analyzed as well. A portion of natural mastic or commercial gum was uniformly chewed for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h and the zinc content measured. The zinc content of mastic from P. lentiscus var. Chia was compared to that of other natural resins from the same genus (Pistacia terebinthus L.) or conifer [Pinus halepensis Mill. (Pinaceae)], having a different secretion mechanism and also used as an additive in human nutrition. Secreted resin and plant tissues from the above trees were sampled and the zinc content was determined. Zinc concentrations in the resin were lower than in the plant tissues. The Chios mastic showed a slightly greater zinc content compared to the other analyzed specimens. Among all gums studied, only the Chios mastic released a small amount of about 0.7 mg kg(-1) zinc in the mouth and gastrointestinal system after 4 h chewing time. With commercial gums, the zinc content increased to a large degree (up to 2 mg kg(-1)) after the same treatment, a fact which was attributed to the zinc uptake from salivary secretions, indicating zinc deprivation for the human organism.

  16. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Jay K. Udani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali, which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P<0.05 for all. Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  17. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  18. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk).

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    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-11-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  19. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell: a concise report on its phytopharmacological aspects%Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell:a concise report on its phytopharmacological aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2013-01-01

    Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell belonging to the family Violaceae,popularly known as Ratanpurus (Hindi) is a herb or a shrub distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.In the Ayurvedic literature,the plant is reported to cure conditions of "Kapha" and "Pitta",urinary calculi,strangury,painful dysentery,vomiting,burning sensation,wandering of the mind,urethral discharge,blood trouble,asthma,epilepsy,cough,and to give tone to the breasts.Phytochemically,the plant contains a considerable amount of dipeptide alkaloids,aurantiamide acetate,isoarborinol,and β-sitosterol,sugars,flavonoids,steroids,triterpenes,phenols,flavones,catachins,tannins,anthraquinones and amino acids.Pharmacologically,the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antiplasmodial,anfimicrobial,anticonvulsant,nephroprotective,aphrodisiac,hepatoprotective,antiinflammatory,aldose reductase inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities.The information provided in this review will be worthwhile to know the applicability of H.enneaspermus for the treatment of various acute or chronic diseases with a diverse nature of phytoconstituents.The overall data in this review article were collected from various scientific sources on the research ofH.enneaspermus.

  20. Enhanced Synthesis of Curculigoside by Stress and Amino Acids in Static Culture of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali Musli)

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    Chaturvedi, Pratibha; Briganza, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant used for many medicinal purposes such as impotency, aphrodisiac, tonic, jaundice, and skin ailments. Its hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-cancerous potential have also been evaluated by many scientists. Objective: The objective of this study is to enhance the curculigoside content in tissue culture of C. orchioides. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the enhancement of an active compound of C. orchioides by incorporating various concentration of phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine, (20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/100 ml), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ppm) into Zenk media in controlled and aseptic conditions. Results: Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. A significantly remarkable enhancement in all induced samples was noted. Curculigoside content was maximum in the 6-week-old tissue induced with 3 ppm of Cr (7.63%) followed by 4 weeks tissue of tissue fed with 4 ppm of Ni (5.66%) and 4-week-old tissue fed with tyrosine 7.5 mg/100 ml (2.38%) among all samples used. These results suggest that tyrosine is better enhancer than Phe in the biosynthetic pathway of curculigoside. The presence of curculigoside in all extracts was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis with standard compound of curculigoside and histology of treated samples. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out for the 1st time, and it is a significant step in understanding the biochemistry of curculigoside. The developed protocol will be beneficial for marketing in pharmaceutical industries. SUMMARY Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered

  1. Testing of the estrogenic activity and toxicity of Stephania venosa herb in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomuttapong, Sarawoot; Pewphong, Rangsima; Choeisiri, Sucha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-07-01

    Stephania venosa Spreng is a traditional herb which has been used for cancer treatment as well as an aphrodisiac. The scientific literature strongly supports its in vitro antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines and has suggested developing this plant as a potential anticancer drug. However, the in vivo steroidogenic activity and toxicity of this plant have never been tested. We analyzed the levels of five key isoflavones in the plant extract by quantitative HPLC and then evaluated the in vivo estrogenic activity and toxicity in ovariectomized rats, in comparison with the phytoestrogen-rich plant, Pueraria mirifica. Twenty rats were first ovariectomized, and then seven days later divided into four groups and gavaged daily with 0, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day of S. venosa, or 100 mg/kg body weight/day of P. mirifica for 28 days. A trace amount of puerarin, daidzin and daidzein with a subtle amount of genistein and genistin were isolated from the S. venosa tuber extract. S. venosa tuber powder, at both doses, did not exhibit any detectable estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats, as assessed by the vaginal cytology and uterotropic assays, whilst P. mirifica induced a remarkable vaginal and uterine proliferation. S. venosa induced a toxicological effect on the hematological values and histopathological appearance of metabolic organs. Taken together, these results suggest that S. venosa has no discernable estrogenic activity but that it is toxic, at least to ovariectomized rats. Thus, the use of this plant for anticancer treatment needs to be reassessed or used with caution.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum. Pierre ex Beille

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    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of yohimbe bark and its preparations originating from Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum. Pierre ex Beille when used in food, e.g. in food supplements. The bark of the plant contains a number of indole alkaloids of biological relevance and preparations of yohimbe bark have been traditionally used as general tonic, performance enhancer and as an aphrodisiac. Food supplements containing yohimbe bark preparations are available nowadays, especially via internet retail. Yohimbine, the major alkaloid of yohimbe bark and raubasine, another alkaloid occurring in lower concentrations in the bark, are used as active ingredients in a number of medicinal products for which adverse effects are described. The Panel reviewed the available scientific data on a possible association between the intake of yohimbe bark and its preparations and potential harmful effects on health. When those data were not available, priority was given to yohimbine, as the only alkaloid for which occurrence had been shown and quantified in food supplements containing yohimbe bark. The Panel concluded that the chemical and toxicological characterisation of yohimbe bark and its preparations for use in food are not adequate to conclude on their safety as ingredients of food, e.g. in food supplements. Thus the Panel could not provide advice on a daily intake of yohimbe bark and its preparations that do not give rise to concerns about harmful effects to health. An estimation of exposure to yohimbine from food supplements was performed showing that theoretical maximum daily intake may exceed the maximum approved daily dose of yohimbine from use as a medicinal product.

