WorldWideScience

Sample records for aphorisms and proverbs

  1. 世俗人生经验的智性表达——《圣经·箴言》与《增广贤文》之比较%The Rational Expression of Secular Life Experience——A Comparison between Proverbs in the Holly Bible and The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登林

    2012-01-01

    The Proverbs in the Holly Bible and The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms both are secularly prominent and rational texts.As a result of different cultural backgrounds,The Proverbs can become part of the Holly Bible and pass down from one generation to another,which shows that Hebrew,even the whole western world,are quite enthusiastic about secular lives.However,The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms,a work of sermons,has never been accepted by the dominant Chinese culture although it focus on Confucianism and popular among the populace.By the comparison between the two works,we can get a lot of enlightenment in many respects.Especially,the sermons about the secular lives and secular life principles in the two books are worth thinking about and studying.%从现实的角度看,《圣经》中的《箴言》与我国民间流传的《增广贤文》都是世俗性因素极为显著的"智慧性"文本。由于文化背景的不同,《箴言》可以收入"旧约"《圣经》作为经典流传下来,说明希伯来民族乃至整个西方世界都有着较高的关注世俗生活的热情;而《增广贤文》这种日常生活训诫类书的主导价值取向虽是儒家思想,但却长期流传于民间而不能登大雅之堂。通过对二者的比照,我们可以得到多方面的启示,特别是两书对于世俗生活的热情关注和世俗生活原则的训诫教诲,值得我们认真思考和研究。

  2. [Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøland, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded. PMID:27078984

  3. Cultural Connotation and Translation of English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭姣

    2014-01-01

    There are more and more cross cultural communication nowadays. Different cultures have different features. Proverbs, as an essential part of language, reflecting the culture of a nation, have cultural connotations about geography, history, customs and religion. Therefore, in this paper I intend to analyze cultural connotations in English proverbs, and to discuss the translation strategy-Domestication and Foreignization, then to put forwards three aspects that should be paid attention to in English prov-erbs translation.

  4. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs, reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries. So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too. My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs, aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans, ...

  5. Somali Proverbs and Poems as Acculturation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doob, Leonard W.; Hurreh,Ismael M.

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that proverbs and poems among nonliterate peoples vary inversely with the user's degree of Westernization. Suggests that the oral tradition in Somalia, East Africa serves different functions for the different social groups such as nomads, semi-nomads, and students. (MB)

  6. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

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    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou

    2011-10-01

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    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.

    Mots-clés: ANALYSE FORMELLE, ANALYSE SÉMANTIQUE, CLASSIFICATION THÉMATIQUE,DIDACTIQUE, DICTIONNAIRE, GENRE PROVERBIAL, IDIOMES, LEXICOGRAPHE,LEXICOGRAPHIE, LISTE CENTRALE, LITTÉRATURE ORALE, PRÉ-TEXTES, POST-TEXTES,PROVERBES

    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  7. Proverbs in a Function and Purpose Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Otto Jespersen' s book the Philosophy of Grammar ( 1951 ),the definition of formulas is mentioned: "a formula may be a whole sentence or a group of words, or it may be one word, or it may be only part of a word,--that is not improtant, but it must always be something which to the actual speech- instinct is a unit which cannot be further analyzed or decomposed in the way a free combination can"(1951:24) .Thus proverbs belong to formulas, as the example "Handsome is that handsome does" given by Jespersen. This paper focuses on those proverbs, such as ‘Speech is silver, silence is golden', ‘ Empty vessels make the most sound', ‘ Still waters nm deep',which are all about speech and silence. Moreover,this paper aims to answer two questions:

  8. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  9. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs,reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries.So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too.My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs,aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans,and hope that this study also can be regarded as a data to give referential meaning to the further research on cross-culture and language comparison.

  10. Linguistic Sexism Phenomenon in English and Chinese Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛双

    2015-01-01

    The study of language and gender is a big issue that the linguists always pay attention to. Especially, more attention should be given to the gender difference and gender discrimination in some special language. Proverbs are the fixed sentences which are transmitted by mouths. They can reflect the true life and profound principles by simple words. The very wide origin of proverbs makes them have the strong representativeness and be easy to pronounce. Linguistic sexism phenomena in proverbs can raise people's consciousness of gender difference and discrimination so as to reduce and even eliminate the phenomenon of gender discrimination in our speech and daily life and regulate the language.

  11. Psalm 26 and Proverbs: Tracing wisdom themes

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    Annette Potgieter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discernment of Psalm 26 as a cultic psalm has prevented noticing vital connections with wisdom literature. These connections with Proverbs and other known wisdom psalms provide clues for the composition of Psalm 26 to be set in the post-exilic period. The way in which wisdom literature is used conveys the religious ethos and daily life of a community. The fact that the wisdom character of Psalm 26 has been overlooked can be viewed as one of the main reasons why Psalm 26 has been interpreted solely in a cultic setting. The sapiential influence of this psalm has been confused to only reflect the cultic aspects. The psalmist wants to live a life according to wisdom as he seeks the rewards of being close to Yahweh.

  12. THE SOCIAL AND ETHNO-CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION OF MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY IN AFRICAN PROVERBS

    OpenAIRE

    HUSSEIN, Jeylan W.

    2005-01-01

    Africa is a continent known for its rich oral arts. Proverbs are the most widely and commonly used in the continent's long-standing tradition of oral arts. Among such oral arts, the African proverbs have been facilitating the transmission of knowledge and conventions from generation to generation. This paper analyzes the role of African proverbs in creating and perpetuating gendered culture. The author analyzed the African sexist proverbs within the post-modern theory of power relationships b...

  13. Shared Wisdom: A Collection of Proverbs, Sayings and Quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmich, JoAnn, Comp.

    Based on the idea that there are universal beliefs that unite people from every part of the world, this collection illustrates common sayings, stories, proverbs, and quotations from students in English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms. During the classes, students talk about their families, countries, and customs, including traditional foods and…

  14. The testimony of the time: Aphorism

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Short literary form known as aphorism in the beginning of its development relied on saying. Aphorism concisely expresses general experience, life philosophy, situation and position of a man in this world, socio-political and historical paradoxes etc. Although it is often taken as a criticism of society, it can also be understood as a testimony of time. This paper reveals one aspect of this phenomenon that was neglected by literary theory - aphorism as a form of expressing author’s attitude towards society and its reality.

  15. The Neurology of Proverbs

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    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  16. TERM 2005 SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM PROVERBS AND IDIOMS FOR EDUCATIONAL AREAS

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    Fatma ÜNAL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is the basic of culture. It is a bridge that helps us to carry cultural values which belong to past, to now and from now to the future. At this aspect, language appears with features of carrying culture in the continuing time line. This feature of it gives both itself and the community that speak the language to be alive. Vocabulary is the component that brings forth the language. All words which are used in one language are the basis of vocabulary. Proverbs and idoms are the most important resource. Richness of a language can not be measured by how many words a language has but new meanings of the words of the language that gain in time. The words can not have new meaning differences by themselves. Events that community experiences and how people name them are predicated on words and these words develop with new meaning differences. That means language gets rich. The importance of proverbs and idioms in vocabulary belonging to a language is undoubtedly very great. Proverbs are the hortative words which were attributed to public and told on the grounds of long lasting experiences and observations. On the other hand, idioms are the stereotyped phrases which are somewhat different from their real meanings and have an intriguing meaning. Our proverbs and idioms are the converted verbal forms of our view of life, values, traditions and beliefs. In fact, every proverb, every idiom is our cultural value. Turkish language is very rich in terms of proverbs and idioms. This shows that how various ways of life perception and view of the world Turkish nation has. Proverbs and idioms which are the intangible particles of culture of the society are important in terms of both enriching the narration and carrying the cultural elements from past to present as the words of wisdom reflecting the philosophy of the society. Because of it, it is necessary to let adolescent genarations aware of this heritage and protect it. Just as one of general purposes of

  17. An FP7 "Space" project: Aphorism "Advanced PRocedures for volcanic and Seismic Monitoring"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A., Sr.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.

    2014-12-01

    APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved GMES products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach is only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shake maps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterize the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.The project is funded under the European Union FP7

  18. The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge

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    Eija Stark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.

  19. LEXICAL-SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (PROVERBS) EXPRESSING ATTITUDE TO LABOR, WORK, AND BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, Tat'yana

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the lexical-semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs expressing the attitude of English and Russian people to labor, work, and business. The goal of the article is to show how the lexical-semantic differences of English and Russian proverbs influence the inadequacy of the expression of phraseological image, phraseological meaning and expressive-estimating connotations. The author also reveals paradigmatic relations in proverbs sphere, particularly synonymy p...

  20. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  1. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Akın

    2010-01-01

    Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exc...

  2. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Some Selected Arabic Proverbs and Their English Translation Equivalents: A Contrastive Approach

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    Marwa Essam Eldin Fahmi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine some common proverbs in Arabic and their English counterparts to shed light on significant socio-cultural differences. The choice of sample proverbs is based upon thematic classification. Proverbs are words combined together to form larger semantic units which are encoded by the speaker and decoded by the hearer by means of their underlined knowledge of the language itself. Proverbs, as metaphoric expressions or as cultural discourse, are codified on semantic structures. Thereby, Proverbs are figural and signifying acts of meaning that mediate interpretation and negotiate pragmatic signification at linguistic, philosophical and cultural levels. While proverbs make up and reflect the cultural identity of a specific society, and despite the uniqueness of languages and the profound differences between cultures, there are proverbs that shed light on universal truths of human life, common traditions and beliefs. Such proverbs have bridged linguistic and cultural barriers throughout human history.Keywords: Equivalence – English/Arabic Proverbs–Intercultural competence – Phraseology –Socio-semiotics

  4. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Animal Proverbs from Cultural Perspective

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    郝敏

    2012-01-01

    Animals are human beings' friends. People associate an- imals with natural phenomena, personalities and emotions. Many ani- mals have become a kind of symbolism in people's thinking, which is reflected in, proverbs. Although proverbs are pithy, short and vivid, they can embody profound truth and wisdom. And animal proverbs, which are rich in excite imagination and wisdom, are of special in- terest to people. In daily life, it is easy to find that two identical animal words can share quite different connotations in the two cultures and two different animal words can also share similar cultural connotations. Then, how does this phenomenon happen? Culture works. Every country has its special background which has close re- lationship with the words which are related to geography, customs, and religion. In this paper, these factors causing differences of ani- mal words' cultural images will be discussed.

  5. Proverbs as a Communication Strategy: (Decodification of Meaning and Pragmatic-Discursive Function

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    Xavier Pascual López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, theoretical overview of how proverbs are used as a communicative and discursive strategy, taking into account the speaker’s communicative intention. I will pay attention both to the benefits of the use of this type of formulaic sequence in the construction of the speech, and to the illocutionary force and pragmatic implications entailed by these utterances. In order to do so, some considerations will be required – the encoding of the meaning of the proverbs, the decoding process by the addressee, and the way proverbs are inserted in the discourse. This paper inspects the importance of such factors as the need for articulation of fluent speech, the assumption of cultural patterns, the appeal to proverbiality that aligns the speaker with power structures of the community, or the masking of the speaker’s voice behind a collective entity in order to socialize and release tensions related to interpersonal contact.

  6. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  7. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  8. "Eat, shut up and stand in the sun”. From the popular proverbs to the knowledge of vitamin D

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    Rafael Crovetto-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish language is rich in proverbs, many of which are related with food and health. The purpose in this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of some of those popular proverbs linking health and disease with the sun exposure. We describe the current knowledge about vitamin D, synthesis and mechanisms of action. The nurse should identify subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D, and prevent nutrient solutions, since sun exposure is not an appropriate measure because of the side effects of ultraviolet radiation, which contradicts the knowledge derived from some classic Spanish proverbs and sayings.

  9. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  10. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  11. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

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    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  12. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

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    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences.Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  13. Discussion on Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper has penetrated into the sexism in English proverbs from different aspects to illustrate the sex discrimination in society. Now the phenomenon of sexism has got improved, but the work needs efforts and cooperation for long. Therefore we must adequately know the sexism in English proverbs especially in society and see it comprehensively.

  14. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

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    Isabel C Bohrn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  15. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慧

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not.However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  16. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慧

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not. However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Common Features of Japanese and Mongolian Proverbs%日语蒙古语谚语的共性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马福山; 陈亚军

    2015-01-01

    A proverb is a short and pithy folk literature form. It reflects life, custom, culture and ethnic awareness of nationality. At the same time, a proverb is a crystalization of production experience and wisdom of laboring people. Both Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs reflect the development of their respective nation's life courses. The author finds that there are some common characteristics when comparing Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs. This paper studies the common characteristics of Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs from the perspective of cultural anthropology. The purpose is to provide a reference for better understanding and communication between Japanese culture and Mongolian culture.%谚语来源于民族的生活,是文化、民族意识的集中反映,是一种短小精悍的民间文学形式.谚语也是劳动人民长期生产实践活动的经验和智慧的结晶,是语言的精华.不论是日本民族的谚语,还是蒙古民族的谚语,都集中包含并反映着自己民族走过的生活历程.本文将日语谚语与蒙语谚语进行比较考察后发现其中有一些共性特征.并以文化人类学的视野考察分析日、蒙谚语的共性特征,为日、蒙两个民族在不同文化平台之间相互理解、交流提供参考.

  18. The Use of Proverbs in the Poems of Persian Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zolfaghari

    2012-09-01

    Not only the poets have benefited from the great treasure of proverbial literature, but also they have added to its wealth. This interaction has not been considered quantitatively and qualitatively up to now. In this article, a definition of the proverb and also its importance and background are presented. Then the usage manner of proverb in poets' poetry and Persian poetical proverbs and its position through paroemia are indicated. In addition, the difference between paroemia and comprehensive word, allusion, methods of equation and allegory are presented. With a quantitative and qualitative method, this article indicates the reflection of proverbs in poets' poetry of different centuries and analyzes the proverbs in poetry of the thirteen famous poets. In this way, we understand practically and theoretically the ways that poets have used the proverb and also its reflection in their poetry.

  19. “谚语”内涵辨析及分类探讨%Meaning Analysis and Classification Discussion of the Proverb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰辉

    2012-01-01

    At present, the definition of the proverb hasn't formed an unified view. Through analyzing and summarizing several definitions of the proverb, it shows that the proverb belongs to language rather than the folk literature, the proverb belongs to the common saying of the idiom. Chinese Classification Thesaurus is not scientific to set the proverb in the category of the folk literature. The proverb should be changed to the category of common saying. Moreover, the works about the general worldwide proverb belongs to the category of H034 (Common Saying), the works about the special proverb of a country belongs to the category of the common saying of the country, the works about the special proverb of a language (including Chinese minority languages) belongs to the category of the common saying of the corresponding language, the works about the special proverb of a subject belongs to the corresponding category of the subject.%目前,我国对谚语的界定尚未形成统一的观点。通过对几种谚语定义的分析和总结可知,谚语属于语言而非民间文学,谚语属于熟语中的俗语。《中国分类主题词表》把谚语设置在民间文学类是不科学的,应改至语言类的俗语类。此外,总论世界各国谚语的著作宜入H034类目;专论某国谚语的著作宜入该国使用的官方语言的俗语类;专论某语种(包括中国少数民族语)谚语的著作宜入相应语种的俗语类;专论某专题谚语的著作宜入该专题所属的相应类目。

  20. Grammatical Form, Sematic Relation and Cognitive Understanding of Proverbs%谚语的语法形式、语义关系和认知理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝晖

    2011-01-01

    文章探讨谚语的语法表现形式和语义关系,从认知语言学、现代隐喻理论、概念合成理论的新角度总结谚语的形成过程和理解方式,对如何使用谚语及更全面地研究谚语提供参考依据。%By probing into grammatical forms and semantic relations of proverbs,especially by using modern metaphor theories and conceptual combination theory,the writer analyzed the formation and understanding of proverbs so as to provide basis for a comprehensire research of proverbs..

  1. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja...

  2. 中日谚语的源起发展之异同%On Similarities and Dissimilarities between the Origin of Chinese and Japanese Proverb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚蕾

    2011-01-01

    Proverb is the fruit of a nation's collective wisdom, and it is also the pick of a language as well as the result of a nation's historical and cultural accumulation, so it is honored as the "living fossil" of national culture. Proverb is a carrier of abundant cultural connotation.China and Japan are neighbors separated only by a strip of water, and they have a long history of language and culture communications. However, due to the dissimilarities of environment,historical background,cultural background,religions,living habits and mode of thinking between the two countries, proverbs of the two countries respectively possess their own national characteristics. This paper attempts to compare proverbs of the two countries from the perspective of meaning, structure and function, so as to further learn the development of cultures of China and Japan.%谚语是一个民族集体智慧的结晶,是语言的精华,是一个国家历史文化沉淀的结果,有民族文化的"活化石"之称。它负载了丰富的文化内涵,中日一衣带水,语言文化交流有着悠久的历史。但是由于所处环境、历史背景、文化背景、宗教信仰、生活习惯以及思维方式的不同,两国谚语具有浓厚的民族特色。本文试图通过对中日谚语的含义、结构和作用等多方面进行比较,从而对中日文化的发展有更进一步的了解。

  3. The Expressions of Animal Words in Western Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志新

    2015-01-01

    In the long course of the development of human history, animals usually keep a close relation with human beings. But the same animal may have different figurative meanings in proverbs of both nations. If we don't know the cultural information and only understand the proverbs according to our own cultural background, we would cause the deviation from information understanding and misunderstanding in intercultural communication.

  4. 谚语与日本商业文化的特性%Proverbs and Fundamental Features of Japanese Business Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    日语谚语是承载日本文化涵的一个重载体,同时也是反映日本文化特征的具体表现形式。本文从消费观、经商观、风险观等方面对日语谚语进行了归纳整理、试译与分析,并从中抽取出了日本传统商业意识与商业规范的特质。采用将语言、文化、经济、商业等多元因素相结合的手法,对日本谚语中所蕴涵和折射出的商业文化特征加以系统性论述。%Japanese proverbs are expressions of basic values created and passed down as wise or practical advice for living, and also specific forms presenting and revealing the essential characteristics of Japanese culture. This dissertation, from consumption attitudes, business view and risk view, sumarrizes and translates proverbs, from which Japan' s features of business consciousness and business norms are drawn. By integrating multiple aspects, such as linguistic, culture, economic and business factors, this dissertation mainly elaborates on the fundamental features of Japanese business culture contained and reflected in proverbs.

  5. Research on Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs%浅谈汉英谚语中的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2014-01-01

    谚语是语言的特殊形式,是熟语的一种。古往今来,人们对谚语的评价向来很高。有人曾言:谚语乃语言中的盐,一束智慧的花。作为现实世界的一面镜子,语言真实地反映了各种社会习俗和价值观念。谚语作为语言的精华,浓缩了文化的内涵,涉及到社会生活的方方面面,从侧面反映了各民族的思维方式和价值观念。因而中西方文化中对女性带有贬义的看法和评价在汉英谚语中就会有所反映。笔者将以女性主义为视角分别探讨性别歧视在汉英谚语中的体现、性别歧视的根源及其发展趋势。%Proverbs are the special form of language and a type of idioms. All along people speak highly of proverbs. They are said to be the salt of language and a bunch of flowers of wisdom. Language,a mirror of the real world,,can truly reflect different kinds of social conventions and values. As the essence of language,proverbs enrich the cultural connotation,involve the social life and reflect a nation’s way of thinking,values and psychological characteristics from one side. Therefore many social views of women containing derogatory sense and evaluation are reflected in the proverbs. In this paper,the author will explore respectively the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs,the deep-rooted causes of gender discrimination and its developing trend in the perspective of feminism.

  6. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility.

  7. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility. PMID:26040105

  8. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...

  9. Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty%两汉谣谚理论考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶

    2014-01-01

    The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .%汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。

  10. 两汉谣谚理论考论%Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶

    2014-01-01

    汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。%The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .

  11. Comparison Between English and Chinese Proverbs in Cross-cultural Communication%跨文化交际中英汉谚语之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文颖

    2012-01-01

    谚语是语言的一个重要组成部分,是各国语言艺术的精华。语言与文化之间的关系是密不可分的。语言是文化的一部分,但是它又是一种比较特殊的文化,且对文化有着很重要的作用。语言与文化互相影响,互相作用。一般来说,语言能够更好的反映一个地区的民族特征,这其中既包含该地区的历史渊源、文化背景,也包括地区民族的生产生活方式、人生态度等。这点在英汉谚语也有体现。由于各国的历史文化背景、地理环境、人文环境等因素的不同,所以英汉谚语又存在着差异。本文首先分析英汉谚语的起源,其都来自民间生活,神话传说,文学作品和宗教文献;然后主要从生活实践经验、价值观、道德观念以及宗教思想的四方面,对英汉谚语的相同点与不同点进行对比分析,并提出英汉谚语在跨文化交际中的渗透与融合。最后指出随着世界文化的交流,谚语逐渐打破国家和民族的界限,英汉谚语在互相渗透与融合。%Proverb is an important part of language. Language and culture is closely related. Language is a part of culture, and is a specialized one. They are influenced by each other. As for the thinking patterns and sociological activities of human being have a lot in common,proverbs in Chinese and English have many similarities. There are also differences in it for distinct history,geography and lifestyle. In the paper,the origin of the proverbs in English and Chinese is analyzed at first. Secondly,the similarities and differences of proverbs are compared in terms of lifestyle, values, morality and religion. Lastly, it states that proverbs in English and Chinese will be integrated with the globalization.

  12. 从农谚探析中意文化差异%Analysis on cultural differences between China and Italy from farmer’ s proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    职莉莉

    2014-01-01

    农谚是农业生产经验的总结,在汉语和意大利语中都普遍存在。它不仅是一种语言现象,而且是一种文化现象;不仅涉及农业生产的全过程,而且涉及农业生活的方方面面。文化的形成脱离不了自然地理和社会环境的影响,特定的环境造就了特定的文化,特定的文化反映在语言中形成特定的表达。从汉语和意大利语的农谚出发,探讨其中的节日文化、节气文化以及意大利特有的反映农奴和农场主阶级关系的民俗文化、宗教文化和教历文化。对两国农谚的比较分析是研究中意文化共性与个性的又一途径,有利于促进中意跨文化交流和友好交往。%Farmer’ s proverbs are the summary of agricultural production experiences, which widely exist in both Chinese and Italian languages. It is not only a phenomenon of language, but also a phenomenon of culture. It is not only involved in the whole process of agricultural production, but also involved in all aspects of agricultural life. The formation of culture can not be separated from the influences of natural geography and social environment. Particular culture is created by specific environment, and particular expression is formatted by the reflection of specific culture in language. From farmer’ s proverbs in Chinese and Italian, discussed are the festival culture, solar term culture of both countries, and special cultures reflecting the class relationship between serfs and farmers of folk, religion, and religious calendar in Italy. The comparative analysis on farmer ’ s proverbs of the two countries is another path of researching the generality and individuality of Chinese and Italian cultures, which will be conducive to the cross-cultural intercommunion and friendly communication between China and Italy.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations. The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motivation of proverbs is presented as a key aspect, which influences the frequency of their use as an argument. The author analyzes the differences between the definitions of a word’s motivation and a proverb’s motivation. The article contains the author’s definition of the paremiological motivation and author’s classification of proverbs’ motivation degrees (examples of motivation, partial motivation and demotivation in proverbs and their influence on the use of proverbs as an argument. The author highlights the interdependence of idiomatic and analytical meanings of proverbs’ components, the influence of demotivation of analytical components on gradual demotivation of idiomatic meaning of proverbs. Proverbs with archaisms and historicisms gradually become inefficient arguments, therefore they are rarely used during critical discussions because they can cause misunderstanding.

  14. Discursive Depiction of Customary Conflict Management Principles in Selected African Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Yimulaw Gebregeorgis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore how proverbs of traditional African societies contribute to depicting the communities’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. To this end, proverbs collected from different parts of Africa, mainly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia were analysed using socio-semiotic approach to discourse studies and interpretive analysis. The findings of the study show that the proverbs of traditional African societies are instrumental in depicting the societies’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. Together with the ‘prevention is better than cure’ doctrine, taking communal responsibility, transparent truth-finding, participatory negotiation, win-win solution, and reconciliation and restoration of social harmony are among the traditional African conflict management principles that are portrayed through different African communities’ proverbs.

  15. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja tunsimme koko perhe olevamme yhä. Tuimmeaina lasten kesken toinen toisiamme ja pienempää piti aina ohjata ja auttaa ja puolustaa. Äitini aina sanoikin että heikompaa on aina autettava ja että köyhän ainoa pääoma on rehellisyys, rehtiys ja oikeamielisyys, ja kun kasvatte suuriksi niin pitäkää itsenne miehinä, joihin voi luottaa. Eikä minunkaan ole sitten koskaan tarvinnut noista periaatteista luopua.‘The atmosphere at home was gentle and all the family felt to be one and same. We children gave our support to each other and we were supposed to guide and help and defend the smaller ones. My mother always said that you have to always help those who are weak and the only capital a poor person has is sincerity, honesty, and uprightness. When you’ll be grown-ups, see that you still are those ones to whom others can trust. I have never given up those principles.’

  16. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  17. LE ROUMAIN ET LE LATIN DANS L'EXPRESSION DES PROVERBES BIBLIQUES. UNE APPROCHE PRAGMATIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raluca Felicia TOMA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a pragmatic analysis of the developed paremiological expressions (proverbs of Solomon, various other proverbs, sayings, maxims, "wise words" in the Old Testament and the New Testament, which - by their logical and grammatical scale, by the message conveyed - lend themselves to pragmatic interpretation.In this research we apply an extended grid of the methodology of pragmatic analysis, processed, however, to be applied to what we intend to reveal from the structure of biblical phrases.

  18. ‘Wealthy women’ in Antiquity: The ‘capable woman’ of Proverbs 31:10–31 and Mibtahiah from Elephantine

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    Antje Labahn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the anonymous ‘capable woman’ of Proverbs 31 with Mibtahiah of Elephantine. Both women are presented as wealthy occupiers of estates with economic success and influence in society. Both literary portraits unfold positive attitudes towards female characters, but present two divergent gender conceptions. The construction of Proverbs 31 depicts the ‘capable woman’ as an ideal character who amalgamates various social female roles and benefits from acting according to the wisdom teachings. The ‘capable woman’ provides a literary model of identification and imitation with an offer to share one’s identity with her. The Elephantine papyri reveal a divergent conception of another wealthy woman with influence insociety. Mibtahiah inherits an estate and enlarges her domain through additional economical purchase. She also takes a leading role in her family. The social role of Mibtahiah seems to be comparatively progressive, since the documents clearly indicate a juridical equalisation of men and women. The two conceptions of influential female characters present wealthy woman with potential in society. Thus, the positive attitude towards the two women is based on their wealth. ‘Welvarende vroue’ in antieke tye: Die ‘knap vrou’ van Spreuke 31:10−31 en Mibtahiahvan Elephantine. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die anonieme ‘knap vrou’ van Spreuke 31 met Mibtahiah van Elephantine. Albei vroue word voorgehou as die welvarende, invloedryke en ekonomies suksesvolle eienaars van landgoedere. Albei letterkundige weergawes openbaar ’n positiewe ingesteldheid teenoor vroulike karakters, maar verteenwoordig twee uiteenlopende geslagskonsepte. Spreuke 31 beeld die ‘knap vrou’ uit as die ideale karakter wat die verskeie rolle van die vrou met gemak hanteer en voordeel uit wysheidsonderrig trek. Die ‘knap vrou’ is ’n navolgenswaardige model met wie iemand sou wou identifiseer. Die Elephantine papyri openbaar

  19. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

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    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  20. Setswana proverbs within the institution of lenyalo [marriage]: A critical engagement with the bosadi [womanhood] approach

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    Itumeleng D. Mothoagae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Setswana proverbs point to the rich oral history of the Batswana people, their cosmology, morality, indigenous knowledge system, rituals, drama, sayings and memo scripts which are deeply embedded in memory. They emerged from reflections on existential experiences and animal behaviour. In her analysis of Proverbs 31:10�31 found in the Hebrew text, Masenya rereads this text in conjugation with her Northern Sotho proverbs regarding women from a bosadi [womanhood] approach. It is in this approach that she attempts to engage structures of �patriarchy� and the marginalisation of women�s identities. In so doing, the approach grapples with issues such as the mythological thinking of male dominance, cultural subjugation, gender equality, political marginalisation and economic transaction. The decolonial turn as a theoretical framework acknowledges the particularity and universality of cultures and knowledge. Whilst there is particularity among African cultures, there is also universality. In this article I will refer to Setswana proverbs in the context of marriage to engage the bosadi approach. It is the intention of this article to argue that proverbs such as lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi need to be contextualised within their historical location as well as within the context of the institution of lenyalo that is anchored in the practice of bogadi. Furthermore, there is a need to critically engage with terms such as patriarchy, oppression, structure and hierarchy. The paper will use the decolonial turn as a theoretical framework. A conclusion will be drawn from the discussion above.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has an interdisciplinary approach, it touches on Historical analysis of Setswana Proverbs, the missionary era and the transition between �Setswana traditional� worldview and �Euro-Christian� worldview. Furthermore, it pertains to the understanding of the Proverbs within the custom of Lenyalo

  1. APHORISMS IN THE NOVELS OF HAKAN GÜNDAY HAKAN GÜNDAY ROMANLARINDA AFORİZMALAR

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    Caner KERİMOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, aphorisms in the novels of Hakan Günday are studied. Initially, in introduction some information about the etymology of the word “aphorism”, the place of aphorisms in Turkish literature, Hakan Günday and Günday’s novels is given, and then aphorisms in the novels are listed. Aphorisms are listed according to thematic titles. 8 titles are identified as human, time, place, business, religion-nation, organization, communication and other concepts. Distribution of aphorisms is as follows : Human 55, time 30, place 5, business 24, organization 15, religion-nation 12, communication 9, other concepts 23. This article includes 173 aphorisms in Günday’s novels. Bu makalede Hakan Günday’ın romanlarındaki aforizmalar incelenmiştir. İlk olarak giriş bölümünde aforizma kelimesinin kökeni, Türk edebiyatında aforizma türünün yeri, Hakan Günday ve Günday’ın romanları hakkında kısa bilgiler verilmiştir. Ardından inceleme bölümünde romanlardaki aforizmalar sınıflandırılmıştır. Aforizmalar tematik başlıklara göre sıralanmıştır. İnsan, zaman, mekân, iş, örgütlenme, din-ulus, iletişim ve diğer kavramlar olmak üzere 8 başlık belirlenmiş ve aforizmalar bu 8 başlığa göre listelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda aforizmaların bu başlıklara dağılımı şu şekilde olmuştur: İnsan başlığı altında 55, zaman başlığı altında 30, mekân başlığı altında 5, iş başlığı altında 24, örgütlenme başlığı altında 15, din-ulus başlığı altında 12, iletişim başlığı altında 9, diğer kavramlar başlığı altında 23. Çalışmada Hakan Günday’ın romanlarında geçen toplam 173 aforizmaya yer verilmiştir

  2. A STUDY ON PROVERBS REBTED TO HORSE IN KYRGYZ, UIGUR, MACEDONIA-KOSOVA TURKISH LANGUAGES AND IN TURKISH LEGADERY STORIES / TÜRK DESTANLARINDA, HIKÂYELERINDE VE KIRGIZ, UYGUR, MAKEDONYA –KOSOVA TÜRKÇESINDE, AT ILE ILGILI ATASÖZLERI ÜZERINE BIR ARASTIRMA

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    Gökmen MOR (M.A.H.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The life power of a nation is only possible if it has asound base. Turkish culture is the richest one in the worldwith its literature, history custom. Turkish nation which hasgot a history full of bravery has reflected its achievements intoits epics throughout its long history. When we examine theTurkish history; we find a deep culture and precious sayingsenabling people to take lesson from life. Turkish nationbrought an extraordinary bright culture into the places where it went what distinguishes the nations from one another isespecially the oral culture. Our proverb is one of the mostimportant elements of this oral culture. Our proverbs havegrace impacts which affect people deeply. Turkish proverbsarise from Turkish thought and are a mirror which reflects itsphilosophy, Bravery, and culture. In the ancient Turkishsocieties the horse has been an indispensable element forTurkish people and mentioned in the Turkish proverbs.

  3. On the Types and Dissemination Characteristics of English Proverbs in Advertisements from the Perspective of Memetics%模因论视域下英语广告中谚语的传播类型和特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华威; 靳婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of Memetics and with the method of literature review and qualitative analy-sis,this study introduces characteristics of memes proverbs,analyzes its formation and transmission in English advertisements and points out that the proverbs memes can be divided into genetic transmission and expressive transmission according to the way of transmission,which provides some helpful ideas for advertising creators to use proverb strong meme to reinforce advertising effects.%长久以来,研究者多从翻译、文化价值或英汉谚语差异等角度对谚语进行研究,但是对谚语的传播途径、谚语的选择以及使用策略方面的研究却很少。针对这样的问题,以模因论为理论基础,采取文献综述法和定性研究的方法,对谚语模因的形成及其在广告中的传播方式进行分析,指出广告谚语模因可以分为模因基因型传播和模因表现型传播两种途径,前者又可以进一步分为原型传递和异形传递;后者则分为同音异义传播、同形异义传播和同构异义传播。

  4. Concepções sobre relações amorosas / conjugais e sobre seus protagonistas: um estudo com provérbios Conceptions about conjugal/romantic relationships and about their protagonists: a study with proverbs

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    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os provérbios contêm informações culturalmente importantes sobre temas como casamento e relações de gênero, uma vez que constituem discurso autoritário e estereotipado aceito e memorizado pelas pessoas desde a infância. O presente estudo envolveu seleção e categorização de provérbios sobre relações amorosas, casamento, descasamento, bem como sobre as condições socioculturais que caracterizam a vida masculina e feminina com o objetivo de analisar singularidades e regularidades reveladoras das concepções presentes em tal modalidade de produção cultural. A seleção dos 569 provérbios examinados foi feita a partir de fontes documentais. Os provérbios foram classificados em 4 grandes temas (Amor, Casamento e Relações Conjugais, Homem, Mulher que comportaram 104 subcategorias de análise. Os resultados revelaram um universo cultural construído a partir da perspectiva masculina, no qual estão presentes concepções sobre a natureza feminina e sobre as relações amorosas que justificam o desequilíbrio de poder nas relações conjugais que se constata ainda hoje.Proverbs contain culturally important information about themes such as marriage and gender relations, since they constitute an authoritarian and stereotyped discourse which is accepted and memorized by people from early ages. The present study involved selection and categorization of proverbs about romantic relationships, marriage, separation, as well as about the socio-cultural conditions that characterize masculine and feminine life, with the objective of analyzing revealing singularities and regularities of the conceptions present in such modality of cultural production. The selection of the 569 examined proverbs was made from documental sources. The proverbs were classified in 4 broader themes (Love, Marriage and Conjugal Relations, Man, Woman which spanned 104 analysis sub-categories. The results revealed a cultural universe constructed upon the male

  5. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

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    J.H. Potgieter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  6. 英语谚语中的性别歧视%Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许之所; 李丽芳; 李丽敏

    2000-01-01

    As is known to all that language & culture are closely related, culture influences and shapes language and language reflects culture. English proverbs, as an essential part of the vocabulary and as the sinew of the language, they can more or less reflect geography, history, views, behavior and system of the society and of course provide a little glimpse or clues to the sex discrimination. The author in this essay focuses on the study of sexism in English proverbs.%就英语谚语中存在的一些性别歧视问题进行了分析和探讨。

  7. Did Ms Wisdom of Proverbs 8 become a mystery in 4QInstruction?

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    Pieter M. Venter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible is quoted and alluded to in 4QInstruction. There is an obvious similarity between the way the raz nihyeh of 4QInstruction and Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 8 function. This intertextual study investigates this phenomenon by comparing 4Q416 2 III 8–21 and 4Q417 1 I with Proverbs 8:12–21 and 8:22–31. It is concluded that apocalyptic influence changed the character of Lady Wisdom but not her essential function.

  8. The structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic employed in a reading of Proverbs 14:2

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ricoeurian hermeneutic affords readers of the Old Testament an opportunity to access the biblical text anew as a source and norm for faith. Reese gave a convenient summarising description of Ricoeur’s hermeneutical approach. Ricoeur organised his considerations around four poles, namely distanciation, objectification, projecting of a world, and appropriation. These operate as the structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic and were illustrated with a sample proverb (i.e. Pr 14:2 from the collection Proverbs 10:1–15:33.

  9. On Differences between Chinese and Western Core Values:A Perspective of Proverb Comparison%从中西方习语看当代中西方核心价值观差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯伦

    2016-01-01

    习语是民族文化的精髓,是浓缩了的民族文化,它不仅是一个民族智慧和文化的结晶,更是一个时代具体的道德规范和行为准则。以十八大提出社会主义核心价值观为基础,通过对中西两国习语进行比较,分析当代中西方主流价值观,可以为成功的跨文化交际打下良好的基础,弘扬当代中国社会主义核心价值观。%Proverbs are the essence of a national culture. It is not only contains the wisdom and culture of a nation, but a specific code of ethics and conduct. Through comparing with Chinese and western proverbs based on the core socialist values proposed by the 18th CPC National Congress, making an analysis of contemporary Chinese and western mainstream values, which will lay a good foundation for the intercultural communication, carry forward the contemporary Chinese core socialist values.

  10. On the Use of Animal Terms in Uyghur and English Proverbs%动物喻体在维英谚语中的文化异同对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓玲

    2013-01-01

    Comparing Uyghur and English proverbs, this paper found that there exist a great number of proverbs on animals. Due to the great cultural differences in the two ethnic groups, the animal images differ greatly in their implications. By classifying and analyzing, this paper found that some of the animal implications are similar, while some are totally different owing to the influences in terms of religion, history, economic life, customs, ethics, geography and environment.%在维吾尔语、英语谚语中均有大量的动物喻体谚语条目,文章从比较语言学的角度,从家畜类、猫狗宠物类、野生动物类、禽鸟和昆虫类、水族类等方面对含有动物喻体的维、英谚语进行归类、比较和分析,发现很多动物喻体在两种语言文化中象征涵义相似或截然不同。进而探究两种语言背后的独特文化模式,即宗教历史、经济生活、习俗道德、自然地理环境等的影响。

  11. Proverbe et expression figée

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    Laura Cîţu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

  12. APhoRISM FP7 project: the A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore; Pierdicca, Nazzareno

    2014-05-01

    The APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedure for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring - project is an FP7 funded project, which aims at developing and testing two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data for seismic and volcanic risk management. The objective is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. One of the two methods deals with earthquakes, and it concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The method is named APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. Indeed, a wide literature and projects have addressed and focused such issue, but usually the proposed approaches are only based on change detection techniques and/or classifications algorithms. The novelty of APhoRISM-APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by: - InSAR time series to measure surface movements - shakemaps obtained from seismological data - vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map from earth observation satellite sensors (either Optical or Synthetic Aperture Radar) to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms.

  13. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  14. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  15. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

  16. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet : Women in Proverbs from Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Mineke

    2006-01-01

    Winner of the Dutch 2005 Eureka! prize for best non-fiction title The jury about the book: "A revealing and at the same time extraordinarily funny book" In cultures all over the globe, sex and gender issues have been expressed in proverbs, the world's smallest literary genre. This irresistible book

  17. Some Reflections on Human Needs, Peace, Transculturality and Igbo Proverbs in the Light of Emmanuel Edeh’s African Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh’s concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some refl ections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace… of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics;...

  18. "COME ON, BUDDHIST NUN"--ON A CHINESE TRANSLATION CONTROVERSY INSPIRED BY NIETZSCHE APHORISMS IN 1925-26

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    Raoul David Findeisen

    2002-01-01

    This study takes as a point of departure a Chinese translation from one single chapter of Nietzsche's work Beyond Good and Evil (1886) prepared in 1925.It focuses on the controversy that soon broke out and resulted in not less than four different versions of one single Nietzsche aphorism published within one year.Closer scrutiny reveals that the yet unnoticed controversy may be seen as an indicator of a sociological shift in translation work, marked by the move to a paradigm of first-hand mediation. Briefly tracing the channel via Japanese and/or English intermediary sources, then well-established for some three decades, it concludes that despite contrary claim in contemporary discussions, conceptual and thus misreadings presented transcultural obstacles rather than linguistic obstacles. It therefore opts for reading translations as sources for the intellectual landscape in the target audience in a given historical moment, hitherto considered deficient.

