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Sample records for aphrodisiacs

  1. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabna Kotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido, compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.

  2. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia Parviflora

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The increasing prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the limitation of therapeutic efficacy nowadays give rise to the requirement of novel therapeutic strategy. Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai-Dun has been long term used in Thai traditional folklore to treat this condition. Unfortunately, no scientific document is available until now. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on male sexual behavior of aging rats subjected to stress. Approach: Aging rats were divided into 2 groups; the vehicle+stress and the K. parviflora+stress. All animals were administered the assigned substance 45 m before they were subjected to the 12 h stress exposure for 3 weeks. They were determined male sexual behaviors including both latency and frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation behaviors after single dose and every week until the end of experimental period. In order to investigate the possible underlying mechanism, we also determined the alteration of DA1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Results: Our results showed that after the single administration of the plant extract, the intromission frequency increased, it was also found the rats subjected K. parviflora treatment significantly increased the frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation while decreased the latencies of all sexual behaviors mentioned earlier. Moreover, K. parviflora also increased D1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Therefore, the aphrodisiac activity of K. parviflora might be attributed in part to the enhanced dopaminergic function in hypothalamus. Conclusion: Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract of K. parviflora can enhance male sexual behaviors. Therefore, it will be further developed as the functional food or health product for men especially for men who are risk for sexual dysfunction

  3. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia parviflora

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The increasing prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the limitation of therapeutic efficacy nowadays give rise to the requirement of novel therapeutic strategy. Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai-Dun has been long term used in Thai traditional folklore to treat this condition. Unfortunately, no scientific document is available until now. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on male sexual behavior of aging rats subjected to stress. Approach: Aging rats were divided into 2 groups; the vehicle+stress and the K.parviflora+stress. All animals were administered the assigned substance 45 m before they were subjected to the 12-hr stress exposure for 3 weeks. They were determined male sexual behaviors including both latency and frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation behaviors after single dose and every week until the end of experimental period. In order to investigate the possible underlying mechanism, we also determined the alteration of DA1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Results: Our results showed that after the single administration of the plant extract, the intromission frequency increased, it was also found the rats subjected K.parviflora treatment significantly increased the frequency of mounting, intromission and ejaculation while decreased the latencies of all sexual behaviors mentioned earlier. Moreover, K.parviflora also increased D1-immunopositive stained neurons density in hypothalamus. Therefore, the aphrodisiac activity of K.parviflora might be attributed in part to the enhanced dopaminergic function in hypothalamus. Conclusion: Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract of K.parviflora can enhance male sexual behaviors. Therefore, it will be further developed as the functional food or health product for men especially for men who are risk for sexual dysfunction.

  4. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Male sexual (or erectile dysfunction various natural aphrodisiac plants potentials are preferred. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.

  5. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential:A current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; Gaurav Gupta; Alok Semwal; G Jeyabalan

    2013-01-01

    Aphrodisiac is the word derived fromAphrodite, theGreek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent(food or drug) that arouses sexual desire.Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction.Ayurveda and otherIndian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments.India has about more than45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction.This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  6. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; G. Jeyabalan; Ashraf Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Ma...

  7. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  8. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review

    OpenAIRE

    Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu; Paul Alozie Nwafor; Wagner Vilegas

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting m...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

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    Javeed Ahmed Wani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus root at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydro-alcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg/kg. body weight and aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight showed moderate aphrodisiac property. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the extracts of Asparagus racemosus exert significant aphrodisiac activity. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in-vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients suffering from sexual disorders.

  10. A Landmark Approach to Aphrodisiac Property of Abelmoschus manihot (L.

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    K.K. Rewatkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Abelmoschus manihot (L. commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi” is widely used to control fertility, depression and anxiety in traditional Chinese medicine and has potential therapeutic benefit for cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot on general mounting frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection index along with body weight/organ weight and sperm count on sexually normal male mice. Two doses i.e. 100and 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract administered to Swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency.The result of the present study signatured for sexual enhancing capacity of the drug Abelmoschus manihot is an individual and also holds good aphrodisiac property when compared with standard drug. It was noticed that a 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect. Therefore, the conclusion suggestive that the Abelmoschus manihot will be a drug of choice or alternative therapy for a marketed product. Which may help the population to lead their sexual life perfectly with full of pleasure to interact body, mind and sole.

    Keywords: Abelmoschus manihot, Aphrodisiac, Mounting frequency, Intromission frequency, Penile erection index.

  11. Aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R. Kumar; D. Laloo; K. Sairam; S. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study represents an interesting case report for a very good aphrodisiac activity observed during an oral glucose tolerance test performed while evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Pedalium murex Linn. fruit. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. was given to the rats followed by administration of 2 g/kg p.o. of glucose 30 min after the administration of extract. Results: Pregnancy was observed in the treated groups after 20-25 days of treatment in females which resulted in birth of pubs ranging upto ten in some females (more significant in case of 500 mg/kg p.o.). The observation also showed a significant increase in weights of pubs along with a normal behavior pattern. The increased pregnancy rate in the drug treated groups may be due to the healthy viable sperm and enhancement of sexual desire of the rats. Conclusion: From the results it may be concluded that the fruits of the plant may be used as a good aphrodisiac agent to promote fertility rate.

  12. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  13. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review

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    Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA or Carpolobia lutea (CL is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  14. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwidu, Lucky Lebgosi; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA) or Carpolobia lutea (CL) is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed. PMID:26392711

  15. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  16. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  17. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Singh; Vinod Nair; Yogendra K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried o...

  18. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo; Subhangkar Nandy; Aswini Kumar Senapati; Sarada Prasad Sarangi; Saroj Kumar Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered...

  19. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal; Jaikishan

    2013-01-01

    Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment.Bothin vitroandin vivomodels have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents.Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter), pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count,Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein.This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.

  20. Aphrodisiac Activity and Curative Effects of Pedalium Murex (L) Against Ethanol Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    BALAMURUGAN, Gunasekaran; P. Muralidharan; POLAPALA, Satyanarayana

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic ethanol exposure may result in testicular damage and infertility in males. Petroleum ether extract of Pedalium murex, family Pedaliaceae (PEPM), is evaluated in this study for its ability to increase aphrodisiac activity and to cure ethanol induced germ cell damage and infertility in male rat models. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of PEPM showed a significant increase (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) in mating and mounting behaviour. The effect on fertility factors s...

  1. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

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    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  2. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites. PMID:24082329

  3. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial. PMID:22499723

  4. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  5. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  6. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  7. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Katharina C.; Stökl, Johannes; Schweizer, Rebecca; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Ruther, Joachim; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female burying beetles during the time the current offspring is needy and report that this temporary infertility is communicated via a pheromone to the male partner, where it inhibits copulation. A shared pathway of hormone and pheromone system ensures the reliability of the anti-aphrodisiac. Female infertility and male sexual abstinence provide for the concerted investment of parental resources into the existing developing young. Our study thus contributes to our deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive parental decisions. PMID:27002429

  8. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level. PMID:24559105

  9. 短期补饲结合药物催情对提高母牛繁殖率效果的观察%Effects of Short-term Supplementary Feeding Combined with Drug Aphrodisiac on Improvement of Cow Reproductive Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 成立新; 栾庆江; 田春英; 祁云霞; 李晓凯

    2013-01-01

    The major problem for beef cattle industry in our country is currently facing with tension of commercial cattle sources and insufficiency of beef supply. Low reproductive rate of basic cows is an important factor causing tension of cattle sources. Therefore, improving cow reproductive rate is of great significance to alleviating tension of cattle sources, improving farming income and promoting healthy development of the industry. In this experiment, the combination of short-term aphrodisiac fodder and aphrodisiac drug was used to improve cow reproductive rate. The results showed that aphrodisiac fodder combined with aphrodisiac drug made cow estrus rate reach 81.8% and percent pregnancy rate reach 63.6% within two months. Estrus and pregnancy rates were improved significantly. Compared with the present mode of production, the technology solution has obvious effects and can significantly improve the breeding economic benefits.%我国肉牛业目前面临的主要问题是商品牛源紧张、牛肉供应不足。基础母牛繁殖率低是造成牛源紧张的重要因素。因此,提高母牛繁殖率对于缓解牛源紧张、提高养殖效益、促进产业健康发展具有重要意义。试验通过在短期内补饲催情饲料结合药物诱导催情的方法,来提高母牛繁殖率。结果表明,饲料催情结合药物催情2个月内母牛发情率达到81.8%,妊娠率为63.6%;发情率和妊娠率均有明显提高。对比目前生产模式,该技术方案使用效果比较明显,可以显著提高肉牛养殖的经济效益。

  10. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Semecarpus anacardium an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The chloroform extract of Semecarpus anacardium was administered (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Mice. Mounting behavior & mating performance were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. The extracts of the Semecarpus anacardium were found to stimulate the mounting behavior of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The extracts Semecarpus anacardium enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  11. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia Parviflora

    OpenAIRE

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Prasert Pangphukiew; Supaporn Muchimapura; Kittisak Sripanidkulchai; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The increasing prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the limitation of therapeutic efficacy nowadays give rise to the requirement of novel therapeutic strategy. Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai-Dun has been long term used in Thai traditional folklore to treat this condition. Unfortunately, no scientific document is available until now. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on male sexual behavior of aging rats subjected to stres...

  12. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia parviflora

    OpenAIRE

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Prasert Pangphukiew; Supaporn Muchimapura; Kittisak Sripanidkulchai; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The increasing prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the limitation of therapeutic efficacy nowadays give rise to the requirement of novel therapeutic strategy. Kaempferia parviflora or Krachai-Dun has been long term used in Thai traditional folklore to treat this condition. Unfortunately, no scientific document is available until now. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on male sexual behavior of aging rats subjected to stres...

  13. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in Relation to Its Aphrodisiac Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris ‘the herbal Viagra’ have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P

  14. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    OpenAIRE

    B Rajendar; Bharavi, K.; G.S.Rao; Kishore, P.V.S; Ravi Kumar, P.; C.S.V Satish Kumar; T Pankaj Patel

    2011-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conduct...

  15. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage.

  16. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/117

  17. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance. PMID:21729142

  18. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rajendar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT could protect the cadmium (Cd-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods : In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl 2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week. In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage, respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results : In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions : eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells.

  19. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27020843

  20. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Kumar Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED. Methanol extract of BF (bark inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29±1.83 μg/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month and aged (24 month rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77±2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED.