  3. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

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    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  4. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

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    Akhand Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD, and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ethinyl estradiol (EE was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  5. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects

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    Prafulla P. Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. (family: Pandanaceae is traditionally recommended by the Indian Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold/flu, epilepsy, wounds, boils, scabies, leucoderma, ulcers, colic, hepatitis, smallpox, leprosy, syphilis, and cancer and as a cardiotonic, antioxidant, dysuric, and aphrodisiac. It contains phytochemicals, namely, lignans and isoflavones, coumestrol, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, proteins, amino acids as well as vitamins and nutrients, and so forth. It is having immense importance in nutrition. A 100 g edible Pandanus pericarp is mainly comprised of water and carbohydrates (80 and 17 g, resp. and protein (1.3 mg, fat (0.7 mg, and fiber (3.5 g. Pandanus fruits paste provides 321 kilocalories, protein (2.2 g, calcium (134 mg, phosphorus (108 mg, iron (5.7 mg, thiamin (0.04 mg, vitamin C (5 mg, and beta-carotene (19 to 19,000 μg (a carotenoid that is a precursor to vitamin A. Pandanus fruit is an important source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and so forth, usually prepared as a Pandanus floured drink. Traditional claims were scientifically evaluated by the various authors and the phytochemical profile of plant parts was well established. The methods for analytical estimations were developed. However, there is paucity of systematic compilation of scientifically important information about this plant. In the present review we have systematically reviewed and compiled information of pharmacognostic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional aspects, and analytical methods. This review will enrich knowledge leading the way into the discovery of new therapeutic agents with improved and intriguing pharmacological properties.

  6. Effects ofDracaena arborea (Dracaenaceae) on sexual dysfunction in 4 weeks hyperglycemic male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wankeu-Nya M; Watcho P; Nguelefack TB; Carro-Juarez M; Tapondjou L; Kamanyi A

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects ofDracaena arborea(D. arborea) on the sexual behavior parameters in experienced type-1 diabetic rats.Methods:Aqueous and ethanol(100 and500 mg/kg respectively) extracts of dried root barks ofD. arborea, sildenafil citrate(1.44 mg/kg), trimethylamine-N-oxide(TMAO,20 mg/kg) and distilled water(10 mL/kg) were orally administered to4 weeks streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Mount latency and frequency (ML,MF), intromission latency and frequency(IL,IF) and post-ejaculatory interval(PEI) were measured by ejaculatory series during90 min once a week for4 weeks.Glycemia was determined at the beginning and at the end of the treatment.Results:D. arborea did not show any major antihyperglycemic effects.Compared to the control group, a significant(P<0.05-0.001) increase inMF andIF was noticed in rats treated with sildenafil citrate(89.71% and90.07% respectively), aqueous(500 mg/kg,88.08% and88.74% respectively) and ethanol(100 mg/kg;89.53% and89.17 respectively) extracts ofD. arborea after two weeks(series1) of treatment.ML,IL andPEI were significantly(P<0.05-0.001) decreased after4 weeks of daily treatment [sildenafil citrate(96.31, 96.31% and34.98%), andD. arborea aqueous500 mg/kg(94.33,94.33% and66.60%) and ethanol extracts100 mg/kg(96.98,97.08% and64.26%)].Conclusions:These aphrodisiac potentials of D. arborea in experienced diabetic rats could be due to the antioxidant and androgenic properties of phenols, flavonoids, saponins and sterols revealed in the plant extracts.

  7. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  8. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

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    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  9. Modulation of chromium trioxide induced genotoxicity by methanol extract of leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum L

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    Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek or methi is an aromatic annual herb used commonly in Indian cuisines as cure of numerous diseases such as dropsy, chronic cough, enlargement of liver and spleen. Seeds are diuretic and aphrodisiac. The present study deals with investigation of the antigenotoxic potential of methanol extract of fenugreek leaf (MTG on Allium cepa root tip meristem cells which were treated with chromium trioxide (CrO3. Methods: For this purpose, we gave three modes of treatments. In pre-treatment, roots were first treated with different concentrations of MTG extracts (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% for 2 h followed by CrO3 treatment (8 ppm, 2 h. In post-treatment, roots were first treated with CrO3 (8 ppm, 2 h followed by different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of MTG extract for 2 h. In simultaneous treatment, the root tips are treated with CrO3 (8 ppm and MTG extract (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% at the same time. The treatments of roots with 8 ppm CrO3 and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. Results: MTG extract of T.foenum-graecum modulated physiological and clastogenic aberrations induced by CrO3 by 87.83% in pre-treatment group, 89.57% in post-treatment group and 93.91% in simultaneous-treatment group at the concentration of 1%. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that T. foenum-graecum possess phytochemicals which have potential to modulate chromium genotoxicity, but need further investigations. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 77-83

  10. De Novo transcriptome sequencing reveals important molecular networks and metabolic pathways of the plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum.

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    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum.

  11. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  12. Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review

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    R T Mahajan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have always been the natural form of medicine in India. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to presence of various complex chemical substances of different composition which contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin and phenolic compounds distributed in different parts of the plants. Ziziphus jujuba Mill, a member of the family Rhamnaceae, commonly known as Bor, is used traditionally as tonic and aphrodisiac and sometimes as Hypnotic-sedative and Anxiolytic, anticancer (Melanoma cells, Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiulcer, Anti-inflammatory, Cognitive, Antispastic, Antifertility/contraception, Hypotensive and Antinephritic, Cardiotonic, Antioxidant, Immunostimulant, and Wound healing properties. It possesses allied compounds viz. Ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin-bioflavonoids and Pectin A and various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transp-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2-a-arabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin. Saponin from leaves and stem are 3-O- ((2-O- alpha - D - furopyranosyl - 3-O- beta - D -glucopyranosyl - alpha - L - arabinopyranosyl jujubogenin and (6′′′-sinapoylspinosin, 6′′′-feruloylspinosin and 6′′′-p-coumaroylspinosin. The present review discusses photo-chemistry, pharmacology, medicinal properties and biological activities of Za jujuba and its usage in different ailments.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study

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    Vijay R. Ambiye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera has been described in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac that can be used to treat male sexual dysfunction and infertility. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the spermatogenic activity of Ashwagandha root extract in oligospermic patients. Forty-six male patients with oligospermia (sperm count < 20 million/mL semen were enrolled and randomized either to treatment (n=21 with a full-spectrum root extract of Ashwagandha (675 mg/d in three doses for 90 days or to placebo (n=25 in the same protocol. Semen parameters and serum hormone levels were estimated at the end of 90-day treatment. There was a 167% increase in sperm count (9.59 ± 4.37 × 106/mL to 25.61 ± 8.6 × 106/mL; P<0.0001, 53% increase in semen volume (1.74 ± 0.58 mL to 2.76 ± 0.60 mL; P<0.0001, and 57% increase in sperm motility (18.62 ± 6.11% to 29.19 ± 6.31%; P<0.0001 on day 90 from baseline. The improvement in these parameters was minimal in the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, a significantly greater improvement and regulation were observed in serum hormone levels with the Ashwagandha treatment as compared to the placebo. The present study adds to the evidence on the therapeutic value of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, as attributed in Ayurveda for the treatment of oligospermia leading to infertility.