  19. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

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    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour illustrer une situation, donner une leçon ou encore appuyer un discours, les proverbes sont un canevas linguistique dont on ne peut se passer dans les joutes oratoires. Pour ce qui concerne est des proverbes alimentaires, on peut se rendre compte qu’ils permettent d’observer comment les Bulu appréhendent le monde et montrent de ce fait la société dans sa dimension holistique. Cet article s’attèle à une analyse anthropologique de quelques proverbes alimentaires de la socioculture bulu. Ces parémies font intervenir la vision bulu de l’organisation politique, de l’économie, des relations de parenté, de la diplomatie, de l’education, de la mort, de la justice, de la construction de la personnalité,etc. Feeding in negro-cultures generally and particularly on Bulu’s people have an importance which goes beyond the biological needs. In fact, it intervenes in this society as a social total fact and permits to apprhehend it on political, economical, medical, religious, artistic, juridical, linguistic angle. From the linguistic point of view, proverbs constitute a favorable space to the demonstration of representations on food. Used to illustrate a situation, to give a learning or to support a speech, proverbs are a linguistic framework which is not possible to avoid during verbal sparrings. Concerning food proverbs, it can be realized that, they permit to observe how Bulu’s people apprehend world and show society in this

  20. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer's disease with proverbs (STADP for the elderly Validade e confiabilidade do teste de rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com provérbios (TRDAP para idosos

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    Mauricéa Tabosa Ferreira Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence Alzheimer's disease with age compromises memory, language, executive functions, constructive praxis and abstraction, requiring early evaluation with standardized tests. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP, elaborated using pieces from the proverb memory game. METHOD: The test contains three stages (A: short-term memory, B: executive functions and language and C: episodic memory. The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals with minimum age of 60 years and one year of schooling, CDR of one or zero, cared for at specialized services of UFPE, HGA and private institutions. Sociodemographic data, habits and health perception were assessed. Among the tests used were MMSE (convergent validity and GDS (discriminating. RESULTS: A good correlation with standardized test was found, acceptable internal consistency (0.71, cutoff point for schooling of 6.49 (low (80% and 77.8% and 8.66 (high (84.6% and 86.1%; Kappa coefficient of 1 (p=0.000 inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: STADP is a valid test for screening Alzheimer's disease.A prevalência da doença de Alzheimer com o envelhecimento, que compromete memória, linguagem, funções executivas, praxia construtiva e abstração, necessita avaliação precoce com testes padronizados. OBJETIVO: Validação do Teste de Rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com Provérbios (TRDAP, elaborado com pedras do jogo de memória de provérbios. MÉTODO: O teste contém três etapas (A: memória curto-prazo, B: funções executivas e linguagem e C: memória episódica. A amostra tinha 91 idosos com mínimos de 60 anos e de um ano de escolaridade, CDR (um ou zero, de serviços especializados da UFPE, HGA e particular. Avaliaram-se dados sociodemográficos, hábitos e percepção de saúde. Dentre os testes utilizados - MEEM (validade convergente, EDG (discriminante. RESULTADOS: Apontaram para boa correlação com testes padronizados, consistência interna

  1. 日语动物相关谚语汉译%On the Translation of Japanese Animal Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玲玲

    2015-01-01

    谚语是民族智慧的结晶,更是传承民族文化的桥梁。翻译谚语则是构筑不同民族文化交流的桥梁之一。为进一步增进中日文化交流,以与人类关系最为密切的动物相关谚语为例,从句子成分省略、感情色彩差异方面来考虑日语动物谚语汉译时影响因素,探寻顺译、意译的汉译方法。%Most of sport tourism products in Hainan are experienced, introduce of wearable technology would enhance the experience and help improve the image recognition of Hainan tourism.The development of Hainan tourism should pay more attention to the need of experiential and combining with history, natural and cultural and sports culture in Hainan to achieve the goal of tourism destiny.The proverb is the expression of the cultural wisdom and bridge between different cultures .The translation of proverbs is one of ways for ex-change of different cultures.To improve further cultural exchange between China and Japan, the paper take the most closely related things with people, the animal-related proverbs as an example, to study the influen-cing factor of Japanese animals proverb translation from the perspective of sentence components, as well as o-mitted and emotional color differences.explore variety of proverb translation methods.

  2. Locuciones, dichos y refranes sobre el lenguaje: unidades fraseológicas fijas e interacción verbal Idioms, sayings and proverbs on language: determined phrasal units and verbal interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ZULUAGA GÓMEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Las locuciones y refranes sobre el lenguaje se pueden considerar como fórmulas metalingüísticas en lenguaje corriente (fomelcos que para el hablante funcionan como instrucciones pragmáticas de la lengua. Según la función específica que desempeñan en la práctica discursiva y en la interacción, se pueden clasificar en tres categorías: descriptivas, instructivas y regulativas. Para ilustrar este planteamiento, se analizarán algunas muestras siguiendo un modelo de entrada lexical en el que se explica la estructura semántica y la función pragmática de las expresiones. Se concluye que las fomelcos son un registro del conocimiento que tiene el hablante de la racionalidad que rige las relaciones de uso del lenguaje.Idioms and proverbs on language can be considered as metalinguistical formulas in current language (‘fomelcos’ which are used by the speaker in the function of pragmatic instructions of the language. Depending on their specific function they act out in discourse and interaction, they may be classified in three categories: descriptive, instructive and regulatory. To give support to this statement, some specimens are analyzed applying a lexical entry model in which the semantic structure and the pragmatic function of the expressions are explained. The author concludes that the ‘fomelcos’ are a register of the knowledge the speaker has on the rationality which rules the speech correlations.

  3. Review of James Alfred Loader ‘Proverbs 1–9’ (Historical Commentary on the Old Testament, Peeters Leuven, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Venter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Loader’s commentary on Proverbs 1–9 belongs to the category of technical commentaries. It is evaluated in terms of similar commentaries written by scholars who focus on interpreting the original Hebrew text. The design of the commentary, the four essays included in the commentary, and the approach to the text is discussed. A final section deals with Loader’s exposition of Proverbs 8. This section focuses on the problematic Hebrew terms qnh in 8:22 and ‘amon in 8:30 and compares his interpretation with the opinions raised by other scholars in this regard.

  4. Proverbs 31:10−31: A passage containing wisdom principles for a successful marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Gallaher Branch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most commentators see Proverbs 31:10−31 as an acrostic poem about an ideal wife. True, the passage presents an exemplary woman, a paragon of industry and excellence. However, this article looks at this passage in a new way: it assert that the poem depicts an excellent, successful, working marriage. The passage contains principles contained in Wisdom Literature that apply to success in any relationship − especially the most intimate one of all. A careful reading of Proverbs’ concluding poem provides a glimpse, via the specific details it shares, of a healthy, happy, ongoing, stable marriage as observed over a span of time.

  5. A Study of Strategies for C-E Interpreting of Adages and Proverbs in Diplomatic Speeches from the Perspective of the Interpretive Theory%释意理论视角下的国家领导人外交讲话中俗语和谚语的口译探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗嘉婧; 张婵; 景晨

    2015-01-01

    The state leaders of China, headed by President Xi Jinping, frequently adopt adages and proverbs in their speech as a way of bonding with the audience, which is also true in their diplomatic speeches. This paper intends to take President Xi as an ex⁃ample and study his diplomatic speeches for interpreting strategies for the adages and proverbs from the perspective of the interpre⁃tive theory. A quantitative analysis will also be conducted to examine how different strategies are being used.%以习近平主席为首的国家领导人讲话风格朴实,善用俗语和谚语等民间常用语表意和明理,拉近与听众的距离。外交讲话中,这种情况也很突出。该文从释意理论的角度入手,以习主席多次外交讲话为例,探究俗语和谚语的英译策略,并通过对语料进行量化分析,得出不同策略的运用情况,以图为俗谚语的口译提供有益启示。

  6. Japanese Proverb Metaphor Rhetorical Translation%日语谚语中比喻修辞的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小艳

    2012-01-01

    In this article, it is pointed out that analogy rhetorical methods are frequently used in Japanese proverbs. Japanese proverbs have strong national, regional, historic and cultural features. In the process of translation into Chinese, it is necessary to pay attention to or to reproduce the cultural implication and particularity of the rhetoric in the proverbs. Factors like cultural background and language habbits should be analysed and processed in comprehensive ways in the translation to Chinese.%指出日语谚语中,比喻修辞方法使用的频率很高,日语谚语带有浓厚的民族、区域、历史、文化色彩,在汉译的过程中,要兼顾或再现谚语本身的文化寓意和比喻修辞的特殊性。对使用比喻修辞的日本谚语汉译,应把文化背景、语言习惯等因素进行综合分析和处理。

  7. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böck, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  8. Discussion on the Relationships between the Proverb of Good Doctor to Cure Fur and the Preventive or Therapeutic Strategies with Chronic Kidney Disease%试论“善治者治皮毛”与慢性肾脏病防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬云; 毕礼明; 陈英兰

    2013-01-01

    “善治者治皮毛”是医家治疗疾病的最重要原则之一.慢性肾脏病(CKD)极为常见,其治疗目的包括延缓进展、需要评估心血管危险因素、鉴别和治疗相关的并发症,或者行肾脏替代治疗.综合的多重干预可延缓甚至阻断CKD进展,减少CKD死亡的首位原因心血管并发症的发生.本文试着讨论“善治者治皮毛”与CKD防治策略的关系.%The proverb of good doctor to cure fur was from "Internal Classic of Huang Di". It had been widely guided by the medical scientist as one of the most important therapeutic principles. And CKD ( chronic kidney disease )was very common. The objectives were to slow the progression of CKD to take all the cardiovascular risk factors into account,to screen for and treat specific complications and to prepare,if necessary,for renal replacement treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management could slow or even stop the progression of CKD and reduce its cardiovascular complications,which was the leading cause of death in these patients. In this paper,we tried to discuss on the relationship between the proverb of good doctor to cure fur and the preventive or therapeutic strategies of chronic kidney disease.

  9. The impact of an indigenous proverb on women’s mental health: A phenomenological approach

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    Seepaneng S. Phiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proverbs and idioms represent cultural and societal beliefs and values inherited from the forefathers. An example is lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi. Over many decades African people have used such ancient instructions to counsel women to be resilient in their marriages thus impacting on their mental health.Objective: The purpose of this article was to explore and describe that proverb and its impact on women’s mental health.Method: Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore and describe the prover band its impact on indigenous women’s mental health. The population included married, divorced, widowed and single women who were attending social clubs or networks in the cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg. Snowball and purposive sampling was used to select 57 participants. Five face-to-face interviews and eight focus groups interviews were conducted. Colaizzi’s data analysis method was used to analyse data.Results: Oppression and stigmatisation of women and their families and harmful effects that may result in death were identified as having an impact on women’s mental health. Some women shared that they were oppressed in many ways. In addition, they feared stigmatisation should they wish to divorce. They constantly lived in fear of being harmed or killed by their spouses.Conclusion: There was a need for nurses to develop awareness regarding cultural issues so that women are better served in primary healthcare settings. Women who are suspected of experiencing abuse, should be screened for abuse so that they can be assisted accordingly.

  10. 概念整合理论视阈中的英语谚语%On English Proverbs From the Perspective of Conceptual Integration Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董璞玉; 董阜平

    2011-01-01

    通过运用Fauconnier和Turner等人提出的概念整合理论从认知的角度对英语谚语的意义构建进行分析,旨在说明概念的合成是一种具有普遍性的认知活动,具有极强的认知解释力。以此,为英语谚语的研究提供一种新的研究视角和方法。%Using Conceptual Integration Theory proposed by Fauconnier and Turner, this paper analyzes the meaning construction of English proverbs from the perspective of cognition. It aims to explain that conceptual integration is a universal cognitive activity with mighty explanatory power. On this account, this paper can provide a new perspective and method for the study of English proverbs.

  11. Traduction et interprétation du livre des Proverbes à travers le Talmud et les commentaires juifs médiévaux

    OpenAIRE

    Smilévitch, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Since the Greek Septuagint, the biblical book Mishlei is translated "Book of Proverbs". But in the Jewish hermeneutic tradition, the correct translation is "parables". This new meaning changes the meaning of the whole book. It was therefore necessary to translate the Hebrew text of Mishlei on a new basis, following the Talmudic and midrashic hermeneutics, extended and developed in medieval times by commentators, philosophers and Jewish grammarians. Thus, we propose a new translation, with com...

  12. The Cultural Connotation of Proverb in Tongcheng%桐城谚语的文化透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江亚丽

    2014-01-01

    桐城谚语承载着丰富的地域文化信息,它多角度多层次地反映了当地生活环境、衣食住行、风俗习惯、价值观念等方面的文化面貌,具有鲜明的地域文化特色,如重耕读、讲礼仪,重礼让、讲和谐,重伦常、讲仁义,重勤俭、讲自强等。深入发掘桐城谚语的文化内涵,对于弘扬地域优秀文化,构建和谐社会具有重要的现实意义。%Tongcheng proverbs contain abundant information of regional culture and it is multi -level and multi angle to reflect the local living environment , basic necessities of life , customs , values and other aspects of culture , with distinct geographical and cultural characteristics . For example , attaching importance to farming and reading , emphasizing etiquette and humility , focusing on comity and harmony , valuing ethics and righteousness , paying attention to hardworking and thrifty and making a point of self -reliance are all their characteristics . Therefore , it is important to enrich the fine cultural heritage of the nation and build up a harmonious society to advance by exploring the cultural influences of the proverbs in Tongcheng .

  13. Cultural Differences in Chinese-English Proverbs%从英汉谚语看中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许俊芳

    2009-01-01

    English and Chinese proverbs, being treasures of two different languages, show differences resulting from cultural discrepancies. This essay illustrates and discusses the differences between English and Chinese proverbs from the point of natural environment, living ways, religious thoughts and concepts, moral concepts and national psychological differences, so as to provide some implication for teaching English and Chinese languages and intercultural communication.%英汉谚语作为两种不同的语言瑰宝,由于谚语独特的文化而表现出明显的差异.本文借助一些典型的例子,从自然环境、生活方式、宗教信仰、道德观念、民族心理等文化侧面入于,探讨了英语谚语和汉语谚语之间存在的差异,并从中得到了一些有益的启示,可为英汉语言教学和跨文化交际提供一定的借鉴意义.

  14. 隐喻认知理论对英汉“道德”谚语的解释%A Study on“Moral”Proverbs Based on the Cognitive Metaphor Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红玲; 段钨金

    2014-01-01

    Proverbs are a common form of language in human language use,and are widely used in all kinds of styles,so it can reflect the most richness of human language. In English there are extremely rich resources of pro-verbs. In English proverbs,there exist a large number of metaphors,and this just provides widespread presence of metaphor in language. Based on different standards,proverbs have different classification. We can divided them into love,friendship,meteorological,healthy,moral and other categories. Scholars at home and abroad have done lots of researches on proverbs,but the researches on the moral proverbs are far from enough. So this article will analyze“moral”proverbs based on the cognitive metaphor theory.%谚语是人类各种语言中共有的一种语言形式,而且被广泛地应用于各类文体中,因此它最能体现人类语言的丰富性。英语语言中也有极其丰富的谚语资源。英语谚语中大量运用了隐喻,这恰恰为隐喻在语言中的广泛存在提供了佐证。从认知的角度探讨隐喻在英语谚语中的作用。基于不同的标准,谚语有不同的分类。谚语包括爱情的,友情的,气象的,养生的和道德的等。国内外学者对谚语也进行了深入的研究,但是就道德方面的谚语研究甚少。因此本文基于隐喻认知角度对“道德”谚语进行解析。

  15. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  16. A STUDY ON ANTONYMOUS RELATIONS IN TURKEY TURKISH PROVERBS AND IDIOMS TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİ ATASÖZÜ VE DEYİMLERİNDE KARŞIT ANLAMLILIK İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship established by and between antonymous words is defined as antonymy. Such relationships are founded on the same logic; however, the building blocks and links between them are different. The present study on Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms aims to handle antonymous relations under five headings, namely structural, substitutional, reversive, converse (relational, and complementary. The headings were identified as: Structural antonymy, under which nouns and verbs are treated based on their affirmative and negative senses. Substitutional antonymy refers to replacement of a component in a sentence. Reversives means a relationship established between a verb/noun and its reverse counterpart. Converse antonymy is built upon the position of similar and different elements. Complementary antonymy rests on the elimination of deficiencies. Accordingly, Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms have been examined and detailed under the corresponding headings. It can be concluded that antonymy fulfils such functions as organizing comparative narration at sentence level, structures of change, generalisation, and imperatives, agreement and links between constituents; as well as determining and ordering negated meaning, direction, communication, description, and preference. Anlamı birbirine karşıt olan sözcüklerin kurduğu ilişkiye, karşıt anlamlılık denir. Bu ilişkiler, aynı temel mantıkla kurulur. Ancak kurucu unsurlar ve bunların ilişkileri, farklıdır. Türkiye Türkçesi atasözü ve deyimleri üzerine yapılmış bu çalışma, karşıtlık ilişkilerini yapısal, değişimsel, çevriksel, konumsal ve bütüncül olmak üzere beş başlıkta incelemiştir. Bu beş başlık, şu şekilde belirlenmiştir: İsim ve fiillerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönleriyle ele alındığı yapısal karşıtlık. Başka bir unsurla yer değiştirme şeklindeki değişim tarzı karşıtlık. Bir isim veya fiille, onların tersinin kurduğu kar

  17. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  18. Exploration on Chinese-English Activities of Chinese Proverbs from the Perspective of Translation Features%翻译特性视阈下汉语谚语英译探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐季

    2016-01-01

    The proverbs are phrases which embody the living experience and folkways of the nations.This paper analyzes the effect of the Chinese-English translation of Chinese proverbs from the perspective of five translation features,social,cultural,symbolic transformational,creative and historical features.%谚语是凝聚一个民族生活经验和民俗文化的短语.在此从翻译的五大特性,社会性、文化性、符号转换性、创造性和历史性入手,分析翻译特性对汉语谚语英译的影响.

  19. 湖南湘乡方言谚语的隐喻认知阐释%The Cognitive Metaphor Elucidation of Hunan Xiangxiang Dialectical Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2013-01-01

    Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs are short and concise ,meaningful and profound ,vivid and popu-lar ,and easy to memorize and inherit .It not only reflects the characteristics of Xiangxiang dialect ,but also records the Xiangxiang unique productive and living mode ,the natural environment and the folk culture .It is the crystallization of people’s life experience and wisdom ,which holds Xiangxiang’s unique local culture .This paper elucidates the Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs and emphasizes its cognitive and linguistic functions from the per-spective of cognitive metaphor .%  湘乡方言谚语简短凝练、寓意深远、形象通俗易懂、便于记诵和传承,不仅反映了湘乡方言的特点,还记载了湘乡独特的生产生活方式、自然环境和民俗风情,承载着湘乡独特的地方文化。从隐喻认知的角度对湘乡方言谚语进行解读,着重指出其认知功能和语言学功能。

  20. On the Differences of Value Orientation in Interpersonal Relationship Reflected in Japanese Proverbs%日英谚语中折射出的人际关系价值取向的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐会君

    2012-01-01

    Proverbs are the living fossil of culture and ideology.By proverbs one can understand a country's local customs and practices,customs,religion,history and other aspects.This paper,with English proverbs as the window,from the perspective of interpersonal relationship,discusses the differences of interpersonal value orientation between Japan and Europe and the United State,in order to enhance mutual understanding and improve intercultural communication ability.%谚语是文化和思想的活化石。通过谚语能够了解一国的风土人情、风俗习惯、宗教信仰、历史传统等方方面面。本文以日英谚语为窗口,从人际关系的角度,探讨了日本和欧美在人际关系价值取向方面的差异,以图增进相互了解,提高跨文化交际能力。

  1. Language on Interpretation of the Proverb Semantic of "Nang" in Uighur%维吾尔“馕”谚语语义解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苹

    2012-01-01

    从语言学、民俗学、心理学的角度,对极具地域性、固化性、传承性和宗教性等特点的维吾尔馕谚语进行较为详细而全面的梳理和解构,阐述了维吾尔馕谚语中的馕是神圣的,是生命之本,是富足的标志,蕴含着丰富的人生哲理。维吾尔族人对馕的这些认知在日常的食馕过程中,会广泛而持久地在其心理层面不断积淀,产生模因效果,起着一定社会教育的心理暗示及强化的功能。%From the aspects of linguistics, folklore as well as psychology, by a detailed combing and destruction of Uighur proverbs about Nang, which are full of features of territoriality, curing property, consistency and the sacred, this paper elaborates that Nang in Uighur proverbs is sacred. It is life and symbol of wealthy, which contain philosophy of life. The cognition of Uighur people to these keep on resting upon their mind extensively in the daily eating of Nang and produce Meme effect with a function of social education, psychologi- cal implications and reinforcement.

  2. On Japanese Wine Culture Reflected by its Proverbs%从日本谚语看日本酒文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    Proverbs come from life and are the creation of life. They are the essence of a nation language and wisdom. It is like a mirror, reflecting a nation's cultural characteristics. Japan's wine culture has a long history. Japanese people, not only create the sake which is of a delicate and pure taste, but also generate a lot of popular, content-rich wine proverbs and sayings. These wines sayings in part come from Chinese ancient classics, with an obvious impact from Chinese culture. At the same time, these sayings also reflect the Japanese understanding of the wine, their drinking etiquette and other unique characteristics of their wine culture. It can be concluded that Japanese and Chinese wine culture are largely identical with slight differences, which have both merits and weak points respectively.%谚语是一个民族语言和智慧的结晶。它就像一面镜子,折射出不同民族的文化特点。日本酒文化源远流长,日本人不仅制造了口感细腻纯正的清酒,还产生了许多脍炙人口、内涵丰富的酒谚俗语。这些酒谚,一部分出自中国的古代典籍,明显带有中国文化思想的痕迹。其中特别是儒家伦理道德型的酒文化精神对日本的酒德、酒礼等影响深远。同时,日本民族独特的酒文化特征也在谚语中得到了完美体现。比较而言,日本和中国酒文化大同小异,各有所长,各有所短。

  3. The problem of money in the hand of a fool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Loader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focused on a single proverb, viz. Proverbs 17:16. The syntax and stylistic features were analysed to demonstrate the extreme polyvalence that can characterise terse aphorisms. Fifteen readings were examined and evaluated, resulting in the distillation of four equally valid clusters of meaning. This informed the argument that the terseness of aphorisms is con­ducive to multiple legitimate interpretations which constitute the ‘read ings’. The implications were considered in terms of intentionality and text­im man ence in detailed exegesis. It was concluded that a combination of sophisticated linguistics and styl istic sensitivity in proverb exegesis can, in the sense of Her derian and Gunkelian ‘Ein­füh­lung’ in minutiae, uncover a richness in ostensibly simple texts – which is to be distinguished from traditional methods claiming to probe ‘under the surface’.

  4. Educational and social values expressed by proverbs in two cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa

    2005-01-01

    Die Arbeit verfolgt zwei Ziele: Ein reichhaltiges und bisher nicht erforschtes Kulturerbe der Menschen im Sudan zu erschließen und den Sprichwortgebrauch in zwei Ländern zu vergleichen. Sprichwörter werden verstanden als Ausdruck der Lebenswelt und der Werte der Menschen in einer Gesellschaft und ihrer Einstellung zu ihrer Umgebung. Die Arbeit erforscht nach ethnographischem Ansatz den Sprichwortgebrauch, gestützt auf umfangreiche Feldarbeit im Sudan und in England. Ein Schatz von über 800 Sp...

  5. Review of the Dali' s Agricultural Civilizations Indicated in Proverbs%试论大荔俗语中的农耕文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝梅菊

    2011-01-01

    大荔是黄河流域古老农耕文明发祥地之一。大荔先民在农业生产方面的探索大量渗透于日常俗语中,这些俗语探索自然规律,总结种植经验,反映农耕文明,其中人与自然的和谐,值得现代人借鉴。%Dali, a county in Shaanxi province, is one of the cradles of the ancient agricultural civilization in the Yellow River Basin. Volumes of farming exploration experiences were adopted into the everyday proverbs by ancient Dali residents. These pro- verbs reflected the agricultural civilization by summarizing laws of nature and experience of farming. The harmony between the nature human beings is worth learning for modern people.

  6. The Metaphor Research of Cangzhou Martial Arts Proverbs%隐喻学视阈下的沧州武术谚语探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范铮

    2012-01-01

    Cangzhou is one of origin places of Chinese martial arts and the national famous martial arts' home.The martial arts is the region culture which Cangzhou is characteristic,is the miniature of Chinese martial arts which takes root in the folk.As the martial arts culture's important carrier, the Cangzhou martial arts proverbs with the concise vivid languages elaborate profound martial arts thought,describe the complex martial arts movements,induce the penetrating martial arts main points,which is the result of practicers' long-term experience.This paper is to explore Cangzhou martial arts proverbs from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.The purpose of the study is to reveal the implied metaphor thought that thus deepens to the Cangzhou martial arts research.%沧州是中华武术的发源地之一,是全国著名的武术之乡.武术文化是沧州独具特色的地域文化,是植根于民间的中华武术的缩影.沧州武术谚语作为武术文化的重要载体,用简练生动的语言阐述深奥的武术思想,描述复杂的武术动作,归纳精辟的武术要领,是习武者长期实践经验的结晶.试从认知语言学视角,对沧州武术谚语进行探究,揭示蕴含其中的隐喻思维,从而加深对沧州武术的研究.

  7. The Base Text and Its Commentaries: Problems of Representing and Understanding the Cārvāka/Lokāyata

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    Ramkrishna Bhattacharya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The base texts of most of the philosophical systems of ancient India are in the form of a collection of aphorisms (sūtra-s. The aphorisms are so brief and tersely worded that their significance can seldom be understood without the help of a commentary or commentaries. Sometimes, the literal meaning of an aphorism needs to be qualified or modified by an explanation found in the commentary. If a reader relies exclusively on the literal meaning of the aphorisms in the base text without having recourse to any commentary or disregards all commentaries, he or she may miss the point. Contrariwise, if a reader relies exclusively on a commentary and disregards the literal meaning of an aphorism, he or she will commit another kind of blunder. Ideally, equal attention should be paid to the base text as well as the commentary or commentaries. Even then, all problems are not automatically solved, for it is an uphill task to decide when to go by the literal meaning of the aphorisms and when to follow the commentary. In their polemics against the Cārvāka/Lokāyata, Jayantabhaṭṭa (c. ninth century C.E. and Hemacandra (eleventh century C.E. erred because they did not follow the golden rule stated above and consequently misunderstood and misrepresented their opponents’ contentions.

  8. Wisdom's Gift: Generation X and the Problem of Print-Oriented Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Proverbs as an approach to teaching, learning, speaking, and listening. Argues that using Proverbs is a means to meet the conventions of the Generation X community and to learn about the ambiguity and paradoxes of God. Suggests that how and when a teacher speaks can be formative and potentially transformative. (CAJ)

  9. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun) : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-01-01

    L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour...

  10. 维吾尔谚语中的价值准则浅析%A Brief Analysis on the Values in Uighur Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海艳

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大提出了社会主义核心价值观。从公民个人行为层面,倡导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善的价值准则。这也是我国公民应遵守的基本道德。文章以维吾尔谚语为切入点,透视其中蕴含的公民的基本价值观,以便使人们全面了解和认识维吾尔民族道德教育内核,进一步继承和发扬维吾尔族传统道德中的先进因素,将社会主义核心价值观转化为民族的道德信仰,改进社会风尚,推动社会进步。%The 18th National Congress of the CPC proposed core socialist values. From the level of citizens themselves, it advo-cates patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship, which is al-so the basic morality Chinese citizens should observe. With Uighur proverbs as the breakthrough point, this paper analyzes the basic values embodied in it, so as to make people compre-hensively learn about the core of Uighur national moral educa-tion, further inherit and carry forward the advanced factors in Uighur traditional morality, transform core socialist values into national moral belief, improve social atmosphere and promote so-cial development.

  11. An exploration of the symbolic world of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to ‘the fear of the Lord’

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to text interpretation have introduced an opportunity to understand the biblical text afresh. One such an alternative approach is a Ricoeurian hermeneutic. Ricoeur’s understanding of the referential intention of poetic texts will be drawn on to explore its interpretive contribution to a reading of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to the phrase ‘the fear of the Lord’. It is suggested that the proposed reading strategy is a most productive effort.

  12. 谚语“谣言止于智者”的定量模型研究%Study on Quantitative Model for Proverb of “ Rumor is Stopped by the Intellect”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍良安; 黄培清

    2012-01-01

    The proverb of " rumor is stopped by the intellect" is the sum in rumor controlling practice, and the qualitative analysis is the mainstream. The paper proposes the quantitative analysis with the support of the dynamic mathematics model . It analyzes the status and stability of the rumor spreading by the theory of differential dynamical system. The paper also discusses the propagation regularity of rumors and obtained the thresholds, the control policies for rumor spreading by adjusting the parameters. The results of the thesis will provide the theoretical support to rumor control and can give reference to the public opinions management of decision maker.%谚语“谣言止于智者”是在实践中谣言控制的经验总结,侧重定性概括.论文结合定量动力学模型进一步阐述谚语的理论意义,利用微分动力系统理论研究了谣言的传播规律,探讨谣言传播的最终稳定性状态,得到了谣言是否蔓延的阈值.通过对参数的控制,可以调整谣言控制策略,为管理者在舆论控制决策中提供理论支持和决策依据.

  13. Chesterton on Higher Education and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlquist, Dale

    2005-01-01

    English writer G. K. Chesterton (1874-1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, and literary and social critic who was well known for his aphorisms, paradoxes, and Christian apologetics. Though his work was highly regarded in his lifetime, he went into a period of eclipse in the second half of the 20th century. Now he is being rediscovered by a new…

  14. Rituaalse aasta kajastumine vanasõnades: üldisi tähelepanekuid

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    Irina Sedakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses expressions of folk wisdom which allude to the concept of time, the system structured according to the calendar and the rituals, performed on certain dates. The yearly cycle has developed a system of folk aphorisms concerning almost every day in the calendar and covering all the activities of the man and of the nature in great detail. Terms like aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, etc. are used to denote various folklore (speech genres depicting the ritual year in a rather provisional manner. Apart from the genres mentioned, idioms, comparisons and some spells and curses are also examined.These speech folklore genres are a vast field of research. The question of whether we can speak of ethnic paremia, as asked by the prominent folklorist Dan Ben-Amos (1969 and supported by other scholars, is still very topical, especially in view of the type of proverbial sayings under discussion. The main issues that are examined in the paper are: what is universal and what is unique. The article mainly focuses on sayings which concern the ritual year and outlines the specific features of the folk perception of time as reflected in the calendar. Folk aphorisms reflect the ritual year through names of holidays, terms of ritual objects, food and participants, and through allusions to certain celebration throughout the year. The paremia can express direct meaning, appropriate for only one situation, or they can be of metaphorical nature, describing a set of situation. Each European culture has developed its own ways of seeing the ritual year through metaphorical proverbs, idioms and sayings. Although the set of holidays chosen by each folk paremiological tradition may be different, unique even, the major principles of mentioning a rite in a proverb have universal value and correspond to the structural and semiotic rules of the folklore genre.

  15. Legislation on Freedom of Information : Trends and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2004-01-01

    Coined at the dawn of the scientific age, Bacon's aphorism has taken on new meaning today, when government agencies have at their disposal massive amounts of information about nearly every aspect of modern life. Striking an appropriate balance between the power of government and of citizens to control it demands widespread access to government-held information. As a result there is growing...

  16. Peaceful Lifestyle or Innocuous Image: Islamic Branding Using Kazakh Proverbs on Youtube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Aasland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The government of Kazakhstan places a high value on Kazakh oral tradition as a resource for societal restoration. At the same time, there has been a resurgence of Islam in the country and the on-going process of defining a form of Islam that is Kazakh. Asıl Arna, the state approved Islamic governing body’s media company, posted a video on YouTube that affirms Kazakh oral tradition as part of a message of living from a pure heart. Such an affirmation of a local wisdom tradition is unusual for an organisation that stresses the universal, revelatory significance of Islam for right living. Hence, the author’s question: Is the video designed to instruct Kazakh-speaking Muslims or is there an agenda to change societal perceptions of Islam?

  17. "We Share the Same Biology..." Cultivating Cross-Cultural Empathy and Global Ethics through Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della

    2010-01-01

    The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…

  18. Tahsin Ömer’in “Darb-I Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” Adlı Atasözleri Seçkisi A Selection of Proverbs from Tahsin Ömer’s “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip İPEK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms include very different matters ranging from the life styles of the societies they belong to to their frames of mind, from standards of judgements to moral insights due to the fact that they are based on lasting observations, experiences and lives of those societies. As a result, they are stereotyped words which are on the position of the soul of all the culture and value world of the nation they belong to. Proverbs, which make a short-cut and efficient expression possible, also reflect the philosophy of a nation. From this point of view, the realization and preservation of these verbal entities are of vital importance. From the time of Diwanu Lugat et-Turk, the oldest known dictionary of Turkish language, to our day, important dictionaries have been authored to preserve and record these verbal entities. Each of these dictionaries are very important resources as regards with Turkish language and culture. This manuscript will mention about an anthology of proverbs. According to the searches and surveys the anthology has been mentioned only in a few articles until today. The booklet “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” was written by Tahsin Ömer and was printed in Evkaf Printing House in Şehzadebaşı, İstanbul between 1337 and 1340. The printed copy of the booklet in the library of the University of Toronto with the recording number of PN 6505 T8 035, is translated into Modern Turkish from Ottoman Turkish with an additional short review. As the result of a revisal of about 5000 proverbs used in our country, nearly 200 proverbs were sorted out according to their meanings and Tahsin Ömer says in the two and a half pages of foreword that this 16 pages booklet was written to make people learn and draw some lessons. The most exciting parts of this booklet are that the writer examines the proverbs in moral aspects and presents a sorting method. Another important part is the presented analytical assasments in the

  19. Kırım-Tatar Atasözlerinin Sentaksı Üzerine Bir Araştırma A Syntactic Study On The Crimean Tatar Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Tatar Turks live today mainly in Crimea, Uzbekistan, Rumania and Turkey. Crimean Tatar belongs to the northwestern (Kipchak group of Turkic languages. Crimean Tatar has become a written language in the 19th century and standardized in 1920’s. Inthis article, we explored 168 Crimean Tatar proverbs selected fromKırım-Tatar Atasözleri regarding their sentence structure. The proverbsstudied have been classified according to their sentence structure: I.simple, II. complex: 1. coordinated, 2. conditional, 3. proverbspresenting complex sentence structures with a direct quote, 4. proverbspresenting a subordinated sentence structure having infinitive verbforms such as infinitives, participials or gerundial forms, and III.proverbs having a mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-23have been classified according to their predicate as verbal sentencesand nominal sentences etc. Compound sentences (24-61 have beendivided in a. compound sentences without any conjunctions, b.compound sentences introduced by coordinating conjunctions.Conditional clauses (62-83 have been examined according to theirfunctions as adverbials, object, subject, concessive clauses etc. Directquotes (84-96 embedded in main sentences have been studiedregarding their functions in the main clause. We studied subordinatedclauses built by infinitive verb forms such as infinitives, participials orgerundials (97-150 and tried to determine their functions in the mainsentences they take part in. Mixed sentences (151-168 are investigatedat the last part of this study. Kırım-Tatar Türklerinin çoğu, bugün Ukrayna’ya bağlı Kırım ile Özbekistan, Türkiye ve Romanya’da yaşamaktadır. Türk dilinin Kuzeybatı (Kıpçak grubuna giren Kırım-Tatar Türkçesi, 19. yüzyılda edebî dil olmuş ve 1920’lerde ise standartlaşmıştır. Kırım-Tatar atasözlerinin cümle bilgisi yönünden incelendiği bu çalışmada Kırım-Tatar Atasözleri adlı eserden seçilen 168

  20. Iron, hormesis, and protection in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman

    2016-07-01

    Iron is critical for cellular, organismal, and possibly universal existence. Use of iron complexes to treat human diseases is ancient and is described in detail in Ayurveda/Siddha systems of medicine. Old aphorisms from Siddha medicine ("Alavukku Minjinal Amirdhamum Nanjagum," an elixir turns poisonous when taken in excess) and Paracelsus ("Die Dosis macht das Gift," the dose makes the poison) are of practical relevance in understanding the role of this ancient metal in acute kidney injury. PMID:27312440

  1. What is the value of official statistics and how do we communicate that value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel ANDREI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s aphorism mentioned above wasn’t meant to colour the text, but we particularly believe it corresponds, in a way, to the topic we plan to introduce during the seminar. Consequently, paraphrasing it, the aphorism suggests a derived one which could read: “Not any statistics is official statistics and not any official statement that contains a numerical expression is statistics”. As to the above statements, the following question normally arises: “if not any statistics is official statistics, than what does official statistics mean and where does this brand, that represents a special value of statistics, come from?” On the other hand, if not any official statement, that contains a numerical expression on a certain economic or social phenomenon, is statistics, then what kind of meaning does it have?

  2. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field.

  3. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field. PMID:26263879

  4. Vygotsky and Bakhtin: The educational action as a dialogic project of meaning production

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    Júlio Flávio de Figueiredo Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a dialogue between Vygotsky and Bakhtin, using Vygotsky’s concepts associated with the zone of immediate development and Bakhtin’s concepts related to dialogism as theoretical parameters. By using these parameters, it proposes to reflect upon the educational process through the theoretical principles or aphorisms which claim the specificity of the mediation that establishes the educator/educatee relation.

  5. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  6. Metaphors and Symbols: Forays into Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Roland

    Intended to introduce students to the most dynamic aspects of language and to help them see the metaphors of poetry from a perspective beyond poetry, this book offers background information for class discussion on the pervasiveness of metaphors, giving examples of how metaphors underlie folk expressions, proverbs, riddles, cliches, and slang, and…

  7. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  8. Paremiological Correspondence and its After-Thoughts

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    Outi Lauhakangas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Outi Lauhakangas had the privilege to communicate with academicianArvo Krikmann during the Finnish-Estonian project on common proverbtypes of the Balto-Finnic people, Proverbia Septentrionalia II. In the beginning of the project she was eager to ask, by e-mail, anything that seemed interesting for close differentiation and Krikmann was patient enough to answer her, often in thorough detail. Lauhakangas obtained a new approach to proverb types that differed from her routines for dealing with the international type-system ofproverbs by academician Matti Kuusi. She had to look at proverbs and the motives for using them from a closer perspective. Could we really understand the situations and archaic mentality connected to some cryptic texts without any further information or supporting evidence given by authentic users? And on the other hand, how exclusive has the use of some proverbs originally been? Lauhakangas re-examines and reappraises the intensive paremiological correspondence from a temporal distance after some experience of proverb studies.

  9. Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi (true fungi and fungus-like organisms such as slime molds) are documented in miscellaneous folkways (such as remedies, crafts and foodstuffs) and in oral and written folk literature (such as proverbs, folktales, fairy tales, drama and fiction). The impact of fungal phytopathogens and clinical...

  10. ZOONYMS IN THE LEZGHIN AND THE ENGLISH PAREMIOLOGICAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE WOLF AND THE DOG

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    S. A. SHIRINOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article paremiological images of a dog and wolf are considered. Relevance of research is connected with that they weren't a subject of the special linguisticcultural analysis in comparative aspect. Meanwhile research of images of animals in the paremiological units promotes reconstruction of one of important components of a national language picture of the world and definition of valuable reference points of a linguistic-cultural sphere of any language. Among proverbs and sayings with a component - the name of pets - the image of a dog along with images of a cat, donkey and horse is representative. It is connected with that these animals played large role in everyday life of people and idea of them were always present at consciousness of the person. Despite distinction genetic and cultural historical links of the Lezghin and the English languages, in them a certain quantity of the proverbs and sayings expressing similar semantics is found. Investigating the Lezghin proverbs it is possible to notice that in them other images closer and clear to these or those people are often used. Sometimes externally similar sayings bear in themselves opposite and various values, or on the contrary, express the same thought through the statement something or denial of the opposite. In the studied proverbs and sayings strikes their originality, in them the features connected with life of mountaineers and with geographical conditions of dwelling come to light.

  11. Language Development during the Adolescent Years: Aspects of Pragmatics, Syntax, and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Aspects of language that develop during the adolescent years are discussed in the domains of pragmatics, syntax, and semantics. Selected topics include complex conversational behaviors that adolescents employ, syntactic attainments associated with persuasive writing; and the understanding of proverbs and figurative expressions. Relevant…

  12. The Family in Hawaiian Culture: Lessons from Nature [and] The Family in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wanda; Azevedo, Helen Selma

    1994-01-01

    Young discusses three functions of the Hawaiian family--environment, nourishment, and family relationships--using chants, proverbs, stories, oral histories, and readings as illustrations. Azevedo describes families in Brazil, where the extended patriarchy was predominant, but simple family models have prevailed among poor people and in the south.…

  13. Goals of Education in Asian and American Cultures. Reflective Essay #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this and other key educational…

  14. The vox populi and structural elements of the book of Ezekiel

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. van Rooy; E.J. Smit

    1990-01-01

    The authors study the influence of the vox pop~ as expressed by two proverbs (Ez 12:22 and 27; 18:2), on the structure of chapters 12 to 33. They conclude that Ezekiel 33 serves as a conclusion to this section, and forms a bridge to Ezekiel 34 onwards.

  15. Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin

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    Sonia Fournet-Perot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le « langage stéréotypique » représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, « une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre ». Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grâce à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’œuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès.El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.

  16. Scrivere la vita di una donna nel XVII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chava Turniansky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I wish to highlight some of the main characteristics of the autobiographic writing by Glikl Hamel (1645-1724, a German Jewess who wrote her memories. She knows she is doing something that no woman has done before in Yiddish literature. She carefully mingles several literary genres, mixing stories with practical suggestions, proverbs, aphorism, parables, and elements of the so called Muser-literatur, books of moral behavior and instructions on how to be an observant Jew. The author was forty-five years old when she began to write, and her maturity is clearly present in the text, where she presents herself as well aware of what she wants to write, why and how. Glikl often relates about historical events. In particular here two examples are given, one about the relation with some Christian merchants, and the second about the impact of the news on Shabbetay Zevi, the false messiah, on her community.  

  17. When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

  18. 「食」にかかわることわざの日中比較

    OpenAIRE

    徐, 小艶

    2008-01-01

    The language is a mirror which reflects the national characteristic. The proverbs, which have concentrated people's intelligence, especially reflected the national personality. There are a large number of proverbs related to food in Japanese and Chinese. This paper lias collected some Japanese and Chinese proverbs related to food and analyzed the origins of the proverbs in the living environment and folk-custom, etc. Based on comparison and analysis of these proverbs, the culture background, ...

  19. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare)

    OpenAIRE

    Arvo Krikmann

    1999-01-01

    The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity) of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: present...

  20. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  1. The Justice of Proverbs in the Writings of A. Kourouma and A. Ryckmans. Towards a Deconstructive Reading of Bambara and Négropolitain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Under henvisning til antropologers studie af juridisk praksis i fransk-sprogede kolonier i Afrika og i de efterfølgende uafhængige stater, foretages der en kritisk analyse af anvendelse af ordsprog i retspraksis og i den populære formidling af denne. Som eksempelmateriale tages der udgangspunkt i...