  1. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuntha G

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  2. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL ROOT EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF LANDOLPHIA DULCIS (SABINE PICHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Ilodigwe, E.N. Igbokwe, D.L. Ajaghaku and C.P. Ihekwereme

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the traditionally used sex enhancement natural remedies in south eastern Nigeria, L. dulcis root is very popular because of its quick onset of action. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. This study therefore investigated the effects of its ethanol extract and fractions on sexual behavior in male albino rats.Methods: Forty-five male albino rats were randomly divided into nine groups A1 – D1, A2 – D2 and E. Animals in groups A1 – D1 received daily doses of 500mg/kg of ethanol extract and fractions (n-Hexane, Ethylacetate and Methanol respectively while groups A2 – D2 received 1000mg/kg. Group E served as the control and receive 1ml of 10% tween 80. Equal numbers of female albino rats (45 were made receptive by hormonal treatment with estradiol benzoate (10µg/100g and progesterone (0.5mg/100g. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats when paired with receptive females were monitored on days 1, 3 and 5. Male serum testosterone concentration was also determined.Results: At 500 and 1000mg/kg, the ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L.dulcis showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies. This extract and fraction also significantly (p<0.05 reduce the mount and intromission latencies and prolonged ejaculation latency compared with the control animals. The ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L. dulcis also produced significant (p<0.05 increase in serum testosterone concentration.Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L. dulcis enhanced sexual ability in male rats and this could be attributed to relatively high contents of alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids. This study therefore justifies the traditional use of the root of L. dulcis in treating impotence and erectile dysfunction.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  4. A hormone-related female anti-aphrodisiac signals temporary infertility and causes sexual abstinence to synchronize parental care

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, K.; Stökl, J.; Schweizer, R.; H. Vogel; Ayasse, M.; Ruther, J.; Steiger, S

    2016-01-01

    The high energetic demand of parental care requires parents to direct their resources towards the support of existing offspring rather than investing into the production of additional young. However, how such a resource flow is channelled appropriately is poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the physiological mechanisms coordinating parental and mating effort in an insect exhibiting biparental care. We show a hormone-mediated infertility in female b...

  5. In search of the perfect aphrodisiac: Parallel use of bitter tonics in West Africa and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Mitchell, S.; Volpato, G.; Vandebroek, I.; Swier, J.; Ruysschaert, S.; Rentería Jiménez, C.A.; Raes, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Enslaved Africans in the Americas had to reinvent their medicinal flora in an unknown environment by adhering to plants that came with them, learning from Amerindians and Europeans, using their Old World knowledge and trial and error to find substitutes for their homel

  6. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  7. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will arouse or increase sexual desire, or that it will improve sexual performance, is an aphrodisiac... aphrodisiac;” “arouses or increases sexual desire and improves sexual performance;” “helps restore sexual vigor, potency, and performance;” “improves performance, staying power, and sexual potency;” and...

  8. AYURVEDA AND ITS ROLE IN SEXUAL HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouleeswaran P; Govadhan K

    2012-01-01

    Vaajikarna is one among astangas. Sexuality is not just sexual activity. Vrishya chikitsa of Ayurveda addresses the reasons for sexual inefficiency and directs the use of sexual aphrodisiac herbs, minerals and treatments to enhance the vitality.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF IPOMOEA SEPIARIA KOENIG EX. ROXB. LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    Sayani Majumder; Nishteshwar K

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig ex. Roxb. of the family Convolvulaceae is a perennial climber growing on the bank of streams, rivers, specially over hedges. Traditionally the whole herb is to possess number of therapeutic properties like, aphrodisiac, a good antidote to arsenic, rejuvenating, diuretic, aphrodisiac, laxative and also used in sterility in women and in diabetes. As the plant is not explored scientifically as yet, it was thought worth to evaluate each and every part of the plant thorough...

  10. Erectile dysfunction: A review and herbs used for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED or male impotence is defined as the inability to have or sustain an erection long enough to have a meaningful sexual intercourse. ED tends to occur gradually until the night time or early morning erections cease altogether or are so flaccid that successful intercourse does not occur. Sexual health is an important determinant of quality of life. Today, millions of men, young and old, suffer from ED due to high levels of synthetic hormones (known as Xenoestrogens in our diet/environment; nutritionally imbalanced diet resulting from poor quality of produces; and extremely low levels of testosterone. To overcome the problem of sexual (or ED various natural aphrodisiac potentials are preferred. The present review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its biological source, common name, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new aphrodisiac formulations.

  11. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Javed; Sana Riaz; Muhammad Uzair; Gulam Mustafa; Ayesha Mohyuddin; Bashir Ahmad Ch.

    2016-01-01

    World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results...

  12. Methaemoglobinaemia after ingestion of amyl nitrite.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, R. J.; Moulden, A

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of methaemoglobinaemia in a 2 year old girl after ingestion of an 'aphrodisiac' containing nitrite. The availability of these products, their poor labelling, and their intended presence in domestic bedrooms all serve to increase the hazard they pose to young children.

  13. Relaxant mechanisms of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone on isolated human cavernosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansakul, Chaweewan; Tachanaparuksa, Kuldej; Mulvany, Michael J.;

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effects and mechanisms responsible for the activity of 3, 5, 7, 30, 40-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on isolated human cavernosum. PMF is the major flavone isolated from Kaempferia parviflora claimed to act as an aphrodisiac. PMF caused relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted...

  14. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Ackar; Kristina Valek Lendić; Marina Valek; Drago Šubarić; Borislav Miličević; Jurislav Babić; Ilija Nedić

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  15. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Galani, V. J.; B G Patel; Patel, N B

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have b...

  16. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Atiar Rahman; Md. Shahidul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening re...

  17. Invitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Flower Extract of Nymphaea Alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHUSUDHANAN N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea alba also known as the European White Waterlily, White Lotus or Nenuphar, is an aquatic flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae. The flowers are white and they have many small stamens inside. It contains the active alkaloids nupharine and nymphaeine, and is a sedative and an aphrodisiac/an aphrodisiac.In this study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from flower of Nymphaea alba was evaluated by various antioxidant assays including total antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activities. Both extracts have exhibited significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydroxyl radical induced invitro assay methods. The results indicate that both the extracts firmly possess strong antioxidant effects .Comparatively the ethanolic flower extract showed more antioxidant activity than the aqueous extracts. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the Nymphaea alba flower extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidant

  18. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino; Cassius Fabian Costa Souza; Jânio Rodrigo de Jesus Santos; Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly) is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT), but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana) powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina) to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether i...

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Important Molecular Networks and Metabolic Pathways of the Plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single e...

  20. Sedative Hypnotic Activity of Manahshila (Realgar) -An Experimental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kodlady, Naveena; Doddamani, M. S.; Vishwanath, Y.; Patgiri, B J

    2011-01-01

    Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Ros...

  1. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. Materials and Methods The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extra...

  2. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN.: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati PK; Patgiri BJ; Priyanka Verma; Galib G

    2013-01-01

    Plants have a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality of life. gokshura  (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) one of such plants, is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for  various therapeutic properties like balya (strengthening), brimhana (nutritive), rasayana (rejuvenator), mootrala (diuretic), shothahara (anti-inflammatory), vajikarana (aphrodisiac) etc. and useful in the management of mutrakrichhra (dysurea), ashmari (renal calculi) etc. It is a perennial plant, grown predomi...

  3. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Anup B Thakar; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia)...

  4. Growing technology earthy Tribulus terrestris (Tribulus terrestris L.) and its use

    OpenAIRE

    HUDSKÁ, Miluše

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) as for planting, content substances, pharmacological use and with influences of planting technology or elicitors upon the active substance contents. Saponines, flavonoids, and phytosterols are the main active substances of Puncturevine. The saponines act as aphrodisiacs, the flavonoids treat with heart diseases and the phytosterols decrease the cholesterol concentration in blood plasma. The active substance contents depend on ...

  5. Návrh technologie pěstování kotvičníku zemního (Tribulus terrestris L.) a jeho využití

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.) is an annual plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. Its medicinal properties have long been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine to treat various diseases. It has been shown that active substances, among which we count steroid saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols and alkaloids, have effects on reproduction, effects aphrodisiac, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, diuretic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular and many other. The aim ...

  6. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Chhatre; Tanuja Nesari; Gauresh Somani; Divya Kanchan; Sadhana Sathaye

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hyp...

  7. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Desislava Abadjieva; Elena Kistanova

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at ...

  8. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris ): A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi Devi; Uniyal Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on qua...

  9. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Sukirti Upadhyay; Vinod K. Dixit; Ghosh, Ashoke K.; Vijayender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route) induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and his...

  10. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubeh Bozorgi; Zahra Memariani; Masumeh Mobli; Mohammad Hossein Salehi Surmaghi; Mohammad Reza Shams-Ardekani; Roja Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the w...

  11. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    OpenAIRE

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; de Kaste D; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious and safe. However, a high health risk is posed by the increased use of potent active substances, mixtures thereof, and the rising number of active substances in adulterated herbal aphrodisiacs tha...

  12. EFFICACY ASSESSMENT OF KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Panakaporn Wannanon; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Terdthai Tong-Un; Prasert Pangphukiew; Supaporn Muchimapura; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Wathita Phachonpai

    2012-01-01

    Age-related decline in erectile function is a noted phenomenon worldwide. A variety of medicinal plants have been identified as having strong aphrodisiac properties along with the ability to improve erectile functioning. Kaempferia Parviflora (KP) has famous as a Thai Viagra and use it to increase male impotency. However, there is limited scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of this herb on this issue in aging healthy men. This study therefore investigated the effect of KP extract admin...

  13. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntal Ghosh; Baghel, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral), Aphrodisiac (vrishya), Appetizer (dipana); used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta), Purpura (Raktapitta), Emaciation (Kshaya), Mental disorder (Chetovikara), etc. In the present stud...

  14. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were d...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of yohimbe bark and its preparations originating from Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille when used in food, e.g. in food supplements. The bark of the plant contains a number of indole alkaloids of biological relevance and preparations of yohimbe bark have been traditionally used as general tonic, performance enhancer and as an aphrodisiac. Food sup...

  16. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi Shariatifar; Shahram Shoeibi; Moslem Jaferi Sani; Amir Hossein Jamshidi; Ali Zarei; Abbas Mehdizade; Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as...

  17. Pharmacognostical study on fruit of ziziphus xylopyrus (retz.) Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal U; Goyal A; Solanki N S; Jain V K; Goyal P K

    2012-01-01

    Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd known as katber is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases like Bronchial Asthma, Thirst, Diarrhoea and as Aphrodisiac, Antimicrobial, Antiinflammatory Antinoceceptive and as Anticonvulsants. Present Paper deals with Pharmacognostic study of fruit part of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd.,for its identification and to distinguish it from the coexisting weeds and adulterants. The Secton of fruit has thick pericarp, hard and thick seeds and scler...

  18. MSM POEMS: A case of identity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2006-01-01

    Tonight at a classical dance recital symbolizing the eternal quest of the soul-force for God I too raised for myself some questions As I saw the dancer adopt body twisted beautifully gymnastic postureslike a question mark put before me -who am I?Am I the inquisitive streetwalker listening at pavements to snake charmers' aphrodisiac calls, watching indolently as the fast cycling rogue whirling past knocks her off, squeezes her breasts, makes off ...

  19. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Hot Louisiana chef Dan Segall has been doing his research and come up with a list of the most saucy, aphrodisiacal foods you'll find this side of Paris. Succulent oysters, rich truffles infused with foie gras, creamy chocolate-all served for two on a single plate to help get you in the sharing mood! The sensational meal is accompanied by live music and a glass of

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity and HPTLC analysis of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine, Nymphaea nouchali is used for the treatment of diabetes, cutaneous diseases, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. However, despite its traditional usage as an antimicrobial agent, there is no information regarding its effectiveness in infections caused by pathogenic microbes. Hence, we evaluated 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of N. no...

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    JianFeng Cao; PengYing Zhang; ChengWei Xu; TaoTao Huang; YunGui Bai; KaoShan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into ...

  2. EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B. T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant

  3. EFFECT OF CATHA EDULIS ON INSULIN, RESISTIN AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NON-DIABETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ibrahem Kotb El-Sayed; Hatem Al-Kordy Amin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the biochemical effects of Catha edulis leaves chewing (as psycho stimulant and aphrodisiac) on the serum concentration of resistin, insulin, cortisol, zinc, calcium, copper and blood glucose in both healthy individuals and type 2 diabetic patients were examined. 80 male subjects aged 35-55 years were recruited in this study, 40 of them were previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetics and the other 40 were healthy non-diabetics. The above two groups were subdivided into two subgro...