  14. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

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    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-06-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

  15. CRESCIMENTO DE PROGÊNIES DE Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss. EM CONDIÇÕES DE CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO

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    CARLA SPILLER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss. belonging to the Malpighiaceae family has its roots extracted and used in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso, mainly as a tonic and aphrodisiac. Evaluation of seedling growth may provide information for growing and selecting plants of the species. In this paper the aim was to evaluate the growth of progenies of H. tomentosa in a greenhouse. 30 progenies were evaluated in a randomized experimental design with three replications of 10 plants per plot. The variables analyzed were height (cm/plant, diameter (mm/plant and number of leaves/plant. The plants were grown at an average speed of 0.38 cm per day. However, the average speed was higher at 120 days, with about 0.53 cm.day. The diameter increment was much lower in the first 60 days, about 0.01 mm.day, but there was an increase to 0.03 at 100 days, 0.02 mm.day stabilizing again to the end of 150 days. The increase in speed to the number of leaves at 45 days and 105 days was the same (0.13 leaves.ind.day. However, it was between 60 and 90 days after planting that the growth rate was higher (0.26 leaves.ind.day. The highlights were significant associations between fresh weight and dry weight and between length and weight of the plant. It is concluded that the seedlings of H. tomentosa kept in a greenhouse grow up too quickly and can be transplanted to grow efficiently. The selection of individuals for increased root production can be done by those with the greatest number of leaves.

  16. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf Th. AND H. Durand on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

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    Lydia Francisca Otoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg, Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg, or PNE (50-500 mg/kg for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17- beta-estradiol (0.1-0.9 and micro;g, PNE (30-300 mg/kg or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function, was well lipid and haematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: Seven-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P and #8804;0.01-0.001, while Cyproterone significantly decreased (P and #8804;0.001 comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P and #8804;0.001 of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P and #8804;0.001. Administration of 17- beta oestradiol and PNE increased (P and #8804;0.001 oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed on assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile and haematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 293-301

  17. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production.

  18. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

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    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  19. EFFICACY ASSESSMENT OF KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

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    Panakaporn Wannanon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decline in erectile function is a noted phenomenon worldwide. A variety of medicinal plants have been identified as having strong aphrodisiac properties along with the ability to improve erectile functioning. Kaempferia Parviflora (KP has famous as a Thai Viagra and use it to increase male impotency. However, there is limited scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of this herb on this issue in aging healthy men. This study therefore investigated the effect of KP extract administration on erectile response of male elderly volunteers. Total 45 male healthy elderly volunteers will be divided into 3 separated groups including placebo and the different doses of ethanolic extracts of KP (25 and 90 mg once daily at a period of 2 months. The erectile function tests including the response latency time to visual erotic stimuli, size and length of penis both in flaccid and erection states were assessed after single administration, 1 and 2 months of treatment. In order to investigate the possible underlying mechanism, we also determined the alteration of testosterone, FSH and LH concentrations. KP at a dose of 90 mg day-1 treated group exhibited a significant enhanced all parameters after 1 and 2 months of treatment. Moreover, the penile length at erection states and the response latency to sexual erotic stimuli appeared to be the parameters that showed significant changes during the delay period. Unfortunately, our study failed to show the significant changes on hormones concentration. Our study clearly demonstrates that KP is a potential resource for the development of nutraceutical compound against aged related male erectile dysfunction.

  20. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

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    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus.

  1. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  2. A comparative pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and heavy metal analysis on Ashwagandha root obtained from natural and polluted sources

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    Dhaval Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ashwagandha root has been ascribed as potent aphrodisiac drug in various Ayurvedic literature and lexicons. The same drug has also been cited in a number of Ayurvedic formularies. Recent studies indicate that heavy metals like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc., are toxic to human and environment. Plants are suggested as potential bio sorbents for trace metals removal from the soil. In this work, four samples of Ashwagandha have been collected (2 from pollution free areas and 2 from polluted areas for their pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and heavy metal analysis. Aims: Awareness is a valuable tool to wipe out the ignorance and mischief. The present work has been selected with the main objective to create the awareness among people regarding the possible side effect of raw drug obtained from polluted areas. Settings and Design: Present work was designed to have an experimental study with three main components which were pharmacognostical study, physicochemical study, and heavy metal analysis. Both of these studies also contained several headings and subheadings, respectively. Materials and Methods: Research work was carried out as per standard operating procedures and specified protocols. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical studies were carried out in the respective laboratory of I.P.G.T. and R.A.; Gujarat Ayurved University, whereas Heavy metal analysis was carried out at VASU Pharmaceutical Lab Vadodara, 390010. Statistical Analysis Used: All the statistical data used in this research work under the experimental study were given in tabular form with respective table number. Results and Conclusion: Heavy metal analysis revealed that Hg content was below the detection limit in sample A and B, while in case of sample C and D, the Hg content were above the permissible limit. With all the data generated in this work, it can be concluded that consumption of drug (Ashwagandha obtained from polluted areas may cause accumulated side effect as well as

  3. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

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    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  4. Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium Aromaticum and its Health Benefits

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    Debjit bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum, many medicinal uses have been most famously applied to toothache, and for mouth and throat inflammation. The dove has been used in India and China, for over 2,000 years, as a spice to check both tooth decay and counter halitosis that is bad breath. In Persia and China, it was considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian. In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every sauce or side dish made, mostly ground up along with other spices. More than just a counterirritant though, the German Commission E Monographs list cloves as having antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties One of the main constituents of clove oil (eugenol exhibits broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fact bacteria, as well as fungi Cloves are well known also for their antiemetic (relieves nausea and vomiting and carminative properties (The oldest apparent medicinal use of cloves was in China, where it is reported that they were taken for various ailments as early as 240BC. Cloves were taken over the centuries for diarrhea, most liver, stomach and bowel ailments, and as a stimulant for the nerves Traditionally cloves have been used to treat flatulence, nausea and vomiting .In tropical Asia cloves have been given to treat such diverse infections as malaria, cholera and tuberculosis, as well as scabies traditional uses in America include treating worms, viruses, candida, various bacterial and protozoan infections Laboratory tests on cloves identify eugenol as being the possible reason for the antimicrobial actions, and confirm cloves’ effectiveness in inhibiting food-borne pathogens as well as other bacteria and fungi The volatile oil of cloves (about 85-92% eugenol was highly active against a range of test microorganisms, being classified as bactericidal in nature. Along with the recreational

  5. Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Gueye; Meissa, Diouf

    2007-06-10

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses.