  2. 《金瓶梅俚语俗谚》疑义浅析%Analysis of Uncertainties about "Slangs and Proverbs of Jinpingmei"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建波

    2003-01-01

    李布青先生编著的一书,曾引起学界的注意.披阅之余,觉仍有疑义,如"割股的也不知,捻香的也不知"、"水米不打牙"等有望文生义之嫌.断句也有可商榷之处,如"没时运的人儿--漫地里栽桑"、"睡里梦里,要知山下路"等.另外关于俗语的界定也有不准确的地方,如把"说出来的话,灰人的心"等不成其为俗语的词条列入.

  3. A Comparative Study of Gender Bias in Chinese and English Proverbs%汉英谚语中性别偏见的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 卢志鸿; 王燕斐

    2014-01-01

    谚语反映了社会体系以及人们的价值观念,社会中包含着对女性的偏见必然会在谚语中体现出来.所以,从谚语中探索性别歧视更具代表性和说服力.本文采用对比方法,分别从女性的社会地位、婚嫁、言行三个方面对汉英谚语中的性别歧视进行阐述.这些例证体现了女性的负面形象:卑微、唠叨、愚昧、柔弱、邪恶.本文还从历史文化因素和社会角色因素两个方面进行分析.目的是通过对谚语的分析以揭示语言中的性别偏见现象,从而提高人们对这一歧视现象的认识,更好地理解语言与社会的关系.

  4. "No where no betta dan yard?": Negotiating ldentities and Sexualities between Jamaica and the Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Rochelle; Campbell, X

    2013-01-01

    Jamaican popular culture and literature are key sites for the representation and dissemination of Jamaican cultural identity, being located at the intersection of race, class, gender and sexuality. These identity concepts not only transmit a national self-confidence, which we find embodied in the international success of Jamaican athletes and artists, or expressed in the Jamaican proverb “we likkle but we tallawah”. They also need to be read as an empowerment of the young nation’s citizens, w...

  5. On the efficient determination of most near neighbors horseshoes, hand grenades, web search and other situations when close is close enough

    CERN Document Server

    Manasse, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The time-worn aphorism ""close only counts in horseshoes and hand-grenades"" is clearly inadequate. Close also counts in golf, shuffleboard, archery, darts, curling, and other games of accuracy in which hitting the precise center of the target isn't to be expected every time, or in which we can expect to be driven from the target by skilled opponents. This lecture is not devoted to sports discussions, but to efficient algorithms for determining pairs of closely related web pages -- and a few other situations in which we have found that inexact matching is good enough; where proximity suffices.

  6. Postnatal infant crying and maternal tiredness : examining their evolution and interaction in the first 12 weeks postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing for her family” is an old Swiss proverb. Maternal rest and recuperation after birth was a common concern in the past and was frequently supported by the extended family. However, mothers today barely enjoy restful days after birth; instead they enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and selfcare. They often struggle to soothe a crying baby, while coping with their own exhaustion, which can adversely affect family healt...

  7. COLLOCATION DICTIONARY OF ADJECTIVES IN TEACHING TURKISH: METHOD AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Bülent ÖZKAN

    2010-01-01

    To collect the main vocabulary of a language is the major aims of lexicology works. Lexicology looks after to prepare not only for general purpose lexicon for mother tongue users but also particular purpose lexicons for special aims (e.g. proverbs and idioms dictionary, terms dictionary, synonym words dictionary, antonym words dictionary, collocation dictionary etc.). Today, when the studies are considered about the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish, general purpose lexicon works, and particular p...

  8. Corporal punishment of children in England and the United States: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Proverbs has eight sets of instructions on beating children, but that book does not contain the often cited proverbial "spare the rod and spoil the child." This form of discipline, which is thousands of years old, has only recently been abandoned and forbidden in many states in the US, and in much of Europe. It is still legal in Britain and some US states, and remains a controversial issue. PMID:15682262

  9. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given. PMID:3345973

  10. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  11. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  12. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-01-01

    According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song) of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  13. All good things come to those who wait.Time and tide wait for no man.%凡事都要肯等,久等必有一善。岁月不待人。

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小叶

    2012-01-01

    牛顿第三定律:每一个作用力都有一个大小相等、方向相反的反作用力。以此推之,每甸谚语都有一句与其同样机智的、但意思相反的谚语和它相对。任何事情都有两个方面。%Newton's third law states: "To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction." So it would stand to reason that every proverb has an equal and opposite proverb. There always exist two sides of the same coin.

  14. South African Female Presidential Leadership and the inevitability of a donga as final destination? Reading the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 104 years of the existence of the African National Congress, many a black person in Sout Africa has been exclusively led by men. Also, 24 years into a democracy, patriarchy continues to raise its ugly head in our parliament, among other institutions. Disturbingly, against the call for a female presidential leadership Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the National Union of Mineworkers, together with the ANC leadership in the Gauteng province, are lobbying for a male presidential candidate namely, Cyril Ramaphosa. In order to engage the issue of patriarchy in the South African politics, the Sepedi/Northern Sotho proverb tsa etwa ke ye tshadi pele, di wela ka leope [once they are led by a female one, that is, a cow, they will fall into a donga] will be employed as a hermeneutical tool to re-read the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way. the interest of the preceding way lies at seeking justice for the transformation of many an African women's life in present day South Africa. Inthe end, this article will investigate whether the tenor of the Northern Sotho/Sepedi proverb that once they (cattle [read: South Africans] are led by a female one, they are sure to fall into a donga.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, gender and social sciences studies as well as Indigenous Knowledge Systems (with particular focus on an African proverb, this article addresses the topic of the South African Female Presidential Leadership and the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way.Keywords: Deuteronomistic Athaliah; Patriarchy; Woman president; South Africa; Sepedi proverb; bosadi

  15. Funny Talks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万柯

    2009-01-01

    @@ A Lady:Don't be afraid of the dog.You know the old proverb,"A barking dog never bites."(谚语:吠犬不咬人.) Sam:You know the proverb.I know the proverb.But does your dog know the proverb? B Diner:Bring me some soup and make sure a fly isn't in it.Yesterday there was a fly in my soup.

  16. KELİME SIKLIĞI AÇISINDAN TÜRK ATASÖZLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman GÜZEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An Evaluatıon on Turkısh Proverbs in Accordance to Word Frequency. Proverbs; which are the products of the common mind of a society where they exist are among the elements of spoken culture. Societies have used conveying of meanings which they have got through experiences with proverbs as a method. Proverbs are the effective expressions where expressional arts are used. They become exist in sentences. In this respect each proverb explains one determination. When considered them one by one, it can be understood that they refer to a specific condition or an event an individual can go through. The words/concepts that build proverbs have an essential importance in exploring the common mind of a society. The studies on proverbs are very limited. Considering the vocabulary of proverbs as a whole is very important in finding out the sensitiveness of a society. The researches which will be done on quantity, frequency and parts of speech of their vocabulary can explore interesting findings. The aim of this study is to determine the word frequency of Turkish proverbs. For this reason, proverbs of Turkey Turkish have been determined and a proverb pool is formed. Vocabulary and word frequency of proverbs can be seen and the findings are evaluated according to fundamental measurements of word frequency and finally, they are compared with general word frequency lists and commented.

  17. Produção e consumo social da beleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves Teixeira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a argumentação básica a respeito da subjetividade e da objetividade na percepção da beleza e tem por preocupação central compreender as motivações para a produção e consumo da beleza humana e sua operacionalização. Atenta também para generalizações sobre tais temas que, por serem comuns a todas as sociedades humanas, são percebidos como fenômenos sociais importantes. Anedotas, provérbios e aforismos são tomados como dados estratégicos para a consecução destes objetivos.This article deals with subjectivity and objectivity in the perception of beauty. The central analysis is on motivations for the production and consumption of human beauty as it is put into practice. It also considers generalizations on themes which, being common to all human societies, are perceived as important social phenomena. Anecdotes, proverbs, and aphorisms are taken as strategic data for the attainment of these objectives.

  18. On the Characteristics and Translation of English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟蕾华

    2014-01-01

    Idiom is fixed phrases or sentences and extracted from the language which have been used for a long time. It includes proverbs, slangs, dialects, etc. It usually shares the characters of a tight, strict structure, simple form, brilliant meaning, understand⁃able image, vivid expression and so on. As the essence and treasure of ethnic language idiom shows the life, social custom, reli⁃gious belief, value, history and culture of a nation as well as the way of thinking with strong ethnic and cultural characteristics. This paper has a tentative illustration on English idioms from the viewpoint of definition, characteristics and strategies of transla⁃tion.

  19. 从中英谚语看中西人际关系价值取向的差异%On the Value-oriented Discrepancy of Interpersonal Relations between China and West from the Angle of Chinese and English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童修文

    2010-01-01

    谚语是民族文化的宝库,从中英谚语我们可以看到中西文化在各方面的差异.中西文化受历史传统、宗教信仰等诸多因素的影响,在人际关系取向上呈不同的价值观.文章从人际关系的角度,对中英谚语进行了比较和分析,剖析了中西文化在人际关系价值取向上的差异.

  20. 俄汉成语、谚语中动物形象的定型隐喻%Stereotypic Metaphor of Animal Images in Idioms and Proverbs of Russian and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2010-01-01

    动物的定型隐喻,就是通过动物形象的隐喻化过程来形成对人或事物的概括性的认识.俄汉成语、谚语中都包含有大量的打上民族文化烙印的动物定型隐喻.在民族文化的制约下,俄汉两民族对动物的定型隐喻既有同一性,又有差异性.根据动物与其定型隐喻的对应关系,可将俄汉动物定型隐喻分为重合型、包合型、交叉型、冲突型和空缺型五种.正确认识此类定型,具有重要的现实意义.

  1. English to Chinese Subtitling:A Skopos based Commentary Domestication and Foreignization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高楠

    2013-01-01

      Domestication and foreignization as translation strategies are used to achieve the purpose so as to fulfil the expectations and needs of target audience in target text. The research question is‘how does skopos theory lead the text in choosing the transla⁃tion strategies as domestication and foreignization?’In this essay the movie of Mulan was chosen and analyzed in terms of movie Titles, Names and Forms of Address, Proverbs and Idioms. The analysis of the translation shows how foreignization and domestication co-exist as co-strategies in order to convey the meaning clearer for the target audience.

  2. 普世与特殊--论希伯来智慧思想的两极结构和教育空间%Universality and Particularity:The Two-Pole Structure and Pedagogic Space of Hebrew Wisdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德平

    2015-01-01

    This article is written out of the author’s interest in the interface between educational and biblical studies. It is part of his ongoing effort to develop a canonical perspective on education. Informed by contemporary studies in wisdom literature, the paper argues for a common pattern of thought between theBook of Proverbs and theWisdom of Ben Sira (Sirach in Greek and Ecclesiasticus in Latin), despite their universalistic and nationalistic outlook demonstrated most notably inProverbs 8 andSirach 24 respectively. Against a common view that Proverbs reflects the international outlook of sages in the First Temple period and Sirach “the nationalization of Wisdom” in the Second Temple period, this paper aims to demonstrate a subtle co-existence of universal and particular horizons in both books and an ever-present tension therein. Disclosing the dual horizons of sapiential practice that includes observing, reflecting and teaching is significant for three reasons. First, the universal perspective of Hebrew sages is an Axial-age breakthrough no less signiifcant than the contribution made by the prophets. Second, such a universal horizon in the wisdom literature, which is different from that associated with organized missionary movements, provides the impetus to recover the sapiential dimension of biblical ideas of education eclipsed by the instrumental notion of education as a proselytizing strategy. Finally, the reclamation of the dual horizons in sapiential practice is pivotal in the development of a wisdom approach to religious education that will enable the community of faith to engage the world in a prudent and authentic manner.

  3. Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative meanings.

    Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY.

    Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en

  4. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and walk...do not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth. PMID:18392218

  5. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and walk...do not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth.

  6. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter : A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    OpenAIRE

    Dianna T Kenny; Susan Blacker; Mark Allerton

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title ( Step back in order to jump better ) reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus prima...

  7. Saying' s Semantic Leveles and Classification in Zen Books%禅籍俗语语义层次及其分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳琴; 李豪杰

    2015-01-01

    禅籍中保留了相当大一部分俗语俗谚,"除宋元评话、元明杂剧和明清小说而外,保存汉语民俗语言最富者,当属禅宗典籍和俗讲文献".[1](p101)禅录堪称唐宋时代俗语俗谚之宝库.本文将出现在禅籍中的俗语的语义层次分为一般义和宗门义两个层次,按此划分,将禅籍俗语分为三类:第一类是只具有一般义的俗语;第二类是同时具有一般义和宗门义的俗语;第三类是只具有宗门义的禅林生造俗语.同时重点讨论了第三类俗语.%It retains a considerable part of the proverb saying in Zen books."In addition to the Song and Yuan Storytelling,Yuan and Ming Dynasty and the Ming and Qing novels ,the richest saved Chinese folk language,un-doubtedly is Zen books and folk talking."[1](P101)Zen books can be called treasure trove of Tang and Song Dynas-ties. The proverb saying in this article will be divided into two levels :the general meaning and the munekado meaning. According to the division,the proverb saying in Zen books can be divided into three categories:the first kind is only has the general meaning of idioms;the second is have general meaning and munekado meaning at the same time;the third kind is only have munekado meaning. Meanwhile,the third type of slang is discussed emphat-ically in this article.

  8. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz D. Calibayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  9. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  10. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M; Langlois, Judith H

    2006-04-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the "beauty-is-good" stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the "beauty-is-good" aphorism.

  11. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju

    2014-01-01

    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  12. Definicja przysłowia w wybranych opracowaniach francuskich, niemieckich i polskich oraz próba konfrontatywnej analizy problemu

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Paweł

    2002-01-01

    In the paper Definition of proverb in selected French, German and Polish papers and an attempt of contrastive analysis of the issue, there is an attempt of creating a concise and clear definition of proverb, by comparing the definitions of different authors. Thus, proverb is a short and autonomous expression, with normative and didactic message, transferred metaphorically. In addition, the paper describes briefly the current results of sociolinguistic research, studying th...

  13. Aplikasi Kamus Digital Peribahasa Indonesia Menggunakan Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Nurhamidah

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to build applications that can be an invaluable tool in education, especially in the Indonesian field in which there Proverb. Digital Dictionary of Proverbs Indonesia was designed using the software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and other supporting software. The research method used is book study is research conducted by the library to obtain the theoretical data, such as collecting data retrieved from the dictionary many proverbs. Based on those writers intereste...

  14. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  15. The role of working memory and divided attention in metaphor interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D

    2014-10-01

    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.) place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs. Forty healthy participants completed the Metaphor Interpretation Test (developed by the authors). The task includes 20 items chosen from a list of metaphors that were rated on several scales (e.g. imagery, aptness) in a study by Katz et al. (Metaphor Symb Act 3(4):191-214, 1988). Participants were asked to rate the familiarity and provide an explanation of each metaphor. A scoring system was developed to categorize answers into: abstract complete (AC), abstract partial (AP), concrete (CT), and other/unrelated (OT) types. Participants also completed short-term memory and divided attention tests. Overall, participants produced 56 % AC, 25.38 % AP, 7.88 % CT, and 10.88 % OT responses. It was found that a measure of verbal short-term memory span was the best predictor of performance on this task (adjusted R(2) = .369). It appears that short-term memory span, not working memory or divided attention, contributes most to providing abstract responses in explaining metaphors. This is in line with the idea that when one accesses the semantic network associated with a novel metaphor, one must hold this information in mind long enough to search for and link similar cognitive networks.

  16. D'un complex d'inferioritat proverbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is is a paper about the history of Catalan proverbs borrowed by Spanish tradition and lost in modern Catalan. The authors give the real origin of such proverbs and stress the sociolinguistic relevance of this «oblivion», as a kind of inferiority complex, to the present-day consciousness of the Catalan speech community.

  17. Vanasõnad pedagoogilises kõnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1 control of one’s own life and living with others; 2 work; 3 livelihood, support and care; 4 Christian way ofliving, and 5 proverbs without a context. As a conclusion it can be said that for a child proverbs are combinations of socio-cultural contexts, people, emotions and information in various situations. For a child as a listener the content of the proverb is, above all,connected with the situation and the person involved, and it serves primarily as a piece of concrete advice.

  18. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  19. The Politics of Civil Society and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2015-01-01

    , we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting......Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other hand......, underestimate the Somali’s ability to interpret and develop their political culture and society through language and literature. The political and economic elite have for decades ignored or oppressed people’s attempt to build their society with linguistic and communicative public engagement based on mutual...

  20. The teacher-disciple tradition and secret teaching in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin

    2014-01-01

    The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing. PMID:24126973

  1. English Film Subtitle Translation from the Perspective of Domestication and Foreignization-A Case Study of Ice Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亭伊; 周敏

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries have become increasingly frequent, which boosts the development of film industry and highlights the importance of subtitle translation. However, in China, subtitling is a relatively new research field of translation. This study explores the guiding role of domestication and foreignization strategies in English film subtitle translation. On the basis of material from Ice Age, the paper carries on the analysis of film subtitle translation in terms of expressions with typical cultural features and idioms&proverbs under the effective guidance of domestication and foreignization translation strategies. It’s concluded that domestication and foreignization strategies can provide theoretical guidance for subtitling and appropriate combination of the two strategies can achieve better translation effects.

  2. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  3. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barnett II

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  4. Koera keele otsas rohi, kassi keele otsas tõbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sõukand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The above proverb is found in the database of Estonian proverbs in different variations 160 times, making this the second most widespread proverb about cats and the fourth about dogs. The article outlines the roots and background of this belief, viewing the behaviour of both animals and their habits in co-existence with humans. This kind of differentiation between cat and dog is rather a reflection of people's accustomed behaviour and expectations derived from the animal's behaviour - both animals' mouths contain both pathogenic micro-organisms and healing substances.

  5. 英语谚语的理解和翻泽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郐滨

    2009-01-01

    Proverbs are the glittering gems of the cultural treasure house in the world. On the whole, they are deep in meaning and rich in rhyme. Moreover, they are not only the carriers of intelligence and wisdom of the people but also the reflectious of the languages and the arts. From the per-spective of their content, proverbs are all the collective wisdom of peoples, distilled from centuries of experience of dealing with the problems and difficulties of life. In sbort, proverbs have long been justifiably entided a highly condensed encyclopedia, which is deep in meaning, pithy in form and pleasant in sound.

  6. NILAI SOSIAL BUDAYA JEPANG DALAM PERIBAHASA JEPANG YANG MENGGUNAKAN KONSEP BINATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwahyu Istana Trahutami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs conveying animal concepts can be found in almost languages. They are used to express indirectly the spesker’s meaning. The data of the research are taken from Japanese Proverb Dictionary. This study used referential and inferential methods.The methods were used to determine life values in Japanese society or Japanese culture. This analysis reveals that in Japanese proverbs the animal like dog, cat, frog, snake, raccoon, tanuki, fish etc is often mapped on to human beings to expressing human relationship and to show characteristic of the Japanese people and culture.

  7. Headache in the writings of Moses Maimonides and other Hebrew sages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1993-06-01

    In the history of philosophy, theology, and medicine, Maimonides shares the limelight with Arabic scholars such as Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sinna and Ibn Zuhr, chronologically between the great intellectuals of classical Greece and Rome and those of the later Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Maimonides was a very great philosopher and theologian, usually underrated by the historians. He was also an outstanding medical practitioner and teacher. Moses Maimonides had an incredible literary ability and an encyclopedic knowledge. He wrote extensively in the fields of theology, mathematics, law, philosophy, astronomy, ethics, and, of course, medicine. His medical writings are varied, comprising extracts from Greek medicine, a series of monographs on health in general and several diseases in particular, and a pharmacopoiea. The present essay extracts, primarily from Maimonides' medical writings, his pronouncements dealing with headache. Since most of Maimonides' pronouncements about headache in his Medical Aphorisms were derived from Graeco-Roman medical writers such as Hippocrates, and especially Galen, in regard to these statements Maimonides was merely a compiler--not an innovator. Some of his concepts about the causes of headaches being related to a dysequilibrium of the body humors are clearly medieval in origin. Other statements demonstrate this concern with preventive medicine and the maintenance of a healthy regimen of daily living. Medications to treat illness should only be used if non-medicinal means such as diet and exercise are not effective. The heritage of Maimonides' writings is being more and more appreciated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349474

  8. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Ama Fening

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  9. The secret of the care of the patient is in knowing and applying the evidence about effective clinical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, R M; Sherman, H B

    2015-11-01

    American physicians and dentists conduct approximately 140 000-160 000 patient interviews in a practice lifetime, making the interview the most frequently performed medical procedure. Over the past 75 years, a steadily growing stream of scientific research has confirmed the fact that patient-clinician communication affects the course, direction, and both biomedical and functional outcomes of care. The field of clinical communication research has matured from anecdotes and aphorisms about 'bedside manner' to sophisticated randomized control trials and evidence-based outcomes that have been translated into reliable practice guidelines. Several key skills or habits of practice have been identified and studied in terms of their efficacy and effectiveness. These include the importance of agenda-setting, eliciting patients' perspectives about the nature of their ailments, communicating caring and concern, and testing for patient comprehension and agreement with proposed treatments. In addition to being effective, interpersonal communication can be deeply satisfying as well as offering a lower probability of law suits in the event of an adverse outcome. PMID:24725164

  10. Tegelikkuse mõtestajad: vanasõnad poola grafitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Szpila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates proverbial elements in Polish mural inscriptions. The main aim of the paper is to consider paremic mural inscriptions with an eye to determining if proverbs are used in Polish graffiti only as content-free play on traditional folk wisdom. The starting point in this analysis is the assumption that proverbs and non-paremic graffiti exhibit both similarities and differences and that most paremic uses in graffiti can be classified as anti-proverbial in character. Many studies suggest that the dominant feature of anti-proverbs is their mocking and humorous nature. The paper then tries to establish if mural anti-proverbs can be treated also as carriers of various sentiments which do not necessarily deny the traditional nuggets of wisdom, but are used to convey observations and truths based on them, which pertain to contemporary reality and regulate it in the same way as traditional paremias do.

  11. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  12. Vanasõnad pedagoogilises kõnes

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1) control of one’s own life and living with others; 2) work; 3) livelihood, support a...

  13. Logical Analysis of Inconsistent Data (LAID) for a Paremiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís; Mendes, Armando Brito; Funk, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    15th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Inteligence - EPIA 2011. Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 10-13 Outubro 2011. A paremiologic (study of proverbs) case is presented as a part of a wider project, based on data collected by thousands of interviews made to people from Azores, and involving a set of twenty-two thousand Portuguese proverbs, where we searched for the minimum information needed to identify the birthplace island of an interviewee. The concept of birt...

  14. Spreuke 7:6-23 � 'n Po�tiese verhaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Venter

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 7:6-23 � A poetic narrative A narrative in poetic form is a contradictio in terminus from the viewpoint of modern literary criticism. In this article the poetic narrative in Proverbs 7:6-23 is read from both the narrative and poetic angles, investigating the effect on the reader of this unexpected combination of two different literary genres in one literary unit.

  15. Spreuke 7:6-23 � 'n Po�tiese verhaal

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Venter

    1987-01-01

    Proverbs 7:6-23 � A poetic narrative A narrative in poetic form is a contradictio in terminus from the viewpoint of modern literary criticism. In this article the poetic narrative in Proverbs 7:6-23 is read from both the narrative and poetic angles, investigating the effect on the reader of this unexpected combination of two different literary genres in one literary unit.

  16. "Forget to whom you have told this proverb": Directed forgetting of destination memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Gandolphe, M.C.; Allain, P.; Fasotti, L.; Antoine, P.

    2015-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD parti

  17. Cosmic Pessimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of After Life (University of Chicago Press presents a series of aphorisms exploring pessimism's motility and its sessility. "A long, low funereal sigh" opens the reader onto an abrupt anatomical study of pessimism, its moral and metaphysical considerations and music. Songs of spite, of futility, of sleep, of doom and further mournful voices resound.

  18. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  19. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  20. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Krikmann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: presenting source material, pointing out the main problems that have been caught the interest of paremiologists so far, such as 1 the frequency of animals in proverbs and 2 the repertoire structure of animal proverbs. Animal proverbs as a research subject has been divided in the following semantical-rhetorical categories: A. Proverbs concerning animal identity. B. Proverbs concerning the relationship between people and animals (usually in metaphorical meaning. C. Proverbs concerning the relationships between (metaphorical, as a rule animals . D. Proverbs concerning the relation of animals (either metaphorical or non-metaphorical towards non-zoological nature and dimensions. The article provides a brief characterisation of stereotypes belonging to the latter three categories under discussion. Follows a more detailed overview of material belonging to category A, i.e. proverbs concerning the problem of specific identity of animals, or to be more exact, two subcategories determined by the topics and statements of the literal level of meaning: 1 The animal retains its specific identity ~ it will not ~ cannot be turned into another animal; 2 Son -- parent relationship, transmitting of special characteristics from parents to their offspring. A few examples of groups extracted from subcategory 1:Quasi-autologies:'Animal X is X ~ remains an X'All representatives of species X are identical, similar, alike, there is no significant difference between themAnimal X behaves as

  1. [The clinic and the general physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinich, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    The clinician's activity consists of in the simple words of Dr. Gonzalo Castañeda "knowledge, good deeds and bread winning ". The respective value that clinicians grant to each of these, is variable, but even those whose priority is the latter of the three are obliged to accomplish the other two. Knowledge requires continuous medical education. Effective education requires the ability to separate the "wheat from the chaff". It is important to know how to study. Knowing the patient requires careful collection of symptoms, signs, and paraclinical data, as well as awareness of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the data, but acknowledgment of the important discrepancies that occur among different observers as well as in the same observer at different times should not be disregarded. Clinical medicine is a scientific art that challenges the reasoning and decision-making abilities of the practitioner, who must apply various diagnostic strategies, the hypothetic-deductive strategy usually being the most important of all. Knowing the disease that the patient bears is not enough: it is equally important to know the patient who bears the disease. In clinical medicine there are no diseases, only diseased people. The biological approach to the patient must be substituted by a biopsycho-social one. The clinician's main objective--to heal, has become enormously fiacilitated by the dramatic progress of modern scientific medicine, which has provided the physician with powerful but dangerous tools. The old Hippocratic aphorism, primum non nocere, should never beforgotten. Equally essential for the clinician is application of evidence-based knowledge applied to diagnostic and therapeutic measures; there should be no room for past attitudes that were supported by empires and the advice of "authorities". A solid and warm patient-physician relationship is a tremendously important aspect of the healer's behavior.

  2. 谚语翻译的文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祎

    2009-01-01

    谚语是一种结构简洁,并富有生活哲理性的语句.谚语内容精辟,寓意深邃,因而有广泛的感染力,谚语往往能反映一个民族的地理、历史、社会制度、社会观点和态度.简而言之,谚语就是反映了人们的生活及生活环境,基于此,谚语同时也反映了其不同的文化特征.文章首先介绍了文化空缺的由来,然后对英汉两种语言中,谚语所蕴含的文化内涵从地理、历史、宗教三个方面进行了比较.%A proverb is "a short well-known statement that contains advice about life in general;; proverbs contain folk wisdom and therefore they provide intersting Glimpse or clues to a people's geography, history,social organization,social views,attitudes. In short ,they reflect a people's living and living environment .For this reason proverbs are culture-specific.This paper first deals with the origin of cultural vacancy and the relationship between culture and proverbs,then attempts to compare proverbs, Chinese proverbs versus English proverbs,from the perspective of cultural contexts ,that is ,regional, conventional ,and religious cultures.

  3. Drug Design and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  4. Structure, function and evolution of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J N

    2002-10-01

    Over the evolutionary continuum, animals have faced similar fundamental challenges of acquiring molecular oxygen for aerobic metabolism. Under limitations and constraints imposed by factors such as phylogeny, behaviour, body size and environment, they have responded differently in founding optimal respiratory structures. A quintessence of the aphorism that 'necessity is the mother of invention', gas exchangers have been inaugurated through stiff cost-benefit analyses that have evoked transaction of trade-offs and compromises. Cogent structural-functional correlations occur in constructions of gas exchangers: within and between taxa, morphological complexity and respiratory efficiency increase with metabolic capacities and oxygen needs. Highly active, small endotherms have relatively better-refined gas exchangers compared with large, inactive ectotherms. Respiratory structures have developed from the plain cell membrane of the primeval prokaryotic unicells to complex multifunctional ones of the modern Metazoa. Regarding the respiratory medium used to extract oxygen from, animal life has had only two choices--water or air--within the biological range of temperature and pressure the only naturally occurring respirable fluids. In rarer cases, certain animals have adapted to using both media. Gills (evaginated gas exchangers) are the primordial respiratory organs: they are the archetypal water breathing organs. Lungs (invaginated gas exchangers) are the model air breathing organs. Bimodal (transitional) breathers occupy the water-air interface. Presentation and exposure of external (water/air) and internal (haemolymph/blood) respiratory media, features determined by geometric arrangement of the conduits, are important features for gas exchange efficiency: counter-current, cross-current, uniform pool and infinite pool designs have variably developed. PMID:12430953

  5. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  6. A Multi-Sensor Approach for Volcanic Ash Cloud Retrieval and Eruption Characterization: The 23 November 2013 Etna Lava Fountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corradini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activity is observed worldwide with a variety of ground and space-based remote sensing instruments, each with advantages and drawbacks. No single system can give a comprehensive description of eruptive activity, and so, a multi-sensor approach is required. This work integrates infrared and microwave volcanic ash retrievals obtained from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI, the polar-orbiting Aqua-MODIS and ground-based weather radar. The expected outcomes are improvements in satellite volcanic ash cloud retrieval (altitude, mass, aerosol optical depth and effective radius, the generation of new satellite products (ash concentration and particle number density in the thermal infrared and better characterization of volcanic eruptions (plume altitude, total ash mass erupted and particle number density from thermal infrared to microwave. This approach is the core of the multi-platform volcanic ash cloud estimation procedure being developed within the European FP7-APhoRISM project. The Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy volcano lava fountaining event of 23 November 2013 was considered as a test case. The results of the integration show the presence of two volcanic cloud layers at different altitudes. The improvement of the volcanic ash cloud altitude leads to a mean difference between the SEVIRI ash mass estimations, before and after the integration, of about the 30%. Moreover, the percentage of the airborne “fine” ash retrieved from the satellite is estimated to be about 1%–2% of the total ash emitted during the eruption. Finally, all of the estimated parameters (volcanic ash cloud altitude, thickness and total mass were also validated with ground-based visible camera measurements, HYSPLIT forward trajectories, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite data and tephra deposits.

  7. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.

    2015-04-01

    working at Catania airport (Sicily, Italy) and observing the Mt. Etna fountains about 33 km far away. Collocated infrared satellite observations will be shown as well to complete the investigation. The case study on November 23rd, 2013 is taken as reference case due to its strength and its well-defined narrow plume, which is transported by the prevailing wind hundred kilometers away. For this case study, the X-band radar in Catania tracked the ash-signal from 9:40 UTC to 10:30 UTC every 10 min providing, at each acquisition step, the following variables, abbreviated as ZDR, RHV, VEL, SWD KDP and ZHH. The latter stand for differential reflectivity, correlation coefficients, radial velocity, spectral width, specific differential phase shift and reflectivity, respectively. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that the interpretation of polarization diversity and Doppler shifts might introduce new insights in the estimates of the fraction of ash mass loading due to larger particles and its rate of mass flux. This would be an important achievement for the APhoRISM Project in witch this work is framed. APHORISM is a 3 years FP7-EU project started on December 2013 that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis.

  8. O amor entre filosofia e psicanálise Love between philosophy and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Murta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos a condição do amor como ponto de inflexão entre a filosofia e a psicanálise. A referência escolhida no campo de possibilidades de relação entre a filosofia e a psicanálise baseia-se no pensamento de Lacan. A possibilidade de relação entre dois discursos distintos é abordada, no pensamento lacaniano, a partir de seu aforismo maior, segundo o qual "não há relação sexual". Mesmo para a relação que não existe, Lacan propõe uma suplência - o amor, o qual surge como uma das suplências possíveis para a "relação sexual impossível" que pode se apresentar como um campo possível para a relação entre a filosofia e a psicanálise.We investigate the condition of love as a point of inflection between philosophy and psychoanalysis. Taken in the field of possibilities of relation between philosophy and psychoanalysis, this reference is based on Lacan's thought. The possibility of relation between two distinct ways of thinking is focused on Lacan's thought from his main aphorism "there is not sexual relation". Lacan proposes a supplementing for this relation that does not exist - love. So love appears as one possible supplementing for an "impossible sexual relation" and as a possible field of relation between philosophy and psychoanalysis.

  9. Conceptual associations of [time] as a dictionary entry. Spanish and German phraseological occurrences and their usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Piñel López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All humans experience time as a subjective experience, socially and culturally mediated. From birth we inherit a conception of the perception of time that has been transmitted by popular culture and is manifested mainly through oral tradition as phrasal expressions, proverbs and proverbial phrases. The differences in the perception of reality between different communities are expressed in their languages. They ultimately result in distinct symbols and conceptual associations, even if there is a common cultural tradition, as in the case of German and Spanish. These symbols and conceptualizations are realized in phraseology which refers, sometimes in a metaphorical way, to some aspects of reality. Phraseological creation is determined by universal conceptualizations, based on biological and psychological factors, and particular conceptualizations rooted in specific cultural variables associated with a social community of group. This paper is a revision of the concept of ‘time’ as reflected in German and Spanish phraseology. ‘Time’ is associated, among other notions, with concepts of destruction, medicine, opportunity, patience, change, justice, truth and advice. The phrasal idioms that illustrate the above concepts in both languages show that, despite the cultural differences, the perception of time, its conceptualization and its influence in the lives and behaviour of people.

  10. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  11. Nonliteral language in Alzheimer dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Wild, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The use of nonliteral language in clinical assessment, especially testing the patients' ability to interpret proverbs, has a long tradition in psychiatry. However, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in dementias is not yet clear. The aim of this review article is to examine the current evidence on nonliteral/figurative language (proverb, metaphor, metonymy, idiom, irony, sarcasm) comprehension in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. A comprehensive literature search identified 25 studies (16 proverb, 3 metaphor, 0 metonymy, 5 idiom, 3 sarcasm) on nonliteral language comprehension in dementia. Studies predominantly indicate a deficit. Most studies investigated Alzheimer's dementia. Applied correctly, nonliteral language is a worthwhile diagnostic tool to evaluate language and abstract thinking in dementias. During assessment, familiarity testing (e.g., by asking "are you familiar with the proverb XY") is obligatory. Still, future research is needed in several areas: evidence on decline of nonliteral language over the course of the illness is limited. So far, almost no studies delineated proverb comprehension in high risk populations such as patients with mild cognitive impairment. Currently, there is a lack of studies addressing performance in direct comparison to relevant differential diagnosis like older-age depression, delirium, brain lesion, or other psychiatric conditions. PMID:21241530

  12. Emergentism and its application in lexical acquisition%试析涌现理论及其在词汇习得中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳

    2011-01-01

    As a new concept system,emergentism supplements the deficiency ot the tradlt!onal aphorism and empiricism and emphasizes the interaction between organism and environment, holding that the expression of complex language naturally occurs after the exposure of relatively simple learning mechanism to complex language environments. Such a theory broadens the scope of second language acquisition study and provides more study area. This paper briefs the basic contents of emergentism and explores the problem of the combination of emergentism and lexical study in language acquisition. Moreover, the paper unveils the features emergent in the acquisition process of learners at the lexical level and raises new proposals for the lexical teaching of second language.%涌现论,作为一种新的认知理论视角,弥补了传统先验论与经验论存在的不足,强调机体和环境间的互动,认为相对简单的学习机制和大量复杂的语言环境相接触,促使了复杂的语言表达自然发生。此理论为语言习得的研究拓宽了思路,提供了更多的研究范围。简单介绍了涌现论的基本内容,探讨了涌现论与语言习得尤其是词汇习得研究相结合的问题。从词汇层面对学习者习得过程中涌现的特征进行了揭示,并为二语词汇教学提出了一些建议。

  13. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  14. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment. PMID:26810438

  15. FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION IN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the functional description of figurative expression in the phraseological units of Russian and Chinese languages. Metaphor is able to provide re-examination of the knowable through conscious and recorded as the value of a linguistic unit – metaphor for linguistic objective environmental object of conscious vision of reality. Phraseology as one of the «antropoemkih» sections of the linguistics with the language of phrasebook – as mirror, in which the community identifies Lingvokulturnaja their national identity. Proverbs and idioms literally difficult to precisely translate into others languages, because their value is based on the nationally-specific manner. A characteristic feature of phraseology is a «figurative situational motivation, which is directly linked to the worldview of the people – a native speaker, mediastinum cultural connotations, which is its figurative base. Every culture develops its own symbolic language and its image of the world in which his unit gets its value. Shaped spheres attention is drawn to the characters as cultural semantics is mostly symbolic. The symbol can be attributed to the stereotype phenomena characteristic for any culture. 

  16. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  17. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  18. Confusing redaction and corruption: A house going to hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Loader

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two dimensions to the argument offered in this article, both of them pertaining to methodological issues. The first is that of distinguishing textual criticism from redactional criticism, especially with recourse to the critical apparatus of the Stuttgart Hebrew Bibles. Secondly, the danger of over-emphasising the sound distinction between so-called �literary� and �historical� exegetical modes into an unsound separation between them. Proposals for the emendation of the text in Proverbs 2:18 are used as an example of both issues at once. It is advanced that a historical enquiry into the origin of the text can shed light on an analysis of the text �as it stands�, which undermines the reading of the �final text� as an exercise that can, and may, have nothing to do with enquiry into the growth of that text. This article endeavours to advance its argument by means of a practical contribution to solving the perceived textual problems of the crux interpretum, rather than indulging in the kind of theoretical skirmishes that characterised South African debates at the end of the previous century.

  19. Cultural adaptation and health literacy refinement of a brief depression intervention for Latinos in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Zorangelí; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies addressing the mental health needs of Latinos describe how interventions are tailored or culturally adapted to address the needs of their target population. Without reference to this process, efforts to replicate results and provide working models of the adaptation process for other researchers are thwarted. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of a cultural adaptation that included accommodations for health literacy of a brief telephone cognitive-behavioral depression intervention for Latinos in low-resource settings. We followed a five-stage approach (i.e., information gathering, preliminary adaptation, preliminary testing, adaptation, and refinement) as described by Barrera, Castro, Strycker, and Toobert (2013) to structure our process. Cultural adaptations included condensation of the sessions, review, and modifications of materials presented to participants including the addition of visual aids, culturally relevant metaphors, values, and proverbs. Feedback from key stakeholders, including clinician and study participants, was fundamental to the adaptation process. Areas for further inquiry and adaptation identified in our process include revisions to the presentation of "cognitive restructuring" to participants and the inclusion of participant beliefs about the cause of their depression. Cultural adaptation is a dynamic process, requiring numerous refinements to ensure that an intervention is tailored and relevant to the target population.

  20. Ertel's vorticity theorem and new flux surfaces in multi-fluid plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated to Professor Harold Weitzner on the occasion of his retirement“Say to wisdom ‘you are my sister,’ and to insight ‘you are my relative.’”—Proverbs 7:4Based on an extension to plasmas of Ertel's classical vorticity theorem in fluid dynamics, it is shown that for each species in a multi-fluid plasma there can be constructed a set of nested surfaces that have this species' fluid particles confined within them. Variational formulations for the plasma evolution and its equilibrium states are developed, based on the new surfaces and all of the dynamical conservation laws associated with them. It is shown that in the general equilibrium case, the energy principle lacks a minimum and cannot be used as a stability criterion. A limit of the variational integral yields the two-fluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A further special limit yields MHD equilibria and can be used to approximate the equilibrium state of a Hall-MHD plasma in a perturbative way

  1. Semiotics of Power and Dictatorship in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Later Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yémalo, C. AMOUSSOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the different uses of symbols to express power and interpersonal relationship in Ngũgĩ’s bulkiest novel Wizard of the Crow (2006, with a few illustrations from Matigari (1987. It draws on the semiotic approach and identifies about a hundred discourse strings in which signs are used to express tenor between characters. In the main, supernatural, faunal and floral symbols are found to be main vehicles of power, though many other such avenues as ‘vocations’, ‘social and gender-related symbols’ and ‘biblical characterisation and numerology’, etc are unexplored here for space constraints. Before the analysis, it is deemed necessary to overview the theoretical background to the study in which relevant concepts have been clarified. It has been concluded that there is no other work in which power is so much expressed through the explored devices as in Wizard of the Crow.Keywords: tenor, symbol, index, proverb, modality metaphor, modaliser/ weakener, modulator/strengthener

  2. Analysis of Differences between Japanese and Chinese Idioms%日汉习语的差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金秋

    2016-01-01

    汉语和日语中的同形同义,同形异义词汇较多,也同样大量遍布在成语,谚语和惯用语之中。本文试图从中日成语,谚语和惯用语的异同加以分析比较,以期日语学习者透过语言的差异来体会文化的差异,回归生活,体会语言的精髓所在。%There are a lot of synonyms and homonyms in Chinese as well as in Japanese. They exist in most idioms, proverbs and phrases. This paper attempts to analyze and compare the similarities and differences of Chinese and Japanese idioms. Through the contrast, the people who learn Japanese can know the cultural differences, return to life and experience the essence of language.

  3. Saving the “Undoomed Man” In Beowulf (572b-573

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxim Wyrd oft nereð // unfӕgne eorl, / þonne his ellen deah “Fate often spares an undoomed man when his courage avails” (Beowulf 572b-573 has been likened to “Fortune favors the brave,” with little attention to the word unfӕgne, which is often translated “undoomed”. This comparison between proverbs emphasizes personal agency and suggests a contrast between the proverb in 572b-573 and the maxim Gӕð a wyrd swa hio scel “Goes always fate as it must” (Beowulf 455b, which depicts an inexorable wyrd. This paper presents the history of this view and argues that linguistic analysis and further attention to Germanic cognates of (unfӕge reveal a proverb that harmonizes with 455b. (Unfӕge and its cognates have meanings related to being brave or cowardly, blessed or accursed, and doomed or undoomed. A similar Old Norse proverb also speaks to the significance of the status of unfӕge men. Furthermore, the prenominal position of unfӕgne is argued to represent a characterizing property of the man. The word unfӕgne is essential to the meaning of this proverb as it indicates not the simple absence of being doomed but the presence of a more complex quality. This interpretive point is significant in that it provides more information about the portrayal of wyrd in Beowulf by clarifying a well-known proverb in the text; it also has implications for future translations of these verses.