  4. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  5. Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D.Ramasooriya; M.G.Dharmasiri

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally treated with 1500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. Results: The 1500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. Conclusion: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.

  6. Effect of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Monsonia angustifolia E. Mey. Ex A. Rich., on the sexual behaviour of male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fouche, Gerda; Afolayan, Anthony J; Wintola, Olubunmi A; Khorombi, Tendani E.; Senabe, Jeremiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Monsonia angustifolia (Geraniaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in South Africa to increase libido and to treat erectile dysfunction. Methods In-vivo aphrodisiac activities of the crude extracts of the plant prepared in water at 3, 30 and 300 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for 7 days using sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and 1 % ethanol in distilled water as positive and negative controls respectively. Male rats were selected and monitored in each group for sexual behavio...

  7. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtari, Elham; Raisi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Hosseini, Hamed; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghobadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. De...

  8. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Devi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

  9. PA03.23. To Evaluate the efficacy of “Vajikar Kalp” in Male sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Khedkar, Amol; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an aphrodisiac preparation in male sexual dysfunction. Method: The Vajikar Kalp was administered in 30 patients at the dosage of 2 gms twice a day with luke warm cow's milk. The combination was made of 1.Asparagus Racemosa - 500 mg, 2.Tribulus Terrestris - 500 mg, 3. Mucuna Pruriens - 500 mg, 4. Withania Somnifera - 500 mg. Patients were observed on days 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90. International Index of Erectile Function was used to assess the improvement. Othe...

  10. Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium Aromaticum and its Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Debjit bhowmik; K. P. Sampath Kumar; Akhilesh Yadav; Mrs. Shweta Srivastava; Shravan Paswan; Amit sankar Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum), many medicinal uses have been most famously applied to toothache, and for mouth and throat inflammation. The dove has been used in India and China, for over 2,000 years, as a spice to check both tooth decay and counter halitosis that is bad breath. In Persia and China, it was considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian). In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every ...

  11. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam; Ali Akbar Sial

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, ...

  12. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. sweet: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V J Galani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

  13. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf) Th. AND H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Francisca Otoo; George Asumeng Koffuor; Charles Ansah; Kwesi Boadu Mensah; Charles Benneh; Inemesit Okon Ben

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The ef...

  14. Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A Potential Bioresource for Commercialization in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Bharat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in Tibetan traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. The species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in East Asia. Its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. Nonetheless, in Sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it is traded illegally. Formal legalization and the community's involvement will ensure the conservation and sustainability of the species, as well as proper management of harvesting areas and monitoring of pressure on Yartsa Gunbu to exploit it. PMID:27481300

  15. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CHLOROPHYTUM GLAUCUM DALZ. – A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil V. N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum glaucum Dalz. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum glaucum has been carried out in this study.

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHLOROPHYTUM LAXUM R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vishal Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum laxum R. Br. belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name “safed musali”. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization, the detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum laxum has been carried out in this study.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  18. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. Traditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and urinary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

  19. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed. PMID:25743119

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF IPOMOEA SEPIARIA KOENIG EX. ROXB. LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig ex. Roxb. of the family Convolvulaceae is a perennial climber growing on the bank of streams, rivers, specially over hedges. Traditionally the whole herb is to possess number of therapeutic properties like, aphrodisiac, a good antidote to arsenic, rejuvenating, diuretic, aphrodisiac, laxative and also used in sterility in women and in diabetes. As the plant is not explored scientifically as yet, it was thought worth to evaluate each and every part of the plant thoroughly and the leaves being first selected for this. Present study deals with detailed macroscopy, qualitative & quantitative microscopy also includes its powder microscopy and its Chromatographic evaluations of leaf. Important diagnostic characters like, cluster crystals, starch grains, pitted vessels, laticiferous cells etc were observed. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying, total ash, etc. Preliminary analysis revealed the presence of various functional groups like alkaloids, saponins, phenols and resin. TLC & HPTLC study of the alcoholic, pet. ether and chloroform extract showed the presence of spots in short & long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species.

  1. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  2. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  4. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  5. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae, commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  6. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN.: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajapati PK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality of life. gokshura  (Tribulus terrestris Linn. one of such plants, is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for  various therapeutic properties like balya (strengthening, brimhana (nutritive, rasayana (rejuvenator, mootrala (diuretic, shothahara (anti-inflammatory, vajikarana (aphrodisiac etc. and useful in the management of mutrakrichhra (dysurea, ashmari (renal calculi etc. It is a perennial plant, grown predominantly in India and Africa. Its extract contains alkaloids, saponins, resins, flavanoids and nitrates. Considering its therapeutic values, a review has been done to gather information on different aspects of gokshura. Besides Ayurvedic references, the present paper also emphasizes on recent researches carried out on this plant for its clinical and pharmacological evaluation.

  7. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus L. belonging to the family Iridaceae (syn - kesar comprises the dried red stigma and is widely cultivated in Iran and other countries such as India and Greece. Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds mainly terpenes, terpene alcohol, and their esters. The bitter taste and an iodoform or hay-like fragrance are caused by chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. C. sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antidepressant, antinociceptive , anti-inflammatory, and relaxant activity. It also improves memory and learning skills, and increases blood flow in retina and choroid. The present review explores the historical background, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions, uses, substitutes and adulterants, and toxicity. It also deals with its evaluation, formulations, and chemical tests in detail.

  8. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus: A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Bozorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species.

  9. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): a review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi, Mahbubeh; Memariani, Zahra; Mobli, Masumeh; Salehi Surmaghi, Mohammad Hossein; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Roja

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia, a genus of flowering plants from the family Anacardiaceae, contains about twenty species, among them five are more popular including P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus. Different parts of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes like tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, and respiratory tract disorders. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological activities from various parts of these species, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and hepatoprotective activities and also their beneficial effects in gastrointestinal disorders. Various types of phytochemical constituents like terpenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and sterols have also been isolated and identified from different parts of Pistacia species. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the five mentioned Pistacia species. PMID:24453812

  10. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  11. Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis), an anciently consumed stimulant from the Amazon rain forest: the seeded-fruit transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula C S; Nunes-Silva, Carlos G; Brígido, Marcelo M; Azevedo, Juliana S N; Assunção, Enedina N; Sousa, Alexandra R B; Patrício, Fernando J B; Rego, Mailson M; Peixoto, Jean C C; Oliveira, Waldesse P; Freitas, Danival V; Almeida, Elionor R P; Viana, Andréya Márcya H A; Souza, Ana Fabíola P N; Andrade, Edmar V; Acosta, Pablo O A; Batista, Jaqueline S; Walter, Maria E M T; Leomil, Luciana; Anjos, Daniel A S; Coimbra, Rodrigo C M; Barbosa, Magda H N; Honda, Eduardo; Pereira, Soraya S; Silva, Artur; Pereira, José O; Silva, Marcicleide L; Marins, Mozart; Holanda, Francisca J; Abreu, Rusleyd M M; Pando, Silvana C; Gonçalves, José F C; Carvalho, Margarida L; Leal-Mesquita, Emygdia R R B P; da Silveira, Márcio A; Batista, Weber C; Atroch, André L; França, Suzelei C; Porto, Jorge I R; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2008-01-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant native to the central Amazon basin. Roasted seed extracts have been used as medicinal beverages since pre-Colombian times, due to their reputation as stimulants, aphrodisiacs, tonics, as well as protectors of the gastrointestinal tract. Guarana plants are commercially cultivated exclusively in Brazil to supply the national carbonated soft-drink industry and natural product stores around the world. In this report, we describe and discuss the annotation of 15,387 ESTs from guarana seeded-fruits, highlighting sequences from the flavonoid and purine alkaloid pathways, and those related to biotic stress avoidance. This is the largest set of sequences registered for the Sapindaceae family. PMID:17917729

  12. Regulatory role of PBAN in sex pheromone biosynthesis of heliothine moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell eJurenka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long-range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide. This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hair-pencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hair-pencil pheromones.

  13. [Dietary supplements on the domestic market adulterated with sildenafil and tadalafil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezsö; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Vékes, Erika; Veres, Katalin; Micsinay, Akos; Szendrei, Kálmán; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-10-24

    Mandatory requirements regulating the manufacture and sale of dietary supplements are much less stringent than those related to pharmaceuticals. Hence, the sheer number and diversity of marketed products in this category has shown an unprecedented increase Europe-wide. Not surprising, that cases for incorrect marketing/promotion, incorrect recommendations for product use, as well as reported incidents of questionable product quality and/or deliberate adulterations have also become frequent in recent years. Typical adulterations consist of admixtures of synthetic pharmaceuticals to the matrix fraudulently declared to consist exclusively of extracts of various (medicinal) plants. In the present paper, the results of qualitative investigations of ten plant-based preparations, marketed in Hungary, and recommended as (or alleged to be) natural aphrodisiacs, are reported. Sildenafil and/or tadalafil or related analogs were detected in six of the ten products. These results highlight, once more, the unacceptable risks for the consumers of such adulterated dietary supplements. PMID:20940118

  14. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  15. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation

  16. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Saccharum spontaneum (L. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. known as Kasa (Family: Poaceae is a traditional herb, it has excellence medicinal value; has been advocated in the treatment gynaecological troubles, respiratory disease. Roots are used as galactagogue and diuretic and in ayurveda system roots are also used as astringent, emollient, refrigerant, diuretic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles and sexual weakness. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis as well as extractive value and quantitative phytochemical screening of different extractives were studied. The major components of the extractives like total phenolic, total flavonoids were also estimated respectively. The characteristic of microscopy, physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and quantitative chemical screening were performed in root extractives of the plant material as a mean of authentication.

  17. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  18. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively. After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P 0.05. Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses.

  19. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Atiar Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae, is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated.

  20. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated. PMID:26009694

  1. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamblé, A; Sahpaz, S; Brunet, C; Bailleul, F

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of observation, intromission and ejaculation, mounting behavior, number of intromissions and mating performances were evaluated and compared to those obtained with untreated rats in the presence of receptive and non-receptive females. The results have shown that aqueous extract and alkaloids of M. keayana stimulate sexual parameters in rats' sexual behavior. A short-term toxicity study undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of aqueous extract, showed that a high dose of the extract (2g/kg body weight) caused no mortality or changes in rats' behavior. PMID:18061417

  2. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklis, R.M.; Bellerive, M.R.; Humm, J.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation.