  6. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  7. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  8. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010 from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

  9. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

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    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  10. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  11. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  12. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

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    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  13. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  14. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  15. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

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    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  16. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  17. Withania somnifera aqueous extract facilitates the expression and release of GnRH: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hardeep; Gupta, Muskan; Lakhman, Sukhwinder; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-10-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has a long history in traditional medicines as an aphrodisiac. It has been known to influence sexual behaviour in animal models but mechanism of action is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which Ashwagandha extract exert its gonadotropic activities. Due to the complexity of neuroendocrine pathways, there are limited in vitro models available despite the strong demand for such systems to study and predict neuroendocrine effects of chemicals or natural products. Immortalized rat hypothalamic GnV-3 cell line was investigated as a model to screen for neuroendocrine effects of Ashwagandha extract. GnV-3 cells were cultured under different media conditions and evaluated after treatment with Ashwagandha water extract, for GnRH expression and release by immunostaining and ELISA respectively. These cells acquired differentiated morphology, characteristic shape displayed by preoptic GnRH neurons in vivo. In addition, GnV-3 cells exhibited upregulation of plasticity related polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and mature dendrite marker microtubule associated protein (MAP2) as well as GnRH expression and release. Chloroform fraction of the extract proved to exhibit all the bioactive properties as it induced differentiation and upregulated GnRH and MAP2 expression in GnV-3 cells, similar to Ashwagandha extract. Withanone and Withaferin A were found to be present in ASH-WEX and chloroform fraction while Withanone came out to be the major constituent of chloroform fraction. The preliminary in vivo studies in adult male animals showed that ASH-WEX was able to upregulate the GnRH levels although non-significantly. Taken together, this data demonstrate significant morphological and physiological changes in GnV-3 cells after treatment with Ashwagandha extract and may suggest the potential beneficial effects of Ashwagandha on reproductive functions in vivo.

  18. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  19. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

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    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Niu, Zichang [First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Gao, Xiu Mei, E-mail: gaoxiumei@tjutcm.edu.cn [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China)

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p < 0.01), while it reduced 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) (p < 0.01), 100 μM veratridine (Ver) (p < 0.01) and 56 mM K{sup +} (p < 0.05) induced CA secretion, respectively. We also found that the stimulation of basal CA secretion by bakuchiol may act through estrogen-like effect and the JNK pathway in an extra-cellular calcium independent manner. Further, bakuchiol elevated tyrosine hydroxylase Ser40 and Ser31 phosphorylation (p < 0.01) through the PKA and ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Bakuchiol inhibited ACh, Ver and 56 mM K{sup +} induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion

  20. Novel formulation strategies for enhancing oral delivery of methoxyflavones in Kaempferia parviflora by SMEDDS or complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjaruskul, Catheleeya; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Leed, Marina G D; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2013-03-10

    The Kaempferia parviflora (KP) plant contains several methoxyflavones including 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). Ethanolic extracts of KP have shown various pharmacological effects and have been used as an aphrodisiac, a antimicrobial agent and for the treatment of inflammation, and peptic ulcers. Given its poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability (1-4%), there are limitations to the utilization of KP. Accordingly, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and cyclodextrin (CD) complex formulations were developed to improve the oral absorption of methoxyflavones. Polyoxyethylene castor oil (53.3%), propylene glycol (26.7%), and triglyceride of coconut oil (20%) were combined to form KP-SMEDDS. A complex of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD) and KP was prepared by lyophilization. The developed formulations were then evaluated for their physicochemical properties, in vitro dissolution tests, permeability through Caco-2 cells, and in vivo oral absorption in rats by using PMF, TMF, and DMF as the markers for quantitation. The results showed that KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD complex improved the dissolution rate of methoxyflavones in both 0.1N HCl and 0.2M PBS pH 6.8 compared to KP dissolved in a solution of propylene glycol, PEG 400, ethanol, and water. KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD formulations showed about 10- and 3.5-fold greater Papp values of methoxyflavones in Caco-2 cells. The oral bioavailability values of KP-SMEDDS formulations were higher than those of KP (25.38-, 42.00-, and 26.01-fold for PMF, TMF, and DMF, respectively). For the KP-2-HP-β-CD complex, oral bioavailability values were 21.63-, 34.20-, and 22.90-fold greater than those of KP, respectively. Therefore, these two novel formulations, KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD, were successfully developed to improve the dissolution rate, drug permeability through Caco-2 cells and oral bioavailability of

  1. 海龙药理作用研究进展%Syngnathus pharmacological activity research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 张红印; 鲍悦; 孙佳明; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    Syngnathus for China’s traditional kidney aphrodisiac,beginning in supplement to Compendium of Materia Medica. Syngnathidae distribution mostly about animals,according to The Fishes of the South China Sea,records made in our country there are 17 genera and 30 species,the vast majority live in shallow sea,few live in fresh water and es-tuary. Syngnathus is rich in many bioactive components,including total steroidal compounds,protein and essential ami-no acids,trace elements Zn,Mn,Cu,etc. Have the warming kidney and strengthening yang,anti-aging,anti-tumor,en-hance immunity,enhance myocardial contraction force,alleviate the osteoporosis,lower cholesterol and treatment of se-nile dementia,and so on. Summarizes the domestic and foreign literature,will review in detail the dragon pharmacologi-cal effects. Provide more scientific basis for its clinical application and development of new drugs.%海龙为我国传统温肾壮阳药,始载于《本草纲目拾遗》。海龙科动物大多分布于南海,据《南海鱼类志》记载产于我国有17属30种,绝大多数生活在浅海,极少数生活在淡水和河口。海龙富含许多生物活性成分,包括总甾体类化合物、蛋白质、人体必需氨基酸、微量元素 Zn、Mn、Cu 等。具有温肾壮阳,延缓衰老,抗肿瘤,增强机体免疫力,加强心肌收缩力,缓解骨质疏松,降低胆固醇,治疗老年性痴呆症等作用。归纳总结国内外文献,详细综述海龙药理作用,为其临床应用、新药开发提供更深入的科学依据。