  4. IMAGINABLE AND AXIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONCEPT SPHERE OF LAND IN THE MENTALITY OF MODERN BRITISH ETHNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyanich Andrey Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the cognitive and semiotic development of imaginable and axiological parameters (characteristics of the concept sphere of land that are assimilated by the representatives of contemporary British ethnicity, and their reflection in the mentality of the ethnic society. The study is aimed at identifying these characteristics of the investigated concept sphere by using the associative experimental techniques of questioning informants of British origin native residents of the UK, whose origin is a true Anglo-Saxon. The reflections received from informants enabled to represent the concept sphere of land as an agricultural object, the object of work, institutional object, the object of entertainment, the object of aesthetic perception, the object of pragmatic use (object of lease, sale, economic profit extraction. The axiological characteristics were identified: firstly, by linguosemiotic analysis of the linguistic resources which are accumulated in the mental and linguistic fund of an English-speaking ethnic group, keeping in memory the language signs indicating the axiological potential of the sphere; secondly, by means of informants answers to the questionnaire on the evaluation of proverbs. The axiological and cognitive reflection of the concept sphere of land was recorded through the evaluation of epithets, stylistically marked as positive adjectives; evaluative statements semanticizing the state of delight or satisfaction; phraseological units with a positive connotation; paremias.

  5. Folklore as historical and cultural legasy of the lower Volga region in the first third of the XXth century: B.S. Laschilin, A.M. Listopadov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova Olga Igorevna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the question of the folklore phenomenon in the folk art of the Lower Volga Region in the first third of the 20th century is considered. In the course of research high emphasis was placed on the Cossack subject matter. The role of B.S. Laschilin and A.M. Listopadov in collecting and publishing folk art, the folklore of the Don Cossacks, is revealed. Boris Stepanovitch Laschilin’s work left a great impact in the artistic life of our region. In B.S. Laschilin’s books, that were published in Rostov-on-Don, Saratov, Stalingrad-Volgograd, contained tales, fairy tales, bylinas, legends, songs, ditties, proverbs, sayings, ancient dramas of the first Russian folk theatres, exorcisms. Boris Stepanovitch kept selecting songs and ditties, chastooshkas for Voronezh Folk Choir “Voronezh girls”, which are still in the repertoire of the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Chorus. Folklorist and musician Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov, who collected and studied folk songs from his youth up, and recorded them in the Don Region hamlets and Cossack villages, spent more than 50 years of his life on the research of the Don Cossack’s musical culture. Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov’s heritage made an important contribution to the native musical folklore study. Folklore compositions is a unique source of knowledge of history, way of life, moral and other national concepts, which allows us to reconstitute a linguistic personality of a definite historical epoch.

  6. 'Dancer in the Dark?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Two famous Old Testament texts – Proverbs 8 and Job 28 - contain descriptions of wisdom as a pre-existent being with a special relationship to God before the world was created. However, these texts present pre-existent wisdom in two very different contexts and perspectives: In Proverbs 8...... time and her intimate connection with God and with the established order of the universe. This embedment in the divine order guarantees the validity of her teaching to the humans. In Job 28 the point is the inaccessibility of wisdom which is and remains out of reach for humans. Here wisdom does...

  7. Die vrou Wysheid, God, en ekobillikheid: Liggaamsideologie in Spreuke 8:1–9:18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Venter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The woman Wisdom, God, and ecojustice: Ideology of the body in Proverbs 8:1–9:18This article examines the ideology of the body, specifically in terms of the gender of Wisdom and God, from an ecojustice perspective. Femininity within a God construct could contribute to a value system that incorporates compassion, interrelatedness and mutual care. In Proverbs 8:1–9:18, however, the woman Wisdom does not represent an ecofriendly construct, but simply enhances and supports the patriarchal, masculine values incorporated in the God Yahweh.

  8. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  9. 关于中韩成语俗语中“狗”象征意义的对比研究%Comparative study on China and Korean idioms"dog"symbolic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱子

    2012-01-01

      中韩两国的语言中都存在大量的成语和俗语。成语和俗语是语言中历史悠久,经过长时间筛选和提炼的比较固定的内容,是民族心理和民族文化的一面镜子。本文以文化语言学的角度分析中韩成语俗语中“狗”的象征意义,探讨两国人民意识形态、思考方式的异同点。%  There are lots of idioms and proverbs in China and Korea language. Idioms in the language has a long history, the relatively fixed content after a long time of screening and refines, is the national psychology and a mirror of national culture. In this paper, in the perspective of cultural linguistics analysis of China and Korea idioms"dog"symbolic significance, Explore the similarities and differences in ideology and way of thinking.

  10. " La science des urines de Maurus de Salerne et les Sinthomata magistri Mauri inédits "

    OpenAIRE

    Moulinier, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Born by 1130, the salernitan doctor Maurus died in 1214, and his numerous writings are today rather scattered and sometimes not even published. The medical semiology holds a big part in its production, and he wrote about urines, blood, and fever; the uroscopy in particular takes the lion's share there, and we shall not forget neither that he composed a comment on Theophilus, nor that he wrote a comment of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates speaking about many of the urines. Furthermore, the anonymo...

  11. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  12. On show, description and functional significance of Easter in literary works%论复活节在文学作品中的呈现、描写及功能意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓博

    2013-01-01

      基督教对西方文学的影响无疑是深刻而又长远的,无论是颇富哲理的圣经故事还是优美动听的诗歌箴言,无论是微妙精致的教义教规还是丰富多彩的礼仪节日都在西方各个时代的文学作品中烙下了印记。本文拟以文学作品中的基督教节日为视角,来探讨基督教对西方文学影响的众多范式中的一种即基督教节日对文学作品的影响。%  The influence of Christianity on Western literature is profound and long-term, whether it is the Bible story quite rich philosophy or beautiful poetry proverbs, both subtle and exquisite teaching or rich and colorful Etiquette Festival in every era of the western literary works bears the imprint. This paper intends to from the perspective of the Christian holiday in literary works, to discuss the influence of Christianity on Western literature in a Christian holiday of literary works.

  13. Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz Bornmann; Félix de Moya Anegón; Loet Leydesdorff

    2010-01-01

    [Background] In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able ???to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants,??? one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. [Methodology/Principal Findings] The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited) papers...

  14. Symanzik-Becchi-Rouet-Stora lessons on renormalizable models with broken symmetry: the case of Lorentz violation

    CERN Document Server

    Del Cima, Oswaldo M; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue intensively studied in recent years on the generation of terms by radiative corrections in models with broken Lorentz symmetry. The algebraic perturbative method of handling the problem of renormalization of the theories with Lorentz symmetry breaking, is used. We hope to make clear the Symanzik's aphorism: "{\\it Whether you like it or not, you have to include in the lagrangian all counter terms consistent with locality and power-counting, unless otherwise constrained by Ward identities.}"

  15. From Metaphorical View to the Semantic of Particle Verb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Particle verbs can be said to possess some degree of semantic integral character in assembly of the verb plus particle .The recent cognitive study , particularly the metaphorical view , looksmuch deeper into the process of semantic formation of particle verbs , maintaining that it is the met-aphorical extension in both the verb and the particle .The cognitive linguistic views on language developed in the last two decades set up the basis of the present study on particle verb .

  16. Innocents Abroad: The Politics of Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufva, Hannele

    Some failure types that occur in cross-cultural interactions are described, mainly from the point of view of Finns and Finland and from primarily anecdotal and "folk theoretical" data. Material from such sources as newspapers, joke collections, proverbs, and student experiences are used as the basis of the discussion. Non-grammatical errors, or…

  17. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are agents capable of helping others, learning new behaviours and forgetting old ones. The evolutionary approach to archaeological systems has therefore been hampered by the 'modern synthesis' - a gene-centred model of evolution as a process that eliminates those that cannot handle stress. The result has been a form of environmental determinism that explains human evolution in terms of heroic struggles and selective winnowing. Biologists committed to the modern synthesis have either dismissed agency as a delusion wrought in our bodies by natural selection, or imposed a sharp, Cartesian split between 'natural' and 'artificial' ecologies. We revisit the seminal literature of evolutionary biology and show that the paradigmatic fault lines of 21st century anthropology can be traced back to the 19th century and beyond. Lamarck had developed a two-factor evolutionary theory - one factor an endogenous tendency to become more advanced and complex, the other an exogenous constraint that drove organisms into conformity with environment. Darwin tried to eliminate the progressive tendency and imposed linearity constraints on evolution that Thomas Henry Huxley rejected. When experimental evidence falsified Darwin's linear hypothesis, the race began to develop a new, gene-centred model of evolution. This became the modern synthesis. The modern synthesis is now under pressure from the evidence of anthropology, sociology, palaeontology, ecology and genetics. An 'extended synthesis' is emerging. If evolution is adequately summarised by the aphorism survival of the fittest, then 'fitness' cannot always be defined in the heroic sense of 'better able to compete and reproduce'. The fittest organisms are often those that evade selective winnowing, even when their ability to compete and reproduce has been compromised by their genes. Characteristically human traits like language, abstraction, compassion and altruism may have arisen as coping strategies that

  18. Metonímia i metàfora des d'una perspectiva cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hilferty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author presents some principles of Cognitive Linguistics useful in dealing with metonymy and metaphor as semantic resources in relation to idioms and proverbs. Beyond their interest for studies of Literature and Linguistics, these resources show how the human mind works.

  19. Educacion al Aire Libre: Libro de Actividades II = Outdoor Education: Student Activity Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Alma Flor, Comp.; And Others

    Divided into four sections, the book includes activities for students to do before camp, on the way to camp, at camp, and after camp. Activities to do before camp include writing proverbs, tongue twisters, riddles, poems, and stories. Activities to do on the way to camp include singing songs and reading a map. The words to the following songs are…

  20. ЯЗЫКОВЫЕ РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИИ БАЗОВЫХ ЭМОЦИЙ ЧЕЛОВЕКА В ЛИНГВОКУЛЬТУРОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ АСПЕКТЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Белая, Е.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural information is kept in metaphors, in inner form of phraseological units and proverbs. The sources of cultural interpretation are culture codes, system of images-models, ceremonial forms of national culture, images of Christianity, theosophy and corresponding to them ideas of morality, characters of imaginative literature, philosophy, history and others.

  1. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve the…

  2. Adinkra Banners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Adinkra cloth is a stamped fabric that is made in Ghana, Africa. Symbolic motifs that represent proverbs are carved from calabashes, a type of gourd, and are dipped into a black dye made from the bark of the badie tree. Adinkra artists divide the fabric into squares and create patterns and repetitive designs using the inked stamps. When it is used…

  3. Contextual predictability enhances reading performance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Guinjoan, Salvador; Sapognikoff, Marcelo; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2016-07-30

    In the present work we analyzed fixation duration in 40 healthy individuals and 18 patients with chronic, stable SZ during reading of regular sentences and proverbs. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. We used lineal mixed models to analyze fixation durations. The predictability of words N-1, N, and N+1 exerted a strong influence on controls and SZ patients. The influence of the predictabilities of preceding, current, and upcoming words on SZ was clearly reduced for proverbs in comparison to regular sentences. Both controls and SZ readers were able to use highly predictable fixated words for an easier reading. Our results suggest that SZ readers might compensate attentional and working memory deficiencies by using stored information of familiar texts for enhancing their reading performance. The predictabilities of words in proverbs serve as task-appropriate cues that are used by SZ readers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using eyetracking for measuring how patients with SZ process well-defined words embedded in regular sentences and proverbs. Evaluation of the resulting changes in fixation durations might provide a useful tool for understanding how SZ patients could enhance their reading performance. PMID:27236087

  4. There Is No Business Model for Open Educational Resources: A Business Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The economic proverb "There is no such thing such as a free lunch" applies also to open educational resources (OER). In recent years, several authors have used revenue models and business models to analyse the different sources of possible funding for OER. In this article the business models of Osterwalder and Chesbrough are combined with research…

  5. ВОСПИТЫВАЕМ ЧЕСТНОСТЬ У ДЕТЕЙ CТАРШЕГО ДОШКОЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА

    OpenAIRE

    Губайдулина, Ж.

    2012-01-01

    Honesty - property of human character to put into words the true relation (thoughts) to any subject. Growing inquisitiveness and frequent interdictions of adults induce the child to bypass the restrictions imposed by adults that generates children's lie. Education of honesty at children of the senior preschool age was promoted by discussion of acts of heroes of books, situations, analysis of sayings, proverbs about honesty

  6. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  7. Anthropocentric or Ecocentric Environmentalism? Views of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Bulent; Akman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    An Indian proverb says that "the man's heart toughen as he drifts apart from nature." Living in harmony with nature is only possible by abandoning of mankind from its idea of dominance on nature. Deep ecology refuses the superiority of human against nature with a radical attitude within ecological philosophy, and it wants the individuals…

  8. Agricultural Renaissance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An old Chinese proverb says that "poverty gives rise to the desire for change," and this may in part explain why 18 farmers from a rural village in east China’s Anhui Province made the bold decision in 1978 to fix farm output quotas per

  9. Traditsioonilise kujundkõne nüüdisaegsest uurimisest / Anneli Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Anneli, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Phraseologie und Parömiologie (sari ilmub aastast 1999; http://www.phraseologie.net ) ; Claudia Aurich. Proverb Structure in the History of English: Stability and Change. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, 2012 ; Urška Valenčič Arh. "Ein Prinz auf der Erbse". Phraseologie und Übersetzung. Schneider Verlag GmbH, 2014

  10. 心路历程--筷子%Chopstick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends, Our past columns have been filled with a variety of topics. They have included es-says, proverbs, jokes, and even a few of my poems. Now it is time for an original shortstory written especially for you in this magazine. I hope you enjoy reading it as much as Ienjoyed writing it.

  11. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  12. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Ross L.; Jang, Myoseon

    2016-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+], mol L-1) and aerosol liquid water content (LWC) with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA). Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of photooxidation products and sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (eight groups) and aerosol phase reactivity (six groups). UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid-catalyzed reactions and organosulfate formation) assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic-inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx (VOC - volatile organic compound). The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor University of Florida Atmospheric PHotochemical Outdoor Reactor (UF APHOR) chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total organic mass formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H

  13. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  14. Mass Communication and Mass Media: A Concept of Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tafazzoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the historical point of view, the formation and evolution of media in the form that we know today, and according to the age of several thousands of years of human's social life on the soil planet, has changed to reality later. This has happened while the media has evolved in a larger scale with an incredible speed. In those far periods of time the wide propagation and distribution of information to the lots of contacts was not possible because of technical limitations. But people were trying to communicate in a limited form with each other and with their contacts by using other methods. This communication didn't go beyond the human's voice. Through experience they have learnt that if they make a horn with their hands and speak loudly in it from its narrow part, attracts the contact that is further than the usual sound board. But with society's being more complicated, giving information in the shortest time became very important. Various methods of transferring information were formed according to the technology and facilities. In middle ages the bellmen, the singers and the badger storytellers had the duty of information exchange by poems and proverbs, or news and information were written on the animal skin or clay or stone tablets for the distribution and propagation of news. But bringing news and information with primary tools for the contacts were along with some barriers, because their duplication was a hard, time consuming and costly task. Scholars and rulers had found that when the political and governmental information and news reaching time is shorter, consequently its effects on the contacts and their reaction toward the received data would be more.

  15. STORIES – A POWERFUL TOOL IN TRIBAL LITERATURE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOW MARTEN GOT HIS SPOTS: AND OTHER KOOTENAI INDIAN STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sripadmadevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, stories hold prime place in the process of individuation. The art of story-telling is as old as human civilization. And the world of Tribe is of no exception. Many of the rural and tribal societies are oral in nature. Their history is not written but orally transmitted from one generation to another, in the form of poetry, songs, proverbs, stories, narrative dances and various rituals. Their historical and cultural information are passed on through some of these means. Primarily they used stories for imparting knowledge and courage to the budding generation. Among the array of tribes across the world, the Kootenai people – a particular sect of tribe - today exist in south-eastern British Columbia, Washington State, Idaho and Moutana. For centuries, Kootenai children and adults gathered on cold, dark winter nights to listen and learn from stories. Recorded by their elders and illustrated by Kootenai artists from the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana, these Kootenai stories are originally intended to educate young tribal members about their history and culture. The collection of How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories packed with morals, in which Marten learns a hard lesson in obedience; Coyote and Trout, in which Coyote learns the consequences of greed; Little Weasel's Dream, in which the child Little Weasel learns the importance of listening to his elders; and Tepee Making, an illustrated lesson in construction. The main focal point of the present paper is to exhibit, how by employing the technique of storytelling, these tribes can communicate and mould their rising generation, with special reference to How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories.

  16. Pesquisa em Educação Matemática e mentalidade bélica Mathematical Education Research and militaristic mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, vamos considerar a questão da relação entre pesquisa em educação matemática e transformação social. Num primeiro momento, argumentaremos em favor do ponto de vista de que a mentalidade bélica teria constituído o principal fator que teria levado ao surgimento histórico do matemático profissional e do professor de matemática, bem como ao surgimento da matemática e da educação matemática como práticas sociais autônomas de pesquisa. Em seguida, com base no aforismo estético de Whitehead de que a função da razão é promover a arte da vida, argumentaremos em favor da necessidade de se combater essa mentalidade bélica através do desenvolvimento de uma educação ético-política baseada em usos sociais da matemática, no passado e no presente, que nunca são neutros em relação a essa ética. Palavras-chave: Pesquisa em Educação Matemática. Mentalidade Bélica. Educação Ético-Política.In this paper, we are going to consider the question about the relationship between research in mathematics education and social change. First, we make the argument that a militaristic mentality constituted the main factor that led to the historical rise of mathematicians and mathematics teachers, as well as mathematics and mathematics education as autonomous social practices of research. Next, based on Whitehead’s aesthetic aphorism, stating that the function of reason is to promote the art of life, we will assert the need to counter this militaristic mentality by developing an ethical-political education based on current or past social uses of mathematics, which are never neutral in relation to these ethics. Key-words: Mathematics Education Research; Militaristic Mentality; Ethical-Political Education.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF POMEGRANATE IN FAIR TALES COMPILE IN TURKEY AND MYTHS MİTOLOJİLERDE VE TÜRKİYEDE DERLENEN MASALLARDA NARIN YERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münir CERRAHOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the unknown period of date (history, pomegranate is a fruit met by chance rather close together besides the source of healthy at the great religion, at the religious boks, and at the mythologic short story. At the mythologic context pomegranate was accepted forbidden fruit ascribing sacredness to it and it has been the symbol of abundance prosperity immortality of spirit, prolificacy and was symbol of prolificacy abundance and prosperity. Again at the mythology pomegranate is accepted the sign of wealthy, immortality of soul, productivity and abundance invincibility power of heros,. Besides it is used to symbolize matrimany tie of becoming untied life and rebirth.At the turkish public culture and reportece pomecrenate has been subject fairly tales folk songs, epics of lovers dream motifs, proverbs a tradetional turkish guatrain forms and riddies (aplay ful Formula found in folk narratives riddles, a traditional Turkish guatrain forms, proverbs, folk songs, fairy tales, epics of lovers and drinking wines. At the interior of verbal tradition it has been a subject to fairy tales vather freguently. At fairy tales pomegranate is an answer of riddle, it’s a magic fruit to couse to have a child for who hasn’t a child, it’s a experience mediator, given material and spiritual presents, it’s a magical medicine to recover patients and sometimes it causes obstinacies to come to someane’s head. Tarihin bilinmeyen dönemlerinden itibaren nar, sağlık kaynağı olmasının yanında, büyük dinlerde, dini kitaplarda, mitolojik öykülerde adına sıkça rastlanan bir meyvedir. Dini ve mitolojik bağlamda nara kutsallık atfedilerek nar yasaklı meyve kabul edilmiş, doğurganlığın, bolluk ve refahın sembolü olmuştur. Mitolojide nar zenginliğin işareti, ruhun ölmezliği, doğanın verimliliği ve bolluğu, kahramanların yenilmezliği ve güçlülüğünün işareti olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ayrıca evlilik bağının

  18. NATURALIZATION AND SEYHULISLAM YAHYA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE ŞEYHÜLİSLAM YAHYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Local factors which are important source of our classical literature in terms of contents were used more characteristicly by some classic poets. One of these poets, Şeyhülislam Yahya, although he has an identity of Muslim preacher, employed the delight and entertainment of life with elegant Turkish of Istanbul. Above all in his ghazals, he is highly successful in expressing the coloured stage chosen in daily life by using elegant Turkish, idioms proverbs, and folk sayings. Understanding of this art is effective in his being one of the most important represantative of naturalization at XVII. century. Klasik edebiyatımızın dil ve muhteva bakımından önemli kaynaklarından olan mahallî unsurlar, bazı klasik şairlerimiz tarafından daha belirgin bir şekilde kullanılmıştır.. Bu şâirlerden biri olan Şeyhülislam Yahya, bir din adamı kimliğine sahip olmasına rağmen hayatın zevk ve eğlencelerini sade İstanbul Türkçesini kullanarak şiirlerinde işlemiştir. Özellikle gazellerinde kullandığı sade Türkçesi, deyimleri, atasözleri ve halk deyişleri vasıtasıyla günlük hayatın içinden seçtiği canlı sahneleri anlatmada çok başarılıdır. Bu sanat anlayışı, onun mahallîleşmenin XVII. yüzyıldaki en önemli temsilcilerinden biri olmasına neden olmuştur.

  19. 生活与逻辑的交汇——詹姆斯·C·霍尔特论大宪章%Where Life and Logic Meet: James C. Holt on the Great Charter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树栋

    2012-01-01

    J. C. Holt is known for his study of the Great Charter. As a result of research of that famous document, his Magna Carta is praised as a masterpiece. The main concern in Holt' s work is with law, but it is with law as historical process. For him, law is not doctrine, but fact. In his work, he sought to do away with the anachronisms of Whig history, set the Great Charter in the concrete conditions of the England and Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He made much effort to practice F. W. Maitlands' aphorism that law is the point where life and logic meet.%英国当代著名史学家詹姆斯·C·霍尔特以研究大宪章知名,他的《大宪章》一书是20世纪大宪章史学的杰作,被认为是20世纪后半叶大宪章研究领域最重要的一部著作。霍尔特的大宪章研究在方法上的突出特色,是将法律或原则还原为生活,通过比较,即通过对大宪章与欧洲中世纪其他同类文件的对比研究,以及对英王国与欧洲其他王国的对比研究,从实际生活过程解说大宪章的产生和特点。他致力于去除辉格派史学传统带来的那些时代错乱的历史解释,从生活与逻辑的交汇点阐释大宪章的内容和性质,依据大宪章的内在特点与时代发展的关系说明大宪章的历史与神话的联系。

  20. 国内外政府服务绩效评估研究的比较*--基于WOS与CNKI数据的分析%A Comparison of Overseas and Domestic Research on Government Service Performance Evaluation Based on the Data from WOS & CNKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚虎平; 忠格草

    2013-01-01

    Being the "eyes of the society", the scholars can find some deep social rules before the multitude,and we can get some useful information to forecast the government performance status quo by studying the academic researches on such topics. After establishing two"image databases" based on 373 abroad studies and 97 domestic studies collected from WOS and CNKI, we use the two variables of focus degree ( FD) and focus ratio ( FR) to compare the differences between the two types of studies. Eventually, we find that the Chinese scholars take a holistic perspective to understand government service and try to establish a"service-oriented government performance eval-uation system", while the oversea counterparts try to evaluate the specific government performance services. It is suggested that a new met-aphor of government service be implemented, and government service market segmentation be made to improve the research qualities and practice efficiencies.%借助学者这个“社会的眼睛“来把握政府服务绩效的现状,这是一种数据挖掘评价的路径。通过对WOS ( Web of Science)和CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure)数据库中政府服务绩效评估研究的比较,可以发现,国外通过解构的方式,将“政府服务“细化为交通、卫生、基础设施等具体服务进行绩效评估研究,其目的是为了实现公民满意,在竞争中保证服务质量。国内各种研究都要纳入“服务型政府“的范畴,力图构建一个整体性的“服务型政府绩效评估“体系。借鉴国外经验,我们需要破除研究中的“刮风“习惯,推进有明确对象的政府服务绩效评估研究;在实践中需要对政府服务进行市场细分,推进政府在服务提供中的终极责任制。

  1. Study of Sexism in Language and Its Development%语言中的性别歧视及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to make a systematic study of the reasons of sexism in English by means of an⁃alyzing sexism phenomenon and try to study the sexism in English from the following aspects:generic mascu⁃line, naming and addressing terms, semantic derogation of woman, masculine-feminine order and sexism in proverbs and idioms. In this paper,by linking language with culture ,the origin and cause of sexism phenome⁃non are analyzed and dealt with, which enables people to deeply understand the reasons for sexism in lan⁃guage and realize the necessity to eliminate the phenomenon,furthermore, both linguistic approaches and so⁃cial efforts are put forward to eliminate the sexism in language, which makes a contribution to further study.%分析英语中的性别歧视现象,深入研究造成该语言现象的原因。从男性词、称谓语中的性别歧视现象、女性词语的“贬化”现象、男先女后的词序、谚语中的性别歧视现象五个方面分析英语中的性别歧视现象,把语言和社会文化紧紧联系起来,使人们深刻理解性别歧视现象产生的根源,意识到消除这种现象的必要性及其方法,为以后的研究做出贡献。

  2. 提高教师对本科教学积极性的思考和对策%POSITIVE THINKING AND COUNERMEASURES OF IMPROVING UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛钧

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate education is the base in colleges and universities. Undergraduate teaching, as one part of undergraduate education, plays an essential role in undergraduate education. A proverb says, "Education plans, teacher-centered. " Teachers' teaching enthusiasm can directly affect the quality of undergraduate teaching, and will affect the development of talented persons who were fostered by the school. Top colleges and universities for research should pay enough attention to the undergraduate teaching same as scientific research; deepen the reformation; increase the investment; give awards to the teachers who made outstanding achievements; increase the weight of the professional evaluation and promotion with a democratic and humanized management, which is the effective way to improve teachers' enthusiasm in undergraduate teaching.%本科教育是高校的立校之本,而本科教学在本科教育中占有绝对重要的地位.教育大计,教师为本.教师教学的积极性直接影响到本科教学质量,进而影响到学校培养的人才质量.研究型高校也应把本科教学提升到与科研同等重要的高度,深化本科教学改革,加大本科教学投入,重奖在本科教学中做出突出成绩的优秀教师,并在称职晋升评定要求条件中加大本科教学的权重,对教师实行更为民主、人性化的教学管理,这将是提高大学教师对本科教学积极性的有效途径.

  3. Ahmet Efe’nin Çocuk Hikâyelerinde Değer Eğitimi ve Hikâyelerin Türkçe Eğitimine Katkısı Value Educatıon In Ahmet Efe’s Children Stories And Contrıbutıons Of These Stories To Turkısh Educatıon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekerya BATUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ahmet Efe’s children stories works are examinedfrom the aspect of value education and Turkish education. Efe’schildren stories are taken as examples. It is used the method of storymap for analizing those stories. Those stories are given value educationpart. Those stories contributed development of Turkish education.Ahmet Efe’s stories are analized and those values are found: dearment,God dearment, motherland dearment, family dearment, frienddearment, nature dearment, animal dearment, honesty, sincerity,goodness, helpful, the valve of work and production, the valve of mercy,the valve of pity, the valve of school life, life happiness in the thosestories. In those stories being critizing behaviors are: lie and cheat, notobeying advice, jealousy and anger, betroying trust, theft and greedy arefound and examined in the those stories. Consequently, with regard tovalue education it is seen that they have a rich content.Ahmet Efe’s works are examined in terms of their contributionstoTurkish education, and usage of proverb, idiom, reduplication,routines and echoic words. In these works intensive usage of proverbs,idioms, duplications, routins and echoic words is seen. Examinedstudied used effectively proverbs, idioms and sayings mold.In the light of this data it is deduced that Ahmet Efe’s works areresources which are to be benefited in the process of value educationand Turkish education. Bu çalışmada, Ahmet Efe’nin çocuk hikâyelerinde değer eğitimi ve hikâyelerin Türkçe eğitimine katkısı bakımından incelenmiştir. Örneklem olarak Ahmet Efe’nin yazdığı çocuk hikâyeleri alınmıştır. Bu hikâyelerin çözümlenmesinde ise hikâye haritası yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Hikâyelerin çocuk edebiyatı açısından taşıdığı özellikler “Değer Eğitimi” olarak belirlenmiş, sözcük çeşitliliği açısından ise Türkçenin gücüne katkısı ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ahmet Efe

  4. Urkönig-Urmenscg: il romanticismo politico di novalis ed il katechon del re

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Panno

    2005-01-01

    Faith and Love [Glaube und Liebe] is not only a praise of the monarchy or a collection of great aesthetical aphorisms which belong to the usual definition of Romanticism. This paper aims to recognize the frame of the political thought of NOVALIS through an analysis of SCHMITT’s critique of Romanticism. To understand the figure of King and Queen means to find out their roots in NOVALIS’ conception of the exchange between I and Not I. This contribution focuses on the way in which NOVALIS tri...

  5. E. M. Cioran: The Conjurer of Beauty. The Murmur of the Body in the Contradiction of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Izquierdo López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the aesthetic ideology, the style, the theory of knowledge, the conception of the subject and language of the Romanian writer E. M. Cioran. Leaving aside his widely publicised nihilism and scepticism, this essay focuses on the poetic nature of his aphorisms which is intended to create a place outside of the language contradicting the language itself. A place where concepts become something physical, like flesh-and-blood words where thepoet poured everything he knows about the body intending to create a defamiliarization effect.

  6. Conceptual Metaphors in Chinese Political Speeches ─ A Case Study of Xi Jinping’s 2016 New Year Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Zhi-lan

    2016-01-01

    As a sort of cognitive means and thinking mode, conceptual metaphor is widely applied to political discourses. States-men often publicize their political thoughts by using conceptual metaphors in their political discourses so that the audience can understand their political ideas easily. Based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, this paper aims to analyze the conceptual met-aphors in Xi Jinping’s 2016 New Year address so as to summarize the types, functions and significance of conceptual metaphors in Chinese political discourses, in the hope of helping readers interpret political speeches better.

  7. A Study of the Journal of Yaşar Şâdi Efendi’s “Hutût-ı Meşâhir”

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    The periodicals of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” can be considered as a type of journal. (Hutût-i meşâhir: The writings of celebrities) Many different people may be offered to write on these journals with their handwriting and they are expected to express themselves via anything like poems, aphorism or any other artistic skills spontaneously. The most comprehensive journal among the reprints of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” that are discovered up to now, is the one that belongs to Yaşar Sadi. In the period coveri...

  8. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopolang H. Sekano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa etelelwa pele ke e namagadi di wela ka lengope� [those who are led by a female leader fall into dongas]. In the light of this situation an intensive study regarding the need for an egalitarian concept and constructive interpretation of Bible passages, Setswana proverbs and idioms regarding the inevitability of female leadership is paramount to people who have an androcentric concept of religion and culture.

  9. Female role models in Bukusu folktales: Education at the mother’s hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namulundah Florence

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Folktales serve a descriptive, as well as prescriptive role, by consistently depicting societal and cultural norms. Sexist portrayals sanction the marginality of Bukusu women, particularly when these reflect prevailing gender roles and expectations. However, contests over identity and representation are as ancient as (unwritten history. The analysis of tales From Our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs, offers a wide range of role models for women; some of which depict female agency in exacting circumstances (Florence, N., 2005. From our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs. NJ: Africa World Pres/The Red Sea Press. Further, females as narrators, protagonists, and the primary audience act as both curator and creators of culture.

  10. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Ex...

  11. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  12. L’organisation et la gestion de l’espace dans la langue et la culture igbo du Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    This study based on Igbo language and literature – especially proverbs and folktales – focuses on the use of space, the way it is distributed, organised and managed. It reveals a highly structured use of a communal space organised around the person, considered as member of the group. Traditions, which protect the communal space and ensure its being handed down from one generation to the next, equally give everyone an individual share in it. This space is both versatile and highly partitioned,...

  13. In Search of Cultural Universals: Translation Universals. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela DIMA

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the world is disclosed under various shapes, among which language is the best representative. Specific to humans, it renders feelings and thoughts concerning different communication contexts where words become dynamic primitives endowed with meanings, which recreate themes and reconfigure space and time as universal coordinates. The main objective of the paper is to provide a tentative analysis of the way in which translation universals are manifest in translating proverbs and...

  14. The role of graphic design in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Daša

    2014-01-01

    Well designed visual image is the first step of advertising that has an impact on our business partners and consumers. According to Slovenian proverb that "clothes make the man" we could say the same for graphic design and marketing. Well executed graphic design and visual communications enable the communication of our product with a customer. This could be also a communication with artistic approach and a special connection. In order to obtain good results, advertisers use techniques to get...

  15. Elementary Analysis of the Bible Linguistic Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月汀

    2014-01-01

    The English language in its development course embraces every aspect of social life and it reflects the unique cultural tradition of the western society. The bible has had a huge impact on western culture. There are a lot of English words from the bible. This paper from derived words, euphemism, idiom, proverb and British and American literature perspectives discusses the linguistic artistic characteristics of the bible and its influence on the English language.

  16. ‘I am like a green olive tree’: The Wisdom context of Psalm 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the thesis of Walter Beyerlin from 1980 that Psalm 52 is a paraenetic- didactic Wisdom poem from the late Persian period. Beyerlin reached his conclusion from a comparison of Psalm 52 with post-exilic Wisdom psalms such as Psalms 37, 49, and 73. The direct literary influence that Psalm 52 received from the book of Proverbs and the motifs it shares with Jeremiah 9 are investigated here, since the author contends that the Wisdom influence on the Psalm was even greater than Beyerlin had envisaged. The article comes to the conclusion that the author(s of the Psalm attempted to compose a psalm by establishing a network of allusions to a corpus of authoritative texts, inter alia, the Wisdom psalms. The end product is a brilliant composition which interprets the teaching of Proverbs for the needs of a group of Jewish believers who probably lived at the end of the Persian period.

  17. Le Pays Igbo du Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Since the Biafran war (1967-1970), no book has ever been published in French on Igboland of Nigeria. The present book reveals an Anglophone territory in close contact with France, a region which has been sending missionaries to the five continents, and a rich culture with a vibrant oral literature, its folktales and proverbs, attached to communal values and tradition. Igboland is also the birthplace of Nollywood, this new African cinema which has inspired the whole of the African continent. ...

  18. Der Einsatz von indigenen Kommunikationstechniken im Fremdsprachenunterricht in Kamerun

    OpenAIRE

    Ebong, Balbina

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the use of indigenous techniques of communication can have a positive impact on the motivation of the learner of English as a foreign language in Cameroon. By indigenous techniques of communication we mean techniques like role-play, songs, the telling of folktales, riddles and proverbs. This work is intended as a contribution to the search for improvement of student motivation and enthusiasm, whereby they can be more responsive as they participate spont...

  19. THE WINDOW TO THE WORLD OF THE GOSPEL TRUTH: THE POWER OF RUSSIAN FOLK SPEECH IN NIKOLAI GOGOL'S NOVEL "DEAD SOULS"

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imagina...

  20. Elisabeth Linnebuhr: Sprechende Tuecher. Frauenkleidung der Swahili (Ostafrika).

    OpenAIRE

    Geider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Women in East Africa appear to be in a unique position worldwide: their everyday dresses are not only significant in their habitual textile codes, but also as textures exhibiting meaningful verbal elements in complex density and seemingly endless variety These textual elements are proverbs or proverbial phrases written in Swahili, which seem to interact with the colour and design of the cloth (termed kanga), being either abstract or figurative in ornament, which the female wearer may choose a...

  1. The Analysis of Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory——From The Point of AD Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, originally called dynamic equivalence raised by Eugene A. Nida is directed primarily towards equiva-lence of response rather than equivalence of form. From the application of proverbs and advertising translation, this article aims to discuss the translation strategy, in order to help readers flexibly use the "functional equivalence" theory, and then make this theory be able to work for us.

  2. Die Didaktisierung von Phraseologismen im DaF-Unterricht anhand multimodaler Texte

    OpenAIRE

    Rentel, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Semantically complex units cover a high percentage of the lexicon of a language, ranging from collocations or routine formula to proverbs. The difficulty for learners of a foreign language lies in the fact that in many cases the meaning of those elements of the lexicon does not result just from addition of the meaning of individual constituents. Although (active and passive) knowledge about such lexical elements can be considered essential for successful communication in a foreign language, t...

  3. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  4. Measures to be Taken to Enhance Freshmen's English Listening-Speaking Abilities in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-hua; Cao Rui; ZHANG Guang-ling

    2009-01-01

    The English Listening-Speaking abilities of college freshmen should be trained in a multi-faceted approach.This paper suggests some effective training methods which can enhance the abilities in English Listening-Speaking for freshmen such as: story telling,special topics,picture talks,free talks,proverbs,debating,oral reports,group discussions and so on from a practical point of view.

  5. Thanks to literature and fellow scientists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal training has the disadvantage that trainees may simply accept what they are taught without questioning it, unlike the autodidact who can only learn by asking questions all the time. Sometimes, he will not get an answer and that need not be because the question is stupid, but may be because his peers are used to there being no satisfactory answer and have simply accepted the conventional mythology without further question. So it is about time to ask some assorted questions and where possible, suggest how to find an answer: 1 Why does the composition of the solvent used to extract oil from oilseeds affect the amount of oil being extracted and its phosphatide content? 2 Why does a heat treatment (Alcon, Exergy, expander increase the phosphatide content of the crude oil and decrease its non-hydratable phosphatide (NHP content? 3 Why does water degumming of crude oil remove relatively more magnesium than calcium? 4 What is the mechanism of phosphatide removal by silica hydrogel and why is it enhanced by simultaneous soap removal? 5 What is the mechanism of NHP-removal during alkali neutralisation? 6 Could it be that the Long Mix neutralisation process as used in the US leads to insufficient removal of the pro-oxidants copper and iron and that this explains why oil tends to less stable in the US than in Europe, especially when it contains linolenic acid? 7 Could different deodorisation conditions explain this geographically determined anomaly? 8 What happens during flavour reversion? 9 Why is walnut oil more stable in the nut than in the bottle? 10 How much oil is lost by saponification or hydrolysis during refining? 11 What is the mechanism of colour fixation? 12 Does the activity of interesterification catalysts depend on their counter cation? 13 What is the chemical nature of the colour formed on interesterification catalyst activation? 14 What is crystal memory? Does it exist? However, we should not forget the Dutch proverb that:

  6. The Tibetan Concept of Ethics and Morality in Daofu County of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENJIA Wengmu; LIAO Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    morality in folk literature .Folk literature is another mirror that accumulates, pre-serves and reflects the Tibetan's concept of ethics and morality.For thousands of years, the tradition-al ethics and morals of the Daofu Tibetans have been given a vivid and lively interpretation in the proverbs and folk stories of Daofu .Proverbs and folk stories are the two most representative styles in the folk literature of the Tibetans in Daofu .They are the cultural artistic forms with unique ethnic characters created in the process of the Daofu Ti-betans’ living and production .The proverbs and folk stories open a door for us to step into the spir-itual world of the common Tibetan .Moreover, the concept of virtue and vice has always been a value system with which to judge the moral standard in the Tibetan society .Speaking from moral philoso-phy, virtues are moral, and vices are immoral.It is a moral evaluation of an individual or a group and involves all aspects of the society .In brief, most orally transmitted literature is always filled with the praises about the bravery, strength, hard-working, kindness, and the philosophy of Tibetan Buddhism, including promoting good and abstai-ning from evil, cause-and-effect transmigration, maha-karuniko, benefitting the whole and self-lessness .All of these can still give people great enlightenment and moral lessons . The Daofu Tibetan's concept of ethics and mo-rality has the following basic characteristicFirst-ly, it takes religious morality as its core;secondly, it is characterized by of compatibility and open-ness; thirdly, it is characterized by universality;fourthly, it is characterized by stability and gradual change.In general, during the long process of the history, the Tibetans who have lived in Daofu of western Sichuan for generations are gradually de-veloping, continuing, and enriching their value system of ethics and morals from their own unique way of thinking .It is not only an important part of the Tibetan culture, but

  7. The Importance of MS PHD'S and SEEDS Mentoring and Professional Development Programs in the Retenion of Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.

    2012-12-01

    According to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences, underrepresented minority (URM) participation in STEM disciplines represents approximately one third of the URM population in the U.S. Thus, the proportion of URM in STEM disciplines would need to triple in order to reflect the demographic makeup in the U.S. Individual programs targeting the recruitment and retention of URM students in STEM have demonstrated that principles of mentoring, community building, networking, and professional skill development are crucial in encouraging URM students to remain in STEM disciplines thereby reducing this disparity in representation. However, to paraphrase an old African proverb, "it takes a village to nurture and develop a URM student entering into the STEM community." Through programs such as the Institute for Broadening Participation's Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science and the Ecological Society of America's Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), URM students are successfully identifying and benefitting from meaningful opportunities to develop the professional skills and strategies needed to achieve their academic and career goals. Both programs share a philosophy of professional development, reciprocal mentoring, field trips, internships, employment, research partnerships, collaborations, fellowships, scholarships, grants, and professional meeting travel awards to support URM student retention in STEM. Both programs share a mission to bring more diversity and inclusivity into STEM fields. Both programs share a history of success at facilitating the preparation and advancement of URM students. This success has been documented with the multitude of URM students that have matriculated through the programs and are now actively engaged in the pursuit of advanced degrees in STEM or entering the STEM workforce. Anonymous surveys from

  8. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge-Paul Eholié

    2012-08-01

    African proverb states that the growth of a deep-rooted tree cannot be stopped. Our tree is well rooted in existing field experience and is, therefore, expected to grow. In order for us to let it grow, long-term cost-effectiveness approach and life-saving evidence-based programming should replace short-term budgeting approach.