  3. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

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    Ayodeji F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

  4. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Pholpramool, C

    2008-10-01

    Krachaidum (KD, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker), a native plant of Southeast Asia, is traditionally used to enhance male sexual function. However, only few scientific data in support of this anecdote have been reported. The present study investigated the effects of feeding three different extracts of KD (alcohol, hexane, and water extracts) for 3-5 weeks on the reproductive organs, the aphrodisiac activity, fertility, sperm motility, and blood flow to the testis of male rats. Sexual performances (mount latency, mount frequency, ejaculatory latency, post-ejaculatory latency) and sperm motility were assessed by a video camera and computer-assisted sperm analysis respectively, while blood flow to the testis was measured by a directional pulsed Doppler flowmeter. The results showed that all extracts of KD had virtually no effect on the reproductive organ weights even after 5 weeks. However, administration of the alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 4 weeks significantly decreased mount and ejaculatory latencies when compared with the control. By contrast, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters. All types of extracts of KD had no effect on fertility or sperm motility. On the other hand, alcohol extract produced a significant increase in blood flow to the testis without affecting the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. In a separate study, an acute effect of alcohol extract of KD on blood flow to the testis was investigated. Intravenous injection of KD at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow to the testis. The results indicate that alcohol extract of KD had an aphrodisiac activity probably via a marked increase in blood flow to the testis. PMID:18614624

  5. [Chemical and DNA analyses for the products of a psychoactive plant, Voacanga africana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Maruyama, Takuro; Miyashita, Akinori; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-08-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is a small tropical African tree. The root bark and seeds of this tree contain a number of alkaloids, including ibogaine (a hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac compound in bark), tabersonine (a major constituteent of seeds) and other voacanga alkaloids, traditionally used in Africa for religious purposes. Recently, some kinds of products containing this plant (root bark and seeds) have been distributed in the drug market in expectation of its hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac effects. There has been no report that has discussed quantitative analyses of these alkaloids in the products and their botanical origins. In this study, to investigate the trend of such a non-controlled psychotropic plant of abuse, a simultaneous analytical method was developed using LC/MS for the voacanga alkaloids including ibogaine and tabersonine in the commercial products of V. africana. Moreover, the botanical origins of these products were investigated by DNA analyses. As a result of the LC/MS analyses, the products were classified into two chemical types; an ibogaine-type and a tabersonine-type. The samples of the ibogaine-type contain ibogaine (0.05-0.6%) and other voacanga alkaloids; voacamine, voacamidine and voacangine, while those of the tabersonine-type mainly contain tabersonine (0.6-1.6%). The sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA, trnL-F region suggested that most of the products were derived from V. africana or closely related plants. They were classified into four genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the trnL-F IGS region. The proposed methods of chemical and DNA analyses would be useful for investigating the trend in the distribution of the products of V. africana. PMID:19652504

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

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    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  7. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali: Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

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    Shaheed Ur Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali, a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500–2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents’ identification, determination, further development and most

  8. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

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    M. T. Yakubu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D of 15 each. Rats in group A (control were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose, day 3 (after three doses, once daily, and day 5 (after five doses, once daily by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1. The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<.05 increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P<.05. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<.05 increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  9. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  10. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  11. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  12. The smell of love in Drosophila

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    Anna B. eZiegler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Odors are key sensory signals for social communication and food search in animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful neurogenetic model commonly used to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in odorant detection. Males use olfaction together with other sensory modalities to find their mates. Here, we review known olfactory signals, their related olfactory receptors, and the corresponding neuronal architecture impacting courtship. OR67d receptor detects 11-cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA, a male specific pheromone transferred to the female during copulation. Transferred cVA is able to reduce female attractiveness for other males after mating, and is also suspected to decrease male-male courtship. cVA can also serve as an aggregation signal, maybe through another OR. OR47b was shown to be activated by fly odors, and to enhance courtship depending on taste pheromones. IR84a detects phenylacetic acid (PAA and phenylacetaldehyde. These two odors are not pheromones produced by flies, but are present in various fly food sources. PAA enhances male courtship, acting as a food aphrodisiac. Drosophila males have thus developed complementary olfactory strategies to help them to select their mates.

  13. Pro-sexual effects of aqueous extracts of Massularia acuminata root in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Awotunde, O S; Ajiboye, T O; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A

    2011-10-01

    Aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata root at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight was investigated for its effect on sexual behaviour in male Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins in the extract. The increased (P 0.05) with the reference drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra). The extract also decreased the mount latency. The intromission latency at all the doses of the extract compared favourably with the distilled water-treated animals. The concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinising and follicle stimulating hormones increased at all the doses. All these are indications of prosexual effects of the extract, mediated by changes in the hormonal levels, brought about possibly by alkaloids, saponins and/or flavonoids. Overall, the present study supported the acclaimed use of M. acuminata root as an aphrodisiac in Yorubic medicine of Nigeria. Therefore, the aqueous extract of M. acuminata roots at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight may be explored in the management of disorders of desire, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:21951198

  14. It's All in the Mix: Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Eriksson, Kerstin; Liblikas I, Ilme; Wiklund, Christer; Borg-Karlson, Anna K; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas; Carlsson, Mikael A

    2016-01-01

    Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca(2+) imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time. PMID:26973536

  15. Medicinal properties, phytochemistry and pharmacology of tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine) belongs to family Zygophyllaceae and it is a herbaceous, mat forming plant in nature. It extensively grows in warm dry tropics all over the world and ecologically adaptated as a typical C4 xeromorphic plant. T. terrestris is a noxious weed along with its use in many countries as a folk medicine for different purposes from time immemorial. Ancient records describe various medicinal properties of T. terrestris as a popular source to cure variety of different disease conditions in China, India, and Greece. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a main component for production of a number of medicines and food supplements such as for physical rejuvenation, therapy for the conditions affecting liver, kidney, cardiovascular system and immune systems. Also it is used as a folk medicine for increased muscle strength, sexual potency and in treatments of urinary infections, heart diseases and cough. It is considered invigorating stimulant, aphrodisiac, and nutritive. This review discusses the most commonly recognized medicinal properties of this herb. The chemistry of T. terrestris extracts to establish the relationship between medicinal properties of this important plant will also be reviewed. (author)

  16. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  17. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry. PMID:22580910

  18. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-12-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) and Lepidium meyenii (maca) were the traditional crops of the original population of Peru where they are also still used in folk medicine. These plants are little known in Europe and Northern America although at least yacon can be cultivated in the climatic conditions of these regions. This article deals with the botany and the composition, the structure of main constituents, biological activity of these plants and the cultivation of yacon in the Czech Republic. The potential of yacon tubers to treat hyperglycemia, kidney problems and for skin rejuvenation and the antihyperglycemic and cytoprotective activity of its leaves seems to be related mostly to its oligofructan and phenolic content, respectively. Maca alkaloids, steroids, glucosinolates, isothicyanates and macamides are probably responsible for its aptitude to act as a fertility enhancer, aphrodisiac, adaptogen, immunostimulant, anabolic and to influence hormonal balance. Yacon and maca are already on the European market as prospective functional foods and dietary supplements, mainly for use in certain risk groups of the population, e.g. seniors, diabetics, postmenopausal women etc. PMID:15037892

  19. Solvent-free sample preparation by headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, J; Daenens, P

    1996-01-01

    The most common alkyl nitrites encountered in forensic toxicology are iso-butyl, n-butyl and iso-pentyl(amyl) nitrites. All have become popular as an aphrodisiac, especially among the homosexual population. Alkyl nitrites are a volatile and unstable group of compounds, which hydrolyse in aqueous matrices to the alcohol and nitrite ion. Here we describe a fast, clean and sensitive procedure for the detection of hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite in whole human blood using a new, solvent-free sampling technique, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HSPME), combined with GC/FID analysis. Sample preparation was investigated using two different stationary phases (100 microns polydimethylsiloxane and 85 microns polyacrylate), coating a fused silica fibre. The effect of different sampling times at fixed temperatures was also studied. Our results demonstrate that the HSPME/GC/FID procedure allows tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse and detects hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite, i.e., released n-butanol, in whole blood at the 1 ng/mL level. PMID:8956991

  20. Comparison of Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Bioactive for the Eurycoma longifolia jack using different Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurycoma longifolia jack (Tongkat Ali, Genus: Eurycoma; Family, Simaroubaceae) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants. The plant contains a series of quassinoids, which are mainly responsible for its bitter taste. The plant extract, especially roots, are exclusively used (traditionally) for enhancing testosterone levels in men. The roots also have been used in indigenous traditional medicines for its unique anti-malarial, anti-pyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties. As part of an on-going research on the bioactive compound of Eurycoma longifolia and evaluation for an optimized analysis method and parameter that influence in LC-MS analysis were carried out. Identification of the bioactive compounds was based on comparison of calculated retention time and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the Eurycoma longifolia sample showed some variations and differences in terms of parameters in LC-MS. However, combined method using methanol as the solvent with injection volume 1.0 μL and analysis in ultra scan mode and acetic acid as acidic modifier is the optimum method for LCMS analysis of Eurycoma longifolia because it successfully detected the optimum mass of compounds with good resolution and perfectly separated within a short analysis time. (author)

  1. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  2. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

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    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  3. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  4. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

  5. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

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    Rajesh Bhati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.

  6. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell: a concise report on its phytopharmacological aspects%Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell:a concise report on its phytopharmacological aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2013-01-01

    Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell belonging to the family Violaceae,popularly known as Ratanpurus (Hindi) is a herb or a shrub distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.In the Ayurvedic literature,the plant is reported to cure conditions of "Kapha" and "Pitta",urinary calculi,strangury,painful dysentery,vomiting,burning sensation,wandering of the mind,urethral discharge,blood trouble,asthma,epilepsy,cough,and to give tone to the breasts.Phytochemically,the plant contains a considerable amount of dipeptide alkaloids,aurantiamide acetate,isoarborinol,and β-sitosterol,sugars,flavonoids,steroids,triterpenes,phenols,flavones,catachins,tannins,anthraquinones and amino acids.Pharmacologically,the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antiplasmodial,anfimicrobial,anticonvulsant,nephroprotective,aphrodisiac,hepatoprotective,antiinflammatory,aldose reductase inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities.The information provided in this review will be worthwhile to know the applicability of H.enneaspermus for the treatment of various acute or chronic diseases with a diverse nature of phytoconstituents.The overall data in this review article were collected from various scientific sources on the research ofH.enneaspermus.

  7. GOLDEN EYE GRASS - A MAGICAL REMEDY BY NATURE

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    Nidhi Soni et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Curculigo orchioides, Amaryllidaceae also known as “Golden eye grass”. It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The rhizome is rich in Curculigoside, other glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the rhizome shows antioxidant, anti inflammatory, spermatogenic, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiasthamatic, supporting its traditional uses. In this review article, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, tissue culture study and its reported pharmacological properties.

  8. Avaliação do potencial anti-hiperglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae Evaluation of antihyperglyicemic potential of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae

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    Roberto Barbosa Bazotte

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available As raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, são utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato metanólico bruto e suas frações obtidos das raízes foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade anti-hiperglicemiante em ratos da linhagem Wistar. Das quatro frações obtidas do extrato metanólico bruto, o extrato butanólico apresentou maior atividade anti-hiperglicemiante a partir de 50 mg/kg e o seu fracionamento resultou em perda desta atividade. A β-ecdisona identificada no extrato butanólico não está relacionada com a atividade anti-hiperglicemianteThe roots of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae, commonly known as Brazilian ginseng, are used in folk medicine as a tonic and as an aphrodisiac and antidiabetic medicine. The methanolic extract and its fractions obtained from roots were used to evaluate their antihyperglycemic potential in male Wistar rats. While the methanolic extract yielded four fractions, the butanolic extract had larger antihyperglycemic potential, starting from 50 mg/kg. No activity was shown by its fractionation. The β-ecdisone identified in the butanolic extract is not related with the antihyperglycemic effect

  9. MICROPROPAGATION AND FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM

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    Garima V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant Chlorophytum borivilianum also called Safed musli, is an endogenous medicinal plant of India and distributed in certain parts of India like Assam, Eastern Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. It is valued for its tuberous roots having aphrodisiac properties. Farmers in India cultivate this medicinal herb on a commercial scale because of its high economic value. To cater the growing demand for planting material, a highly responsible field-tested and cost-effective micropropagation scheme has been developed. Best shoot multiplication was achieved on agar- gelled MS medium containing 22.2mM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 3% sucrose. With the optimized conditions, more than 15,000 plantlets could be produced in 20 week. Plantlets subjected to hardening under agro-shadenet conditions during the monsoon months of high humidity showed better survival rate and growth compared to plantlets hardened in vitro and subsequently transferred to the greenhouse for acclimatization. Rate of plantlet survival was 87% and 90% under open field and agro-shadenet conditions, respectively. Plantlets grown ex vitro under agro-shadenet and field conditions produced tuberous roots which could be grown in the next season as a secondary propagule. In vitro production of safed musli was cost effective compared to conventional propagation and holds great potential for commercial production.