  2. 覆盆子中有机酸含量的测定%Determination of the Contents of Organic Acids of Raspberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金旭; 朱会霞; 肖冬光

    2013-01-01

    覆盆子为药食两用果实,具有抗衰老、调节生殖系统、促进细胞虎疫机能、减肥之功效.本研究利用HPLC法对覆盆子干果中有机酸含量进行测定,测定的色谱条件为:柱温30℃,流动相为0.05 mmol H2SO4,流速0.5 mL/min,检测波长210ntm,进样量10μL,色谱柱为C18柱,在设定的色谱条件下覆盆子干果处理波峰面积与有机酸标品线性关系良好,相关系数在0.9998~0.9999之间,精密度实验各有机酸RSD值在0.30-0.90%之间,重现性实验各有机酸RSD值在0.42~3.69%之间,加标回收率在97.86-102.35%之间,此方法用于测定覆盆子干果中有机酸含量准确、可行.%As an edible Chinese herb,raspberry could improve overall energy,vitality aphrodisiac and immune booster.A method for determining organic acids in Raspberry by HPLC was developed and the best HPLC determination conditions with a C18 column were determined as follows:column temperature 30 ℃,mobile phase 0.05 mmol H2SO4,flow rate 0.5 mL/min,detection wavelength 210 nm and injection volume 10 μL.Under the detection conditions.five organic acids could be successfully separated with good linear relationships (correlation coefficients above 0.9998).The precision RSD,repeability RSD and recovery rotes were of 0.30~0.90%,0.42~3.69% and 97.86~ 102.35%,respectively.The method was convenient,rapid,accurate and applicable to determine organic acids in raspberry.

  3. Effect of Icariin on Cyclic GMP Levels and on the mRNA Expression of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) in Penile Cavernosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhaojian; HU Benrong; WANG Jialing; TANG Qiang; TAN Yan; XIANG Jizhou; LIU Juyan

    2006-01-01

    To further investigate the mechanisms of action of icariin (ICA), we assessed the effects of ICA on the in vitro formation of cGMP and cAMP in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum. Isolated segments of rabbit corpus cavernosum were exposed to increasing concentrations of ICA and the dose-dependent accumulation of cGMP and cAMP was determined in the tissues samples by means of 125I radioimmunoassay. Responses of the isolated tissues preparations to ICA were compared with those obtained with the reference compounds sildenafil (Sild). Furthermore, the effects of ICA on the mRNA expression of specific cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) in rat penis were also observed. After incubation with ICA for 6 h or 14 h respectively, the levels of PDE5 mRNA were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that ICA increased cGMP concentrations directly (P<0.05), but there was no significant effect on cAMP concentrations (P>0.05). In the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a stimulatory agent of cGMP,both ICA and Sild increased cGMP concentrations with increasing dose (P<0.01). Their EC50 was 4.62 (ICA) and 0.42 (Sild) μmol/L respectively. Under the same condition, ICA and Sild unaltered cAMP level significantly (P>0.05). There were PDE5A1 and PDE5A2 mRNA expressions in rat corpus cavernosum with PDE5A2 being the dominant isoform. ICA could obviously inhibit these two isoforms mRNA expression in rat penis, and decrease PDE5A1 more pronouncedly (P< 0.01). The present study indicated that the aphrodisiac mechanisms of icariin involved the NO-cGMP signal transduction pathway, with increasing cGMP levels in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The inhibitory effect of icariin on PDE5 mRNA expression, especially on PDE5A1, might account for its molecular mechanisms for its long-term activity.

  4. REGENERATION OF Pimpinella pruatjan THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roostika

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pruatjan (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. is an Indonesian endangered plant which has various medicinal properties such as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and tonic. The plant is commonly harvested from its natural habitat, therefore it becomes endangered. Regeneration of pruatjan through organogenesis has been studied, but its shoot multiplication was very low (5 shoots per explant. The study aimed to investigate the best regeneration technique of pruatjan through somatic embryogenesis. This research was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development in 2004-2005. Callus formation of pruatjan was induced from the petioles and leaves in Driver and Kuniyaki’s (DKW based medium containing 2,4-D combined with picloram at the level of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.5 ppm. Embryogenic calli were then transferred into embryo development medium in two ways. First, they were directly transferred into media containing IBA/NAA at the level of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm. Second, they were indirectly transferred into media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate prior to the IBA/ NAA media. Parameters evaluated were fresh weight, dry weight, time initiation of embryogenic callus formation, and total number of embryos. The result showed that calli of pruatjan were successfully induced from the petioles and leaves. The best calli were induced from the leaves in the DKW medium containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.5 ppm picloram. Embryo development of the calli was best if they were first grown in the media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate then transferred to the IBA/NAA media. The total number of somatic embryos was counted up to 103 on the medium containing 1.5 ppm IBA. This study indicated that pruatjan somatic embryogenesis regeneration required three different media, i.e. for callus induction, development and maturation, and for

  5. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

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    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  6. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  7. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário da raiz e do caule de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae Anatomic study of secundary xylem of root and stem of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ressiliane Ribeiro Prata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis é uma planta medicinal, conhecida popularmente por chichuá, possuindo ação analgésica, antiinflamatória, afrodisíaca e antireumática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características estruturais, da raiz e caule desta espécie como contribuição aos trabalhos anatômicos já realizados para o gênero. O material botânico foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus/AM onde foram selecionados três indivíduos e de cada um deles retirados fragmentos de 1cm³ do caule e raiz. Amostras foram seccionadas em micrótomo de deslize e coradas com safranina e azul de astra. A análise estrutural revelou-se de acordo com o registrado pela literatura para o gênero. O xilema secundário da raiz e do caule apresentam parênquima axial apotraqueal, raios multisseriados, heterogêneos, vasos solitários, de distribuição difusa, uniforme, seção circular, com parede delgada, pontoações intervasculares alternas e areoladas.Maytenus guyanensis, known popularly as chichuá, possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and anti-rheumatic agents. The object of this present wor was the anatomical analysis of material collected of this species at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. Stem and root fragments of 1cm were removed from 3 selected individuals. Sections from the stem and root were cut with slide microtome, and stained with astra blue and safranin. The structural analysis of stems and roots was in accordance with the literature available for the Maytenus genus. The secondary xylem of the root and stem presented parenchyma axial apotracheal, multiseriates, heterogeneous rays, solitary vessels, of diffuse distribution, uniform, circular section, with thin wall, bordered and alternate intervascular pits.