  9. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  10. Telemedicina y Cirugía Plástica Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cabrera Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La Telemedicina es aplicable a todos los campos médicos, incluyendo la Cirugía. Poca atención se ha prestado a sus aplicaciones diagnósticas, de las que sin embargo, nuestra especialidad, en la que es perfectamente aplicable el antiguo proverbio chino "una imagen vale mil palabras", podría salir muy beneficiada. Esto permitiría una mayor reducción de costes con contundentes mejoras en eficiencia y calidad. Presentamos un modelo de Telemedicina tipo envío y almacenaje (store and forward desarrollado y aplicado en un hospital británico del sureste de Inglaterra desde hace 7 años. Comentamos las ventajas e inconvenientes del sistema y sus posibles aplicaciones en nuestro medio. Es un hecho claro que estas tecnologías van a producir un gran cambio en la sociedad y en el quehacer diario del médico durante la próxima década. Lo que hoy conocemos como Telemedicina, en breve perderá el prefijo "tele" porque la población entenderá este tipo de Medicina y de aplicaciones telemáticas como algo habitual. Sin duda, nuestra especialidad será una de las grandes beneficiadas de la aplicación de estas tecnologías.Telemedicine is available in any medical fields, including Surgery. Poor attention has been showed to diagnosis application. Nevertheless, Plastic Surgery, is a practice in which the application of the old chinese proverb: "A picture is better than thousand words", would be very benefited, reducing costs and improving efficiency and quality. We present a Telemedicine store and forward model developed and worked in a Plastic Surgery Unit of southern England for 7 years. We show system advantages and disvantages and its potential applications in our country. It's clear that this technology will be able to produce a great change in our society and in our daily medical activity in the next years. What today we knows as Telemedicine, in a few time will lose "tele" prefix, because people will understand as usual this kind of Medicine and

  11. A Summary on Buddhism and the History and Culture of Chaoshan%佛教与潮汕历史文化综论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群辉

    2013-01-01

      佛教从南朝刘宋年间传入潮汕,1500多年来历朝历代的基本面貌虽有不同,但对潮汕文化的塑造产生了巨大的影响。佛教传入潮汕后,逐渐适应本地的自然、人文环境,并积极参与到社会文化的发展进程中,与社会经济、道德、习俗等相互渗透、相互作用、相互构筑,从一个重要的侧面塑造了特质鲜明的潮汕文化。从潜藏的思想观念到触目可见的文化事相,潮汕文化无不透露出众多的佛教元素,诸如饮食文化中的素食、建筑文化中的寺塔建筑、方言文化中的佛教俗语、民间艺术中的潮州佛乐、礼仪文化中的佛化葬俗、节俗文化中的佛教节日以及组织文化的善堂等,就是其中荦荦大者。%Buddhism was introduced into Chaoshan Area during the Liu Song years of Southern Dynasty and had an important role in shaping the Chaoshan culture over the past 1500 years, during which China wit-nessed changes with different dynasties. After its arrival, Buddhism gradually adapted to the local natural and human environment, and participated actively in the development process of social culture, and thus created the distinctive characteristics of Chaoshan culture from an important side through mutual penetration, interac-tion, mutual construction with social economic, moral, custom. Whether from its hidden concepts or from some visible cultural events and phenomena, Chaoshan culture always reveals plenty of Buddhist elements, of which most essential points include vegetarian in Chaoshan’s food culture, the temple constructions in architectural culture, the Buddhist proverbs in the dialect culture, the Chaozhou Buddhist music in folk arts, the Buddhist fu-neral custom in etiquette culture, Buddhist festivals in festival culture and the almhouses in organizational cul-ture.

  12. Metaphor, language, and culture Metáfora, linguagem e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kövecses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and language are connected in a myriad ways. Proverbs, rules of turn-taking in conversations, pronouns of power and solidarity, background knowledge to the understanding of conversations, politeness, linguistic relativity, the principle of cooperation, metaphor, metonymy, context, semantic change, discourse, ideology, print culture, oral culture, literacy, sociolinguistics, speech acts, and so forth, are just some of the concepts in which we find obvious connections between culture and language. Several disciplines within the language sciences attempt to analyze, describe, and explain the complex interrelations between the two broad areas. (For a brief and clear survey, see Kramsch 1998. Can we approach this vast variety of topics from a more unified perspective than it is traditionally done and currently available? The present paper focus on such possibilities.A cultura e a língua estão conectadas numa miríade de formas. Provérbios, regras de tomada de turnos na conversação, pronomes indicativos de poder e solidariedade, conhecimento prévio para o entendimento de conversas, polidez, relativismo linguístico, o princípio a cooperação, metáforas, metonímias, contexto, mudança semântica, discurso, ideologia, cultura impressa, cultura oral, letramento, sociolinguística, atos de fala, além de outros, são apenas alguns dos conceitos nos quais encontramos conexões óbvias entre cultura e língua. Várias disciplinas das ciências linguísticas tentam analisar, descrever e explicar as interrelações complexas entre estas duas grandes áreas. (Para uma revisão breve e clara, consultar Kramsch 1998. Será que podemos abordar esta vasta variedade de tópicos de uma perspectiva mais unificada do que tem sido tradicionalmente feito e está geralmente disponível? O presente artigo enfoca tais possibilidades.

  13. THE WISE MAN BIAS OF PRIENE: THE TRADITION ABOUT HIS TIME, HIS BACKGROUND, AND THE MEANING OF HIS NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мирко Обрадовић

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tradition about Bias of Priene, one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece about whom many stories were told, his background and the meaning of his name. In the absence of reliable historical sources, testimonia mostly come from a variety of disparate sources compiled in Hellenistic times or later and we may only suppose that local anecdotes, proverbs and short sayings reflect historical events. The paper provides detailed treatment of the several conflicting traditions about Bias of Priene. Nevertheless, the surviving biographical information about Bias point to the period of the reign of King Croesus and the Persian conquest of Asia Minor (ca. 560–540 BC, as the best time of his political activity. For this reason he might be designated as the sixth-century philosopher and statesman who was a generation younger than most others from among the Seven Sages (e.g. Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mytilene, Periander of Corinth. In the second part of the paper the possible meaning of the name Bias has been examined. This name as a personal name was almost certainly taken from the heroic repertoire of Greek names with an intention of connecting Bias’s family, who obviously belonged to the aristocracy of Priene, with the world of heroes, and through them, with the world of gods. The most famous mythical bearer of the name Bias was the hero Bias, the son of Amythaon and the brother of the legendary seer and healer Melampus. This Bias married Pero, the daughter of Neleus, the founder of Pylos in Messenia, and he had with her glorious offspring, before he settled in Argos. The choice of that heroic name as a personal name in the family of the wise Prienian might not be by chance, and it can be best explained with possible Neleid and Messenian connections generally existing among the local aristocracy in the Ionian poleis of the Archaic period. These connections were quite expected because the Neleids were ubiquitous

  14. 模因论与电影片名翻译%Memetics and the Translation of Movie Title

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳子玉

    2014-01-01

    Memetics is a new theory based on Darwin ’ s evolutionary theory to interpret the law of cultural evolution .As a new subject , it shows strong power of transmissibility since it was born .The scholars from different fields have been combining Memetics with their own subjects in order to gain more inspiration .A movie is the combination of culture , artistry, commercialization, and a growing number of foreign movies has made the translation of movie title very important .In translation of the titles , we always use our mind-set factors such as idioms , allusions and proverbs .This paper attempts to start from the theory of Memetics , to analyze and explain the influence of Meme in the translation of foreign movie title .%模因论( Memetics)是基于达尔文进化论的观点来解释文化进化规律的新理论。作为一门新兴学科,模因论从诞生后就表现出强大的传播性。各个领域的学者们都在将模因论与各自的学科相结合以获得新的启示。电影集文化性、艺术性以及商业性于一体,国外电影的逐渐普及使得影片片名的创作和翻译也显得极其重要。在人们心中早已成为思维定势的成语、典故、俗语等中国传统文化因子常常被借用、模仿和复制在外国电影的片名中。拟从模因论的理论出发,分析、解释模因在外国电影片名翻译中的影响。

  15. VOCABULARY RELATED MOTHERLESS AND FATHERLESS CHILDREN AT TURKISH /TÜRKÇEDE ÖKSÜZ VE YETİM ÇOCUKLARLA İLGİLİ SÖZLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Celal GÜNGÖR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Çocuğun sağlıklı bir birey olarak yetişmesinde ve topluma kazandırılmasında, toplumun çekirdeğini teşkil eden kurum olarak ailenin dolayısıyla ebeveynlerin rolü yadsınamaz. Bir çocuğun yaşayabileceği en büyük acılardan biri hiç şüphesiz anne ve baba şefkati, sevgisinden uzak öksüz ve yetim büyümektir. Orhun Abideleri’nde annesiz anlamıyla bir at için kullanılan öksüz ve ilk İslami eserlerden itibaren kullanılan Arapça yetim karşılığı Türkçenin tarihî metinlerinde, başta atasözleri olmak üzere sözlü kültür ürünlerinde ve Anadolu ağızlarında pek çok kullanım mevcuttur. Çalışma kavramsal ve yapısal inceleme olmak üzere iki kısımdan oluşmaktadır. Kavramsal inceleme kısmında bu kullanımlar hem tematik olarak hem de dönem ve saha açısından tasnif edilirken, yapısal inceleme kısmında ifadeler kelime, kelime grubu ve cümle düzeyindeki birlikler olarak ayrılmıştır. The role of family, constituting the core of society and thereby parents can not be ignored in raising a healthy child to grow into adults and integrate them into the society. One of the biggest tragedya child may suffer is to grow up with the lack of parental love and affection. Orphan, which was used to describe a hourse in Orhun Monuments and a person whose father and mother died in early İslamic works has a lot of uses in historical Turkish texts, mostly in proverbs, in oral culturel Works and in Anatolian dialects. This study consist of two conceptual and structural parts. While the material in conceptual study is classified in terms of both theme and period and field, expressions are divided into word, word group and sentences.

  16. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq. "till eye can see

  17. JAPON ATASÖZLERİNDE GEÇEN BAZI HAYVAN İMGELERİ ÜZERİNE TESPİTLER / DETERMINATIONS ABOUT SEMANTIC FEATURES OF SOME ANIMAL IMAGES IN JAPANESE PROVERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Haluk AKBAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atasözleri, geçmişten günümüze aktarılan, uzun tecrübe ve gözlemlere dayanılarak oluşturulmuş ve toplum tarafından benimsenmiş, özlü öğütler veren kalıplaşmış sözlerdir. Atasözleri, toplumun ortak tecrübe, duygu, düşünce, tutum, davranış, dünya görüşü, inanç ve kültür yapısını yansıtır.Bu çalışma, Japon atasözlerinde hayvan imgelerinin nasıl geçtiğini ve bu imgelerin nasıl anlamlandırıldığını genel hatlarıyla ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Japon atasözlerinde, anlatıma canlılık ve güç kazandırmak için çeşitli metaforlara (benzetme ve aktarmalara başvurulduğu görülmektedir. Atasözlerinde sıklıkla kullanılan metaforlardan bir kısmını ise zoonimler (hayvan imgelerine dayanan ifadeler oluşturmaktadır. Bu makalede, Japon atasözleri taranmış; hayvan imgelerine ilişkin atasözleri derlenerek bu bağlamda değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. 

  18. On Wisdom Education of the Ancient Israelites as Revealed inProverbs ofthe Hebrew Bible%从《圣经·箴言》看古代以色列民族的智慧教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滟波

    2016-01-01

    《希伯来圣经》是犹太民族的核心经典,蕴藏着丰富的教育思想资源,培育了无数推动人类文明进程的伟人.其中的《箴言》视智慧为一切美德的基础,其智慧教育主要体现在对年轻人追求智慧、孝敬父母、谨言慎行、仁义宽厚和勤勉精进等品德的重视和培养.追求智慧是成就一切美德的基础;孝敬父母是和谐人伦关系的智慧;谨言慎行是待人处事的智慧;仁义宽厚是为人处世的智慧;勤勉精进则是自我发展的智慧.教育者应该以培养年轻人具备这些美善的品德为教育目标.唯此,我们的教育对象才能真正成为拥有理想人格和完美人性的"完整的人".

  19. Lise öğrencilerinin atasözlerini kavrama düzeyleri üzerine nitel bir araştırma / A qualitative study on high school students’ proverbs comprehending levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf TEPELİ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ÖZETBireylerin sahip oldukları dili ve kültürü edinebilmesi ve bunu etkili bir şekilde kullanabilmesi için öncelikle o dil ve kültürü tanıması gerekmektedir. Türk kültürünün en önemli unsurlarından biri atasözleridir. Atasözleri söyleyişi ve fikirleri kuvvetlendirme, birkaç cümle ile etkili metinler oluşturabilme açısından konuşma ve yazma eğitiminde; ilgi ve merak uyandırma açısından dinleme eğitiminde; metinleri daha anlamlı hâle getirip vurgu ve tonlamayı kolaylaştırma açısından okuma eğitiminde kullanılabilecek ürünlerdir. Bu yüzden dil öğretiminde ve değer aktarımında atasözlerinden yararlanmanın gerekliliği kabul edilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Türk Edebiyatı ile Dil ve Anlatım ders kitaplarında geçen atasözlerini öğrencilerin kavrama düzeyleri araştırılmış, atasözlerinin öğretiminde ortaya çıkan eksiklikler belirlenmeye çalışılmış ve bunlarla ilgili çözüm önerileri sunulmuştur. Araştırmada nitel araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunda, Kütahya il merkezinde öğrenim gören dokuz öğrenci bulunmaktadır. Araştırma verileri yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği ile toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma bulgulara göre, lise öğrencileri atasözlerinin öğüt verici yönüne dikkat çekmişlerdir. Öğrencilerin çoğu günlük konuşmalarda -yeri geldiğinde- atasözlerinden yararlandıklarını belirtmiştir.

  20. Team networking in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Spruyt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  1. Il metodo della fisica e le problematiche della biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the ancient Hermetic aphorism solve et coagula, we investigate the nature of the interface between physics and biology by moving up and down the different temporal and spatial scales which enter the description of natural phenomena. Various indications seem to support both the existence of such an interface and the possibility of finding methods, languages, and targets shared by such two disciplines. However, this possibility becomes remote if one moves further and further from the microscopic level of atoms and molecules (and, correspondingly, of molecular biology. We conclude that the biologically founded epistemology proposed by Maturana and Varela as well as cultural anthropology and sociology cannot yet be treated with the methodology of physics.

  2. In Search of Cultural Universals: Translation Universals. Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the world is disclosed under various shapes, among which language is the best representative. Specific to humans, it renders feelings and thoughts concerning different communication contexts where words become dynamic primitives endowed with meanings, which recreate themes and reconfigure space and time as universal coordinates. The main objective of the paper is to provide a tentative analysis of the way in which translation universals are manifest in translating proverbs and sayings in the short novels Popa Tanda (Pope Tanda and Moara cu Noroc (The Lucky Mill by Ioan Slavici.

  3. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    OpenAIRE

    Gopolang H. Sekano; Maake J. Masango

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa e...

  4. CONCEPT OF «TRUTH» (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chongyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a linguistic-cultural study of the concept of TRUTH in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. The concept of TRUTH is an important part of Russian national consciousness and is especially fully disclosed in the proverbial fund of the Russian language. The study of paremiological content of the concept of TRUTH is based on the texts of the National corpus of Russian language. It is noted, that God's Truth is one thing, but the Truth of life is another thing. In the second case, a person has to choose between truth and untruth. This antonymy is present in many of the proverbs: «To live true – means to distance from people, to live untrue means to anger the God». But in many Russian Proverbs there is a duality of consciousness: «One can’t live without truth as well as with truth», «One doesn't want to live with untruth and can’t live with truth». Moreover, it is noted that truth can be used for selfish purposes: «Truth is like a chained dog: it will bite whom it is released for». Thus, proverbs and sayings reflect the existence of different types of attitude of Russian people to the truth. Analysis of the materials allows to mark the following conceptual features of the truth: 1. Truth of the divinity. 2. Truth is goodness, light, frankness, integrity, heroism. 3. Truth of the «earth»: a Truth is dangerous; b There is no Truth on earth; it is weak; it can be bought. 4. It is hard to live on the earth without truth; it is necessary to tell the truth. 

  5. Matthias Neuenhofer: Videos 1988-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    sorts of meanings” that might be read from the quoted aphorism, with a consistency which is rare within the media arts field in general and which he early on made part of his working method. This entails renouncing the use of a video camera while simultaneously integrating the obvious self...... and perspectives: The coincidence of self and external reference could still be found only within the 'frame' of an abstract but associative, a closed and yet ultimately open, ‘infinitesimal’ aesthetics[1] – an aesthetic inherent in the medium itself by coupling its elementary components, the input and the output...... is the prerequisite for the displayed mastery of the slow feedback ‘run’, entailing the wealth of forms and their ‘growth’ potential. Technically and perceptually it flows into a continuum, a perpetuum mmobile, in which the editing cuts and interruptions remain only important as the dramatic accentuations...

  6. Do Not Cry for Me, Confucius: The Reconstruction of Chinese Female Identity During the Cultural Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese women were portrayed as delicate and submissive. The most famous proverbs prevailed in imperial China were “A woman without knowledge is a woman of virtue” and “It is the law of nature that woman should be held under the dominance of man.” Indeed, the rule of surviving in a society for any ancient Chinese women was “three obedience and four virtues”: a woman had to be obedient to her father before marriage, to her husband after marriage and to her son after her husband's d...

  7. Arte y religión en Schopenhauer: de la necesidad metafísica a la justificación estética de la existencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ruiz Callejón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I analyze the concept of «need for metaphysics» and its relationship to art and to the author’s project of philosophy.

  8. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    L. van Rooyen; Le Roux, J

    2000-01-01

    According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life st...

  9. Can the "Peasant" Speak? Forging Dialogues in a Nineteenth-Century Legend Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Pooley, William

    2010-01-01

    The folklore collections amassed by Jean-François Bladé in nineteenth-century southwestern France are problematic for modern readers. Bladé's legacy includes a confusing combination of poorly received historical works and unimportant short stories as well as the large collections of proverbs, songs, and narratives that he collected in his native Gascony. No writer has ever attempted to study any of Bladé's informants in detail, not even his most famous narrator, the illiterate and "defiant" G...

  10. The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers. Assurance: grk. Hupostasis meaning: full and sustained confidence and trust; unwavering conviction. There is a favourite Ghanaian proverb which says "if a naked man says he will clothe you, listen to him quietly". Before someone could assure you of something, he must be self-reliant or independent. Christ Jesus has assured His followers because He is capable, has done it before, continues to do it and will do it. Isaiah 50:4-9a; talks about the qualif...

  11. The Driving Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    There is a popular aphorism in China,"The third-class enterprise produces products,the second-class creates brands,and the first-class develops standards".This shows that Standardization has been heavily emphasized in China.As the super large govemment-owned enterprise,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) bears the mission of providing public energy and implementing social responsibility with the construction and operation of national power grid as its core business,SGCC has been always paying great attention to the standardization work since its establishment,and made outstanding achievements in both standardization and corporate development,ranked 7th in the FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 in 2011.

  12. La cigüeña en las literaturas populares francesa y española

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Muñoz, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Estudio de la presencia de la cigüeña en varios géneros de las literaturas populares francesa y española (fábulas, coplas, adivinanzas, refranes), con el objeto de descubrir las peculiaridades y la simbología de este animal, así como la cultura popular que ha servido de fuente de inspiración. Study of the presence of stork in several of the genres in French and Spanish popular literatures (fables, songs, riddles, proverbs) in order to show up the particular characteristics and the symbols ...

  13. The Gull Sees Farthest Who Flies Highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirri, Anthony N.

    2005-04-01

    The proverb from Richard Bach's book Jonathan Livingston Seagull expresses the theme that he in life who thinks and acts ahead of the flock lives live to the fullest and enjoys the freedom that is the very nature of being. This keynote address will give examples of three noted professionals who were not content to make small improvements in technology but strove to make giant leaps. Their work became the driving force for those of us who became their followers in seeking fulfillment from our professional lives.

  14. Le lion, l’étoile y l’hélice: estudio descriptivo de la metáfora en textos técnicos franceses del ámbito de la automoción y de su traducción al español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez Gutiérrez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical texts are usually character- ized by the use of terminology, and they are said to be clear, concise, precise and objec- tive. It is terminology which is normally considered one of the most important diffi- culties to understand specialized concepts because they are expressed by means of this terminology. Nevertheless, there are other linguistic and cognitive elements which are frequently used to express specialized con- cepts, for instance, metaphors. In this paper we aim to analyze the use of cognitive met- aphors in a corpus of French semi- specialized technical texts and to consider whether the use of these metaphors could be a problem should these metaphors have to be translated into Spanish.

  15. A New Computational Schema for Euphonic Conjunctions in Sanskrit Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rama, N

    2009-01-01

    Automated language processing is central to the drive to enable facilitated referencing of increasingly available Sanskrit E texts. The first step towards processing Sanskrit text involves the handling of Sanskrit compound words that are an integral part of Sanskrit texts. This firstly necessitates the processing of euphonic conjunctions or sandhis, which are points in words or between words, at which adjacent letters coalesce and transform. The ancient Sanskrit grammarian Panini's codification of the Sanskrit grammar is the accepted authority in the subject. His famed sutras or aphorisms, numbering approximately four thousand, tersely, precisely and comprehensively codify the rules of the grammar, including all the rules pertaining to sandhis. This work presents a fresh new approach to processing sandhis in terms of a computational schema. This new computational model is based on Panini's complex codification of the rules of grammar. The model has simple beginnings and is yet powerful, comprehensive and comp...

  16. Degree of nutrient consumption as an aging index of upwelling or vertically mixed water in the northern Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chentung Arthur; HSING Liyu

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the relative aging status ofupwelled or vertically mixed water in the northern Taiwan Strait, a recently developed method of calcularing the degree of nutrient consumption (DNC) was employed. Upwelling was detected at a water depth of about 75m in summer. Bottom waters in the aphoric zone and newly-upwelled waters in the euphoric zone were found to be low in terms of their DNC. In general, a low DNC was noted alongside the other traditional upwelling indicators, such as lower temperature and degree of oxygen saturation, but higher salinity, apparent oxygen utilization, nutrient contents and chlorophyll-a. Enhanced vertical mixing,but without an apparent upwelling signal, was detected near the same location in winter.

  17. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving towards a knowledge economy: an economy in which the application of knowledge replaces the importance of capital, raw materials, and labor as the main means of production. He suggests that knowledge...

  18. 轻松一刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓敏

    2008-01-01

    Does the dog know the proverb,too? A little boy did not like the look of the barking dog."It’s all right."said a gentleman."Don’t be afraid. Din’t you know the proverb‘Barking dogs don’t bite’?""Ah, yes."answered the little boy."I know the proverb, but does the dog know the proverb, too?"

  19. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  20. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  1. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  2. "They're gonna explain to us what makes a cube a cube?" Geometrical properties as contingent achievement of sequentially ordered child-centered mathematics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Gardener, Rod

    2012-09-01

    In mathematics education, there is a continuing debate about the nature of mathematics, which some claim to be an objective science, whereas others note its socially and individually constructed nature. From a strict cultural-historical perspective, the objective and subjective sides of mathematics are but manifestations of a higher-order phenomenon that may be summarized by the aphorism that mind is in society to the extent that society is in the mind. In this study, we show, drawing on exemplifying materials from a second-grade unit on three-dimensional geometry, how mathematics manifests itself both as objective science all the while being subjectively produced. A particular three-turn interactional sequence comes to play a central role. We conclude by re-assigning a positive role to a much-maligned sequentially ordered conversational routine.

  3. İLERİ DÜZEY YABANCI UYRUKLU ÖĞRENCİLERİN ZORLANDIKLARI KÜLTÜREL DİL UNSURLARININ TESPİTİ VE SINIFLANDIRILMASI / THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURAL LANGUAGE ELEMENTS THAT GIVE DIFFICULTIES TO ADVANCED FOREIGN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice SEYMEN

    2015-09-01

    da Türkçenin anlatım gücünün oldukça yüksek olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. / Although the teaching of Turkish as a second language and as a foreign language shows similarities in many areas, there is a major difference between them. The social contexts and cultural dimension of the language come to the fore if it is learned as a second language; because, the language is learnt in that culture as a second language. Thus, the people who have a second language are more advantageous than the other who learns the same one as foreign language. In this study, it is aimed to identify and classify the language usage of 10 foreign undergraduate students in ÇOMÜ. The study was designed as a case study. Data of the study is obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with advanced foreign students and diaries that were kept for 30 days of their lives. In the study, 1165 expressions were reflected into the diaries of advanced foreign students. According to the analyses conducted by three experts in the area, the most difficult expressions that give difficulties to the students are idioms (f= 458, allusion (f = 288, metonymy (f = 166 and double-entendre (f=105. Apart from these, students have faced some figures of speech in the daily life such as hyperbole, simile, metaphor, identification, kind assumption, proverbs, repetition, inquiry, interjection, symmetry, open metaphor, amphibology and riddles. This case has suggested that the literary language should be also used along with idioms, proverbs and expressions in the teaching of the second language. In the interviews conducted, it has been indicated that the language of Turkish is rich in terms of the idioms and the advance foreign students always face these idioms, they are frequently surprised by the sarcastic use of the language and sometimes ridiculed by the misunderstanding

  4. ON “JUSTICE IS THE BASIS OF PROPERTY” “ADALET MÜLKÜN TEMELİDİR” ÖZDEYİŞİ ÜZERİNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ass. Prof. Dr. Abdullah BAĞDEMİR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The word property together with the meanings ofhouse, shop, land and similiar immovable goods or wholeterritories under the sovereignty of a state, country isused in the aphorism “Justice is the basis of property” asstate. Mülk sözcüğü ‘ev, dükkan, arazi vb. tasınmazmal’ veya ‘devletin egemenliği altında bulunantoprakların bütünü, ülke’ anlamında kullanılmaklabirlikte “Adalet mülkün temelidir” özdeyisinde mülksözcüğü ‘devlet’ anlamında kullanılmıstır.

  5. The dynamic and ever-changing volcanic nature of Iceland -An outdoor laboratory for education on natural processes and the human impacts on them-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    "Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand" (Chinese Proverb). Throughout the global history fundamental knowledge on utilizing natural resources, nowadays known as ecoliteracy, was passed on to next generations by our ancestors. Nevertheless, their practices were often unsustainable and lead directly or indirectly to severe ecosystem degradation. Nowadays, overexploitation of natural resources is still a global main driver for ecological degradation, water quality decrease and climate change. While ecoliteracy is still an essential knowledge, the societal structures required to maintain the knowledge have diminished. Today, about 80% of the population in Western countries lives in urban areas dominated by concrete structures with frequently only isolated green spaces. Environmental education is dominated by theoretical concepts taught using a wide range of multimedia technologies to simulate direct experiences of natural processes. Nevertheless, these technologies can only provide a superficial insight into the functioning of natural processes. Only direct on-sight investigations can provide a thorough experience of the dynamic, ever-changing environmental processes. Iceland is a 103,000 km2 large island, located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge just south of the Arctic Circle. In that area the earth crust is only a few km thick, leading to frequent volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. Due to the long winter and the wet climate glaciers formed on all major peaks and cover 11% of the island. Most riverbeds are in their pristine state and water quality is in general excellent. The Icelandic nature may look pristine but is indeed severely degraded. Unsustainable landuse, namely deforestation and overgrazing, in an environment characterized by harsh winters and volcanic activities had devastating effects on the nature. Since settlement 1100 years ago 40% of its vegetation and soil have been lost. Soil conservation and

  6. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  7. Esperanto Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fiedler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the phrasicon of Esperanto, i.e. the inventory of idioms, phrases, proverbs, catchphrases and other items of pre-fabricated speech that are stored in speakers' mental lexicon. On the basis of origins, Esperanto phraseology can be classified into three groups: First, many phraseological units have entered the language through various other languages. This group includes classical loan translations especially from the Bible as well as ad-hoc loans introduced by speakers from their mother tongues more or less spontaneously. Secondly, there is a group of planned, i.e. consciously created, phraseological units. They mainly go back to Zamenhof, the initiator of the language, who published an Esperanto Proverb Collection (Proverbaro Esperanta in 1910. Thirdly, there are phraseological units which have their origin in the language and the cultural life of the speech community. The paper will show that the planned language Esperanto, with its agglutinative character, free word order and flexible word formation, possesses the prerequisites for creating stylistically appealing and catchy phraseological units. An analysis of literary and journalistic texts as well as oral communication in Esperanto reveals that its phraseology is widely used and that authors like to modify phrases and idioms according to the textual situation. The use of phraseological units proves that Esperanto is a living language. Phraseology can be considered a criterion for assessing the successful development of the planned language system from a project to a full-fledged language. It demonstrates the complexity of Esperanto culture.

  8. Erste Annäherung einer Hermeneutik des משׁﬥ in alttestamentlichen Schriften mit Überlegungen zur Rezeption dieses Begriffes in den neutestamentlichen Evangelien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    Compared to the frequent use of the word παραβολή in the Septuagint and the Synoptic Gospels the absence of this term in the Gospel of John prompted this investigation of the hermeneutic of the Hebrew משל I in accordance with its Greek translation in the Septuagint as παραβολή and παροιμία...... respectively. Etymologically משל I has several meanings: "proverb", "byword", "reproach" and "parable". Despite these different meanings coherence can still be found within the hermeneutical setting of the word, where it seems to signify either a positive or negative relationship between Yahweh and Israel....... In the negative sense of the word it appears as "proverb", "byword" or "reproach" indicating a broken relationship between Yahweh and Israel caused by disobedience to the Word of the Covenant. In the positive sense of the word it indicates a manifest and unique relationship between Yahweh and the one speaking...

  9. The Use of Proverbial Ideophones in Anaang, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoro Michael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This  research centres on Anaang1 proverbial ideophones and its relevance in communication in. Data for this work was gathered during several field trips undertaken to the four speech communities of Anaang to collect data on Anaang folklore, for the on-going research on the Lower Cross Languages Development Project  (LCLDP sponsored by the Linguistics Department of the University of Uyo, for the documentation and revitalization of  the endangered  languages in the Cross River Area.  A vast number of data on proverbs were recorded during  interview with the people on a folk session. From the recordings, data on proverbial ideophones were elicited and used for this work. This paper adopts the theoretical framework of Speech Acts theory for analysis. It has been observed that Anaang proverbial  ideophones are rich in  the use of style and language, as well as  literal and contextual  techniques. The contents as well as the contexts are carefully selected to reflect the socio-cultural background of the people. The application of proverbial ideophone is a special skill in speech, and requires a clear  knowledge of the socio-cultural background of the people. This work is therefore, an invaluable foundation for cultural communication in Anaang, Southern Nigeria.Keywords: proverb, ideophone, Anaang, language, communication, culture.

  10. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author’s aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrence in the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text.Keywords: Old Testament; Proverbs; Hermeneutics; The fear of the Lord/Yahweh;  Walter Brueggemann; Paul Ricoeur;  Ignatius of Loyola; Imaginal engagement

  11. Los animales y el cuerpo en el refranero: un análisis semántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Pérez Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste trabajo muestra un análisis de las paremias en español conformadas por sustantivos anatómicos y faunísticos cuya interpretación es metafórica. La propuesta consiste en explicar el sentido de estas expresiones a partir de los marcos semánticos de los sustantivos de ambos dominios, ya que, aunque se ha señalado que este tipo de construcciones no son susceptibles de un análisis componencial, consideramos que, recurriendo a la semántica de marcos, es posible encontrar su motivación semántica. AbstractThis work presents an analysis of some proverbs in Spanish that are built upon anatomic and faunistic nouns, and that have a metaphoric interpretation. The approach consists in explaining these expressions’ meanings using noun semantic frames in both domains. Although there has been pointed out that these constructions can’t be analyzed componentially, we consider that using frame semantics it is possible to find their semantic motivation.Key words: proverb – metaphor – anatomic domain – faunistic domain

  12. Rare Germplasm Resources of Biology of Agriculture in Yunnan Province and Its Peripheral Area%云南及周边地区稀有农业生物种质资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑殿升; 高爱农; 李立会; 刘旭

    2013-01-01

    “云南及周边地区生物资源调查”项目于2006-2011年,对云南省31个县、四川省8个县和西藏自治区2个县的农业生物资源进行了系统调查.系统调查的41个县的地形、地貌十分多样,气候类型很多,有“一山有四季,十里不同天”的说法.加之,这些县份都集居有少数民族,少数民族有各自的传统文化和生活习俗,从而赋予了农业生物资源丰富的民族文化内涵.正因为这里的多样性气候和各异的民族文化,造就了丰富的农业生物资源.通过调查获得了大量基础数据和信息,收集到5300多份农业生物种质资源,其中有一批稀有种质资源,这些稀有种质资源对相应农业生物的起源进化和系统分类研究,以及新品种选育都具有重要利用价值.%From 2006 to 2011 ,the project of "investigation of biological resources in Yunnan province and its peripheral area" has been carried out,which has conducted a systematic survey on agricultural biological resources of 31 counties in Yunnan province,8 counties in Sichuan province,and 2 counties in Tibet autonomous region. The terrains and landforms in the 41 counties investigated are plenty diverse,so does the climate,which is described as a proverb that is ' there are four seasons at the same mountains, and five miles in the different weathers'. In additions , these counties are the concentrative areas inhabited by minority peoples who possess their own traditional culture and life habitudes, which has endued the biological resources of agriculture with abundant connotations of nationality cultures. The different climates and diverse traditional cultures have resulted in abundant biological resources of agriculture. Many of basic data and information, and over 5300 accessions of biological germplasm resources of agriculture have been obtained. Some of them are rare germplasm resources, which has important value in appropriate research on origin, evolution, and

  13. Plant-Lore with Reference to Muslim Folksong in Association with Human Perception of Plants in Agricultural and Horticultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. AHMED

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Muslims in the Manipur valley are a Manipuri speaking community. The study of folksong texts of Muslims in Manipur is a parameter for exploring native plant resources which certainly help to take conservation steps by examining the way of the human perception of plants. Man-plant interaction in agricultural as well as horticultural practices unfolds human dependence on plants in their various functions leading to a comfortable living. Some plants are used directly by men without any process, while some are selectively avoided. Tapping off heritage of ethnobotanical lore has been practiced by Muslims, conserving Pogostemon purpurascens Dalz in many graveyard for its religious significance. It has been proved that some plants are prevalent in the human language (proverbs, folksong, similies etc. to make sense of their expression.

  14. "As mulheres voam com seus maridos": a experiência da diáspora palestina e as relações de gênero

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    Denise Fagundes Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, proponho uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e as formas de organização da experiência imigratória contemporânea no bojo da experiência diaspórica dos palestinos. Segundo um provérbio árabe, coletado em trabalho de campo, "as mulheres voam com seus maridos". A explicação se refere a um funcionamento peculiar da vida da família árabe que recebe as noras na unidade doméstica do marido, e, por conseguinte, essa unidade é também a do pai do marido. Foi através desse provérbio que tive acesso a um comentário nativo sobre o "ir e vir" de esposas da Palestina ou de outras cidades para residir na cidade do Chuí (RS e de lá para outras localidades. No mundo pós-colonial, as mulheres se converteram em potentes símbolos de identidade de sociedades e nações. As mulheres islâmicas e, em especial, as palestinas se encontram dentro desse debate ideológico sobre a integridade e autenticidade cultural. Essa fala proverbial nos dá acesso a diferentes pontos de vista sobre os dispositivos culturais que presidem esses fluxos e nos exige uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e o modo como analisamos o protagonismo das mulheres muçulmanas.This article proposes a reflection about gender relations and the forms of organization of contemporary Palestinian immigrants' experience. According to an Arabian proverb, collected during fieldwork, "the women fly with their husbands". The explanation refers to a kinship structure through which daughters-in-law come to live in the husband's father's domestic unit. This proverb reveals some aspects about the "coming and going" of Palestinian wives who reside or come from other localities to settle in Chui city. In the post-colonial era, women were converted in powerful identity symbols. Islamic women, specially Palestinians women, are part of a ideological debate about cultural integrity and authenticity. That proverb gives us access to different viewpoints on the cultural

  15. Physical punishment: an unnecessary risk to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, C

    1997-10-01

    Using physical punishment to control, guide or correct the behavior of children has long been practised in Western culture. "Spare the rod and spoil the child," recite its advocates, both misquoting and misinterpreting the biblical proverb. In recent years, child care experts, health care practitioners and parents have begun questioning the practice of physical punishment and considering its role in child abuse. Child abuse, a form of family violence, is a major public health issue with far-reaching effects and costs and many implications for health policy, prevention and promotion strategies. Because nurses are often called upon to provide guidance and advice on parenting and discipline, we should be aware of the issues and risks of physically punishing children. PMID:9369549

  16. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  17. THE SOCIAL ECONOMY A STEP TOWARD CREATIVITY

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    Daniela Vîrjan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The social economy gives people the opportunity to put their heads together and unleash your imagination and creativity to create goods and services that meet the real needs of the community. The social economy which supports the classical economics no longer could I give any chance to earn a living and to this end they shall endeavor to produce a good or provide a service to contribute to the smooth conduct of economic and social activity and not Finally the individual welfare. A Romanian proverb says "small stump fell great oaks" in this social economy will eventually provide opportunities for all people who want to get involved in promoting and developing it and thus meet the needs of individuals at a highest level.

  18. [What did pigs look like in the Middle Ages?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H

    2006-01-01

    The conformation of medieval swine is less well documented by written reports or osteological states. This paper evaluates the conformation of medieval pigs from about 140 pictures of various sources (books of hours, misericords, illustration of bibles text or proverbs, sculptures etc.). The pictures demonstrate that medieval pigs mainly were long legged, slender, razor backed, bristly with long snouts and prick ears (Tab. 1) well adapted for herding in forests and waste land. In mediterranean countries in early and high Middle Ages as well as in some regions of France and England in the late Middle Ages compact animals with shorts snouts and lopears were depicted. Probably these typs resulted from other housing and feeding conditions (stall feeding with wastes from fields, gardens, kitchen etc.). Medieval pigs were one-coloured white, grey, black and sometimes red, pictures from saddle-back animals came from Italy or south Germany. PMID:16475550

  19. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  20. The elements of Turkish folk culture of Âşık Deryâmî's poems

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    Erol Eroğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Âşık Deryâmî is one of the representatives of minstrel literature of the 20th century. Like his predescessor and contemporary minstrels, he lived as a member of ordinary people, and naturally, grew up with folk culture. The main purpose of this study is to examine the folk culture elements that take place in Minstrel Deryâmi’s poems. To achieve this goal books about Deryâmî hasbeen scanned with great care; proverbs, idioms, place names, plant names, local sayings, beliefs, occupations, folk poets and minstrels, prayers, curses, religious motives, relatiosships, musical instruments, fairy-tale motives etc. in books have been struggled to examine. The datas have been shown in tables. It has been brought out that two indispensible words “rose” and “nightingale” of both divan literature and folk literature are mostly used in Deryâmî’s poems.

  1. Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    Welcome to the 16th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming -- ICFP'11. The picture, on the front cover, is of Mount Fuji, seen from the 20th floor of the National Institute of Informatics (NII). It was taken by Sebastian Fischer in January 2011. In Japanese, the characters...... "human" and "lambda" have a similar shape, and the text is a combination of famous Japanese proverbs where all occurrences of "human" have been replaced by "lambda". It translates as follows: •Lambda has a history •Lambda exists in the place where virtue is •Respect heaven and love lambda •One lambda...... research papers, 8 functional pearls, and 12 experience reports. The Program Committee selected 33 research papers (1/3), 2 functional pearls (1/4), and 3 experience reports (1/4). Out of the 112 submissions, 8 were "forces majeures" (acts of God) related to the earthquake in Japan. Among those, 4 were...

  2. OCCASIONAL PHRASEOLOGICAL SYNONYMY

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    Flor Mena Martinez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Just from one type of formal modification, i.e. lexical substitution, various semantic relationships between the the original phraseological unit (PhU and the modified occurrence (MPhU can be derived. We cannot rely on the semantic connection between the elements which take part in the substitution to describe and identi@ this semantic link. This is so because many times there is no semantic connection between the lexemes involved in the process. The key to interpret the kind of semantic relationship has to be extracted from the contextual clues. Following a cognitive approach, the purpose of this paper is doublefold. First, we focus on the analysis of one type of semantic relation, the synonymy, of creative variations of proverbs; and second, we check the validity of the cognitive approach to identify the procedures, transformations and changes which take part in the process of formal modification which ends in the generation of a synonymous paremiological unit.

  3. Die ambivalente aard van skoonheid en begeerte in die Ou Testament

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    L. Kruger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 45:12 and Proverbs 5:25 are identified as the only two places in the Old Testament where the Hebrew word יפה for beauty is the subject of the two verbs אוה and הפד found in the Tenth Commandment (Deut. 5:21 for covet/crave.' desire. An exegetical comparison between the two text verses shows an attitude towards the desire for beauty which proves to be ethical ambivalent. According to this exegesis the social religious context determines the positive or negative experience or consequences of beauty and desire. This ambivalence introduces another perspective on the Tenth Commandment, as this view cancels any rigid interpretation of coveting: because the integrity of the covenant relationship between God and his people sanctions the acceptability or not of the use of beauty, or the desire of it.