  10. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet. PMID:19818277

  11. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

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    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  12. Mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and extraction of bioactive compounds from Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) using cell and organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack or better known in Malaysia as Tongkat Ali is an important herbal plant that owes its popularity locally and worldwide to its aphrodisiac claim and has been sought after as an essential component for the treatment of anti-malarial, anti-ulcer, anti-tumour promoting and anti-parasitic agent and also as health supplements. Quassinoids and canthin-6-one alkaloids contained in Tongkat Ali roots are the main substances having active functions for human body. Propagation is commonly done through seeds or some vegetative means such as cuttings of stems and root, grafting or layering. However, propagation by conventional method is inadequate to meet the demand due to low viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting and long life cycle. Tissue culture has been successfully applied for mass production of plantlets and extraction of many useful secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals, pigments and other fine chemicals. Tongkat Ali active substances have also been derived through cell culture technology but its processes need to be optimized before the product can be commercialized. Cell and organ cultures have been proven to be an efficient alternative method for biomass production due to its fast growth and stable metabolite production. In view of its potential commercial value as a plantation crop as well as to conserve its germplasm, micropropagation technique using cell culture system is an attractive method for regeneration and mass propagation. (Author)

  13. Morphoanatomy and pharmacognostic study of the wood of Croton echioides, the Northeastern Marapuama

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    Cláudio R. Novello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton echioides Baill., Euphorbiaceae, is a small tree found in Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Its stem bark has been widely sold as an aphrodisiac and tonic, as a substitute for the roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. Olacaceae, the Amazon Muira Puama or Marapuama, and C. echioides is characterized as the "Northeastern Marapuama". This contribution describes a morphoanatomical analysis and pharmacognostic study of stem bark of this species. The stem has a thick cortex with compound starch grains and laticifers; a sclerenchymatic sheath which consists of brachysclereids with large crystals externally to the phloem, and abundant fiber in the secondary xylem, as the main features of the species. The data obtained for water content (9.26±0.07%, water-soluble extractives (3.92±0.19%, total ash (1.24±0.06% and acid-insoluble ash (0.16±0.01%, together with the chromatographic profile obtained by TLC, contribute to the quality control and standardization for the plant drug. The pharmacological screening indicated LD50 values above 500 mg/kg orally and equal to 500 mg/kg by the i.p. route, as well as some stimulant potential, depending on the dose.

  14. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

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    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  15. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

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    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  16. A LITERATURE REVIEW ON ARGYREIA NERVOSA (BURM. F. BOJER

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    Meher Ashutosh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal drugs individually or in combination have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Argyreia nervosa Burm. F. (Syn. Argyreia speciosa commonly known as ‘Vridha daraka’ in Sanskrit belongs to family Convolvulaceae has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain several phytochemical constituents like Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Tannins, amber-colored resin, Sterols, Saponin. Economically it is used as folklore medicine as well as for ornamental purpose. Argyreia nervosa is an important source of compounds like 1-triacontanol, ß-sitosterol, epifriedeline, Kaemperol-3-o-l-rhamnopyranoside, agroclavine, ergine, isoergine, isolysergic acid amide, pennidavine, caffeic acid, Et-caffeate, chanoclavine-I, chanoclavine-II, racemic chanoclavine-I, festuclavine, lysergine, lysergol, isolysergol, molliclavine, penniclavine, steoclavine, isosetoclavine, tetradecanyl palminate, 5,8-oxidotetraco san-10-one, stigmasteryl p-hydroxycinnamate, n-tricontanol, β-sitosterol and p-hydroxy innamoyloctadecanolate which are useful as Aphrodisiac, Immunomodulators, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycemic, Anti Inflammatory, Anticonvulsant and Nootropic etc.

  17. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region. PMID:24517012

  18. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicines in Ghana. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 x 1011 n x s-1 x cm-2. The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and Lippia tea. The others are Olax powder, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken and Fefe powder. Concentrations of seventeen elements namely Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, K, Mn, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, V, and Zn have been determined by short, medium and long irradiation times. Of these elements Co, Sb, and Sc are found to be present at the trace level, Br, Cu, Cr, Mn, Rb, Ta, V and Zn at the minor level, while Al, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na were generally at major level. The differences in the concentration of the elements are attributed mainly to soil composition and climate in which the plants grow. Standard reference material NIST SRM-1571 (Orchard Leaf) was analyzed simultaneously with the samples. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using real samples and the standard reference material. It was found that the elemental concentrations measured in the NIST SRM-1571 were within ±10% of the reported values. The importance of these elements as related to human health and nutrition has been discussed. (author)

  19. RNA-Seq mediated root transcriptome analysis of Chlorophytum borivilianum for identification of genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kalra, Shikha; Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Avneesh; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important species of liliaceae family, owing to its vital medicinal properties. Plant roots are used for aphrodisiac, adaptogen, anti-aging, health-restorative and health-promoting purposes. Saponins, are considered to be the principal bioactive components responsible for the wide variety of pharmacological properties of this plant. In the present study, we have performed de novo root transcriptome sequencing of C. borivilianum using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform, to gain molecular insight into saponins biosynthesis. A total of 33,963,356 high-quality reads were obtained after quality filtration. Sequences were assembled using various programs which generated 97,344 transcripts with a size range of 100-5,216 bp and N50 value of 342. Data was analyzed against non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), and enzyme commission (EC) databases. All the genes involved in saponins biosynthesis along with five full-length genes namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, cycloartenol synthase, β-amyrin synthase, cytochrome p450, and sterol-3-glucosyltransferase were identified. Read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)-based comparative expression profiling was done to study the differential regulation of the genes. In silico expression analysis of seven selected genes of saponin biosynthetic pathway was validated by qRT-PCR. PMID:26458557

  20. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

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    Kuntal Ghosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benincasa hispida (Thunb. of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral, Aphrodisiac (vrishya, Appetizer (dipana; used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta, Purpura (Raktapitta, Emaciation (Kshaya, Mental disorder (Chetovikara, etc. In the present study fruit of Benincasa hispida was authenticated Pharmacognostically in the department of Pharmacognosy, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurveda University of Pharmacy, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Each and every drug has its own physical and chemical characteristics that help for separating it from other closely related drugs. Hence physicochemical studies of a particular drug by making use of various parameters help in standardizing the drug and validate it. Chromatographic techniques were adopted for the separation of active principles present in the fruit powder. Therefore, an attempt has been made to standardize Kushmanda powder, an Ayurvedic medicine based on the TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profile.

  1. Cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Flores, María Del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  2. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  3. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields. PMID:25985355

  4. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  5. MSM POEMS: A case of identity

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonight at a classical dance recital symbolizing the eternal quest of the soul-force for God I too raised for myself some questions As I saw the dancer adopt body twisted beautifully gymnastic postureslike a question mark put before me -who am I?Am I the inquisitive streetwalker listening at pavements to snake charmers' aphrodisiac calls, watching indolently as the fast cycling rogue whirling past knocks her off, squeezes her breasts, makes off and leaves me to pacify her smothered adolescence. Or am I the automaton That hangs on to footboards and breezes past in fast trains every morning and evening the only sensation left in me being in my hands holding on for dear life, and in my lips wolf whistling as I swirl past platforms. Or just the nimble fingers typing away at jet-speed, taking down bosses' notes, thumbing across wads of money, hand shaking with prospective customers. Or just tongues, tongues and more tongues with mounds and mounds of sugar and ghee and adulterated oils pouring it all into unknowing ears furthering business prospects feeding everyone around in slow poison doses and fattening on pure ghee, purity of expression, conscience. So that I can decorate my drawing room with costly paintings and upholstery watch expensive dance recitals and answer question marks once in a while.

  6. CAN AYURVEDA BE AN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE?

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    Bali Yogitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of EBM empower us to formulate appropriate clinical questions, appraise the literature using the hierarchy of evidence and apply the study results to their practice. With the ever increasing demands to adopt EBM in practice, healthcare providers require educational resources that present the concepts of the EBM, research methodology and guides to publishing medical research in a simple and easy to understand format. EBM also promotes critical thinking by clinicians. It requires that clinicians have the open-mindedness to look for and try new methods scientifically supported by the literature and it asks the clinical interventions be scrutinized and proven effective. In addition, EBM offers ways to critically evaluate the enormous amount of medical literature for value. In this way, clinical interventions and treatments are not just accepted because someone speaks of their anecdotal effectiveness, but a rigorous standard is applied to scientific data to determine whether the information has merit and applicability. Ayurveda is an Ancient Asian practice. It’s a traditional medical system used by a majority of India’s 1.1 billion populations. Ayurveda is being seen as a rich resource for new drug development by modern day pharmacologists. Ayurveda, the science of life is a branch of Atharvanaveda. It has eight specialized branches such as kayachikitsa (internal medicine, Salakya (ENT, salya tantra (ayurvedic surgery, Agada tantra (toxicology and forensic medicine, bhuta vidya (treatment of psychic diseases, kaumarabhrutya (paediatrics,rasayana tantra (rejuvenation treatments and vajikarana (aphrodisiacs.

  7. Antispasmodic Effects and Action Mechanism of Essential Oil of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray on Rabbit Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Grasa, Laura; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Murillo, María Divina

    2016-01-01

    The Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (C. mexicana) plant is used in folk medicine to treat fever and rheumatism; it is used as a diuretic, antispasmodic; and it is used for its aphrodisiac properties. This study investigates the effects of the essential oil of C. mexicana (EOCM) on the contractility of rabbit ileum and the mechanisms of action involved. Muscle contractility studies in vitro in an organ bath to evaluate the response to EOCM were performed in the rabbit ileum. EOCM (1-100 µg·mL(-1)) reduced the amplitude and area under the curve of spontaneous contractions of the ileum. The contractions induced by carbachol 1 µM, potassium chloride (KCl) 60 mM or Bay K8644 1 µM were reduced by EOCM (30 µg·mL(-1)). Apamin 1 µM and charybdotoxin 0.01 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. The d-cAMP 1 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. l-NNA 10 µM, Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS 1 µM, d,l-propargylglycine 2 mM, or aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride 2 mM did not modify the EOCM effect. In conclusion, EOCM induces an antispasmodic effect and could be used in the treatment of intestinal spasms or diarrhea processes. This effect would be mediated by Ca(2+), Ca(2+)-activated K⁺ channels and cAMP. PMID:27322223

  8. Enhancement of erectile function of sexually naïve rats by β-sitosterol and α-β-amyrin acetate isolated from the hexane extract of Mondiawhitei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Watcho; Fabien Zelefack; Silvere Ngouela; Telesphore Benot Nguelefack; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Albert Kamanyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prosexual activity of two compounds isolated from the hexane extract of the dried roots of Mondia whitei in rats. Methods: β-sitosterol and the mixture of α and β-amyrin acetate were isolated and characterised using several reagents, chromatography, mass spectrometry and physical analysis (RMN, 1H and 13C). Sexually inexperienced adult male rats were orally treated with these compounds at doses of 0mg/kg (control), 10mg/kg or 50mg/kg. 1h after the treatment, mount and intromission latencies and frequencies, penile erection, ejaculation latency and post-ejaculatory interval were measured for 60 minutes. Results: β-sitosterol and the mixture of α and β-amyrin acetate significantly increased the mount frequency (p0.05) when compared to control. The two purified compounds were efficient at the lower dose (10 mg/kg b.w) with β-sitosterol being the most potent. Conclusion:Results of the present work give added value to the aphrodisiac property of Mondia whitei and further justify its popular use as a sex stimulant.