  8. 异域想象与文人观念:论晚明清初通俗小说中胡僧形象的色情化%Exotic Imagination and Literati's Ideas:The Eroticization of Foreign Monks in Late-Ming and Early-Qing Vernacular Fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛英杰

    2016-01-01

    Foreign monks in vernacular fiction in late Ming and early Qing Dynasties are often con‐structed as lascivious characters who are associated with having black faces ,keeping aphrodisiacs and teaching men sexual techniques .Characterized by a lack of elaboration of monks'identities ,descriptions a‐bout eroticized foreign monks are quite similar in terms of physical appearances and plots .Furthermore , many terms for sexual practice in Tantric Buddhism and Taoism are applied to the art of the bedchamber in these descriptions .Therefore ,this paper argues that the eroticization of foreign monks is not terribly rele‐vant to the transmission of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism in China .To a great extent ,in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties the literati represent foreign monks as a threat to their moral identity ,w hich betrays a suppression of their sexual desire in Confucian culture .%作为一个色情符号,晚明清初通俗小说中被色情化的胡僧与黑面、春药、房中术有着固定的联想关系。胡僧的身份定位非常模糊,其体貌描写和情节模式高度类型化。胡僧色情描写所涉及的密教及道教内容经常被混淆为房中秘戏。小说对胡僧色情形象的符号化建构,与藏传密教的内传并无直接的联系,在很大程度上可以被视作文人异域想象的结果。胡僧色情形象所折射出来的是文人对外来宗教人士的警惕和被儒家文化所压抑的欲望。

  9. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga%大高良姜的药理学及植物化学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DhirenderKaushik; JyotiYadav; PawanKaushik; DishaSacher; RubyRani

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules.Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue,aphrodisiac,abortifacient,carminative,antipyretic and antiinflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis,heart diseases,chronic enteritis,renal calculus,diabetes,rheumatism and kidney disorders.It was reported to contain,among other components,essential oils,tannins,phenol,glycosides,monoterpenes and carbohydrates.In the last few years,new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside,galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol,galangin,alpinin,zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A.galanga.Therefore,the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A.galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.%传统医学使用大量具有医用及药用价值的植物治疗疾病,因此是生物活性物质的一个宝库.姜科植物大高良姜通常被用作调经剂、催欲剂、堕胎药、驱风剂、退热剂和抗炎药等,可用于治疗支气管炎、心脏疾病、慢性肠炎、肾结石、糖尿病、风湿病及肾脏疾病.大高良姜含有精油、鞣酸、苯酚、苷类、单萜及糖类等.过去几年,有报道大高良姜各部位提取物中还含有没食子酸、生姜异黄酮、β-谷甾醇、高良姜素、良姜素、花姜酮、山萘素等.本文总结了近年来有关大高良姜的研究中新的植物化学成分及药理学的研究内容.

  10. Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice

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    de Sá Pedro Guilherme S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selaginella convoluta (Arn. Spring (Selaginellaceae, commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p. antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Results A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively. Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively, as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively. Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports

  11. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  12. Phytochemical diversity in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal is an important commercial medicinal crop, which is considered as an alternate to Ginseng. It is a superior class herb with multiple benefits. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the plant have been used for ages in Ayurveda. The root has been used most frequently for therapeutic uses and is a constituent of over 200 formulations in Ayruvedha, Siddha and Unani medicines. Biologically active chemical constituents are withanolides with adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, memory boosting and stress relieving properties. It is also protective towards arthritis, cartilage degradation, leprosy etc. Owing to its diverse therapeutic uses, there is renewed interest in phytochemistry of this crop. A large number of withanolides have been identified and different therapeutic activities are associated with different constituents viz., withaferine A associated with anti-inflammatory activity and is a safe radiosensitizer/chemotherapeutic agent, withanolide A and withanoside IV known for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and Withanone for anti-cancer and antiaging activities, etc. The success of genetic improvement in this medicinal crop strongly depends on diversity of phytochemical content along with high potential for root yield. Though there are many reports on diversity for root yield and associated traits, systematic studies on chemical diversity are scarce and limited. Therefore efforts were made for systematic collection and evaluation of germplasm from diverse geographical locations in India. One hundred and eight selected accessions were assessed for chemical diversity. The accessions differed both quantitatively and qualitatively for withalonides estimated by HPLC method. The total withalonide content ranged

  13. The integrated utilization of cinnamon oil and its further processing products%肉桂油及其深加工产品的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺均林; 李宁; 何丽萍; 韦炳前

    2013-01-01

    The chemical compositions and the relevant content in cinnamon oil were introduced in this paper according to the result of analysis of actual cinnamon oil sample by the GC-MS.The direct application of cinnamon oil to pilatory,externally applied agent,of medicine,Strengthen food spices,toothpaste,toilet soap,collutory,Sweet gum flavor,natural insecticide and the direct hydrogenation of cinnamon oil to produce 3-phenylpropanal aldehyde were introduced.The application of cinnamaldehyde to fungicide,sanitizer,Chlorphenesin,stomachic,fat-splitting agent,antiviral agent,antitumor agent,aphrodisiac,external medication,flavor additives for foods,feed perfume were introduced after the cinnamaldehyde was abtained from cinnamon oil by separation and purification and cinnamaldehyde was oxidized to change to cinnamic acid.The cinnamic acid was easterified by methanol,ethanol,n-propanol,isopropanol,n-butyl alcohol,isobutyl alcohol,n-amyl alcohol,isoamyl alcohol and other kinds of alcohol for producing methyl cinnamate,ethyl cinnamate and other kinds of esters and the application cases were introduced.A valuable reference has been provided for enlarging the application range of cinnamon oil,developing the further processing products and increasing the economic additional value of cinnamon oil.%本文以肉桂油实际样品的气-质联用仪(GC-MS)分析结果,介绍了肉桂油中的化学成份及相应的含量.介绍了肉桂油直接应用于作生发剂、外用及组成药、强化食品香料、牙膏、香皂、漱口液杀菌剂、口香胶香料、天然杀虫剂及直接加氢制苯丙醛等情况;介绍了肉桂油分离提纯得肉桂醛用作杀菌消毒防腐剂、健胃剂、脂肪分解剂、抗病毒抗肿瘤剂、壮阳剂、外用药剂、食品中的香料、饲料调味剂等;也介绍了肉桂醛经氧化得肉桂酸,再与甲醇、乙醇、正丙醇、异丙醇、正丁醇、异丁醇、正戊醇、异戊醇等各种醇类物质酯化反应得肉