  4. Własności psychometryczne Testu Przysłowie-Metafora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szajer, Katarzyna; Grzywa, Anna; Parnas, Josef;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract thinking belongs to intellectual abilities of the highest level of the evolutionary development, thanks to which operations such a classification, systematisation and comparison are possible.AIM: An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test (TPM) which has been...... used in the German speaking countries since 2001. The TPM was subject to the process of translation--retranslation--travesty in order to be adapted to clinical conditions in Poland. MATERIAL: 60 patients of the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Lublin with diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia...... (according to ICD-10 criteria). METHODS: PANSS and TPM was carried out amongst 15 patients at the beginning of the hospitalisation (the first stage of the research) and among all persons during the remission of syndromes (the second stage). The WAIS-R (PL) was used in the second stage. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  5. A pure quasi-human algorithm for solving the cuboid packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG WenQi; HE Kun

    2009-01-01

    We excavate the wisdom from an old Chinese proverb "gold corner, silver side and strawy void", and further Improve it into "maximum value in diamond cave" for solving the NP-hard cuboid packing problem. We extract, Integrate and formalize the idea by west modern mathematical tools, and propose a pure quasi-human algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on two sets of public benchmarks. For 100 strongly heterogeneous difficult benchmarks, experiments show an average packing utilization of 87.31%, which surpasses current best record reported in the literature by 1.83%. For 47 difficult benchmarks without orientation constraint, experiments show an average volume utilization of 92.05%, which improves current best record reported in the literature by 1.05%.

  6. O papel da imagem na tradição Árabe

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    Aida R. Hanania

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the role of the image in the Arabic tradition, since the “word” has a fundamental importance in its cultural field (which, as time goes on, has revealed itself through both the sentential tale and the koranic word as well as the calligraphic art, and the proverb. For this, it has become an instigative action to analyze its opposite “the image” (even doing it in a straight way of analysis, due to the fact it is not a limitless paper, being as inciting as to investigate its values not only in the religious dimension but also in its communicative, anthropological and cultural dimensions, and by this means organizing a close observational way not only to look at the Arabic reality, under the Islamic protection, but also to include the prior Islamic reality of the Arabic peninsula, where the last huge monotheistic religious was born.

  7. THE WINDOW TO THE WORLD OF THE GOSPEL TRUTH: THE POWER OF RUSSIAN FOLK SPEECH IN NIKOLAI GOGOL'S NOVEL "DEAD SOULS"

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    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imaginative pictures and traits of characters. The more generalized form they take, the more they resemble the traditional folk and poetic formulas. The article also reveals the hidden message of a Russian proverb Russians are good at thinking in hindsight (“Russkiy chelovek zadnim umom krepok”. This characteristic of the Russian mind is the one with which Gogol connects the great destiny of Russia. At the end of his first volume the author resorts to the allegorical form of a parable that plays a key role in the perception of the novel. Transforming into the generalized symbol, its characters accumulate the most significant generic features and qualities of Dead Souls’ characters. The grotesque images of Kifa Mokiyevich and Mokiy Kifovich help to look at the characters of the novel from every possible side, not from one side only that shows them as small-minded and worthles people. Gogol’s characters do not possess definitely disgusting and ugly qualities, which should be eliminated for the sake of people's improvement. Sobakevich's powerful physique and pragmatism, Plushkin's thrift, Manilov's meditativeness and cordiality, as well as Nozdryov's valor and energy are not bad qualities at all and do not deserve condemnation. However, all of them as Gogol used to say are carried to extremes and take perverse and exaggerated forms.

  8. Los Refranes o Proverbios en Romance (1555, de Hernán Núñez, Pinciano

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    Madroñal, Abraham

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The work tries to consider «Refranes o proverbios en romance» by Hernán Núñez, the Greek Commander, a peculiar work that appears in an important moment of the Spanish history and literature. It is also remarkable for being a posthumuous work because his author did not want to publish it in life or to leave it unknown. The study focus on the peculiarities of all type, from the purely linguistic ones to those which have to do with the literature, without forgetting the circunstances of the author and the relationships that this collection of proverbs has with other previous and later ones (Valles, Mal Lara, Correas, Spanish and foreigners. The work genesis, its originalilty and repercussion..., and the editions from the first to the last one (2001 are also studied. Hernán Núñez, Professor at Salamanca University, prestigious philologist at his time, publisher and translator of classical editions, decides to make a collection of proverbs at the end of his life, the most plentiful ever known. So that he does not mind using any procedure to get the proverbs: from buying them to his students to going to other compilations, hand-written or in progress. His relationship with the Erasmism and humanists of the age are shown in these pages which include clearly irreverent, anticlerical and scatological proverbs that shocked later writers.El trabajo pretende considerar la obra Refranes o proverbios en romance (1555 de Hernán Núñez, Comendador Griego, una obra curiosa que aparece en un momento crucial de la historia y de la literatura españolas. Se da la particularidad además de que es obra póstuma porque su autor no quiso que se publicara en vida, pero tampoco que quedara inédita. El estudio se centra en las peculiaridades de todo tipo, desde las puramente lingüísticas a las que tienen que ver con lo literario, sin dejar de considerar las circunstancias personales del autor y las relaciones que este refranero tiene con otros anteriores y

  9. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

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    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  10. A “bitter” end to asthma revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Sheng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Speaking of asthma,one is immediately reminded of incessant coughing and wheezing,and the unsightly scene of phlegm-spitting.A wide range of remedies have been tried,ranging from ancient folklore belief of smelling honey to modem inhaling β2-adrenoceptor agonists,but none proves to have long-lasting effect for this common chronic pulmonary disease.As a Chinese proverb says,a good medicine always tastes bitter.Maybe the problem with those old remedies is that they are not bitter enough.Jokes aside,there may actually be some truth in this,as shown by a recent study from Stephen B.Liggett's laboratory in the University of Maryland (Deshpande et al,2010).In a survey for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM),this group inadvertently identified several types of bitter taste receptors,which are members of the GPCR family.

  11. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  12. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  13. The Horse With Two Saddles-Tamxhwe in Modern Golok

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    Fernanda Pirie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three examples of oral sayings, mainly from the Golok area, used in conflict mediation are presented and discussed in terms of their usage by mediators and how they reflect Tibetan values and life. ''You have to go to Golok to hear real tamxhwe." Conflict resolution is a topic most Amdo Tibetans will readily discuss and the oratorical skills of the zowa (gzu ba 'mediators' are always emphasized. It was in Golok that they were said to be particularly impressive. ''They make displays of oratory during the early stages of the mediation process,'' explained one informant, a respected mediator from Machu (Rma chu. ''They use proverbs and riddles that are difficult to understand. It is like jousting with words, a display of skill.'' He was referring to the representatives of individual parties, but the same skills are even more important for mediators. The more serious and entrenched the conflict—two Amdo tribes may fight for generations over valuable grassland—the more important it is to secure a high-status mediator, often a lama or local leader with a reputation for oratory. The mediators' task is to persuade reluctant parties to compromise and accept compensation in lieu of taking revenge for an injury or killing; this can require a lengthy and elaborate process extending over several days. ''In Golok,'' my informant continued, ''they use tamxhwe; those who can make good speeches and employ it well enjoy high reputations.'' The tamxhwe, it appeared, were like proverbs or riddles and in one or two cases an informant was able to repeat one of them to me, but I was repeatedly told that I had to go to Golok to learn more. The oratorical skills of the Golok mediators obviously had a considerable reputation throughout Amdo, and in the summer of 2004 I went to this large area in southern Qinghai Province to investigate. ...

  14. Interpreting ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 in the light of Psalm 119

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    Philippus J. Botha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that Psalm 37 and Proverbs 1–4 served as sources for the composition of Psalm 1. The emphasis in both donor texts on the righteous people’s inheriting the Promised Land seems to have imprinted also on Psalm 1, a factor that could change our understanding of it. All three contexts in turn played a role in the composition of Psalm 119, but whilst the author of this long psalm also understood the ‘Torah’ of Yahweh as the incarnation of true wisdom, it seems that ‘Torah’ also subsumed the Promised Land for him. The investigation showed that ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 should be understood as an arch-lexeme for all the religious texts its author used to compose, similar to what was the understanding of the author of Psalm 119 a little later.

  15. Learning can be a joy when others are willing to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jane

    2016-08-01

    'He who is afraid of asking is ashamed of learning,' says a Danish proverb. I get the drift, but I think 'he who is afraid of asking is being taught by the wrong person' is nearer the mark. PMID:27484557

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese-French Body-Related Proverbs in Conceptual Metaphor——Take "Heart" (Coeur) as an Example%概念隐喻学视角下汉法肢体谚语对比分析——以“心”(Coeur)为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀英; 侯百耕

    2015-01-01

    概念隐喻学作为隐喻学的一部分具有普遍性,将其应用于汉法肢体谚语的研究是可行的.肢体谚语是很生动的语言集合,根据概念隐喻学的核心理论,即源域与目标域之间隐射关系,肢体谚语中的源域是与身体有关的词汇,目标域是人或与人有关的行为,通过肢体与这些行为的相似性把人类的情感表达出来.汉法两国谚语中都有很多与“心”(coeur)有关的谚语,本文从概念隐喻学的角度分析“心”(Coeur)这一形象所具有的隐喻意义的相似性与相异性,并探究其文化内涵的异同,从而使我们对语言与文化之间的关系有更深入的认识.

  17. The Beowulf manuscript reconsidered: Reading Beowulf in late Anglo-Saxon England

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    L. Viljoen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a hypothetical late Anglo-Saxon audience: a multi-layered Christian community with competing ideologies, dialects and mythologies. It discusses how that audience might have received the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. The immediate textual context of the poem constitutes an intertextual microcosm for Beowulf. The five texts in the codex provide interesting clues to the common concerns, conflicts and interests of its audience. The organizing principle for the grouping of this disparate mixture of Christian and secular texts with Beowulf was not a sense of canonicity or the collating of monuments with an aesthetic autonomy from cultural conditions or social production. They were part of the so-called “popular culture” and provide one key to the “meanings” that interested the late Anglo-Saxon audience, who would delight in the poet=s alliteration, rhythms, word-play, irony and understatement, descriptions, aphorisms and evocation of loss and transience. The poem provided cultural, historical and spiritual data and evoked a debate about pertinent moral issues. The monsters, for instance, are symbolic of problems of identity construction and establish a polarity between “us” and the “Other”, but at the same time question such binary thinking. Finally, the poem works towards an audience identity whose values emerge from the struggle within the poem and therefore also encompass the monstrous, the potentially disruptive, the darkness within B that which the poem attempts to repress.

  18. Decision analysis of treatment choices in the osteochondroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, W H

    1981-01-01

    Physicians tend to decry the lack of data on which they can make decisions. This is commendable, and all should encourage the pursuit of better data and more precise analysis. But decisions must be made, and each physician must deal with what data are available and evaluate them against all the general uncertainties. Equally important are the values that we place on the outcome of treatment. Much of the disagreement among physicians about treatment protocols involves a difference in values. While this is not necessarily bad, it points to the need to consider explicitly the value we place on a result or the morbidity possibly accompanying that result. In the osteochondroses, consideration of values will protect patients from overzealous treatment. Finally, the formality of a decision process should not necessarily modify a plan of treatment based on fundamentally sound principles, intuition, and anecdotal experience. Regardless of which factors represent the basis for an individual surgeon's selection of a particular approach, evaluation of both desirable and undesirable aspects of each alternative prevents impulsive acceptance of the most recently described, often unproven operation. Salter's aphorism: "The decision is more important than the incision," is particularly applicable in treatment of the osteochondroses.

  19. Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able "to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants," one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited papers would equally refer to papers with a medium impact. The Newton hypothesis would be supported if the top-level research more frequently cites previously highly-cited work than that medium-level research cites highly-cited work. Our analysis is based on (i all articles and proceedings papers which were published in 2003 in the life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, and (ii all articles and proceeding papers which were cited within these publications. The results show that highly-cited work in all scientific fields more frequently cites previously highly-cited papers than that medium-cited work cites highly-cited work. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that papers contributing to the scientific progress in a field lean to a larger extent on previously important contributions than papers contributing little. These findings support the Newton hypothesis and call into question the Ortega hypothesis (given our usage of citation counts as a proxy for impact.

  20. “VP成狗”的认知阐释%The Interpretation of VP as a Dog in Cognitive Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军华; 聂纯叶

    2016-01-01

    “狗”的意象图式发展使得流行语中多了大量“狗族”词汇,其中“VP成狗”更是风靡一时,为大众广泛使用“。VP成狗”的发展是隐喻机制作用的结果,它的固定化、语法化与意象图式变化相关。从认知语言学角度出发,概述“VP成狗”的构式来源和演化路径,以及“狗”的意象图式的修正与再建对该构式形成的影响。%With the image schema of dog developing, the words about dog are appearing in the catch⁃words. Among these catchwords, VP as a dog is the most popular word which is widely used by the public. Met⁃aphor mechanism has an important effect on the development of VP as a dog, and its stabilization and grammat⁃icalization are relevant to the change of image schema. This paper summarizes the origin and evolution of the construction VP as a dog, and which effects the revising and reconstructing image schema of dog make in cog⁃nitive linguistics.

  1. Ngaji Rasa dalam Pandangan Komunitas Dayak Indramayu

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    Khaerul Umam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The belief system, in many different aspects, is not created from an empty space. It emerges from many different and extraordinary experiences of human life and has sacred dimension. In practice, however, this belief system needs a medium to be understood and implemented. This research explores the mystical aspect of the belief system among Dayak community in Indramayu by employing field research method. This study shows that Ngaji Rasa is the actualization of the belief system which emerges from the life history of Dayak community in Indramayu among their extraordinary experiences around their world. The doctrine of Ngaji Rasa emphasizes understanding spiritual dimension of the shelf before assessing and judging of others. In addition, include as one principle in Ngaji Rasa is to determine whether one self is ready or not to accept something from others in the relationships between human being and other creatures.  The aphorism of “if being hit was hurt, so do not hit others,” is the principle of Ngaji Rasa in Dayak Indramayu.

  2. SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN SUSHRUTA SAMHITA

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    Singh R.K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita is an Ayurvedic text, by the legendary Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine (Indian traditional medicine, with innovative chapters mainly on surgery. There is a general impression that Sushruta Samhita is only an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text book of surgery. Sushruta Samhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. It still retains the land mark position in the field of surgical texts. In addition to his worldwide known work of historical significance on plastic surgery, he also made similar unique contributions on numerous aspects of medicine, such as fracture and dislocations, urinary stones, skin diseases including leprosy, Pancha Karma (Purification procedures, toxicology, pediatrics, eye diseases, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynaecology, etc. A very limited conceptual work has been performed on the selected chapters of Sushruta Samhita. Therefore a review conceptual study has been carried out on the various surgical concepts of Sushruta Samhita. Outcome of this study shows, Sushruta Samhita is written in the aphorism form and the techniques described in it are eminently in line with technical abilities of the times. It is need of the hour to explore the hidden truth by decoding the versions of the texts.

  3. 外语教育中的隐喻研究述评%A Review of Metaphor Researches in Foreign Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许保芳; 袁凤识

    2014-01-01

    随着应用认知语言学的发展,越来越多的研究者认为应将认知语言学的最新研究成果应用于外语教育之中。但隐喻在外语教育中并没有得到应有的关注。从外语课堂中的隐喻学习研究、隐喻能力研究及外语教育中的隐喻研究方法三个方面,对国内外外语教育中的隐喻研究状况进行评述,供外语教育领域的广大教师和研究者参考,以促进外语教育中的隐喻研究。%With the development of cognitive applied linguistics ,more and more researchers strongly think that we should apply the current cognitive linguistics academic achievements into foreign language education .However ,metaphor has not been given necessary attention in foreign language education . This paper ,from the perspectives of metaphor learning in classroom ,metaphorical competence and met-aphor research methods ,attempts to present an general review of current metaphor researches ,in order to provide research references for the teachers and researchers ,and promote the metaphor research in foreign language education .

  4. Autistic autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Ian

    2009-05-27

    Autism narratives are not just stories or histories, describing a given reality. They are creating the language in which to describe the experience of autism, and hence helping to forge the concepts in which to think autism. This paper focuses on a series of autobiographies that began with Grandin's Emergence. These are often said to show us autism from the 'inside'. The paper proposes that instead they are developing ways to describe experience for which there is little pre-existing language. Wittgenstein has many well-known aphorisms about how we understand other people directly, without inference. They condense what he had found in Wolfgang Köhler's Gestalt Psychology. These phenomena of direct understanding what other people are doing are, Köhler wrote, 'the common property and practice of mankind'. They are not the common property and practice of people with autism. Ordinary language is rich in age-old ways to describe what others are thinking, feeling and so forth. Köhler's phenomena are the bedrock on which such language rests. There is no such discourse for autism, because Köhler's phenomena are absent. But a new discourse is being made up right now, i.e. ways of talking for which the autobiographies serve as working prototypes.

  5. O jogo do PE: luzes examinantes para o além-mundo da Pastoral Educativa EP game: examining lights toward the beyond-world of Educative Pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Corazza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O jogo do PE (Pastoral Educativa: 1 aproveita as quatro partes que compõem Also Sprach Zarathustra, de Nietzsche, para desenhar a própria configuração; 2 utiliza a maioria dos subtítulos de Also Sprach..., sem necessariamente fazer corresponder-lhe o que ali Zaratustra falou; 3 solicita licença para propor a esta fala - pelo amor antigo que lhe tem - outros aforismos, idéias e considerações, mesmo que extemporâneos, para montar o tabuleiro onde possa jogar o PE; 4 entende "jogo" do mesmo modo que Foucault, ou seja, como um conjunto de regras de produção da verdade; 5 descreve esse jogo imediatamente, sem mais delongas.The EP (Educative Pastoral game: 1 makes good use of the four parts which constitute Also Sprach Zarathustra, by Nietzsche, to outline its own configuration; 2 uses most of the subtitles of Also Sprach…, without necessarily making it correspond with what Zarathustra spoke there; 3 asks for permission to propose this speech - due to the old love devoted to it - other aphorisms, ideas and considerations, even if extemporaneous, to build the board where EP (Educative Pastoral game can be played; 4 understands "game" the same way Foucault does, that is, as a set of rules of truth-production; 5 describes this game immediately, without any delay.

  6. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  7. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  8. Norma y uso: las ideas educativas en Juan de Robles / Etymology and use: The educational ideas of Juan de Robles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Camacho

    2014-10-01

    El culto sevillano (1631. This paper focuses on the educational ideals in Robles´s works and the relationships between spelling and teaching of reading. By examining Robles´s pedagogical references, one prominent idea is emphasized: teaching of reading aren´t encouraged by phonetic spelling. Consequently, new letters of the Spanish alphabet and new alphabetical order have been rejected. The grammarians who defended phonetic spelling assert the new letters help Spanish children to learn to read faster and better than the traditional literacy. Letter names and alphabetical order are also changed to facilitate literacy learning. In contrast, traditional alphabet and etymological spelling are reclaimed by Juan de Robles for teaching reading and writing, because the phonetic spelling had slowed down the learning of literacy. Robles also criticizes Jesuit schools and Ratio Studiorum. The primacy of Spanish over Latin and the use of tales and proverbs for education are the major discrepancies between Robles and Jesuit pedagogy. The results of this paper show that pedagogic arguments that link Spanish grammar and spelling with teaching of reading and writing in the Spanish Golden Century are incorporated into the controversy over Spanish orthography reform also to defend traditional spelling around the first third of the seventeenth century.

  9. Reflections on the Mediostructure in Special-Field Dictionaries. Also According to the Example of the Dictionary for Lexicography and Dictionary Research *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    One who runs alone cannot be outrun by another(Ethiopian proverb

    Abstract: The central question posed in this contribution is: What constitutes the differencebetween a special-field dictionary article giving a cross-reference with a fixed textual referenceposition on the one hand, and a special-field dictionary article giving a cross-reference without afixed reference position on the other, with regard to systematic cross-referencing? Because this veryspecial type of question can only be answered systematically with reference to a theory of themediostructure, some necessary terms are firstly introduced by means of illustrative analyses ofspecial-field dictionary articles giving cross-references, such as e.g. homogeneously externally orientateddictionary article, heterogeneously externally orientated dictionary article, item identifying the starting-point of the reference, item giving the reference, item giving a reference marker, mediostructural articlenetwork, the user’s pre-knowledge relevant to the reference, position-bound reference, item-bound reference,single and expanded domain for the starting-point for the reference, mediostructural selection and manymore. On the basis of various analyses of different special-field dictionary articles with variableand fixed reference positions, a picture evolves which comes close to the situation where the questionat the beginning of the contribution can be answered as follows: When the results of an appropriatemediostructural selection are presented by means of the application of the method of itemboundreference in special-field dictionaries with a variable reference position, and also when thishappens by means of the application of the method of position-bound reference in special-fielddictionaries with a fixed reference position, it is possible in principle that a systematic referenceorientated to the dictionary functions can result. It can continuously be established, however, thatin

  10. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  11. Wood for the trees

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    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  12. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

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    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  13. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  14. The best advice I ever got.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wademan, Daisy

    2005-01-01

    A young manager faces an impasse in his career. He goes to see his mentor at the company, who closes the office door, offers the young man a chair, recounts a few war stories, and serves up a few specific pointers about the problem at hand. Then, just as the young manager is getting up to leave, the elder executive adds one small kernel of avuncular wisdom--which the junior manager carries with him through the rest of his career. Such is the nature of business advice. Or is it? The six essays in this article suggest otherwise. Few of the leaders who tell their stories here got their best advice in stereotypical form, as an aphorism or a platitude. For Ogilvy & Mather chief Shelly Lazarus, profound insight came from a remark aimed at relieving the tension of the moment. For Novartis CEO Daniel Vasella, it was an apt comment, made on a snowy day, back when he was a medical resident. For publishing magnate Earl Graves and Starwood Hotels' Barry Sternlicht, advice they received about trust from early bosses took on ever deeper and more practical meaning as their careers progressed. For Goldman Sachs chairman Henry Paulson, Jr., it was as much his father's example as it was a specific piece of advice his father handed down to him. And fashion designer Liz Lange rejects the very notion that there's inherent wisdom in accepting other people's advice. As these stories demonstrate, people find wisdom when they least expect to, and they never really know what piece of advice will transcend the moment, profoundly affecting how they later make decisions, evaluate people, and examine--and reexamine--their own actions. PMID:15697111

  15. A tríade naturalizante na concepção educacional de Pestalozzi e Froebel: homem, Deus e natureza

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    Alessandra Arce

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O presente artigo é resultado da tese de doutoramento que versou a respeito do estudo da idéias de Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 e de Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852. Neste trabalho nosso objetivo é o de apresentar e analisar as idéias que estes autores possuíam sobre o Homem, a Natureza e Deus. Esta triade constitui-se na pedra fundamental de suas teorias educacionais. Para tanto o estudo realizado centra-se sobre duas obras fundamentais de ambos A Educação do Homem - Aforismos de Pestalozzi e A Educação do Homem, de Froebel. A conclusão a que chegamos aponta para o processo de naturalização e mistificação dos três integrantes desta tríade, o que lhe atribuiria um caráter a-histórico e reacionário.Palavras chave: Pestalozzi, Froebel, escolanovismo.   Abstract This article belongs to our doctorate thesis studies, which one analyzed Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 and Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852 educational thoughts. The aim of this article is to present and analyze the ideas of Froebel and Pestalozzi about Man, God and Nature. This triune substantiated author's educational theory. Therefore this study focuses on two fundamental books written by each authors: The Education of Man - Aphorisms from Pestalozzi and The Education of Man from Froebel. The conclusion of this work shows us a comp1etely naturalization and mystification of the triune integrants, which make it not historical and conservative for this century. Key words: Pestalozzi, Froebel, progressive education. 

  16. Urkönig-Urmenscg: il romanticismo politico di novalis ed il katechon del re

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    Giovanni Panno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Faith and Love [Glaube und Liebe] is not only a praise of the monarchy or a collection of great aesthetical aphorisms which belong to the usual definition of Romanticism. This paper aims to recognize the frame of the political thought of NOVALIS through an analysis of SCHMITT’s critique of Romanticism. To understand the figure of King and Queen means to find out their roots in NOVALIS’ conception of the exchange between I and Not I. This contribution focuses on the way in which NOVALIS tries to free Fichtes’ principles of the first Doctrine of Science from their theoretical prison and to apply them to a practical field. NOVALIS’ true Utopia is the achievement of an individual’s capacity to be more than a simple I, through recognizing the internal division of the subject and its necessity to build up a non-subjective relationship to the world. The true identity which exists between Subject and Subject is nothing that can be considered safe for always, rather it bases the giving up of an illusory world-construction. The way NOVALIS intends to avoid the Subject-Object relation and it runs through the death of the illusory world of the I as an abdication in the meaning of PESSOA’s work. To imitate the symbol of the King, who looses his character of temporal power to become a pure soul, which means to be that man, who able to achieve his true nature by letting the Not I become a You.

  17. On conceptual metaphors in Ming dynasty's Opera---A case study of The Peony Pavilion%明代戏曲概念隐喻研究--以《牡丹亭》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓麦茵

    2015-01-01

    By selecting a Ming Dynasty opera The Peony Pavilion as a study subject,this thesis attempts to explore the clas-sification of metaphors from the perspective of Lakoff & Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory in Cognitive Linguistics.The study shows that many types of metaphors can be found in the opera which cover scenery metaphor,people metaphor,emotion metaphor and life metaphor.The combination of these metaphors mutually reinforces the characters and the scenarios in the op-era,explicitly portrays their mental states,and effectively enhances the connotative quality of literary works. The study of met-aphors in the opera The Peony Pavilion is conducive to the appreciation of the rich literary implications of Ming Dynasty's classi-cal operas from a transforming perspective.%以认知语言学中 Lakoff&Johnson 概念隐喻理论为视角,选取明代戏曲《牡丹亭》作为研究对象,讨论其隐喻分类,指出《牡丹亭》中出现的隐喻包括景物隐喻,人类隐喻,情感隐喻和人生隐喻。通过上述隐喻使戏曲人景描写相得益彰,清晰地展现人物的心境,提升文学作品的内涵。对《牡丹亭》隐喻研究有益于从全新视角鉴赏古典明代戏曲的丰富文学意蕴。

  18. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  19. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

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    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  20. A quadrilha e o circo: aspectos linguísticos, discursivos e intertextuais em uma análise comparativa de editoriais de jornal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Freitas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of two metropolitan newspaper editorials, published at the same day and concerning to the same subject: the dossier about the governmental expenses of former Brazilian President Cardoso. Its aim was to analyze the editorials under linguistic and discursive points of view, and to identify intertextual references. The discursive and linguistic analysis was based on the conception of discursive genre by Bakhtin (1992 rescued by Charaudeau (2006 and applied to the genre newspaper editorial, considering the conditions in which it is produced and its instance of enunciation. The analysis was also based on the ideas of Melo (1985, Fuser (2002 and Cheida (2002 to comment the neutrality searched by the editorialist when expressing the newspaper opinion. Intertextual references were identified and classified according to Maia (2006 and Walty and Cury (2005. Proverbs analysis was based on the papers of Rodrigues (2009, Vellasco (2009 and Sande (2009. The results showed linguistic similarities, intertextual references to add a literary aspect or credibility to the texts, critics to the ruling government and search for neutrality in both editorials.

  1. Digging One's Own Grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Krikmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that some points in the explicationof the figurative expression digging one’s own grave via the concept of blending given by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner are problematic: (1 Not understanding the consequences of one’s deeds is an almost universal presuppositionof and impulse or motivation for actualizing any utterance with a forewarning or gloating content (e.g., proverbs, not the singularity characterizing just the expression of grave-digging as such. (2 The inversion of causal and temporal structure is not the case because of metonymic association between the concepts of the grave and death, as a result of which specific causal and temporal order loses any significance. Many synonymous examples can be given in which the image refers to events before the death, between the death and funeral, as well as those after burial. (3 The source domain needs not to be restricted to natural death and modern civilized funerals but should include also the cases of violent deaths, e.g., the scenario of execution and the scenario of hunting and trapping. Preliminarily, a very brief synopsis of the main phases of development of cognitive linguistic theory of metaphor and some favourite examples of blends, used also in previous works, is provided.

  2. "WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT NOW" PROVERBIAL RHETORIC IN THE CHURCHILL-ROOSEVELT CORRESPONDENCE

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    Wolfgang Mieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Both Winston S. Churchill (1874-1965 and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 882-1945 were masters of the English language and effective orators, rallying their people through word and deed to fight as allies against the dictatorial powers during the Second World War. Their public speeches and interviews are replete with proverbs, proverbial expressions, and other phraseologisms. This is also true for their private and secretive letters, messages, memoranda, and telegrams, as can be seen from the materials that Warren F. Kimball edited in the three volumes of Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. The proverbial language, especially metaphorical texts referring to the body, animals, and the military, gives their important communications a lively and humane flavor that illustrates their deep friendship, trust, and support of each other. Frequently used as metaphorical arguments, these proverbial interjections into an otherwise factual epistolary exchange from 1933 to 1945 bear witness to the determination of these two world leaders to win the struggle for a free world.

  3. “Civis romana sum”. La Londra intertestuale di Bernardine Evaristo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Trivellini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bernardine Evaristo’s novel in verse The Emperor’s Babe (2001 features the story of Zuleika, the daughter of Nubian immigrants, who lives in Roman London at the beginning of the third century A.D.. Evaristo’s sources are both classical – Latin poetry, proverbs, mottos, myths, as well as material culture – and modern – for example, Oscar Wilde’s perspective on history informs the revisionist intent of the novel.This article aims to examine the role of quotations and intertextual echoes in the development of the storyline and in the dialectic between past and present. If apparently they contribute to the recreation of the ancient cultural background, at a deeper level, they also engender ironic tensions and parodic effects through discrepancies in tone, style and narrative situations. Moreover, in relation to the protagonist’s gendered and subaltern position, quotations and other references are a crucial aspect of Evaristo’s rewriting of history: by mapping today’s post-imperial and multicultural London on to the Roman city, The Emperor’s Babe subverts the myth of the nation at its roots.

  4. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

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    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  5. Bibliographical Sources on Music Therapy in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onomudo Aluede

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Issues relating to health and healing are quite often very primary in the minds of every Nigerian. This is why in the country, short phrases, sentences and proverbs in appreciation of good health are either constantly said or inscribed on door lintels and vehicles by their owners. The   eminence of health is captured in texts such as: Health is Wealth, When Health is Lost all is Lost, No Sickness No Suffering, Death is a small enemy but Sickness is The Great Destroyer. These comments are indicative of the peoples’ views of illness and its effect on the society. To combat illness, allopathic and other forms of therapies are used. Music without doubt, remains one of such. In this regard, music is employed in diverse ways to obtain healthful and healing consequence by the people. Arising from the above, this paper identifies the works so far done in the area of Music therapy in Nigeria. It is the hope of this researcher that this step will help contemporary scholars and enthusiasts venturing into this field to find resource materials to rely on as they conduct field research and experiments.

  6. Discussion on Horse in the Year of Horse%马年我们一起说说“horse(马)”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁美玲

    2014-01-01

    Horse is a loyal friend of mankind since ancient times. In 2014, we enter the Chinese Lunar Year of the Horse, and the topics of the horse have spring up. This paper, by using methods of comparative study, analyzes the past and present lives of horse from seven aspects including history related to the horse, a variety of English expressions, vocabularies, idioms, proverbs and twisters, horse culture in car logoes, and cultural differences and their causes between Western horse culture and Chinese house culture, so that we can better promote cultural communication and learning.%自古以来,马就是人类忠实的朋友。2014进入中国农历马年,关于马的话题更是如雨后春笋般出现。文章采用对比研究的方法,从与马有关的历史渊源、各种英文表达、英语词汇、习语谚语及歇后语、现代汽车车标中的马文化、中西方马文化差异及其原因等七个方面详细分析了horse(马)的前世今生,从而更好地促进文化交流与学习。

  7. THE EFFECT OF FRENCH ON THE TANZİMAT LİTERATURE AND SERVET-İ FÜNUN ( WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAĞLI

    2012-03-01

    century. Education in both French and Turkish was given in navigation schools, in medicals schools and engineering schools which were opened during the time of Ahmet III; they were rearranged again and were supported by Mahmut III. In the process of arranging books, similar books from Europe were taken as an example. Besides books, encyclopedias were speedily published. The negative influence of French newspapers published in İzmir and Istanbul continued to affect the Turkish language. It is possible to see the words such as madam, museum, operas, committee, modern, fabricator, economics, political and democrat in the first issue of the newspaper called Basiret in 1870. Nouns like restaurant, café, hotel, school, cinema, theatre and patisserie began to appear in commercial and economical domains in the 19th century as well. Lots of new commercial companies in Beyoğlu in Istanbul preferred some French names. It is worth pointing out that French was the most recognized foreign language spoken in those times. The officials of those times were trying to encourage everyone to learn a foreign language keeping in mind the proverb “A man who speaks a language is a man, a man who speaks two languages is worth two men, a man who speaks three is worth all mankind.” For example, the newspaper Mecmua-i Lisan(1898-1900 taught its readers French through translation. During the Tanzimat Period of the Ottoman Empire, when “western literature” was mentioned, French literature was the most acknowledged among all. Almost all of our writers were influenced by French writers when writing their first books. For this reason, most of our writers knew French. For example, Şinasi learned French while working as a secretary at Reşat Bey’s office. Later on, when he went to France, he started to be well known in literature by translating Lamartine’s books. Another example is Ziya Paşa, who knew French and Arabic. He learned French while working at the Palace as a secretary; Ethem

  8. THE EVALUATION OF FOLK CULTURE ELEMENTS INCLUDING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is a total of common values, behaviors and ways of living patterns produced, kept alive, transferred to the next generations orally or written, informal education and concentrating on traditional areas. There is no doubt that transferring folk culture to the next generations will contribute to the protection of national identities against globalization, an inevitable process. The way of its realization is based on education. One of the most important lessons in which folk culture can be transferred to the young generations in primary education is social studies. The aim of this research is to reveal to what extend folk culture elements were included in 4th,5th, 6th, 7th grade social studies textbooks and workbooks. At the end of the research, which was carried out with scanning model and content analysis, it was found that seasonal festivals, children's games, marriage, processing, women's clothing and dress-ornament, dining-food-beverage, Karagoz, proverbs, folk music/instrument, Turkish folk dances, wrestling, and javelin folk culture elements were mostly included in the textbooks. Since social studies is an interdisciplinary field, it was presented with samples that all the elements of folk culture can be included in social studies textbooks.

  9. Chinese-English Translation in Terms of Meme%模因论视域下的英汉翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林福泰

    2015-01-01

    汉语的语言强势模因可以分为四类:网络热点词汇、诗词歌赋和谚语、四字词、常用句式。这四类在英汉翻译过程中可以得到再现,利用旧模因已有的影响力,使译文成为新的模因,扩大了模因的受众,找到新的宿主,这种创新性使译文在适度的同化当中借用和传播汉语语言文化的模因,从而扩大旧模因和新模因的双重传播效果。%The four strong memes in Chinese language are: internet hot words, poets and proverbs, four-character phrases and sentence patterns. These four memes can be used in translation so that the existing strong influence of them can help the translation version become new memes, thus expanding readers and find new hosts. The creation makes translation version borrow and spread Chinese memes in its language and culture, thus expanding the effect of both the old and the new memes.

  10. 不规范的广告语对汉字应用的消极作用%Negative Influence of the Non -standard Advertisement on the Application of the Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖姣

    2016-01-01

    There are a lot of non -standard ads in TV,Internet,books and periodicals,radio and newspapers.These ads use homophonic wrong characters,adopt wrong sentence,distort idioms,abuse of foreign language,use the highest,maltreat com-plex fontand and simplify Chinese and so on.These behaviors have the serious influence on the understanding and mastering of the Chinese characters,idioms,proverbs.We should draw attention into the negative influence of non -standard AD language on the application of the Chinese characters.%在很多电视、网络、书刊、广播、报纸中有很多不规范的广告用语,这些广告用语有滥用同音错别字、采用语病句、篡改成谚语、滥用外文、使用最高级、繁简乱用等表现,这些不规范的广告语已经严重影响到对于汉字、成语、谚语等的理解与掌握。对于这种不规范的广告用语对汉字应用的消极作用应该关注。

  11. BIBLICAL METAPHORS IN LETTERS OF LEV OF OPTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Olegovna Zakharchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first analysis of tropes in the letters of the first Elder Lev (Nagolkin of Optina Pustyn Monastery (Opta’s hermitage – i. e. proverbs, allusions, allegories periphrasis and metaphors. Elder Lev most frequently used such tropes as "the storm of temptations", "the heart field", "happy harvest", "rags of the passions", "the marriage of the soul", "verbal sheep", "soldier of Christ", "spiritual milk", "the mind’s wolf", "a log of pride". One special thing about these tropes is that they blend together severalbiblical quotations and the Gospel images. Both simple and extended metaphors are used, and all the metaphors in the letters of St. Lev of Optina have a special function: they actualize biblical events, describe symbolically the inner world of a person and show the way to the salvation of the soul. It is typical of the Elder to use his own unique tropes, which are very diff erent from the traditional poetic images of the Russian literature of the 19th century.

  12. Democracia racial: o não-dito racista Racial democracy as unspoken racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sales Jr.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Na "democracia racial", o discurso racial entrincheirou-se no discurso "vulgar" (aforismático, passional, informal e privado, por meio da forma do não-dito racista que se consolidou, intimamente ligado às relações "cordiais", paternalistas e patrimonialistas de poder, como um pacto de silêncio entre dominados e dominadores. O não-dito é uma técnica de dizer alguma coisa sem, contudo, aceitar a responsabilidade de tê- la dito, resultando daí a utilização pelo discurso racista de uma diversidade de recursos tais como implícitos, denegações, discursos oblíquos, figuras de linguagem, trocadilhos, chistes, frases feitas, provérbios, piadas e injúria racial, configurando a não-intencionalidade da discriminação racial.In racial democracy, racial discourse entrenched itself in popular speech (aphorismatic, emotive, informal and private by means of the not-said. That discourse, closed tied to paternalist and patrimonial power relationships, is established as a silence pact between dominant and dominated. The not-said is a device to say something without acknowledging the responsibility for saying it. Racist discourse employs several devices, including hidden meanings, ambiguities, figures of speech, jokes, commonplaces, racial insults and proverbs, thus shaping the non-intentional character of racial discrimination.

  13. Bearing the Burden of Native Experience: A Stylistic Approach to Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaleena Dutta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe has made a creative Africanization of the English language in all his literary works. In the process of writing counter-narratives to Euro-centric misrepresentations of Africa, Achebe has successfully harnessed the colonizer’s language to make it bear the burden of his native experience. The present paper proposes to take up the third novel by Achebe, namely Arrow of God (1964 to introspect the different kinds of narrative strategies involved in it. This includes a study of the kind of narrator used, and a survey of the various ways in which the language is maneuvred—through the usage of standard and pidgin English, through linguistic devices like humour, satire and irony, through symbols, proverbs, images, metaphors and songs—in order to capture a vivid picture of Nigeria of the late 1920s, in which the novel is set. In a nutshell, this stylistic criticism aims to illustrate in effect how Achebe creatively extends the frontiers of English language to accommodate the various shades of Nigerian reality within it.

  14. 浅论张爱玲自译小说《金锁记》中的异化策略%Foreignization in Eileen Chang’s Self-translated Novella“the Golden Cangue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石径

    2014-01-01

    如今翻译界已广泛认同异化是文学翻译的发展趋势。张爱玲早在上世纪七十年代初就在自译小说《金锁记》时集中使用了异化的翻译策略,使原作《金锁记》的语言和文化特点在英文译文中得到充分展现。该文综合对比原文和译文,从颜色和声响、成语及俗语、中国文化特色词汇三方面具体分析了异化策略的体现和效果。%That foreignization strategies should be adopted in literature translation is a growing consensus reached by most schol⁃ars in the field. Eileen Chang in her self-translated novella“the Golden Cangue”in the 1970s has put such strategies to use, re⁃producing a translation that fully embodies the language and cultural features of the original. This paper looks into the ways for⁃eignization is implemented by comparing“the Golden Cangue”with its Chinese original work from three perspectives: colors and sounds, idioms and proverbs, and other Chinese cultural-loaded terms.

  15. 旅游西班牙语课堂中的文化导入--以西语社会文化谚语为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩文

    2014-01-01

    With the new tendency of the development of the world’s tourist market, the tourist Spanish classes is more and more important nowadays, whose characters of cultural diversity also demand renovated resources and methods for teaching the language. This article intends to investigate the relationship between the history, the culture and the tourism of Spain through the cultural proverbs. In addition, it offers approaches to the cultural introduction in the practice, in fields like phonetic, lexicon and grammar.%随着世界旅游市场的新发展,旅游西班牙语课程的设置显得日益重要,而该课程的多元文化特色也决定了对教学资源和教学方法的新要求。谚语是文化的载体,语言是文明的窗口。本文试图以西语社会中的文化谚语为切入点,重点梳理西班牙历史、社会文化与旅游业发展三者间的关系,并在课堂教学方面给出一些文化导入尝试。

  16. Ambiguity in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, G T

    1998-04-01

    As listeners and readers, we rarely notice the ambiguities that pervade our everyday language. When we hear the proverb `Time flies like an arrow' we might ponder its meaning, but not the fact that there are almost 100 grammatically permissible interpretations of this short sentence. On occasion, however, we do notice sentential ambiguity: headlines, such as `Two Sisters Reunited After 18 Years in Checkout Counter', are amusing because they so consistently lead to the unintended interpretation (presumably, the sisters did not spend 18 years at the checkout). It is this consistent preference for one interpretation-and one grammatical structure-rather than another that has fuelled research into sentence processing for more than 20 years. Until relatively recently, the dominant belief had been that these preferences arise from general principles that underlie our use of grammar, with certain grammatical constructions being preferred over others. There has now accrued, however, a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that these preferences are not absolute, but can change in particular circumstances. With this evidence have come new theories of sentence processing, some of which, at first glance, radically question the standard notions of linguistic representation, grammar and understanding.