  9. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

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    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  10. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  11. Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Physicochemical Analysis of Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae

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    Annan K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current resurgence of public interest in herbal medicines calls for heightened studies on their quality and safety. The major setback in promoting the use of these herbal medicines is the lack of standardization and the confusion in the identification and authentication of these plants and their substitutes or adulterants. In this study, the pharmacognostic and physicochemical features of the leaves, stem bark and roots of Paullinia pinnata, an African shrub used traditionally for wound healing, treatment of dysentery and also as an aphrodisiac, was evaluated. The study included macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Physicochemical parameters evaluated varied widely among the various parts studied which could be used in their identification. The study also revealed the presence of acicular calcium oxalate crystals, anomocytic stomata, wavy anticlinal walled epidermal cells and unicellular and multicelluar uniserate clothing trichomes in the leaves. Morphological, anatomical and physicochemical studies of P. pinnata provides simple and reliable standards which could be useful for the proper identification of P. pinnata.

  12. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  13. EFFECT OF CATHA EDULIS ON INSULIN, RESISTIN AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NON-DIABETICS

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    Mohamed Ibrahem Kotb El-Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the biochemical effects of Catha edulis leaves chewing (as psycho stimulant and aphrodisiac on the serum concentration of resistin, insulin, cortisol, zinc, calcium, copper and blood glucose in both healthy individuals and type 2 diabetic patients were examined. 80 male subjects aged 35-55 years were recruited in this study, 40 of them were previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetics and the other 40 were healthy non-diabetics. The above two groups were subdivided into two subgroups (n = 20 in accordance on whether they were regular and chronic khat chewers or none into NNK; healthy non-khat chewers, NK; healthy khat chewers, DNK; type 2 diabetic non-khat chewers and DK; type 2 diabetic khat chewers. Khat chewing resulted in elevated resistin, cortisol, FBG, PBG levels and HOMA-IR in either diabetics or healthy khat chewers than those of non-khat chewers and generally in diabetics than healthy. In addition, khat chewing resulted in a significant increase in calcium and copper serum levels. In contrast, serum zinc and insulin levels in diabetic chewers were significantly lower than those of diabetic’s non-chewers. Catha edulis Forsk chewing adds additional toxic effects to type 2 diabetics by increasing cortisol and resistin levels while decreasing insulin secretion and sensitivity.

  14. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

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    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  15. Enhanced Synthesis of Curculigoside by Stress and Amino Acids in Static Culture of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali Musli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pratibha; Briganza, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant used for many medicinal purposes such as impotency, aphrodisiac, tonic, jaundice, and skin ailments. Its hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-cancerous potential have also been evaluated by many scientists. Objective: The objective of this study is to enhance the curculigoside content in tissue culture of C. orchioides. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the enhancement of an active compound of C. orchioides by incorporating various concentration of phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine, (20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/100 ml), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ppm) into Zenk media in controlled and aseptic conditions. Results: Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. A significantly remarkable enhancement in all induced samples was noted. Curculigoside content was maximum in the 6-week-old tissue induced with 3 ppm of Cr (7.63%) followed by 4 weeks tissue of tissue fed with 4 ppm of Ni (5.66%) and 4-week-old tissue fed with tyrosine 7.5 mg/100 ml (2.38%) among all samples used. These results suggest that tyrosine is better enhancer than Phe in the biosynthetic pathway of curculigoside. The presence of curculigoside in all extracts was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis with standard compound of curculigoside and histology of treated samples. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out for the 1st time, and it is a significant step in understanding the biochemistry of curculigoside. The developed protocol will be beneficial for marketing in pharmaceutical industries. SUMMARY Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered

  16. Nerve Regeneration Potential of Protocatechuic Acid in RSC96 Schwann Cells by Induction of Cellular Proliferation and Migration through IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Da-Tong; Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chung, Li-Chin; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-12-31

    Peripheral nerve injuries, caused by accidental trauma, acute compression or surgery, often result in temporary or life-long neuronal dysfunctions and inflict great economic or social burdens on the patients. Nerve cell proliferation is an essential process to restore injured nerves of adults. Schwann cells play a crucial role in endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate, migrate and provide trophic support to axons via expression of various neurotrophic factors, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), especially after nerve injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, isolated from the kernels of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq (AOF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine the fruits of which are widely used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-salivation and anti-diarrheatic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PCA induces Schwann cell proliferation by activating IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment with PCA induces phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/serine - threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and activates expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after 18 h of treatment showed that proliferation of the RSC96 cells was enhanced by PCA treatment. The PCA induced proliferation was accompanied by modulation in the expressions of cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A. Knockdown of PI3K using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of IGF-IR receptor resulted in the reduction in cell survival proteins. The results collectively showed that PCA treatment promoted cell proliferation and cell survival via IGF-I signaling. PMID:26717920

  17. Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Gueye; Meissa, Diouf

    2007-01-01

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses. PMID:20161914

  18. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  19. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

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    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  20. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  1. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

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    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  2. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

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    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  3. Relaxant mechanisms of 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone on isolated human cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansakul, Chaweewan; Tachanaparuksa, Kuldej; Mulvany, Michael J; Sukpondma, Youwapa

    2012-09-15

    We have investigated effects and mechanisms responsible for the activity of 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on isolated human cavernosum. PMF is the major flavone isolated from Kaempferia parviflora claimed to act as an aphrodisiac. PMF caused relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted human cavernosal strips, and this effect was slightly inhibited by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, but not by ODQ (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), TEA (tetraethylammonium, blocker of voltage-dependent K(+) channels) or glybenclamide (blocker of ATP-dependent K(+) channels). PMF did not significantly inhibit the relaxant activity of glyceryltrinitrate or acetylcholine on human cavernosal strips precontracted with phenylephrine. In contrast, sildenafil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) potentiated the relaxant activity of glyceryl trinitrate but not of acetylcholine. In normal Krebs solution with nifedipine (blocker of l-type Ca(2+) channels), or in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution, PMF caused a further inhibition of human cavernosum contracted with phenylephrine. In human cavernosum treated with thapsigargin (inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase) in Ca(2+)-free medium, PMF suppressed the concentration-response curve of human cavernosum to phenylephrine and a further suppression was found when SKF-96365 (a blocker of store-operated Ca(2+) channels and Y-27632 (inhibitor of Rho-kinase)), but not nifedipine, were added sequentially. Thus, PMF had only a weak effect on the release of nitric oxide, and had no effect as a K(ATP)- or K(Ca) channel opener, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker or a Rho-kinase inhibitor. Therefore, these studies suggest that PMF causes relaxation of human cavernosum through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and other mechanisms associated with calcium mobilization. PMID:22800934

  4. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its

  5. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum. Pierre ex Beille

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    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion evaluating the safety in use of yohimbe bark and its preparations originating from Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum. Pierre ex Beille when used in food, e.g. in food supplements. The bark of the plant contains a number of indole alkaloids of biological relevance and preparations of yohimbe bark have been traditionally used as general tonic, performance enhancer and as an aphrodisiac. Food supplements containing yohimbe bark preparations are available nowadays, especially via internet retail. Yohimbine, the major alkaloid of yohimbe bark and raubasine, another alkaloid occurring in lower concentrations in the bark, are used as active ingredients in a number of medicinal products for which adverse effects are described. The Panel reviewed the available scientific data on a possible association between the intake of yohimbe bark and its preparations and potential harmful effects on health. When those data were not available, priority was given to yohimbine, as the only alkaloid for which occurrence had been shown and quantified in food supplements containing yohimbe bark. The Panel concluded that the chemical and toxicological characterisation of yohimbe bark and its preparations for use in food are not adequate to conclude on their safety as ingredients of food, e.g. in food supplements. Thus the Panel could not provide advice on a daily intake of yohimbe bark and its preparations that do not give rise to concerns about harmful effects to health. An estimation of exposure to yohimbine from food supplements was performed showing that theoretical maximum daily intake may exceed the maximum approved daily dose of yohimbine from use as a medicinal product.

  6. Biological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler Leaves

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    Romero M.P.B. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler is claimed in medicinal practice in Brazil, to be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases and liver injury, aphrodisiac effect, and also for to its antimicrobial properties, and is also used in Peru to treat fractures and sprains. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract from P. pyrifolia leaves in male rats submitted to oral administration. Animals in experimental protocol were submitted to natural oral ingestion of P. pyrifolia leaves aqueous extract over to 12 days. Total blood aliquots were collected for hormonal and biochemical-hematological analysis. After the treatment period, the rats were subcutaneously anesthetized, euthanized and afterwards orchidectomized. The biochemical parameters revealed a significant decrease in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase and alkaline-phosphatase enzyme levels by about 40%, 27% and 52%, respectively. However, the extract does not cause liver injury and no impairment of renal function as well no affect any hematological parameters, but the histological analysis revealed a somatic action on the testes. The testosterone hormone levels of treated rats were drastically affected and showed a higher decrease (p<0.05 of about 82.31% than compared with the control, 46.0 (± 8.1 ng/dL and 260.0 (±4.1 ng/dL, respectively. We believe that the aqueous extract may be responsible to promote a decrease in the libido and reproduction in male rats, and induces hepatic-protective effects. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of the plant.

  7. EFFICACY ASSESSMENT OF KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

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    Panakaporn Wannanon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decline in erectile function is a noted phenomenon worldwide. A variety of medicinal plants have been identified as having strong aphrodisiac properties along with the ability to improve erectile functioning. Kaempferia Parviflora (KP has famous as a Thai Viagra and use it to increase male impotency. However, there is limited scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of this herb on this issue in aging healthy men. This study therefore investigated the effect of KP extract administration on erectile response of male elderly volunteers. Total 45 male healthy elderly volunteers will be divided into 3 separated groups including placebo and the different doses of ethanolic extracts of KP (25 and 90 mg once daily at a period of 2 months. The erectile function tests including the response latency time to visual erotic stimuli, size and length of penis both in flaccid and erection states were assessed after single administration, 1 and 2 months of treatment. In order to investigate the possible underlying mechanism, we also determined the alteration of testosterone, FSH and LH concentrations. KP at a dose of 90 mg day-1 treated group exhibited a significant enhanced all parameters after 1 and 2 months of treatment. Moreover, the penile length at erection states and the response latency to sexual erotic stimuli appeared to be the parameters that showed significant changes during the delay period. Unfortunately, our study failed to show the significant changes on hormones concentration. Our study clearly demonstrates that KP is a potential resource for the development of nutraceutical compound against aged related male erectile dysfunction.