  14. Bushen Impotence Treating Impotence and Premature Ejaculation Efficacy of 332 Cases%补肾壮阳汤治疗阳痿早泄332例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘澄波

    2013-01-01

    目的:本文主要研究了如何通过壮阳汤来治疗肾虚症型阳痿,并且对其临床症状表现与治疗原理做了详细说明。方法本研究一共选取了患有肾虚症型阳痿的322位患者,所有的患者经过了中医诊断,大部分表现为肝郁肾虚症、肝郁肾虚兼血瘀症等症状,病情的强弱不一样,将所有的患者分成治疗组与对照组两组。其中治疗组有161位患者,采取上述中药汤剂进行临床治疗。对照组一共有161位患者,使用健阳胶囊的治疗方法。所有患者的疗程都定为1个月,治疗时间为两个疗程,查看患者的治疗效果。并对患者接受治疗前后的症状表现做详细对比,并用中医临床症状积分等相关参数评判标准来确保患者的病情有改观。结果使用统计学方法对两组的疗效进行对比,在治疗之后,治疗组的各项生理指标均较对照组有较大程度的改善,尤其是 IIEF-5分数表现,治疗组较高。结论壮阳汤能够有效提升肾虚患者的症状表现,临床疗效得到了充分的证实,因此应当大力推广壮阳汤在阳痿早泄当中的应用。%Objective This paper studies how the soup to treat impotence impotence kidney disease type, and its clinical manifestations and treatment principle a detailed description . Methods This study selected a total of suffering from kidney disease type impotence 322 patients, all patients after a TCM diagnosis, the majority of the performance of liver kidney disease, liver kidney and blood stasis symptoms of psychosis, the condition is not the strength of Like, Results Using statistical methods to compare the efficacy of the two groups, after the treatment, the treatment group compared with the control group of the physiological indicators have a greater degree of improvement, especially in the performance of IIEF-5 scores, the treatment group is higher. Conclusion Aphrodisiac soup can effectively improve the

  15. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  16. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    controlled telescope near Los Angeles (where it was still dark for some reason), but gloom quickly replaced by encouraging notion that with 200 billion other stars in our galaxy you could put money on the existence of extraterrestrial life and thus of potential Mr Right out there somewhere. Then really fascinating lunchtime lecture by dishy New Scientist editor Jeremy Webb about how racy covers can even sell 'serious' magazines. Made copious notes in order to impress Daniel (my boss) and might even consider buying it to improve image. Wasn't sure I'd have the stamina for an afternoon talk by chemist John Emsley (from Cambridge so must be really brainy), but it was surprisingly interesting—about things called 'mollycules' which are everywhere. Apparently finger-nails have same ones as rhino horn, so can get aphrodisiac kick with a quick chew and do my bit for conservation all in one go. Brilliant! Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! David Smith and friends Highgate School, London

  17. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on botanical compendia for potential cosmeceutic species from Atlantic Forest Levantamento etnofarmacognóstico em compêndios botânicos de espécies da Mata Atlântica com potencial cosmecêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maique W. Biavatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems on earth, and is acknowledged as an area with truly exceptional levels of biodiversity under enormous levels of stress. Cosmeceutics cover a border area between pharmaceuticals for skin diseases and cosmetics. Natural products for external application, to improve the appearance of the skin or for skin treatment, have always been observed and used by native cultures. The present work deals with the ethnopharmacognostic analysis of two botanical compendia (BC, named: Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil - e das exóticas cultivadas, compiled by Pio Correa (PC Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (FIC. From these BC, reported species with cosmeceutical uses or with related physico-chemical or organoleptic characteristics were selected, updated, searched for scientific background and highlighted if endangered. PC and FIC specified that 245 plant species, belonging to 98 plant families, are used in Brazil for cosmeceutical, cosmetic or skin remedies. The families most widely represented were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Clusiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Bignoniaceae and Solanaceae The most frequently cited plant parts were bark, followed by leaves and aerial parts. The most frequently cited properties were astringency and tonic effect followed by uses in skin disorders and wound healing, emollient characteristic, anti-inflammatory uses and healing of skin ulcers, antiseptic effects, parasiticide and skin lightening properties and aphrodisiacs. According to the Pubmed survey, most of the selected species (65% have not been previously investigated for potential cosmeceutical applications, nor have their chemical composition been investigated.A Mata Atlântica é um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do planeta, sendo reconhecida como uma área de grande biodiversidade sob alto nível de stress. A área cosmecêutica abrange medicamentos de uso tópico e cosméticos, e o uso de

  18. Characteristics of HIV infected MSM and their syphilis infection status in Xi'an%西安市HIV抗体阳性MSM的高危行为特征及梅毒感染状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海兰; 李恒新; 闫永平; 卫晓丽; 郑海潮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology characteristics of HIV infection and status of syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Xi'an.Methods Five ml blood samples were collected for syphilis test from HIV infected MSM reported during 2010-2012 in CDCD of Xi'an.Epidemiological survey was completed in the meanwhile,including sexual behavior characteristics,history of drugs,blood donation,etc.Resuits There were 240 HIV-positive MSM investigated in this study.They were mainly at the age of 20-40 years (accounting for 71.2 %).Most of them were unmarried (60.4 %),well educated (79.2 % with degrees of senior/vocational middle school and above),and occupation distribution was varied.The awareness rate of AIDS was 96.7%.Behavioral characteristics were complex:61.3% of investigated individuals had bisexual behaviors,mean of cumulative sex partners was 5,and the rate of persistent condom use was 20.4%.Among married participants,22.8% (13/57) did not use condom in sexual intercourse with their spouses after infection.All subjects denied the history of drug use,but 10% of them had history of analeptic/aphrodisiac use.Twenty-five percent had a history of blood donation and 38.8% regularly tested HIV antibody before infection.Sexual or emotional orientations showed that 57.9% of the subjects were homosexual,32.5% were bisexual,4.2% were heterosexual,and 5.4% were uncertain.The positive rate of syphilis in HIV positive MSM was 17.5% (42cases).Conclusion A contradiction between knowledge and behavior is prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Xi'an.This population has characteristics of bisexual behavior,multiple sexual partners,low rate of condom use and high rate of syphilis infection,etc.The prevention and control strategies should be strengthened and improved hereafter to suppress the prevalence of AIDS in this population,such as strengthening the publicity,education and behavior intervention,diagnosing and treating syphilis according