  17. Некоторые размышления о переводах «Бориса Годунова» на норвежский язык(Some Notes on Norwegian Translations of “Boris Godunov”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Komarova

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The first translation (1974 was made into nynorsk by Olav Rytter, who has also translated several other works by Pushkin. The author of the other translation (1992, into bokmål, is Erik Bystad, a recognized literary critic and translator of Shakespeare.The specifically national features of the text present a lot of problems. In the Rytter translation one can trace an attempt to make the text easier to understand by leaving out some of the geographical and personal names. The Bystad translation is often closer to the original text, but less diverse in its rhythmic pattern.Both translations illustrate how difficult it is to find a satisfying solu- tion to the rhymed proverbs or plays on words. Russian standardized modes of address, mention of the tsars or certain historical events, Pushkin's choice of the name for the pretender-all this presents at times unresolvable problems for the translators.The analysis of the two translations not only lets us feel how important and responsible is the role of a translator in transnational cultural commu-nication, but also illustrates some techniques of this magnificent art.

  18. 太阳能光热发电的发展%Development of Concentrated Solar Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于萍; 穆元春

    2012-01-01

    太阳能光热发电(CSP)技术越来越受到人们的重视并加速研发,预测在未来5年内,每隔16个月csP能力将提高一倍。文章指出,蝶式太阳能电站是远水救不了近火的发展方向,并对其发展和进行了评述和预测。%Much attention has been paid in the field of concentrated solar power (csp) and more interest is attracted in the research and development of the technology. It is predicted that the CSP will double its capacity every 16 months in the coming 5 years. It is pointed out that the development of butterfly solar power station is a case like a proverb says : far water dose no put out near fire. The development of CSP was commented and forecasted in this article.

  19. 浅析韩国语俗谈的多样性与社会性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    “俗谈”是产生于韩国人民群众日常生活中的真实记述,是一种艺术性浓缩的实用语言。它反映了人们的生活状态以及他们的风俗、习惯、信仰等。本文通过对韩国语中的部分俗谈的种类、意思构造、构造形式、构成手法,以及韩国语俗谈中所用的词汇手段的具体分析,阐述了韩国语俗谈的利用价值和对人类的语言文化生活的影响。%Proverb is produces in the Korean people populace daily life real record, is one artistic concentration practical language. It has reflected people's life condition as well as their custom, the custom, the belief and so on. This article through the type, the meaning structure, the structural types, the constitution technique which vulgarly discussed to in Korean part, As well as Korean vulgarly discussed uses glossary method concrete analysis, Elaborated Korean vulgarly discussed use value and to humanity's language culture life influence.

  20. 微观互文性视角下的《围城》英译%Translation of Weicheng from Perspective of Micro-intertextuality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娟

    2015-01-01

    A new perspective for understanding translation activities and translation phenomenon was put forward by intertextuality theory .From the perspective of analysis of intertextuality in Weicheng ,the in‐tertextual sign was discussed .There are mainly five types of micro‐intertextuality in English version of Weicheng :quotation ,allusion ,parody ,proverb and“untraceable codes” .The translators will be affected by the intertextuality theory ,so different translation strategies were adopted to different types of intertex‐tual signs .%互文性理论的提出为认识翻译活动,理解翻译现象提供了全新的视角。以微观互文性为研究视角分析探讨《围城》中互文符号的翻译。微观互文性在《围城》英译本中主要体现在以下五种类型中:引用,典故,仿拟,谚语,无法追溯来源的代码。译者在翻译过程中受到互文性的影响对不同类型的互文符号采取不同的翻译对策。

  1. SOME SLAVONIC SOURCES OF THE INTERPOLATIONS IN THE OLD RUSSIAN VERSION OF FLAVIUS IOSEPHUS’ «THE JEWISH WAR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pichkhadze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Slavonic sources of three interpolations in the Old Russian version of Flavius Iosephus’ The Jewish War. The text of the first interpolation (about The Adoration of the Magi is preserved in the Interpolated redaction of The Tale of Aphroditianus in a more authentic form; it may be a modified version of the apocryph about the Magi (known for instance from the Velikiye Chet’yi-Minei which is close in content but not in wording to the interpolation of The Jewish War and The Tale of Aphroditianus. In the second interpolation the apostles are named kaližnici‘shoemakers’ in accordance with some Slavonic sources in wich St. Paulis referred to as usmošvec ‘currier; shoemaker’. The third interpolation mentions piyavicy solomon’skiya ‘the leeches of Solomon’ (allusion to Proverbs XXX 15–16 – this utterance derives presumably from the translation of 13 Orationes of St. Gregory of Nazianzus made in the 10th century in Bulgaria. In the light of these facts, together with the borrowings from different Slavonic sources in other interpolations within the Old Russian version of The Jewish War which have been identified earlier, the use of Slavonic sources may be considered a common feature of the interpolations of the Old Russian version.

  2. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  3. “Hisense”, High Sense ;“Haier”, Higher :Brand Names Can Create Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡漪

    2007-01-01

    As a Chinese proverb declares,"The beginningof wisdom is to call things by their right names."For an entrepreneur,the beginning of his success isto call his brand by a right name.A brand needs agood name as much as the mankind does.A brand

  4. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving t

  5. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  6. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  7. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  8. An Ontology for Uncertainty in Climate Change Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Paraphrasing Albert Einstein's aphorism about scientific quantification: not all uncertainty that counts can be counted, and not all uncertainty that can be counted counts. The meaning of the term "uncertainty" in climate change science and assessment is itself uncertain. Different disciplines and perspectives bring different nuances if not meanings of the term to the conversation. For many scientists, uncertainty is somehow associated with statistical dispersion and standard error. For many users of climate change information, uncertainty is more related to their confidence, or lack thereof, in climate models. These "uncertainties" may be related, but they are not identical, and there is considerable room for confusion and misunderstanding. A knowledge framework, a system of concepts and vocabulary, for communicating uncertainty can add structure to the characterization and quantification of uncertainty and aid communication among scientists and users. I have developed an ontology for uncertainty in climate change projections derived largely from the report of the W3C Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web Incubator Group (URW3-XG) dealing with the problem of uncertainty representation and reasoning on the World Wide Web. I have adapted this ontology for uncertainty about information to uncertainty about climate change. Elements of the ontology apply with little or no translation to the information of climate change projections, with climate change almost a use case. Other elements can be translated into language used in climate-change discussions; translating aleatory uncertainty in the UncertaintyNature class as irreducible uncertainty is an example. I have added classes for source of uncertainty (UncertaintySource) (different model physics, for example) and metrics of uncertainty (UncertaintyMetric), at least, in the case of the latter, for those instances of uncertainty that can be quantified (i.e., counted). The statistical standard deviation isa member

  9. Changing theory, changing role of Coriolis effect - The East-West asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff seismic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    It is a long history the tale of the recognized asymmetries of the Earth. In 1600 William Gilbert (1544-1603) published De Magnete in which the North and South geomagnetic pole are described. In 1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1628) in the XXVIIth aphorism of the Novum Organum (second part) describes the southern tips of the continents, and many other asymmetries were later described. In 1975 Samuel Warren Carey (1911-2002) stated: Neither north and south, nor east and west are tectonically equivalent. A non exhaustive list of asymmetries of the Earth is: The magnetic polarity; The land-hemisphere and the water-hemisphere; Southern tips of the continents; Larger extension of expanding mid-oceanic ridges on the southern hemisphere; South-eastward trend of younger ages in the long Pacific seafloor volcanic chains; A larger width of the seafloor isochrones bands on the Nazca region; A pear-shaped Earth; etc. It is a few decades that the different slopes of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards the east and west has been enclosed in the list. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30 degrees, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper (Luyendyk, 1970; Isacks & Barazangi, 1977; and many others). The cause of this difference has been identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west - the so called westward drift (Bostrom, 1971; Stevenson & Turner, 1977; among others). This solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction (Jordan, 1974; Ranalli, 2000; Caputo & Caputo, 2012). Moreover, a simplistic evaluation of the regime of the convective motion in the mantle and of the order of magnitude of the involved forces (viscous, buoyancy, inertial) hastily judges as negligible the role of the Coriolis effect in producing the observed slope differences of the Wadati-Benioff regions. Instead, it is possible to show that changing

  10. Les origines antiques d’un « art de la prudence » chez Baltasar Gracián

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Alfred Blüher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article met en évidence que l’« art de la prudence » que Baltasar Gracián propose dans son Oráculo manual renoue avec les méthodes de l’ars vitæ et de la prudentia tactique que les penseurs gréco-latins de l’Antiquité avaient développées, en se servant souvent de formules frappantes, maximes et adages. Les aphorismes de Gracián puisent dans le riche trésor de cette sagesse pragmatique, empruntant tout autant les traits d’un certain stoïcisme que d’habiles conseils d’« adaptation » et de « dissimulation ». Les éléments de cet « art de la prudence » proviennent de quatre domaines différents : ouvrages philosophiques, notamment Sénèque, Épictète et Plutarque ; littérature gnomique, telles les sentences des Sept Sages de Grèce ou celles de Publilius Syrus ; écrits satiriques, surtout Martial et Perse ; et réflexions d’ordre politique et moral de Tacite.This article argues that the « art of prudence » recommended by Baltasar Gracián in his Oráculo manual revives the methods of the ancient Greeks and Romans who had been advocating an ars vitae and a tactical prudentia, which they often expressed as striking slogans, maxims and adages. Gracián’s « aphorisms » draw on the rich treasure of this pragmatic wisdom, adopting the features of a certain stoicism but also the cunning counsel praising « adaptation » and « dissimulation ». The components of this « art of prudence » belong to four different fields : philosophical works, in particular Seneca, Epictetus and Plutarch ; gnomic literature, such as the maxims of the Seven Sages or those of Publilius Syrus ; satirical writings, especially Martial and Persius ; and Tacitus’ political and moral thought.

  11. Ética y estética (Novenas Conferencias Aranguren, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trías, Eugenio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein's Tractatus contains a mysterious aphorism to the effect that «ethics and aesthetics are the same». The existence of an underlying connivance between ethics and aesthetics has been acknowledged ever since ancient times. Here we try to look into this hard and interesting issue from the open horizon of boundary-philosophy, as put forward in my latest publications. The task will be carried out at three stages. The first one is given over to an elucidation of one core concept of ethics, freedom, in an interactive connection with our fore-understanding of our human condition. Then we raise the (Kantian question about how the ethical «symbolically resounds» through art. The third and last stage brings up the subject of the link between ethics and aesthetics on the ground of several examples, both ancient and modern (from the great tragedies and some artistic manifestations of our modernity.

    Un misterioso aforismo del Tractatus de Wittgenstein enuncia que «ética y estética son lo mismo». Que una corriente de complicidad existe entre ética y estética es reconocido desde la antigüedad. Lo ético se argumenta en la praxis; el arte lo hace a través de la poiésis, o creación, ya definida por Platón y Aristóteles. Aquí se intenta abordar esta interesante y difícil cuestión desde el horizonte abierto, a través de mis últimas publicaciones, por la filosofía del límite, y se realizará en tres etapas. Una primera dedicada a esclarecer uno de los conceptos nucleares de la ética, la libertad, en relación de interacción con la precomprensión que podemos poseer relativa a nuestra humana conditio. Se planteará luego la cuestión (kantiana de que a través del arte «resuena simbólicamente» lo ético. En una tercera y última etapa se desarrolla el tema del nexo entre ética y estética, dándose algunos ejemplos pertinentes, antiguos y modernos (de las grandes

  12. On the Surreal Metaphors in Herta Müller’sAtemschaukel%论赫塔•米勒《呼吸秋千》中的超现实隐喻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文权

    2014-01-01

    2009年诺贝尔文学奖得主、德国女作家赫塔•米勒的长篇小说《呼吸秋千》充分展示了她的诗学观,而她的诗学观又受到她独特的族群背景和跌宕的人生经历的深刻影响。她的诗学理论基本上建立在她对事物独特的感受方式和表达方式上,试图突破传统的认知模式,来表达精微而痛彻的人生经验。《呼吸秋千》一书中超现实隐喻的生成和工作机理,再一次印证了米勒的诗学核心“臆造的感知”,把看似无关的事物糅合到一个自创的新词里,由之而生的隐喻产生出超现实的效果,表达了日常语言无法言说的感觉认知,揭示了人性的深度和复杂。%Atemschaukel, a novel by the 2009 Nobel Laureate in Literature, the German writer Herta Mueller, is another practice of her unique poetics which has been molded into shape by her singular ethnic background, the historical environment and her personal experiences. The core of her poetics,“Die erfundene Wahrnehmung”, is engendered through her unrivalled way of perception and cognition, as well as the resulting singular ways of expression. All this is reflected in some surreal met-aphors she created in the afore-said novel. An analysis of the genesis and workings of these metaphors helps reveal and deepen our understanding of her poetic mechanism. It is concluded that her practice of achieving surreal effects by combining irrele-vant images into coined words is her brand of exploration of the depth and complicity of humanity.

  13. 隐喻理论在大学英语多义词教学中的应用%The Application of Theories of Metaphor in the Teaching of Polysemy in College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昕

    2012-01-01

    Polysemy is a universal linguistic phenomenon. It is also a genius of English. Conceptual Metaphor Theory argues that the component between word and its meanings is not arbitrary. Polysemy is not created at random. Metaphor is an important motivation of semantic expansion. It is signifi- cant for college English teachers to make aware of the great cognitive value of metaphorical concepts and pay adequate attention to the application of theories of metaphor in polysemy teaching. This can help lighten learners" burden of memory, raise their interest and facilitate their vocabulary acquisi- tion. Theoretically based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Image Schema Theory, with plenty of examples provided, the thesis puts forward some pedagogical implications of applying conceptual met- aphors and image schemas in polysemy teaching lish vocabulary teaching. , with the hope to provide some food for college Eng-%一词多义是普遍的语言现象,也是英语的一大特色。概念隐喻理论指出,一个词语诸多义项不是任意的关联,隐喻是词义变化的重要方式,是词义扩展的重要理据。教师帮助学习者了解多义词的基本意义和隐喻意义之间的关系,学习者对词汇多个义项的记忆将不再是孤立的,割裂的,从而大大减轻其记忆负担,激发词汇学习的兴趣,促进词汇习得。文章通过大量的隐喻实例,并借助意象和思维导图等思维工具论述如何将概念隐喻和意象图式具体运用于大学英语多义词的教学,希望对大学英语词汇教学提供一些启发和参考。

  14. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  15. El denunciador: un vecino que acata y cumple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Del Valle Mora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This document studies the configuration of the Denouncer, based on what the author calls in its work as, neighbor legislative panopticism. The Denouncer, is a control mechanism of normative fulfillment designed by the Spanish Crown and the Supreme Council of the Indians, that served as an element of coercion and intimidation within the population, with the purpose of allowing the configuration of the Ordered City in the terms of the Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias (Indies Kingdoms Compilation of Laws. In this paper the author studies the application and obeyance of this compilation, as well as the recognized aphorism “se acata, pero no se cumple” (law is accepted but not fulfilled, in order to propose that the policy of the Denouncer was a control mechanism designed by the colonial authorities. Finally, this article proves that the Denouncer was a person that accepted and fulfills the Indian legal system.//Este documento estudia la configuración del Denunciador, fundamentado en lo que el autor llamó en su trabajo "panoptismo legislativo vecinal". La política del Denunciador se presentó como un mecanismo de control de cumplimiento normativo establecido por la Corona y el Supremo Consejo de Indias, como una herramienta de coerción e intimidación de la población. En este sentido, se configuró como un instrumento que permitiera el establecimiento de la “ciudad ordenada” en la Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias. Se presenta el análisis de la aplicación y cumplimiento de esta compilación así como el estudio del reconocido aforismo “se acata, pero no se cumple”. Finalmente, se plantea la política del Denunciador como mecanismo de control diseñado por las autoridades coloniales. En este documento se encontrarán los principales postulados que llevan a concluir que el vecino denunciador fue presentado en la ley como el sujeto de derecho que acataba y cumplía lo dispuesto en el ordenamiento jur

  16. Scientific Items in Cyprus Turkish Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Atmaca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.

  17. Contributing to COSPAR - Contibuting to Expanding the Knowledge Frontier of Space for the Benefit of Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    COSPAR's objectives are to promote -on an international level- scientific research in space, with emphasis on the exchange of results, information and opinions, and to provide a forum, open to all scientists, for the discussion of problems that may affect scientific space research (https://cosparhq.cnes.fr/about/origin-purpose-role). COSPAR played an extraordinary significant role in the past by facilitating the scientific exchange between East and West … and surely contributed to the present fluid and free-flowding situation. COSPAR’s challenge now is to get a similar result by providing opportunities to less developed countries to upgrade their resources to progress on all kinds of research using space means. This presentation shows the activity developed by the Climatology from Satellites Group of the University of Valencia, Spain, during the last 10 years, in different action areas of COSPAR, and in the framework of Commission A on Space Studies of the Earth's Surface, Meteorology and Climate, especially in Sub-Commission A3 on Land Processes and Morphology, as well as in the organisation of some Capacity Building Courses akin to Commission A’s terms of reference. The effort -if any- has always and so far been worthwhile. The Group has learnt a lot, it has notably incresed its capacity for networking, as well as its opportunities to accompany scientists from less developed countries in their scientific growing and development of resources (Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime -Chinese proverband root and foundation for Capacity Building).

  18. Idast läände: ladina terminid kui õiguskultuuri muutuse peegeldajad / From east to west: Latin terms as a reflection of the change in legal culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merike Ristikivi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the usage of Latin terms in legal texts in the Estonian language in the transition period before and after re-establishing Estonian independence on the basis of the journals Nõukogude Õigus (Soviet Law and Eesti Jurist (Estonian Lawyer. The period under the observation (1985–1994 is characterised by conceptual changes in the Estonian legal order, by radical reforms in legislation, and the legal system in general. The results of the study reveal that socio-political developments have had an impact on terminology and the principles of language usage. In the Soviet era the cultural influences changed, and the western legal tradition was replaced by the Soviet legal system and the dominance of the Russian language. The usage of Latin terminology in the journals Nõukogude Õigus and Eesti Jurist at the end of the Soviet era and in the transition period, explored in the course of the present research, revealed that the number of Latin terms in the abovementioned two periodicals is significantly small. Besides infrequently used professional terms in juridical articles, a number of well-known Latin proverbs and expressions concerning academic affairs were employed. The analysis of the research material revealed that the terminological change and an increase in the usage of Latin terms came together with the transformation of the legal culture and policy at the end of the Soviet era. It is important to note that the quantitative and qualitative changes in language usage did not occur in 1991 – i.e., —the year when Estonia restored her independence. The most significant changes in terminology had begun already in 1989 and 1990, when the readiness to try to become again part of the European legal environment surfaced. The rearrangements in the Estonian legal system compelled the Estonian lawyers to include in their usage of legal language those Latin terms that have become rooted in the legal tradition of Europe.

  19. A critical analysis of domestication in Makhambeni’s translation of Chinua Achebe’s novel No longer at ease (1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Masubelele

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through translation the target reader is exposed to other cultures. Translators, therefore, have to use the target language to convey the source text message to the target reader. There are various choices at their disposal as to how they wish to convey the source text message. They may choose to adopt the norms and conventions of the source text message, and therefore those of the source language and culture, or choose those of the target language. Commonly, adherence to the target language norms and conventions leads to a strategy in which the foreignness of both linguistic and cultural conventions is reduced. According to Venuti (1995 this is domestication. Since translations are rarely equivalent to the original, this article seeks to examine how Makhambeni uses Venuti‟s domestication as a translation strategy, with the purpose of rewriting the original to conform to functions instituted by the receiving system. The descriptive approach to translation, which advances the notion that translations are facts of the target culture, will be used to support the arguments presented in this article. It will be shown that, although Achebe has used a lot of Igbo expressions and cultural practices in his novel, Makhambeni has not translated any of the Igbo expressions and cultural practices into Zulu. Instead Makhambeni used Zulu linguistic and cultural expressions such as similes, metaphors, idioms, proverbs and of cultural substitutions to bring the Igbo culture closer to her audience. It will be concluded that through the use Zulu linguistic and cultural conventions Makhambeni has effectively minimised foreign culture and narrowed the gap between the foreign and target cultures. She has successfully naturalised the Igbo culture to make it conform more to what the Zulu reader is used to.

  20. PRAVNI OKVIR ZDRAVSTVENE ZAŠTITE U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Marfan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health is one of the most important elements of a person's life. This clearly stems from the proverb: healthy person has hundreds of wishes, a sick person only one – to get healthy. Health care and health system are large and complex areas. In Republic of Croatia there are several legal acts which regulate the health care industry. The starting point for the legislature are the principles set forth by the Constitution. The principles are further strengthened by legal acts, bylaws and codes. Republic of Croatia is also a part of the international Convention which regulated basic rights and obligations of patients and healthcare workers. The authors in the first part gives a brief overview of the legal framework in Croatia while the second part of the paper deals with, based on the approach used by author, two most important laws regarding healthcare: Health care protection act and Patients’ rights act. Health care protection act is the main legal act which determines health care as economic activity and healthcare protection. It contains the basic rights, obligations, status questions, definitions of healthcare professionals, their basic qualifications and competences needed for healthcare profession, starting up of associations and unions and legal provisions. In spite of the fact that it is complicated legal body it should be noted that the Act itself has been changed frequently, up to two or three times a year. Such legal practice creates instabilities in such a complex and sophisticated area. On the other hand Patients’ rights act is the act which guarantees patient’s rights. Author in a separate chapter determines the main regulations of the act. The Patients’ rights act is focused on the patients, but it also provides an imperative to healthcare works in terms of their conduct towards patients.

  1. Ou wyn in nuwe sakke: 'n Kritiese waardering van Bijbels lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nel Otto

    2011-10-01

    the lexicon is structured, an exposition of different types of lexical items and motivation for the choice of lemmata and period covered, on how to look up lexical items, etc. Even non-believers could use the lexicon, as the introduction also contains background information in block format, i.e. an exposition of the content of the Bible, and information on Dutch Bible translations, proverb collections and Bible names. The benefits of this lexicon are that it includes only examples of current usage and as such accommodates neologisms and changed meanings. Although the authors sometimes divert from the terminology for different types of lexical items, as defined by themselves, the treatment of dic-tionary articles is generally very consistent and information is easily accessible. The value of the lexicon could possibly be enhanced by using more cross-references.

    Keywords: BIBLE, CITATION, CURRENT USAGE, DUTCH, FIXED EXPRESSION, LEXI-COGRAPHY, LEXICON, MEANING, NEOLOGISM, ORIGIN, PROPER NAME, PROVERB

  2. A pilot investigation of "metaphor blindness" in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-06-01

    Previous research from our group suggests that patients with lesions in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL)-which is concerned with abstract numerical cognition and cross-modal association (which is consistent with its strategic location at the crossroads between the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes) have difficulty understanding proverbs and metaphors (Ramachandran and Hubbard, 2001). In the current pilot investigation, we report "metaphor blindness" in a college student population; that is, either the complete inability or difficulty for otherwise intellectually non-challenged individuals to comprehend metaphors of language. Participants (N=205) read 12 metaphorical ("The detective jumped at the clue") and 12 literal ("The accident was a fall") sentences and had to decide whether the sentences conveyed a metaphorical or literal meaning. The mean accuracy for these metaphorical sentences was 11.0 (SD=2.3; RNG=0-12); the mean accuracy for literal sentences was 7.2 (SD=1.8; RNG=2-10). We found that 5% of participants (11/205) were unable or had difficulty understanding metaphors (i.e., were statistical outliers), while their score for literal sentences felt within a normal statistical range M=8.3 (SD=2.3; RNG=5-10). Follow-up control procedures were conducted in order to help ascertain that the results were not due to low verbal IQ and task difficulty. Likewise, none of the "metaphor blind" participants reported any psychiatric or neurological histories that would impair language comprehension, including strokes, brain injuries, language problems dyslexia, and signs of late language onset. The results are very preliminary and future studies are needed to confirm these findings. We suggest that brain modules may be specialized even for subtle functions like metaphor and their formation in embryogenesis may be controlled by small handfuls of genes whose expression can go awry--as in "metaphor blindness".

  3. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. van Rooyen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life style evolve through a process of learning and interaction with others. It is a timeconsuming and costly process which starts at infancy and continues throughout someone's life. Instruction concerning interpersonal relations and the teaching of respect cannot be confined to individual lessons or working sessions at home or in school. Discussions and conversations concerning interpersonal relations need to form an integral and natural part of a child’s life within the home environment and throughout the pupil's school career. It is senseless if educators talk about the importance of teaching respect only to reveal disrespectful behaviour themselves, or to talk about the importance of self-esteem in the paying of respect whilst causing children to feel negative about themselves. To be able to express respect to other human beings, one needs to be respected. A child needs to experience how it feels when homage is paid. The following rule of life applies in this regard: one can never give if one has never received respect.

  4. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedermann Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers

  5. Legal theory as media theory - Rechtstheorie als Medientheorie - (Supplement I

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    Thomas Vesting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on the necessity of linking theory of language and media theory - Überlegungen zur Notwendigkeit der Verknüpfung von Sprachtheorie und MedientheorieThere is a close relationship between media and law: a medium such as writing is not simply a channel through which law and legal knowledge are communicated; rather, writing itself plays a role in the processes of law-making. Media format the space in which both cognitive and practical knowledge – formative and normative texts – develop, and thus also law as a part of such bodies of knowledge. Without speech there can be no legal formulas and legal proverbs, without writing there can be no legal rules or propositions, without the printing press no nation-state centred books of law or legal systems could emerge – and without computer technology there can be no fragmented law within and beyond the nation state. This, in key terms, is the general perspective that The Media of Law project is researching.Es gibt einen intrinsischen Zusammenhang zwischen Medien und Recht: Ein Medium wie Schrift ist nicht einfach ein Kanal, in dem Recht und rechtliches Wissen kommuniziert werden, vielmehr hat Schrift selbst rechtsbildende Konsequenzen. Me-dien formatieren den Raum, in dem sich kognitives und praktisches Wissen – formative und normative Texte – und damit auch Recht als Teil derartiger Wissensbestände ausbilden. Ohne Lautsprache keine Rechtsformeln und Rechtssprichwörter, ohne Schrift keine Rechtssätze und kein Konditionalprogramm, ohne Buchdruck keine nationalstaatlichen Rechtsbücher und Rechtssysteme – und ohne Computertechnologie kein fragmentiertes Recht innerhalb und jenseits des Nationalstaates. Das sind, schlagwortartig, die Zusammenhänge, denen das Forschungsprojekt Die Medien des Rechts nachgeht.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE TEXTS IN TURKISH AS A FOREI GN LANGUAGE COUR SE BOOKS IN TERMS OF FORMULAIC EXPRESSI ONS

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    Nil Didem ŞİMŞEK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since primitive times, the need to communicate with each other has paved the way for the use different types of languages; and the question of language has become an unsolvable, complex issue. It is not possible to limit language with definitions. Language, as a social institution, differs from other languages with the cultural and social structure it has been shaped through; and forms its own lexicon. Aksan (1996:9 ; considers the lexicon of a language as “a whole made up of not only the words, but also the idioms, communicative expressions, formulaic expressions, proverbs, terms and various sets of expressions of that language.” As there are numerous lexical items in a language, there are numerous cult ural elements as well. Each unit among the lexicon provides an important communication between the speaker of that language and the cultural values to which that language belongs; and strengthens the relationship between them. Formulaic expressions, or in other words, communicative expressions are the most significant ones among these units that constitute the lexicon. Cultural transfer has an important role especially in teaching Turkish to foreigners. The functionality of these units is noteworthy in the transfer and the deliberate use of the cultural elements of that language. The aim of this study is to evaluate the texts in beginner level (A1 Turkish as a foreign language course books in terms of formulaic expressions (communicative expressions. The d ata sources for the study are the A1 level books of Lale and İstanbul series. Transferring the culture is quite important in teaching a language. In order to present the language along with the culture, formulaic expressions (communicative expressions sho uld be included frequently, particularly in the beginner level course books.

  7. L’Empire ottoman à travers la biographie picaresque d’Eliya Karmona Ottoman empire through picaresque biography of Eliya Karmona

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    Marie-Christine Varol

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’autobiographie romancée d’Eliya Karmona publiée en 1926, Comment naquit Eliya Karmona comment il grandit et comment il devint directeur du Djugetón projette un regard critique sur les tribulations d’un jeune homme juif dans les dernières années du sultanat, entre 1884 et 1908.Sur le mode sarcastique, maniant l’auto-ironie, il construit sur ses déboires un roman picaresque qui sacrifie à la loi du genre, mais qui s’apparente par d’autres aspects aux genres cultivés par les Judéo-Espagnols : le récit de voyage, le récit exemplaire, le traité sur les us et coutumes, les mémoires romancées, les proverbes. On y trouve aussi des éléments très ottomans comme le journal personnel, tenant compte des menus faits, des dépenses et des rentrées, dont P. Dumont et F. Georgeon (1985 ont montré qu’il s’agissait d’une habitude ottomane bien utile comme source d’information historique. L’auteur se livre dans cette œuvre à une critique acerbe et comique des pesanteurs du système ottoman, qui font obstacle à toute initiative, mais il critique aussi les raideurs communautaires qui pèsent comme un carcan sur l’initiative personnelle, l’inadaptation des structures et, partant, l’inefficacité des stratégies mises en place pour survivre par les individus. Cependant, son œuvre révèle en creux une certaine nostalgie pour le monde disparu. On perçoit l’admiration du héros et son attachement à certaines valeurs de ce monde ancien, et l’on ne peut s’empêcher de lui donner raison lorsqu’on mesure ce que les communautés juives ont perdu avec la disparition de l’Empire ottoman.The fictionalized autobiography of Eliya Karmona How Eliya Karmona was born, how he grew up and how he became the director of Djugetón casts a critical eye on the tribulations of a young Jewish man in the last years of sultanate from 1884 to 1908. In sarcastic mode, with self-irony, he builds on his disappointments a

  8. Pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse

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    Nihal TUNCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of pre-service teachers from different departments related to the concept of child abuse. This study aims to determine pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse as a qualitative study, conducted in line with phenomenological design. In the study, one of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum diversity sampling method, was employed. The participants of the study are 15 pre-service teachers attending the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Teacher Education for the Intellectually Disabled, Pre-school Teacher Education, Social Studies, Art Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies, German Language Teaching, French Language Teaching, and Teacher Education for the Hearing Impaired, all within the Education Faculty of Anatolian University, Turkey. The data of the study was collected through the focus-group interview technique. The data collected from two different focus-group interviews were analyzed by content analysis technique using the NVivo 8 data analysis program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers explained the concept of child abuse by most strongly emphasizing emotional abuse and least strongly by emphasizing economic abuse. In light of the pre-service teachers’ opinions, it was also concluded that the culture constructed by society through the meanings attached to genders, society’s view of sexuality, child marriage, proverbs and idioms specific to the local society and superstitions lead to incidences of child abuse. The current study revealed that child abuse can be prevented by providing training to raise the awareness of child abuse primarily for families then children, teachers and other concerned people. It was also found that the majority of pre-service teachers do not have enough information about how to act in the face of an incidence of child abuse.

  9. How Long Are Sayings?

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    Anneli Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We talk, communicate, chat, speak, and make utterances – all thesesynonymous verbs signify verbal communication and mark the same action. The action may also be expressed by means of set expressions, or more precisely, phrases or idioms. Words, phrases and syntactic units, or the sc. microtexts, are at our disposal. The issue may be also considered at another angle – namely, how short can a phrase be for it to preserve its contents? Compared to other short forms (proverbs, riddles, phrases are generally characterised as being shorter. It has been determined that the minimum length of a phrase is a combination of at least two fully semantic words. According to a common claim aphrase characterises a specific situation. Therefore, a phrase can only exist as a set expression in a context. Conceptualising phraseologisms, however, prompts the question of the ‘obligatory’ and ‘facultative’ constituents of a phraseologism, i.e. the issue of its form and, more importantly, of its defining. While discussing the motivation of phrasal expressions, scholars often refer to their opacity vs. transparency. But what would the ideal form be for which people possess sufficient background knowledge, including phraseological competence, which is required for understanding a given expression? What is the smallest number ofwords necessary for understanding an expression? Whether and to which extent can we find help in metalanguage framing a set phrase? In the article I will discuss the issues related to the study of phrasal semantics on the example of set phrases connected with the image of talking, narration, words, etc. The discussion will rely on material from the database of Estonian phrases.

  10. Neil Mather Brice 1934-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, W. I.; Farley, D. T.; Helliwell, R. A.; Kennel, C. F.

    How many of us express our deepest thoughts about life on our office doors? Neil Brice evidently did, because he posted Oscar Wilde's famous aphorism on his. We are sure Brice wished that he had said it first.Neil Brice is now dead 11 years, killed at age 40 in an airplane crash in Pago Pago, American Samoa. This article is a remembrance of him. Yet it is more than that, for in recalling Brice, we call forth memories of the time when modern magnetospheric physics was being born, a time when our measurements were consistent only in their suggestive inconsistency, a time when there was no refuge for the unimaginative.

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF COGNITIVE- LINGUISTIC INTERPRETATION OF TURKIC LANGUAGE CONCEPT TÜRK DİLİ KAVRAMININ BİLİŞSEL-LENGÜİSTİK AÇIKLANMASI ÜZERİNE

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    Kamal ABDULLA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the given article cognitive-linguistic interpretation of Turkic language concept was done according to the Turkic world and culture context and to the Turkic language-conversation borrowings used in the Russian language. From this point of view according to the “TurkicSlavistic” notion, Turkic-Russian language relationships were looked through and some language-conversation borrowings from Turkic into Russian were analysed. According to the text and proverb examples from “Taury Kassandra” by Chingiz Aytmatov. Some textual-linguistic and parameological borrowings used in Russian are appreciated as conceptual-linguistic. Türk dili kavramının bilişsel-lengüistik açıklanması, Türk dünyası ve uygarlığı bağlamına ve Rusça’da kullanılan Türkçe dil-konuşma alıntılarına göre yapılmıştır. Bu bakımdan makalede “Türkslavistik” anlayışına göre Türkçe-Rusça ilişkileri bütün olarak ele alınmış ve Türkçeden Rusçaya geçen dil-konuşma alıntıları tahlil edilmiştir. Şöyle ki; C. Aytmatov’un “Tavrı Kassandra” eserinden alınan metin ve atasözü örneklerine göre Rusçada kullanılan metindilbilimsel ve atasözübilimsel nitelikteki bazı alıntılar kavramsal-lengüistik olarak değerlendirilmiştir.

  12. [Writing Kanji without semantics in a case with probable Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Takatsuki, Yoko; Nakano, Yoko; Yamadori, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro

    2002-06-01

    We examined a patient (NM) with probable Alzheimer's disease who showed phonologically plausible errors in kanji (logogram) writing. In semantic tasks, she showed no deficits in pointing or naming but had difficulty in more complex tasks such as proverb comprehension. In reading aloud of kanji words, she could read most kanji words correctly and showed little phonologically plausible reading errors. She performed poorly in lexical decision and on-reading of one-letter kanji (Sino-Japanese pronunciation derived from the Chinese language at the time of borrowing). Writing to dictation demonstrated no mistakes in kana letters and words, but many errors in kanji, which were phonologically equivalent but semantically inappropriate. To explore the relationship between the writing errors in kanji words and comprehension of the word meanings, we selected 33 words that she made phonologically plausible writing errors. We gave her the following five tasks using these words; 1) to ask meanings of the words, 2) to dictate the words, 3) to dictate sentences including these words, 4) to discriminate appropriate target words from distracters including her own erroneous responses, and 5) to write these words again. She showed no consistent errors in these tasks. In some occasions, she could write correct kanji words without understanding word meanings. She also showed phonologically plausible writing errors in spite of describing correct word meanings. In Japanese, word meaning deficits like Gogi aphasia were thought to cause phonologically plausible writing errors. As the impairments of word meanings in NM are comparatively mild, the underpinning of her kanji agraphias might be different from that of phonologically plausible errors in Gogi aphasia. It would be suggested that she frequently wrote phonologically equivalent errors because of her lexical deficits in spite that her phonological processing was preserved. Furthermore, she would not necessarily use the semantics (word

  13. Pedagogy to andragogy

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    *

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I would like to congratulate Muneshwar JN, Mirza Shiraz Baig, Zingade US, Khan ST for highlighting a very important issue regarding the teaching methods for health care professionals. Study has proved the Chinese proverb: “If I hear, I forget; if I see, I remember; if I do, I know”. Along with this I want to focus little on “podcast” as new teaching method. At present, education trend have changed from pedagogy to andragogy i.e. from a teacher-centered learning to a student-centered learning. These methods of education trends have identified many different learning styles as well. So, now it has become necessary for educators to train themselves to upcoming teaching methods. Many new teaching methods are evolving in the current electronic world. In which Podcasts as a supplement to live lectures is one of the teaching method, which have been adopted by many universities. Podcasting is user friendly, where information is recorded, then uploaded to a website or published through programs like iTunes and made accessible to students. The file can then be played on a computer or digital player. Recently many studies have been conducted using podcast as a new aid and its effectiveness. Studies have shown that audio podcasts as an effective aid for review before exams, enhancing student performance; acceptability and perceived utility of podcasts was good among students. Introduction of podcasts in the beginning will offer the students a lot of flexibility in learning, with regard to place and time. Podcasts as a supplement to live lectures as teaching method has open up for future research to assess their utility on a long-term basis so as to pave the way for introducing podcasts as one of the teaching method.

  14. Teatino: el perfil de un vocablo desgastado entre la apología y el sarcasmo

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    Llompart, Gabriel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the term «Theatine,» which originally referred to Cajetan’s Order of Monks in 16th-century Italy, co-founded by Cardinal Pietro Caraffa, bishop of Theati, to advance the Counter Reformation. Confusion concerning the term and the pejorative meaning it soon acquired evince to us the overuse of it, the diverse intentionality with which it was employed and the harm done thereby to the monks themselves, who eventually had to adopt a different name for their image to clear up. So it went among the elite, to judge from their epistolary correspondence and the literature; among commoners, from wise sayings and proverbs.

    Se analiza el vocablo «teatino» con que se empezó a conocer la Orden de Clérigos Regulares de San Cayetano, fundada en Italia en tiempos de la Contrarreforma por el cardenal Pedro Carafa, obispo de Teati. La confusión de denominación y el sentido peyorativo que generó este término a poco de su creación nos habla del desgaste de la palabra, la diversa intencionalidad con que se utilizó y el perjuicio sufrido por los propios clérigos, obligados a cambiar de nombre para limpiar su imagen. Así se refleja entre la élite a través de la documentación epistolar y la literatura y, popularmente, en dichos y refranes.

  15. Antón Perulero: Un cuento inédito de María Teresa León

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    Marina Bedia, Marta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a short story, apparently unpublished, by Maria Teresa León: «Antón Perulero», wich was not collected in any book of stories. Probably written in Argentina, at the beginning of the 40's, it has been found in a notebook of this authoress, wich is kept in the National Library (Madrid. The story is destined to a readership of children, and its characters (Maricastaña, Mátalas Callando, Antón Perulero himself are taken from the world of proverbs, set phrases and children's songs; the interest in children's literature and in folklore had been present in Maria Teresa Leon's writing from its beginning.Este artículo presenta un cuento, al parecer inédito, de María Teresa León: «Antón Perulero», no recogido en ninguna de sus colecciones de relatos. Escrito probablemente en Argentina, a principios de los años 40, ha sido encontrado en un cuaderno manuscrito de la autora, que se conserva en la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. El relato está destinado al público infantil, y sus personajes (Maricastaña, Mátalas Callando o el propio Antón Perulero están extraídos del mundo de los refranes, las frases hechas y las canciones para niños; el interés por la literatura infantil y por el folklore había estado presente en la escritura de María Teresa León desde sus inicios.