  8. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

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    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  9. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

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    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  10. Herb formula enhances treatment of impotent patients after penile venous stripping: a randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C-H; Tsai, H-C; Hsu, G-L; Chen, C-C; Hsu, C-Y

    2016-09-01

    Herbs have been regarded as aphrodisiacs in treating impotence for many centuries despite little true scientific evidence. Our latest refined penile venous stripping (PVS) technique is effective in treating impotence, although this procedure remains controversial. A synergic effect of PVS and oral herbs was confirmed in our practice but lacked rigorous scientific proof. The objective of this report was to review our experience with this combination. From August 2010 to May 2014, 263 males underwent PVS. Among these, 67 unsatisfied men chose additional salvage therapy and were randomly assigned to oral herbs (n = 35) or placebo treatment (n = 32) which replaced herb eventually. All were evaluated with the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scoring and our dual pharmaco-cavernosography. The pre-op IIEF-5 score for the herb group was 9.7 ± 3.7, post-operative 13.9 ± 3.3 and post-herb 19.6 ± 3.4, while the control group scores were as follows: pre-op 9.3 ± 4.1, post-op 14.5 ± 3.6, post-placebo 15.1 ± 3.5 and post-herb 19.9 ± 3.2. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups pre-operatively, post-operatively and post-herb, a statistically significant difference was found post-salvage therapy (19.6 ± 3.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.6, P < 0.001). It appears that the combination of oral herbs and PVS treatment provides an enhanced outcome to impotent patients refractory to medicine and unsatisfied with PVS monotherapy alone. PMID:26688463

  11. A comparative pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and heavy metal analysis on Ashwagandha root obtained from natural and polluted sources

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    Dhaval Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ashwagandha root has been ascribed as potent aphrodisiac drug in various Ayurvedic literature and lexicons. The same drug has also been cited in a number of Ayurvedic formularies. Recent studies indicate that heavy metals like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc., are toxic to human and environment. Plants are suggested as potential bio sorbents for trace metals removal from the soil. In this work, four samples of Ashwagandha have been collected (2 from pollution free areas and 2 from polluted areas for their pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and heavy metal analysis. Aims: Awareness is a valuable tool to wipe out the ignorance and mischief. The present work has been selected with the main objective to create the awareness among people regarding the possible side effect of raw drug obtained from polluted areas. Settings and Design: Present work was designed to have an experimental study with three main components which were pharmacognostical study, physicochemical study, and heavy metal analysis. Both of these studies also contained several headings and subheadings, respectively. Materials and Methods: Research work was carried out as per standard operating procedures and specified protocols. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical studies were carried out in the respective laboratory of I.P.G.T. and R.A.; Gujarat Ayurved University, whereas Heavy metal analysis was carried out at VASU Pharmaceutical Lab Vadodara, 390010. Statistical Analysis Used: All the statistical data used in this research work under the experimental study were given in tabular form with respective table number. Results and Conclusion: Heavy metal analysis revealed that Hg content was below the detection limit in sample A and B, while in case of sample C and D, the Hg content were above the permissible limit. With all the data generated in this work, it can be concluded that consumption of drug (Ashwagandha obtained from polluted areas may cause accumulated side effect as well as

  12. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities' gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard

  13. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  14. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  15. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  16. Effects ofDracaena arborea (Dracaenaceae) on sexual dysfunction in 4 weeks hyperglycemic male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wankeu-Nya M; Watcho P; Nguelefack TB; Carro-Juarez M; Tapondjou L; Kamanyi A

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects ofDracaena arborea(D. arborea) on the sexual behavior parameters in experienced type-1 diabetic rats.Methods:Aqueous and ethanol(100 and500 mg/kg respectively) extracts of dried root barks ofD. arborea, sildenafil citrate(1.44 mg/kg), trimethylamine-N-oxide(TMAO,20 mg/kg) and distilled water(10 mL/kg) were orally administered to4 weeks streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Mount latency and frequency (ML,MF), intromission latency and frequency(IL,IF) and post-ejaculatory interval(PEI) were measured by ejaculatory series during90 min once a week for4 weeks.Glycemia was determined at the beginning and at the end of the treatment.Results:D. arborea did not show any major antihyperglycemic effects.Compared to the control group, a significant(P<0.05-0.001) increase inMF andIF was noticed in rats treated with sildenafil citrate(89.71% and90.07% respectively), aqueous(500 mg/kg,88.08% and88.74% respectively) and ethanol(100 mg/kg;89.53% and89.17 respectively) extracts ofD. arborea after two weeks(series1) of treatment.ML,IL andPEI were significantly(P<0.05-0.001) decreased after4 weeks of daily treatment [sildenafil citrate(96.31, 96.31% and34.98%), andD. arborea aqueous500 mg/kg(94.33,94.33% and66.60%) and ethanol extracts100 mg/kg(96.98,97.08% and64.26%)].Conclusions:These aphrodisiac potentials of D. arborea in experienced diabetic rats could be due to the antioxidant and androgenic properties of phenols, flavonoids, saponins and sterols revealed in the plant extracts.

  17. Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium Aromaticum and its Health Benefits

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    Debjit bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum, many medicinal uses have been most famously applied to toothache, and for mouth and throat inflammation. The dove has been used in India and China, for over 2,000 years, as a spice to check both tooth decay and counter halitosis that is bad breath. In Persia and China, it was considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian. In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every sauce or side dish made, mostly ground up along with other spices. More than just a counterirritant though, the German Commission E Monographs list cloves as having antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties One of the main constituents of clove oil (eugenol exhibits broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fact bacteria, as well as fungi Cloves are well known also for their antiemetic (relieves nausea and vomiting and carminative properties (The oldest apparent medicinal use of cloves was in China, where it is reported that they were taken for various ailments as early as 240BC. Cloves were taken over the centuries for diarrhea, most liver, stomach and bowel ailments, and as a stimulant for the nerves Traditionally cloves have been used to treat flatulence, nausea and vomiting .In tropical Asia cloves have been given to treat such diverse infections as malaria, cholera and tuberculosis, as well as scabies traditional uses in America include treating worms, viruses, candida, various bacterial and protozoan infections Laboratory tests on cloves identify eugenol as being the possible reason for the antimicrobial actions, and confirm cloves’ effectiveness in inhibiting food-borne pathogens as well as other bacteria and fungi The volatile oil of cloves (about 85-92% eugenol was highly active against a range of test microorganisms, being classified as bactericidal in nature. Along with the recreational

  18. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  19. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf Th. AND H. Durand on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

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    Lydia Francisca Otoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg, Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg, or PNE (50-500 mg/kg for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17- beta-estradiol (0.1-0.9 and micro;g, PNE (30-300 mg/kg or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function, was well lipid and haematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: Seven-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P and #8804;0.01-0.001, while Cyproterone significantly decreased (P and #8804;0.001 comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P and #8804;0.001 of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P and #8804;0.001. Administration of 17- beta oestradiol and PNE increased (P and #8804;0.001 oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed on assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile and haematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 293-301

  20. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhand Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD, and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ethinyl estradiol (EE was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  1. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  2. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010 from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

  3. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in 60Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

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    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  5. Novel formulation strategies for enhancing oral delivery of methoxyflavones in Kaempferia parviflora by SMEDDS or complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjaruskul, Catheleeya; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Leed, Marina G D; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2013-03-10

    The Kaempferia parviflora (KP) plant contains several methoxyflavones including 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). Ethanolic extracts of KP have shown various pharmacological effects and have been used as an aphrodisiac, a antimicrobial agent and for the treatment of inflammation, and peptic ulcers. Given its poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability (1-4%), there are limitations to the utilization of KP. Accordingly, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and cyclodextrin (CD) complex formulations were developed to improve the oral absorption of methoxyflavones. Polyoxyethylene castor oil (53.3%), propylene glycol (26.7%), and triglyceride of coconut oil (20%) were combined to form KP-SMEDDS. A complex of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD) and KP was prepared by lyophilization. The developed formulations were then evaluated for their physicochemical properties, in vitro dissolution tests, permeability through Caco-2 cells, and in vivo oral absorption in rats by using PMF, TMF, and DMF as the markers for quantitation. The results showed that KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD complex improved the dissolution rate of methoxyflavones in both 0.1N HCl and 0.2M PBS pH 6.8 compared to KP dissolved in a solution of propylene glycol, PEG 400, ethanol, and water. KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD formulations showed about 10- and 3.5-fold greater Papp values of methoxyflavones in Caco-2 cells. The oral bioavailability values of KP-SMEDDS formulations were higher than those of KP (25.38-, 42.00-, and 26.01-fold for PMF, TMF, and DMF, respectively). For the KP-2-HP-β-CD complex, oral bioavailability values were 21.63-, 34.20-, and 22.90-fold greater than those of KP, respectively. Therefore, these two novel formulations, KP-SMEDDS and KP-2-HP-β-CD, were successfully developed to improve the dissolution rate, drug permeability through Caco-2 cells and oral bioavailability of

  6. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Niu, Zichang [First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Gao, Xiu Mei, E-mail: gaoxiumei@tjutcm.edu.cn [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China)

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p < 0.01), while it reduced 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) (p < 0.01), 100 μM veratridine (Ver) (p < 0.01) and 56 mM K{sup +} (p < 0.05) induced CA secretion, respectively. We also found that the stimulation of basal CA secretion by bakuchiol may act through estrogen-like effect and the JNK pathway in an extra-cellular calcium independent manner. Further, bakuchiol elevated tyrosine hydroxylase Ser40 and Ser31 phosphorylation (p < 0.01) through the PKA and ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Bakuchiol inhibited ACh, Ver and 56 mM K{sup +} induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion

  7. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário da raiz e do caule de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae Anatomic study of secundary xylem of root and stem of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ressiliane Ribeiro Prata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis é uma planta medicinal, conhecida popularmente por chichuá, possuindo ação analgésica, antiinflamatória, afrodisíaca e antireumática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características estruturais, da raiz e caule desta espécie como contribuição aos trabalhos anatômicos já realizados para o gênero. O material botânico foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus/AM onde foram selecionados três indivíduos e de cada um deles retirados fragmentos de 1cm³ do caule e raiz. Amostras foram seccionadas em micrótomo de deslize e coradas com safranina e azul de astra. A análise estrutural revelou-se de acordo com o registrado pela literatura para o gênero. O xilema secundário da raiz e do caule apresentam parênquima axial apotraqueal, raios multisseriados, heterogêneos, vasos solitários, de distribuição difusa, uniforme, seção circular, com parede delgada, pontoações intervasculares alternas e areoladas.Maytenus guyanensis, known popularly as chichuá, possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and anti-rheumatic agents. The object of this present wor was the anatomical analysis of material collected of this species at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. Stem and root fragments of 1cm were removed from 3 selected individuals. Sections from the stem and root were cut with slide microtome, and stained with astra blue and safranin. The structural analysis of stems and roots was in accordance with the literature available for the Maytenus genus. The secondary xylem of the root and stem presented parenchyma axial apotracheal, multiseriates, heterogeneous rays, solitary vessels, of diffuse distribution, uniform, circular section, with thin wall, bordered and alternate intervascular pits.