  19. Influência de diferentes meios de cultura sobre o crescimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae para conservação in vitro Influence of different culture media on the growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pendersen (Amaranthaceae for conservation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.N. Alves

    2010-12-01

    and gallery forests. It is a hydrophyte and heliophyte species. The roots of the genus Pfaffia are used in Brazilian folk medicine especially as tonic, aphrodisiac and to control diabetes. The aim of this work was to establish an in vitro germplasm bank for Pfaffia glomerata. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with six treatments: 1 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 2 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol; 3 DM + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 4 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 5 DM + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate; 6 DM/2 + 2% sucrose + 3% mannitol + 2 mg L-1 calcium pantothenate. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Scott Knott test for mean grouping. Treatments 1, 3 and 4 had a significantly larger number of nodal segments per stem, compared to Treatments 2, 5 and 6. Treatment 2 was the most appropriate for the in vitro conservation of this species since it led to the lowest growth (3.1±1.9 cm height, high survival rate, 100% explants with sprouting, and the largest number of sprouts per explant after six months of culture. All seedlings produced root and showed no formation of calluses or hyperhydricidity under the evaluated treatments. Acclimatized plants showed 100% survival in the ex vitro environment. Maintaining P. glomerata accessions in an in vitro germplasm bank is viable both economically and for conservation.

  20. Controle farmacognóstico das raízes de Heteropteris aphrodisiaca O. Mach. (Malpighiaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of the roots of Heteropteris aphrodisiaca O. Mach. (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As raízes de Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, denominadas de " nó-de-cachorro" , pela semelhança morfológica com o pênis canino, são usadas popularmente com ação afrodisíaca, estimulante e no tratamento de disenterias, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizá-las morfoanatômica e fisico-quimicamente. Para as análises foram elaboradas lâminas histológicas e analisados extratos aquosos, hidro-etanólicos e cetônicos obtidos a partir de amostras coletadas no estado do Mato Grosso, nas diferentes estações do ano. Tais raízes são tuberosas, cilíndricas e recobertas por súber estriado de coloração marrom-escura. O córtex, composto por tecido parenquimático, não apresenta elementos esclerificados, mas mostra-se com abundância de drusas e cristais prismáticos de oxalato de cálcio, bem como de idioblastos contendo polifenóis. No xilema secundário são abundantes as fibras gelatinosas, típicas de raízes de espécies do cerrado brasileiro. As análises físico-químicas revelaram maiores perdas por dessecação nas amostras coletadas no verão e na primavera. A água foi considerada o melhor líquido extrator, o teor de cinzas totais das amostras variou de 3,4% no verão a 5,3% no outono, enquanto que os teores de polifenóis totais foram maiores na primavera (10,2% que nas demais estações, sugere-se esta estação como a mais apropriada para a coleta da droga vegetal. Análises cromatográficas em camada delgada e líquida de alta eficiência foram realizadas empregando-se marcadores flavonoídicos neoastilbina, astilbina e isoastilbina, com valores de Rf de 0,60, 0,68 e 0,74, e tempos de retenção de: 16,44, 16,91 e 18,08 min, respectivamente.The roots of Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, called " nó-de-cachorro" (dog-knot for their morphological similarity to the canine penis, are used in popular medicine as an aphrodisiac or stimulant, and to treat dysentery. The objective of the present study was to characterize these roots

  1. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ven Murthy, M R; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Ramassamy, Charles; Deshpande, Manasi

    2010-09-01

    normal habitats in different areas of the world, as well as the common synonyms by which they are known, are shown in the Table 1. The scientific investigations concerning the best known and most scientifically investigated of these herbs, Ashwagandha will be discussed in detail in this review. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, WS), also commonly known, in different parts of the world, as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. It is also known in different linguistic areas in India by its local vernacular names [6]. It grows prolifically in dry regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, particularly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Congo and Jordon [7]. In India, it is cultivated, on a commercial scale, in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat and Rajasthan [6]. In Sanskrit, ashwagandha, the Indian name for WS, means "odor of the horse", probably originating from the odor of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse. The name"somnifera" in Latin means "sleep-inducer" which probably refers to its extensive use as a remedy against stress from a variety of daily chores. Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is used in India, in a way similar to how ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a large variety of human diseases [8]. Ashwagandha is a shrub whose various parts (berries, leaves and roots) have been used by Ayurvedic practitioners as folk remedies, or as aphrodisiacs and diuretics. The fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, in order to leach out undesirable constituents. The berries are sometimes used as a substitute to coagulate milk in cheese making. In Ayurveda, the herbal preparation is referred to as a "rasayana", an elixir that works, in a nonspecific, global fashion, to increase human health and longevity. It is also considered an adaptogen, a

  2. Sazonalidade na produção de raízes e teor de β-ecdisona em acessos de fáfia Seasonal variation in root production and β-ecdisone content in pfaffia accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirino Corrêa Júnior

    2008-09-01

    transplante, como a mais adequada para colheita das raízes.Roots of Pfaffia sp. are used in the Brazilian popular medicine, especially for their tonic, aphrodisiac, and anti-diabetic properties. Sides and islands of the Paraná River are the natural habitat of P. glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, a species threatened due to intensive harvests. Therefore, its preservation demands the development of sustainable exploitation systems. In this framework, the seasonal variation of root biomass production and β-ecdisone contents were evaluated, using different Pfaffia glomerata accessions. Accessions were collected along the rivers Paraná (A1 and A3, Ivaí (A2, and Paranapanema (A4. Plantlets obtained out of these accessions were transplanted to its natural habitat, in a complete random blocks experimental design, with split-plots (accessions in the plots; harvests in the split-plots, and four six-plant replications. Four root harvests took place: at the eighth (May, tenth (July, twelfth (October, and fourteenth (December month after planting. The highest root yield, assessed as dry mass, was found in the third harvest, 38.41 g plant-1. Accession A4 significantly outyielded the others, both in root fresh (94.67 g plant-1 and dry mass (26.39 g plant-1 yield. The ratio root fresh:dry mass, with an average of 26.91% (3.7:1, suffered little influence of accession origin. However, it was significantly altered along harvests (from 4.1:1, in the first harvest, to 3.3:1, in the third harvest, where it reached its peak. β-ecdisone content in roots was similar in the first three harvests, ranging from 0.26 to 0.38%, but with a sharp drop in the last harvest (0.16%. Accessions A2 and A3 had the highest β-ecdisone contents in roots, respectively 0.36 and 0.30%. Taking into account the results obtained in this work, we suggest the third harvest, twelve months after planting, as the most adequate for harvesting pfaffia roots.