  8. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  9. 异域想象与文人观念:论晚明清初通俗小说中胡僧形象的色情化%Exotic Imagination and Literati's Ideas:The Eroticization of Foreign Monks in Late-Ming and Early-Qing Vernacular Fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛英杰

    2016-01-01

    Foreign monks in vernacular fiction in late Ming and early Qing Dynasties are often con‐structed as lascivious characters who are associated with having black faces ,keeping aphrodisiacs and teaching men sexual techniques .Characterized by a lack of elaboration of monks'identities ,descriptions a‐bout eroticized foreign monks are quite similar in terms of physical appearances and plots .Furthermore , many terms for sexual practice in Tantric Buddhism and Taoism are applied to the art of the bedchamber in these descriptions .Therefore ,this paper argues that the eroticization of foreign monks is not terribly rele‐vant to the transmission of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism in China .To a great extent ,in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties the literati represent foreign monks as a threat to their moral identity ,w hich betrays a suppression of their sexual desire in Confucian culture .%作为一个色情符号,晚明清初通俗小说中被色情化的胡僧与黑面、春药、房中术有着固定的联想关系。胡僧的身份定位非常模糊,其体貌描写和情节模式高度类型化。胡僧色情描写所涉及的密教及道教内容经常被混淆为房中秘戏。小说对胡僧色情形象的符号化建构,与藏传密教的内传并无直接的联系,在很大程度上可以被视作文人异域想象的结果。胡僧色情形象所折射出来的是文人对外来宗教人士的警惕和被儒家文化所压抑的欲望。

  10. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on botanical compendia for potential cosmeceutic species from Atlantic Forest Levantamento etnofarmacognóstico em compêndios botânicos de espécies da Mata Atlântica com potencial cosmecêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maique W. Biavatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems on earth, and is acknowledged as an area with truly exceptional levels of biodiversity under enormous levels of stress. Cosmeceutics cover a border area between pharmaceuticals for skin diseases and cosmetics. Natural products for external application, to improve the appearance of the skin or for skin treatment, have always been observed and used by native cultures. The present work deals with the ethnopharmacognostic analysis of two botanical compendia (BC, named: Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil - e das exóticas cultivadas, compiled by Pio Correa (PC Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (FIC. From these BC, reported species with cosmeceutical uses or with related physico-chemical or organoleptic characteristics were selected, updated, searched for scientific background and highlighted if endangered. PC and FIC specified that 245 plant species, belonging to 98 plant families, are used in Brazil for cosmeceutical, cosmetic or skin remedies. The families most widely represented were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Clusiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Bignoniaceae and Solanaceae The most frequently cited plant parts were bark, followed by leaves and aerial parts. The most frequently cited properties were astringency and tonic effect followed by uses in skin disorders and wound healing, emollient characteristic, anti-inflammatory uses and healing of skin ulcers, antiseptic effects, parasiticide and skin lightening properties and aphrodisiacs. According to the Pubmed survey, most of the selected species (65% have not been previously investigated for potential cosmeceutical applications, nor have their chemical composition been investigated.A Mata Atlântica é um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do planeta, sendo reconhecida como uma área de grande biodiversidade sob alto nível de stress. A área cosmecêutica abrange medicamentos de uso tópico e cosméticos, e o uso de

  11. The integrated utilization of cinnamon oil and its further processing products%肉桂油及其深加工产品的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺均林; 李宁; 何丽萍; 韦炳前

    2013-01-01

    The chemical compositions and the relevant content in cinnamon oil were introduced in this paper according to the result of analysis of actual cinnamon oil sample by the GC-MS.The direct application of cinnamon oil to pilatory,externally applied agent,of medicine,Strengthen food spices,toothpaste,toilet soap,collutory,Sweet gum flavor,natural insecticide and the direct hydrogenation of cinnamon oil to produce 3-phenylpropanal aldehyde were introduced.The application of cinnamaldehyde to fungicide,sanitizer,Chlorphenesin,stomachic,fat-splitting agent,antiviral agent,antitumor agent,aphrodisiac,external medication,flavor additives for foods,feed perfume were introduced after the cinnamaldehyde was abtained from cinnamon oil by separation and purification and cinnamaldehyde was oxidized to change to cinnamic acid.The cinnamic acid was easterified by methanol,ethanol,n-propanol,isopropanol,n-butyl alcohol,isobutyl alcohol,n-amyl alcohol,isoamyl alcohol and other kinds of alcohol for producing methyl cinnamate,ethyl cinnamate and other kinds of esters and the application cases were introduced.A valuable reference has been provided for enlarging the application range of cinnamon oil,developing the further processing products and increasing the economic additional value of cinnamon oil.%本文以肉桂油实际样品的气-质联用仪(GC-MS)分析结果,介绍了肉桂油中的化学成份及相应的含量.介绍了肉桂油直接应用于作生发剂、外用及组成药、强化食品香料、牙膏、香皂、漱口液杀菌剂、口香胶香料、天然杀虫剂及直接加氢制苯丙醛等情况;介绍了肉桂油分离提纯得肉桂醛用作杀菌消毒防腐剂、健胃剂、脂肪分解剂、抗病毒抗肿瘤剂、壮阳剂、外用药剂、食品中的香料、饲料调味剂等;也介绍了肉桂醛经氧化得肉桂酸,再与甲醇、乙醇、正丙醇、异丙醇、正丁醇、异丁醇、正戊醇、异戊醇等各种醇类物质酯化反应得肉

  12. Phytochemical diversity in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

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    D. H. Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal is an important commercial medicinal crop, which is considered as an alternate to Ginseng. It is a superior class herb with multiple benefits. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the plant have been used for ages in Ayurveda. The root has been used most frequently for therapeutic uses and is a constituent of over 200 formulations in Ayruvedha, Siddha and Unani medicines. Biologically active chemical constituents are withanolides with adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, memory boosting and stress relieving properties. It is also protective towards arthritis, cartilage degradation, leprosy etc. Owing to its diverse therapeutic uses, there is renewed interest in phytochemistry of this crop. A large number of withanolides have been identified and different therapeutic activities are associated with different constituents viz., withaferine A associated with anti-inflammatory activity and is a safe radiosensitizer/chemotherapeutic agent, withanolide A and withanoside IV known for

  13. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    controlled telescope near Los Angeles (where it was still dark for some reason), but gloom quickly replaced by encouraging notion that with 200 billion other stars in our galaxy you could put money on the existence of extraterrestrial life and thus of potential Mr Right out there somewhere. Then really fascinating lunchtime lecture by dishy New Scientist editor Jeremy Webb about how racy covers can even sell 'serious' magazines. Made copious notes in order to impress Daniel (my boss) and might even consider buying it to improve image. Wasn't sure I'd have the stamina for an afternoon talk by chemist John Emsley (from Cambridge so must be really brainy), but it was surprisingly interesting—about things called 'mollycules' which are everywhere. Apparently finger-nails have same ones as rhino horn, so can get aphrodisiac kick with a quick chew and do my bit for conservation all in one go. Brilliant! Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! David Smith and friends Highgate School, London

  14. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Leaf Extracts of Naringi crenulata (Roxb. Nicolson

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    Suman Kumar Mekap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Naringi crenulata (Roxb. Nicolson belongs to family Rutaceae is a widespread species of the genus-Naringi. It is commonly known as ‘Bilvaparni’ in Sanskrit and ‘Benta’ in Odia. The root extract is used in vomiting, dysentery and colic disorders. Fruit decoction is used as an antidote to insect poison. The bark juice is applied externally for getting speedy relief in sprain. The methanol extract is reported to have significant anthelmintic activity and ethanol extracts of leaf and bark showed anticancer, hepatoprotective, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory activities. N. crenulata leaves were collected from Talabira forest region in Sambalpur district, Odisha, in the month of February-March and extracted successively with petroleum ether (60-800 C and methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts indicated the presence of steroids, triterpenoids in petroleum ether extract and alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in methanol extract. The methanol extract of N. crenulata was fractionated by column chromatography using a glass column packed with silica gel (100-200 mesh and developed by gradient elution with n-hexane and combination of n-hexane : ethyl acetate in the increasing order of polarity (10%, 20% ethyl acetate in n-hexane which resulted in the fractions NCMF-1, NCMF-2 and NCMF-3, respectively. The antihyperglycaemic activity was evaluated in normal, glucose-loaded and Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats (single and multi dose treatment. In normoglycaemic rats, the test extracts showed progressive fall of blood glucose level till the end of 8 h. In glucose-loaded animals (OGTT, reduction in blood glucose level was observed after 60 minutes of administration of the test substances. The maximum reduction was observed at 4 h with methanol extract exhibiting maximum improvement in glucose tolerance. The extracts produced significant decrease in the blood glucose level in

  15. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

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    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  16. Controle farmacognóstico das raízes de Heteropteris aphrodisiaca O. Mach. (Malpighiaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of the roots of Heteropteris aphrodisiaca O. Mach. (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As raízes de Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, denominadas de " nó-de-cachorro" , pela semelhança morfológica com o pênis canino, são usadas popularmente com ação afrodisíaca, estimulante e no tratamento de disenterias, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizá-las morfoanatômica e fisico-quimicamente. Para as análises foram elaboradas lâminas histológicas e analisados extratos aquosos, hidro-etanólicos e cetônicos obtidos a partir de amostras coletadas no estado do Mato Grosso, nas diferentes estações do ano. Tais raízes são tuberosas, cilíndricas e recobertas por súber estriado de coloração marrom-escura. O córtex, composto por tecido parenquimático, não apresenta elementos esclerificados, mas mostra-se com abundância de drusas e cristais prismáticos de oxalato de cálcio, bem como de idioblastos contendo polifenóis. No xilema secundário são abundantes as fibras gelatinosas, típicas de raízes de espécies do cerrado brasileiro. As análises físico-químicas revelaram maiores perdas por dessecação nas amostras coletadas no verão e na primavera. A água foi considerada o melhor líquido extrator, o teor de cinzas totais das amostras variou de 3,4% no verão a 5,3% no outono, enquanto que os teores de polifenóis totais foram maiores na primavera (10,2% que nas demais estações, sugere-se esta estação como a mais apropriada para a coleta da droga vegetal. Análises cromatográficas em camada delgada e líquida de alta eficiência foram realizadas empregando-se marcadores flavonoídicos neoastilbina, astilbina e isoastilbina, com valores de Rf de 0,60, 0,68 e 0,74, e tempos de retenção de: 16,44, 16,91 e 18,08 min, respectivamente.The roots of Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, called " nó-de-cachorro" (dog-knot for their morphological similarity to the canine penis, are used in popular medicine as an aphrodisiac or stimulant, and to treat dysentery. The objective of the present study was to characterize these roots

  17. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ven Murthy, M R; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Ramassamy, Charles; Deshpande, Manasi

    2010-09-01

    normal habitats in different areas of the world, as well as the common synonyms by which they are known, are shown in the Table 1. The scientific investigations concerning the best known and most scientifically investigated of these herbs, Ashwagandha will be discussed in detail in this review. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, WS), also commonly known, in different parts of the world, as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. It is also known in different linguistic areas in India by its local vernacular names [6]. It grows prolifically in dry regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, particularly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Congo and Jordon [7]. In India, it is cultivated, on a commercial scale, in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat and Rajasthan [6]. In Sanskrit, ashwagandha, the Indian name for WS, means "odor of the horse", probably originating from the odor of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse. The name"somnifera" in Latin means "sleep-inducer" which probably refers to its extensive use as a remedy against stress from a variety of daily chores. Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is used in India, in a way similar to how ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a large variety of human diseases [8]. Ashwagandha is a shrub whose various parts (berries, leaves and roots) have been used by Ayurvedic practitioners as folk remedies, or as aphrodisiacs and diuretics. The fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, in order to leach out undesirable constituents. The berries are sometimes used as a substitute to coagulate milk in cheese making. In Ayurveda, the herbal preparation is referred to as a "rasayana", an elixir that works, in a nonspecific, global fashion, to increase human health and longevity. It is also considered an adaptogen, a