  16. 从文化视角看《圣经》典故的翻译%From the perspective of culture to see the "Bible" allusions translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宣红

    2013-01-01

    Divide rooted in specific cultural allusions are impassable in cross-cultural translation. "Bible" in the fairy story, characters, fables and proverbs, resulting in a large number of "the Bible" allusions, has become an important part of the English language. Because there are many differences between the "Bible"allusions and Chinese culture, the translator often encounter obstacles in understanding " Bible" allusions in translation. Based on this, this paper aims to explore the translation principles and methods of "Bible" allusions from the perspective of culture, in order to better guide the future of the "Bible" allusions.%  根植于特定文化的典故在跨文化翻译中存在不可逾越的鸿沟。《圣经》中的神话故事、人物、寓言和箴言等产生了大量的《圣经》典故,已成为英语语言的一个重要部分。由于《圣经》典故与中华文化存在诸多差异,国内译者在翻译《圣经》典故时经常碰到理解上的障碍。在此基础上,本文旨在从文化角度探讨《圣经》典故的翻译原则和方法,以期更好地指导今后的《圣经》典故翻译。

  17. 加强励志教育创新大学校园文化建设%Reinforcing the inspirational education to inovate campus culture construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 苗树梁; 杨立富

    2016-01-01

    Based on inspirational education, this thsis explores inspirational education in five respects,that is, reading inspirational books, telling motivational stories, watching inspirational movies, spreading motivational proverbs to bring the inspirational function into play. Inspirational education should play a role of motivation which is “educating students by advanced culture, inspiring students by advanced thoughts, impelling students by advanced atmosphere to sharpen students’ will, to cultivate their liberty, independence, strong-willed and active mind-set, to inspire their need of success and to promote their ability of serving the society.%以励志教育为突破口,通过读、讲、唱、看、传励志书、励志故事、励志歌曲、励志电影、励志箴言五项励志教育,发挥榜样激励作用,用先进的文化教育人,用先进的思想鼓舞人,用先进的气氛感召人,磨砺学生意志,培养学生自主,自立,自强和积极向上的心态,激发大学生成功的需要,提高大学生服务社会的本领。使每位学生能够立志成才,探知践行,将看不见、摸不着、不可称的励志精神、透过数字、成绩得以体现,为拓展大学校园文化建设,发挥积极作用。

  18. WE-A-16A-01: International Medical Physics Symposium: Increasing Access to Medical Physics Education/Training and Research Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeld, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ngoma, T [Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Odedina, F [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morgan, S [IAEA PACT, Vienna (Austria); Wu, R [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Sajo, E [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    provision of cancer services which include but not limited to lack of cancer registries, lack of funding, lack of human resources, lack of radiotherapy machines, lack of cancer drugs and lack of accessible and affordable cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Since there are considerable differences among African countries, in my presentation I will share with the audience how we address cancer control challenges in Tanzania in general and specifically in radiation oncology. The African continent cancer plan 2013 2017 Folakemi Odedina, PhD, Professor and Director of Health Disparities, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida The burden of cancer is rising in Africa, in addition to current heavy burden of communicable, and other non-cancer related non—communicable diseases. Conquering cancer in Africa will require a comprehensive collaborative approach with cancer clinicians, scientists, patients, advocates, policy makers and community leaders working hand-in-hand at the local, state, national, and continent levels with the primary mission: To reduce the number of deaths from cancer and improve the quality of life of cancer patients, survivors and caregivers. Unfortunately, less than 40% of African countries have a credible cancer control policy and program. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) decided to create an African Cancer Plan to provide cost-effective strategies that can be employed throughout the continent to fight cancer. Based on the African proverb that “It takes a village to raise a child”, the Cancer Plan provides specific strategies that can be used by individuals, employers, organizations and policy-makers to fight cancer. In addition, we have provided overarching strategies to address cancer in Africa and targeted 5-year plan for prostate, breast, cervix, lung and liver cancers. In developing this Cancer Plan, our primary goal is to decrease cancer incidence and mortality in

  19. THE BIBLE LANGUAGE IN THE AMERICAN LYRIC

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    Bruno Rosario Candelier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The footprint of the Bible in its intellectual and aesthetic expression is manifested in the creation of poetry and fiction. The religious and mystical poetry, and the use of biblical language through the recreation of characters, themes or motifs inspired by the sacred text, are a tribute to the Holy Book  and a creative vein of literature inspired by this paradigmatic work of our culture. The biblical language that channel profound teachings and revealed truths through diverse literary figures, has been a fruitful means of creation. Besides intuition and inspiration, in the poetic language flowing the signals of revelation that synthesize perception of consciousness, the metaphysics slope of the existing and the effluvia of Transcendence. In its implementation intervenes the creative power of poetry that the word formalized in images, myths and concepts. In numerous poetic creations there are formal, conceptual and spiritual reminiscent of the Holy Book. It’s prolific the trace of the Bible in literature, culture and spiritual awareness. The word that creates and raises is a melting pot of the aesthetic feeling and spirituality. In fact, the Gospel contains the inspiring principle of Christian mystical literature. By focusing biblical language in poetic creation, we appreciate literary formulas and compositional resources. There is a wisdom and a stylistic inherent in biblical language, which manifests itself in a biblical tone, a biblical image and a biblical technique that the language arts formalized in various forms of creation. Knowing from the biblical heritage is reflected in judgments, prophetic visions, parables, allegories, parallelisms and other resources that have fallen into the lyrical flow. The biblical language embodies a format registered by proverbs, hymns, prayers, metaphors and other expressive resources format. In the biblical text we find various literary forms that have fueled the substance of poetic creation, as

  20. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

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    Ghadamzli Sarrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well.  Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain.  The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story.  Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign.  The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive.  Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text.  The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters

  1. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Ghadamzli Sarrami , Mohammad Moghiseh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well. Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain. The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story. Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign. The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive. Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text. The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters demonstrate symbol of

  2. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  3. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

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    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  4. Conhecimento ecológico tradicional no fragmento da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: percepção ecológica dos pescadores Upper Paraná River floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge: fishermen’s ecological feeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosa Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento ecológico é uma sabedoria popular empírica acumulada pela prática de atividades em ambientes naturais. Alterações nos ecossistemas afetam o estoque dos recursos naturais explorados, bem como a prática tradicional deles dependente. Neste trabalho, é apresentado o conhecimento ecológico tradicional dos pescadores da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, regiões de Porto Rico (PR e Porto São José, Estado do Paraná. Um breve relato da teoria de fragmentação de habitats é apresentado, visto que esse ambiente está fragmentado pela construção de barragens de hidrelétricas. Três frases e um provérbio que revelam a dinâmica dos processos ecológicos dentre os pescadores foram anotados e confrontados com o conhecimento científico já reunido sobre a região. As frases demonstram uma interpretação popular em consonância com as descobertas científicas na planície. Essa sabedoria está ameaçada pela fragmentação da planície e pela perda da tradição, devido ao abandono da atividade pesqueira.The ecological knowledge is an empiric popular wisdom stored by the fishermen’s natural environmental practice. Changes in ecosystem affect the explored natural resources as well as the traditional practice dependent on them. This paper aims at presenting the upper Paraná river floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge from Porto Rico (PR and Porto São José (PR regions. A brief comment on fragmentation theory is presented because of the floodplain fragmentation imposed by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Three phrases and one proverb, which reveal the dynamics of the fishermen’s ecological process, were registered and confronted with the scientific knowledge of the region. The phrases show a popular and traditional interpretation in agreement with the upper Paraná river floodplain scientific discoveries. The ecosystem fragmentation and loss of tradition, due to the fishery practice

  5. 约束、具象、引用:查尔斯·伯恩斯坦的《影子时代》对历史的重构%Constraint,Concrete,Citation:Refiguring History in CHARLES Bernstein's Shadowtime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查尔斯·伯恩斯坦

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the abstraction and non-referentiality of Language Poetry has given way to a more intertextual and intellectual poetry-a poetry that interrogates history and the literature of the past so as to come to a better understanding of the present. In his "thought opera" about the great critic Walter Benjamin, Charles Bernstein uses elaborate language games, literary echoes, citations, constraints, and "found text" to rethink the life and aesthetic of the deeply conflicted German intellectual, whose career was framed by the two World Wars. The libretto Shadowtime, which can be read independently of the music, presents both a loving but also ironic portrait of Benjamin-a character as deeply flawed as he is sympathetic. Bernstein's language, often drawn directly from specific Benjamin texts, like "Hashish at Marseilles," is elaborately deconstructed so as to produce a complex network of puns, paragrams, and aphorisms. But this "poem including history" is also very funny-full of wit and comedy so that it has broad audience appeal. It provides a paradigm for what is happening in avant-garde American poetry today: the use of intermedia, sound play, and semantically charged language that inherits many of the features of the Language movement but is more meditative and thought-provoking.%近年来,语言诗的抽象性与非指示性已经让位于一种更具有互文性和智性的诗歌,这种诗歌通过考问历史和历史上的文学以求对当下获得更好的理解.在关于两战期间德国伟大的批评家瓦尔特·本雅明的"思想歌剧"中,查尔斯·伯恩斯坦运用了精心制作的语言游戏、文学回声、引用、约束以及"发现的文本"来重新评论这位充满矛盾的德国学者的生平和美学观.即便独立于音乐之外进行阅读,该歌剧剧本深情而又不乏反讽地刻画出本雅明既有瑕疵又感人至深的人物性格.伯恩斯坦常常直接从本雅明的"马赛的麻药"等具体文本中提取

  6. USING TURKISH OF NECATİ BEY NECATÎ BEY’İN TÜRKÇESİ

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    Şerif Ali BOZKAPLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necatî who have studies with old Anatolian Turkish, is known and gets attention as a man who speaks and uses Turkish very perfectly. It should be mentioned that idioms, proverbs, reduplications, mottos etc. Which are main stones of Turkish are take parts in poetry of Necatî. In addition to these Poet Necatî applies some structures spoken languages into literal language.Therefore, it is possible to see some archaic words aren’t used anymore in actual Turkish in Necatî’s poetry.In conclusion Necatî connects yesterday of Turkish and today of Turkish by using some features of history of Turkish. Eski Anadolu Türkçesi ile eser vermiş olan Necatî, Türkçeyi gayet iyi konuşan ve kullanan biri olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Türkçenin anlatım vasıtalarından olan deyimler, atasözleri, ikilemeler, kalıp sözler, özlü sözler, vb. gibi yapı taşlarının Necatî ‘nin şiirinde hayli yer bulduğunu belirtmek gerekir. Bunlara ilaveten Şair Necatî, konuşma dilinin bazı kalıplarını da şiir diline dahil etmiştir.Öte yandan bugünkü Türkçede kullanımdan düşmüş bazı arkaik sözlere Necatî’nin şiirinde rastlamak mümkündür.Görüldüğü üzere Necatî geçmişin bazı unsurlarını kullanarak Türkçenin geçmişi ile o günü dolayısıyla da bugünün arasında bağ kurmuştur.

  7. Félix Arnaudin : Chants Populaires de la Grande Lande

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ces deux recueils forment les volumes III et IV de l’ensemble des huit volumes des œuvres complètes de Félix Arnaudin, dont le Parc Régional des Landes de Gascogne a entrepris l’édition. Au magnifique album de photos (quelque trois mille plaques de verre), aux Contes (I), aux Proverbes, Dictons, Devinettes, Formulettes, Prières (II), viennent donc s’ajouter ces deux recueils de chants. Doivent suivre le Dictionnaire de la Grande-Lande, également en deux volumes, dont la parution a été retardé...

  8. 英、汉习语的翻译艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小雨

    2005-01-01

    @@ 习语(idiom)是人们在长时期的语言运用基础上提炼出来的一种生动、简明的语言形式,堪称语言艺术的精品.广义概念上的"习语",指具有比喻义或引申义,由于习用而定型化的(stereotyped)词组或简短语句.习语也包括部分定型的俗语(colloquialism)、俚语(slang)和谚语(proverb).

  9. THE ROLE OF HOLIDAY IN CHILDREN EDUCATION / ÇOCUK EĞĐTĐMĐNDE BAYRAMLARIN ROLÜ

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    Eldeniz ABBASLI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the celebration of the national holidays inAzerbaycan. One of these holidays is "Nevruz". Generally "Nevruz" is thesymbol of coming Spring not only in Azerbaycan but most of the countries of theworld. But in Azerbaycan, people celebratethis holiday traditionally. Here the children, students as well as the little childrenprepare for this celebration with great pleasure. They learn more proverbs,riddles, stories, dances, songs in order to take an active part in the celebration of"Nevruz". Such preparatiopns improve the knowledge of the children.

  10. Lecturing the lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    João Magueijo's article "Cargo-cult training" about the failings of compulsory educational training for lecturers (December 2009 pp16-17) is an illustration of why some university lecturers do need to be educated about education. His argument that we should use lectures because students like them ignores the large body of educational research stating that this is the least effective form of education. It might, as the well-known aphorism states, be a successful means of transferring the notes of the lecturer to the notes of the students without going through the minds of either, but the evidence shows that only 10% of students learn material in this way. Rather, all the educational literature points to the fact that interactive, discursive methods are much more likely to produce learning with understanding.

  11. TRIPARTITE, QUADRIPARTITE AND QUINTETTE WORD GROUPS IN KUTADGU BİLİG/KUTADGU BİLİG’DE ÜÇLEMELER, DÖRTLEMELER VE BEŞLEMELER

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    Fatma Sibel BAYRAKTAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 11th Century was very impressive in terms of cultural developments along with the momentum-gaining developments in the military and politics in Turkish history. Being contemporary of “Divânü Lügâti’t Türk” (the compendium of the turkic dialects, the masterpiece named “Kutadgu Bilig” has been complemented in this era in Kashgar (1069-1070. Yusuf Has Hacip has penned this written work which has been written initially after the adoption of Islam by the Turks, in 6645 couplets in Karakhanid Turkish, the only known written language by the time. In the work described an ideal state that is how it should be. Kutatgu Bilig is one of the most valuable resources illuminating issues of jurisdiction and legislation of Turkish culture. Therefore, over thousands of studies which are recognized by the world of science has been conducted since 1825. Kutatgu Bilig was always found worth studying in terms of its language as well as being studied in philosophical, political, religious aspects. In every period of the Turkish literature, numerous repetitions were utilized in order to ensuring harmony, consolidating the meanings, strengthening, enriching the concepts and also facilitating to remain in memory. Many studies have been made relating these formations which are purported by the terms “atf-ı tefsir?” in Ottoman, “hendiadyoin, reduplication dual” in English, “Verdoppelung, Zwilligsformen, hendiadyoin” in German, “redoublement, hendiadyoin” in French, on historical texts as well as on idioms and proverbs. In ancient Göktürk texts we frequently come across hendiadyses like “altun kümüş” (gold, silver, “arkış tirkiş” (caravan convoy, “at kü” (name, fame, “kurt ko?uz” (bugs and insects and “yabız yablak” (wretched and miserable. Also in Uighur Turkish texts we see examples like “akuru akuru” (slowly, quietly, “asan tükel” (safe and sound “birin birin” (one by one. In today’s Turkish

  12. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step, melodic

  13. Many Drops Make a Lake

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    Chaitanya S. Mudgal

    2014-03-01

    greater knowledge, better skills and disseminate this knowledge through this journal to influence as many physicians and their patients as possible. They have taken the knowledge of their teachers, recognized their giants and are now poised to see further than ever before. My grandmother often used to quote to me a proverb from India, which when translated literally means “Many drops make a lake”. I cannot help but be amazed by the striking similarities between the words of Newton and this Indian saying. Therefore, while it may seem intuitive, I think it must be stated that it is vital for the betterment of all our patients that we recognize our own personal lakes to put our drops of knowledge into. More important is that we recognize that it is incumbent upon each and every one of us to contribute to our collective lakes of knowledge such as ABJS. And finally and perhaps most importantly we need to be utterly cognizant of never letting such lakes of knowledge run dry.... ever.

  14. The scientific conferences organized during war time (1992-1995) in sarajevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    to the "survival" of B&H and its people. Some of the published articles, especially in the Medical Archives journal, which even in difficult war conditions did not break the continuity of its publication, and then it was the only scientific journal indexed in B&H, having been consequently cited in the major biomedical data bases in the world. Many scientists abroad have had the opportunity to learn about some of the wonders of Sarajevo "war medicine", thanks to this journal. Finally, despite the fact that it is another way of expressing its resistance to the aggression on B&H, the organized symposia in the war represented the continuity of the scientific research activities. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sarajevo under siege, in this way, kept in touch with the civilized world and modern achievements, despite the fact that they were victims of medieval barbarism. In addition, these meetings sent a powerful message to the world about the willingness to register and systematize all the war experiences, especially those related to medicine and medical practice, in terms of what Europe has not known, since the Second World War. Partially, we succeeded in that. The total number of 286 presentations were presented in seven war Conferences, as quantitative and qualitative contribution to the scientific activities, despite the inhuman conditions, in which these articles emerged. These presentations and Conferences testify to the enthusiasm of B&H community and academic institutions that have collaborated with it. Authors and co-authors presented the "war" articles that deserve to be mentioned in the monograph "1479 days of the siege of Sarajevo". Unfortunately, many of these brave authors are not alive and cannot read this. The task for us remains to remember them by their own good. Old Persian proverb says; "The event which is not recorded is as like it had never happened". Sapienti sat.

  15. The scientific conferences organized during war time (1992-1995) in sarajevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    to the "survival" of B&H and its people. Some of the published articles, especially in the Medical Archives journal, which even in difficult war conditions did not break the continuity of its publication, and then it was the only scientific journal indexed in B&H, having been consequently cited in the major biomedical data bases in the world. Many scientists abroad have had the opportunity to learn about some of the wonders of Sarajevo "war medicine", thanks to this journal. Finally, despite the fact that it is another way of expressing its resistance to the aggression on B&H, the organized symposia in the war represented the continuity of the scientific research activities. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sarajevo under siege, in this way, kept in touch with the civilized world and modern achievements, despite the fact that they were victims of medieval barbarism. In addition, these meetings sent a powerful message to the world about the willingness to register and systematize all the war experiences, especially those related to medicine and medical practice, in terms of what Europe has not known, since the Second World War. Partially, we succeeded in that. The total number of 286 presentations were presented in seven war Conferences, as quantitative and qualitative contribution to the scientific activities, despite the inhuman conditions, in which these articles emerged. These presentations and Conferences testify to the enthusiasm of B&H community and academic institutions that have collaborated with it. Authors and co-authors presented the "war" articles that deserve to be mentioned in the monograph "1479 days of the siege of Sarajevo". Unfortunately, many of these brave authors are not alive and cannot read this. The task for us remains to remember them by their own good. Old Persian proverb says; "The event which is not recorded is as like it had never happened". Sapienti sat. PMID:23678305

  16. Zoofolkloorseid aspekte eesti keerdküsimustes, liitsõnamängudes ja piltmõistatustes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Voolaid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the use of animals in three major recently emerged subgenres of what has become to be called riddle periphery: conundrums, compound word games, and droodles.• Compound word games are direct “wh”-questions, e.g., Q: How do you put an elephant in the fridge? A: 1. Open the fridge. 2. Put the elephant inside. 3. Close the fridge.• Droodles mostly consist of a visual image serving as the question and the description of the image serving as the answer, e.g., Q: What is this? A: Four elephants sniffing an orange.• Compound word games mostly use the initial formula “What” or “Which kind?” and expect, instead of an adjective, a compound word as an answer, such as Mis tõugu hobune on parim ujuja? Vastus: Merehobune. [ Q: What horses swim the best? A: Seahorses.]Animals appear as characters in these riddles in great numbers but in specific riddle subcategories the animal paradigm manifests in a unique way.About one fourth of all Estonian conundrums feature animal names, and like in folk narratives (folktale, joke, tall tale or other genres of verbal art (fable, cartoons, plays the animal is associated with highly diverse imagery. Quite often these genres include anthropomorphic personification, where human characteristics attributed to a zoological creature tend to function as specific stereotypes and the animals often talk about us and serve as embodiments of humans. The use of animal characters who act as representatives of different types of humans allows safe ridiculing of the vices of humans and the society. In other minor forms of folklore (proverbs and phrases, the most popular animals are generally local domestic animals and fowl, but the most popular animal characters in Estonian conundrums are rather exotic (elephant, hippopotamus, etc.. One reason for this is perhaps the predominance of international material (e.g., elephant jokes originating from the Anglo-American culture area in the Estonian riddle

  17. Kakskümmend kaks kala eesti rahvausundis. I

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    Mall Hiiemäe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a sequel to the series of articles about the birds and insects in the Estonian fauna (See Hiiemäe 1996, 1997, 1998. In folk tradition the utilitarian attitude towards the fish was much more prevalent than towards the birds or insects. Until today, fishing has been an important source of living for the population in coastal regions, and for centuries the Estonians have shared their fishing waters with the neighbouring peoples: the Latvians, the Livonians, the Swedes, the Finnish and the Russians. Teutonic supremacy established its fishing rights both on the coasts and inland waters already in the 13th century.As to the subject of fish, Estonian folklore is rich in fishing magic. The disappearance of fish in a certain fishing area was often explained by the conflict between the locals and foreigners, or the leaving or taking the fish by some supernatural means (cf. the Estonian proverb: Envy draws the fish from sea.The bulk of folk tradition introduces generalisations based on long-term observation of nature and experience, also different prophesies and methods of magic to secure fishing luck. A part of the information centres on the aetiology of the fish, focusing on fabulates of uncertain genre about fish with distinctive outward characteristics, unique figure and behaviour. A separately standing group is formed of narratives which originate in the hunter-gatherer culture and have gone through changes influenced by land-tilling culture and Christianity, which regards fish as (somewhat demonised spiritual creatures of the sea world.European perch (Perca fluviatilis is distinguished by its habitat, spawning time and colour. The bright colour of its fins predicts the coming of cold winter. The fall in the number of perch has also been associated with the threat of Latvian fishermen to «take away» the perch if the fishermen were forced to pay for the fishing permits.Eel (Anguilla anguilla is believed to have developed from

  18. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

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    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  19. Beyond the antioxidant: the double life of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tullio, Mario C

    2012-01-01

    When considering the history of vitamin C, and the names given to this molecule in early days, the Latin proverb nomen est omen suddenly comes to mind. Around 1920, when Casimir Funk introduced the term Vitamin C to indicate the nutritional factor necessary to prevent the pathological state known as scurvy, the nature of the active molecule was still unknown (Davies MB, Austin J, Partridge DA (1991) Vitamin C: Its chemistry and biochemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge UK). Almost in the same years, Albert Szent-Giörgyi was striving to identify a new 6-carbon sugar he had obtained in crystal form from oranges, lemons, cabbage and adrenal glands. As humorously described by Szent-Giörgyi himself (Szent-Giörgyi A (1963) Lost in the twentieth century. Annu Rev Biochem 36:1-15), he intended to name this yet unknown carbohydrate "ignose". When this name was rejected by Sir Arthur Harden, editor of the Biochemical Journal, he suggested to name it "godnose", meaning that only God could know the real identity of the molecule. Obviously, also this choice was considered inappropriate by Harden, who suggested the plain name "hexuronic acid". Only later, when the structure of "hexuronic acid" had been completely elucidated, and biological tests performed by Swirbely identified this molecule as the anti-scurvy factor vitamin C, Szent-Giörgyi and Walter Norman Haworth decided to eventually name it ascorbic acid (Szent-Giörgyi A (1963) Lost in the twentieth century. Annu Rev Biochem 36:1-15). "Ascorbic" literally means "against scurvy", and scurvy is known to be mainly due to the inactivation of some important dioxygenases involved in the synthesis of a few key molecules, including different collagen forms (De Tullio MC (2004) How does ascorbic acid prevent scurvy? A survey of the nonantioxidant functions of vitamin C. In: Asard H, May J, Smirnoff N (eds) Vitamin C, its functions and biochemistry in animals and plants. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK, pp

  20. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  1. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  2. The City Image of Dostoevsky's Petersburg%陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下的彼得堡城市意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅星寰; 张一莹

    2015-01-01

    陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下的彼得堡城市意象——阴郁之花、神幻之城、罪恶之都、呼求悔改的"尼尼微",传达和推进了他的"彼得堡文本"的主题——"人之谜"的情感哲思、对俄罗斯现代性地批判、给予俄罗斯以及俄罗斯人未来道路选择的箴言,统摄着他的"彼得堡文本"的氛围和基调,形成了他富有特殊魅力的艺术表现.这些融入作家感怀的城市意象,源于现实又超越于现实之上,饱含了作家的文化批判及预言性质的深刻洞见.这些意象最终指向彼得堡的救赎之路,陀氏看到了传统观念终将经受洪水而倾覆的彼得堡有在信仰中被赎救的可能,从而藉着他的"彼得堡文本",给予彼得堡传统末日神话一个新的出路,盼望彼得堡成为响应呼召悔改后"新生"的城市.%The city image of Dostoevsky's Petersburg —Dark flowers,Magic City,Sin City,Call for repen-tance's 'Nineveh',communicated and promoted his "Petersburg text" theme—the emotion philosophy a-bout "mystery of the people",the modernity criticism of Russia,the proverbs given to choose the future path of Russia and the Russian,controlled his "Petersburg text" atmosphere and tone,and formed the special charm of artistic expression.These city images,which reflect the writer's lament and sentiment, come from life and beyond the reality,and fully reflect the writer's profound insight of cultural criticism and prophetic nature.These images finally point to the redemption road of Petersburg.Dostoevsky per-ceived that the traditional Petersburg would be capsized by flood finally,and there was possible to be saved in faith.Thereby,Dostoevsky created a new way for traditional doomsday myth of Petersburg via his"Pe-tersburg text",and hoped that Petersburg would become a"new city",which responses to calling for the repentance.

  3. EXPRESSIONS FROM REZMÎ DİVAN REZMÎ DİVANI’NDA DEYİMLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GÜRBÜZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressions and proverbs are language structures which received production of savings from past to today imagination and memory of society. Poets benefit from these possibilities of language to enhance their definitions on their poems and to make interest or to be clear and understandable abstract dreams which they have into brains more or less. Expressions were already formed with art understanding has an important role at this preference.Expressions are in Divan of Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî who lived second half of 17th century and first quarter of 18th century and use of these expressions will be tackled in our study. Remzi was a poet who used usually elements belong to Ottoman’s society daily life and concerning daily life expressions, phrases. Because he had sophisticated identity, was a member of Ottoman Empire, took education in palace and assigned during his life, it is noticeable that he used deeply concerning life elements in this way. Deyimler ve atasözleri, toplum hafızasının ve muhayyilesinin geçmişten günümüze elde ettiği birikiminin üretimi olan dil yapılarıdır. Şairler, şiirlerinde anlatımı güçlendirmek ve ilgi çekici bir hale getirmek ya da kurdukları soyut hayâlleri daha açık ve anlaşılır kılmak amacıyla dilin bu ifade imkânlarından az ya da çok mutlaka yararlanırlar. Deyimlerin zaten sanatlı bir anlayışla meydana getirilmiş olması bu tercihte önemli bir yer tutmuştur. Çalışmada 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısı ile 18. yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde yaşamış Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî’nin Divanı’nda yer alan deyimlerle bu deyimlerin kullanımı ele alınacaktır. Rezmî, Osmanlı toplumunun gündelik hayatına ait unsurları ve günlük diline ilişkin deyimleri, tabirleri sıklıkla kullanmış bir şairdir. Çok yönlü sanatçı bir kimliğe sahip olan şairin Osmanlı hanedanına mensup olması, sarayda eğitim görüp bütün hayatı boyunca sarayda görevler alm

  4. DEDE KORKUT KİTABINDAKİ BİR SÖZCÜKTEN (BOY HAREKETLE “BO, BU, ABO, ABU…” SESLENME ÖGELERİNİN YAPISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra ALYILMAZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dede Korkut Kitabı, yerli ve yabancı araştırmacılar tarafından Türk dili ve edebiyatının en seçkin eseri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Eserde her birine “boy” denilen 12 destansı hikâye bulunmaktadır. Söz konusu destansı hikâyelerde esas itibarıyla Oğuz Türklerinin yaşayış ve inanışına, mücadelelerine ve geçmişine dair bilgiler yer almaktadır. Dede Korkut Kitabı, bünyesinde barındırdığı zengin sözcükler, deyimler, vecizeler, atasözleri, alkışlar (dualar, kargışlar (beddualar, övgüler, sövgüler, yergiler… ile de ayrı bir değer taşır. Dede Korkut Kitabı bugün bilinmeyen, kullanım sıklığı az olan pek çok sözcüğün ve sözcük öbeğinin tanıklanmasına da kaynak oluşturmuştur. Bu makalede Dede Korkut Kitabı’nda geçen ve seslenme ögesi olarak kullanılan “boy” sözcüğünden hareketle bugüne kadar kökeni ve yapısı hakkında farklı görüşler ileri sürülen “bo”, “bu”, “abo”, “abu…” seslenmelerinin kökeni ve yapısı açıklanmaya çalışılmaktadır. The Book of Dede Korkut is considered as the most prominent work of the Turkish philology by domestic and foreign researchers. There are 12 epic stories each called “boy” (tribe in the work. The epic stories contain essentially information about the life, belief, fights and history of Oghuz Turks. The Book of Dede Korkut is of great value with the abundant words, idioms, quotes, proverbs, prayers, curses, compliments, swearwords, satires…included. The Book of Dede Korkut has created resource to identify plenty of words and phrases, that is unknown and of little us today. This essay explains the origin and structure of vocatives “bo”, “bu”, “abo”, “abu…” that is put forward different ideas about the origin and structure up to today with reference to the word “boy (tribe” that is available in The Book of Dede Korkut and used as an vocative item.

  5. Ahiqar tra leggenda e rielaborazione letteraria. Una tradizione e i suoi riflessi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toloni, Giancarlo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The legend of Ahiqar, Sennacherib’s powerful Prime Minister, is told in the homonymous History and Proverbs, whose the oldest witness is the Elephantine version (5th century BC. The figure of the Assyrian wise came later in the book of Tobit as an important partner of Tobit; so, to give prestige to his book, the autor of Tobit has exploited the fame of the History of Ahiqar, and historicized its protagonist. This legend of court was also known to the Jewish communities of the Egyptian Diaspora –including that of Elephantine: in the Hellenistic period it was adapted to Jewish tradition, becoming a wisdom novel. Ahiqar also appeares in some writings in demotic: in two fragments of papyrus of the first century AD, and in the Instructions of Anchsheshonqy, but especially in an inscription found at Uruk-Warka in a Babylonian tablet (165 BC which contains a list of ummānū, ‘scholars (of the court’. Among them is Ahiqar, designated with an Aramaic name, Aḫu ͗aqari. This is, therefore, an apocryphal identification: the ummānu Ahiqar is placed under Esarhaddon and in Assyria, by a spurious historicization, very similar to the one that made the author of Tobit.La leyenda de Ajicar, poderoso primer ministro de Senaquerib, aparece contada en la Historia homónima y Proverbios. Su testimonio más antiguo es la versión de Elefantina (siglo V a.C.. La figura del sabio asirio se introdujo más tarde en el libro de Tobit como un importante compañero de Tobit, de manera que para dar prestigio a su libro, el autor de Tobit explotó la fama de la Historia de Ajicar e historizó a su protagonista. Esta leyenda cortesana era también conocida entre las comunidades de la diáspora egipcia, incluida la de Elefantina; en el periodo helenístico fue adaptada a la tradición judía como novela sapiencial. Ajicar también aparece en algunos escritos en lengua demótica: en dos fragmentos de papiro del siglo III d.C. y en las Instrucciones de Anchsheshonqy

  6. The Factors Music Making in ''Tamhidat Eyn Ol Ghozat Hamedani'' in a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    the garb of the phonetic and pun, repetition, and rhythm being in important parts of speech that close sometimes to prosodic weight. In the prose of Ein ol-Ghozat without feeling prosodic weight by listener, a Wave of song and weight dominates that is a result of phonetic and rhymes, and being Near a number of syllables in each mirror to each other and perhaps in all or part of the mirrors, the number of syllables is the same or close.Replication as a key element of the endogenous music is one of Ein ol-Ghozat 's stylistic characteristic. Replications are seen in three forms in Ein ol-Ghozat languages. 1- Phonetic repetition, this group consists of repeating the pun, rhyme and phoneme layout and etc. 2- Repetition of words or phrases. 3- Word Repetition: The Repetition is one of the most important and beautiful art repetition in preparations that in addition to give the integrated to prose is effective in order to better instill of the concept and content of the message of Ein ol-Ghozat, As repetition of the words "Alas," " O’ Friend," and "O’ Dear" in different phrases has a great influence in stimulation of feeling and induction emotional state to the reader's.Phonetic Repetition: One of the most important aspects of beauty in the mystical prose of Ein ol-Ghozat are voice and phonetic coordination that its peak can be found in a pun and rhyme and Incrustation. The using of rhyme in preparations is not the same. In a place that discussion is education and reasoning generally speaking, is not a poem, but in where that speaking is about stories and anecdotes and analogies or become emotional; usually poems used. One manifestation of this item is short sentences and aphorisms, whether in a place that the word is quote by an old or an important person or whether the author express his own speaks.Apart from these, Ein ol-Ghozat has worked other ways to enrich his words music. The most important of these methods are:•Bringing words that at least their initials are co

  7. Overview of the Factors Music Making in Tamhidat by Ein al-Ghozat Hamedani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Modarresi

    2013-11-01

    -Ghozat's prose without feeling prosodic meter by listener, a wave of intonation and meter dominates resulted from alliteration and rhyme, and proximity of the number of syllables in every symmetry and perhaps likeness and nearness of the number of syllables in all or parts of the symmetries. Repetition as a key element of the internal music is one of Ein ol-Ghozat's stylistic characteristic.  Repetitions are seen in three forms in Ein ol-Ghozat languages. 1- Alliteration, this group consists of various kinds of pun, rhyme, repetition, etc. 2- Parallelism: Repetition of words or phrases. 3- Palilology: Repetition of word: This form is one of the most important and aesthetic repetition in Tamhidat that in addition to making prose integrated, is effective in conveying the concept and content of the message of Ein ol-Ghozat, as repetition of the words "Alas," " O’ Friend," and "O’ Dear" in several phrases has a great influence in stimulation of feeling and  inculcation emotion in the reader. Alliteration: One of the most important aspects of aesthetics in the mystical prose of Ein ol-Ghozat are sound harmony and alliteration that can be mainly found in pun/ paronomasia and riming. Usage of rhyme in all Tamhidat is not in the same level. Wherever  discussion is didactic and reasoning, it is not generally riming, but where  the subject is stories and anecdotes and analogies or becomes emotional, usually is riming. One manifestation of this figure is short sentences and aphorisms, whether the word is quotation of  an old or an important person or whether the author expresses his own word. Apart from these, Ein ol-Ghozat has worked other ways to enrich his word's music. The most important of these methods are: Bringing words that at least their initials are co-voiced. Such as: "Ebtela" and "Emtehan" Phonemes processing: a kind of internal music is repetition and sameness of consonants and vowels. This figure in some cases, with creating a specific internal music, highlights the

  8. 首尾双齐的Epanalepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎昌抱

    2003-01-01

    先请看例句: Believe not all you can hear,tell not all you believe.(Native American proverb) 这是一句美国地方谚语。美国Brigham Young University修辞学专家Gid-eon Burton教授将它收入自己制作的英语修辞格网页(网址:http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/E/epanalepsis.htm)。此例除结构整齐匀称、言简意赅之外,最值一提的是句中believe一词前后呼应,首尾双齐,给人以视觉的冲

  9. Vers une illusio sans illusion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Durand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available À Daniel Giovannangeli« Peu importe la direction du vent, le soleil va toujours là où il doit aller. »Proverbe congolais« Une carrière ne se propose aux lettres, mais on use du mot à la façon de lyriques célébrant le parcours de l’astre jusqu’à sa hauteur accoutumée — que, tout à l’heure, il va toucher — ascension pas avancement. »Mallarmé, ConfrontationDe l’illusio en général et de l’illusio littéraire en particulierPar stratégie, terme quelque peu abandonné ensuite, de même que celui d’inté...

  10. Avis à qui de droit

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    L’adresse indirecte, pratiquée dans l’espace commun et manifestée dans l’imbrication du nom, du proverbe et du conte, est au cœur de la communication en pays igbo. Elle est directement liée à l’extrême décentralisation du pouvoir et à son corollaire : le droit de chacun à la parole au sein de groupes sociaux fonctionnant côte à côte de façon autonome tout en comptant les uns sur les autres et en constante communication. Elle se manifeste aussi bien par les stratégies de parole que par l’utili...

  11. « Avis à qui de droit »: l'adresse indirecte en pays igbo du Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    L’adresse indirecte, pratiquée dans l’espace commun et manifestée dans l’imbrication du nom, du proverbe et du conte, est au coeur de la communication en pays igbo. Elle est directement liée à l’extrême décentralisation du pouvoir et à son corollaire : le droit de chacun à la parole au sein de groupes sociaux fonctionnant côte à côte de façon autonome tout en comptant les uns sur les autres et en constante communication. Elle se manifeste aussi bien par les stratégies de parole que par l’util...

  12. English Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littera Aperta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Setting out on the voyage of a new journal about Literary and Humanistic studies always entails an uncertain sailing, yet even more undetermined in the current context of global affairs, afflicted by economic crisis, collective despondency and growing disregard for Humanities in society. This is a bad time for poetry (“schlechte Zeit für Lyrik”, as Bertolt Brecht wrote in the 20s and then sang with a wider media effect the Spanish music band Golpes Bajos in the 80’s. However, we are convinced that discouragement, like fire, can only expand if fanned; optimism, in turn, has a performative virtue. Anyway, the Latin proverb, passed on by Ausonius, teaches that dimidium est facti coepisse: the beginning is half the whole. Our vision is that Littera Aperta will make of its title meaning its own identity, admitting a wide spectrum of analytical methodologies, spanning from ancient approaches, genuinely philological, to modern and postmodern strategies. Traditionally, Philology has sought to establish the Texts and recreate their meaning in its original context, whilst postmodern criticism asserts that the meaning of texts is merely a cultural construct. Nevertheless, we believe that in the critical journey it is possible to ply a route equidistant between Scylla and Charybdis: the text analysis helps to build theories and, complementarily, the methodical doubt of deconstruction impels us to test the validity of theories by means of a close textual reading. Let us admit, following Pierre Grimal, that systems grow old and become obsolete, more often than not very quickly and that only data remains unfaltering, “as a possession for all time”, to employ Thucydides’ definition of History. Yet it is not untrue either that systems, theories and models help to govern the chaos in the fluid system that is the world of data. Against the deconstruction principle of uncertainty raises the constructive aspiration to knowledge. The openness of the

  13. Cooperation with environmentalists as part of a utility's communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    those environmental organizations and their information: education centres that ask for them. We have been supporting an environmentally oriented secondary school in northern Bohemia. We support energy savings. We have been testing electric appliances and recommending the power-saving ones to the public. Twice we organized the sale of power-saving fluorescent lamps at substantially reduced prices. We have been taking part in environmentally oriented exhibitions, presenting there CEZ's programme to help the environment. Within its educational programme, CEZ has entered into cooperation with the TEREZA group, which is active within the Czech Environmentalist Society. This group promotes the introduction of environmental education at schools. Together with TEREZA we developed a project named 'What you learn when you are young ...', which encourages classes or groups of children to contribute to the improvement of the environment in the surroundings of their school, in energy savings at home and at school, and which teaches them how to handle wastes properly. I would like to talk about this educational programme in more detail. The parts of the project have names inspired by Czech proverbs. The name of first part is 'If you are not lazy, your garden will be green'. It gives advice on how to work with vegetation - grass, flowers, shrubs and trees - for the school to combine with nature and to become the most beautiful in town. Children will learn to transform a piece of land into grass, to make a hedge row, to make the walls of a building more vivid with creepers, and to make a roof green. The second part of the programme is named 'Saving is having', where 'saving' means energy saving. The children try various concepts and ideas to save energy at school or at home and to reduce energy waste, and calculate the resulting money and energy savings. The third part, What you can recycle today ... 11, is aimed at wastes. The children learn to sort wastes, to recycle and reuse them

  14. Koolipärimuse kogumisest Noarootsis ja Vormsis 2006. aasta kevadel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Voolaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the project of collecting school lore, instigated by Nordens Institut på Åland (the Nordic Institute on Åland which aim was to collect school lore from Åland (Finland, Gotland (Sweden and the former regions of coastal Swedes in Estonia in spring 2006. The collected material was published in a Swedish-language joke anthology Det var en ko och det var poängen (’Once there was a cow - and that’s it!’, in which the Estonian material is presented in two languages. In Estonia, the fieldwork for the project was carried out in April and May, 2006, in two general education schools in West Estonia: in Noarootsi School (with 138 pupils and Vormsi Basic School (21 pupils. I undertook the three-day field trip to Noarootsi on my own, whereas on the two-day trip to the Vormsi Island I was accompanied by Alar Madisson, photographer of the Estonian Literary Museum, and Astrid Tuisk at the Estonian Folklore Archives. The choice of these two rural schools for folkloric fieldwork was made by our Swedish partners, who argued that these remain in the former settlement areas of the coastal Swedes and were particularly interested in the contemporary school lore of this particular region, which has been inhabited by Estonian Swedes for nearly eight centuries. The same fieldwork methods were applied in Noarootsi and Vormsi. First, the schoolchildren responded to questionnaires under the supervision of teachers. The questionnaires were based on one used in the 1992 major collection campaign for collecting school lore in Estonia. The children were asked to write down 1 jokes; 2 riddles, conundrums and trick tasks; 3 proverbs, truisms and set phrases/quip words; 4 horror tales and absurd tales; 5 parodies, songs, verses; 6 various predictions; 7 the repertoire of verse books, notebooks and friendship books; 8 various hobbies, customs and tricks; 9 games; 10 information on using the Internet. This was followed by in situ interviewing of

  15. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  16. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  17. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    physics and of the industrial revolution, much of which took place not very far from where I am writing. We are reminded of James Watt (whose firm, Boulton and Watt, was in Birmingham) and his invention of the horsepower (HP). My slide-rule cursor has a special mark for 746 (watt/HP). We are reminded of the powers of 10 prefixes in the metric system, and of the importance of distinguishing upper case M, 106, from lower case m, 10-3. This distinction appears not to be very well known to journalists, who regularly report on new power stations which are capable of producing nearly as much power as a torch battery. Let us now return to our apples. The SI unit of force is the Newton, which is very appropriate since the Newton is about the weight of an average apple. Not of course the weight of a Twenty Ounce apple, whose weight is about 5 N. In the preface there is an implicit reminder that many English proverbs and figures of speech make use of Imperial units. My impression is that some of the countries of the British Commonwealth, when they went metric, did everything they could to eliminate all mention of Imperial units. (Referring to Imperial units has not been made a hanging offence, but perhaps that is because the death penalty has been abolished.) Do they now say 'A miss is as good as 1.6 kilometres' or is it rounded down to 'a kilometre'? In the course of a survey of obsolescent units we are reminded of the guinea (21 shillings = £1.05). In horse-racing, at least, it is not yet obsolete: there are classic races still called the Thousand Guineas and the Two Thousand Guineas, but no doubt the Brussels Eurocrats would like to call them the Thousand and Fifty Pounds or the One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-Three Euros, and will in due course prosecute someone if the names are not changed into Eurospeak. The final section of the book is entitled 'The global vision: illusion or reality'. In this the author calls for a unified system of units. But we already have one: SI

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Aquilina

    1976-01-01

    .A.M. van Zantwijk, Horst Hartung, Die zeremonialzentren der Maya. Ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Planungsprinzipien. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Graz, Oostenrijk 1971. 136 blz., 6 plattegronden, 36 fotopagina’s. - R.A.M. van Zantwijk, F. Cancian, Another place, Photographs of a Maya community. The Scrimshaw Press, San Francisco, 1974. 95 blz. - C. Baks, Louis Dumont, Religion, politics and history in India; Collected papers in Indian Sociology. Le monde d’outre mer passé et présent, première série; études XXXIV. Mouton Publishers Paris/The Hague, 1970. - J. van Baal, Jacques Waardenburg, Classical approaches to the study of religion. Aims, methods and theories of research. Vol. I: Introduction and anthology; II: Bibliography. Mouton, The Hague/Paris 1973/74; 742 and 332 pp. Deel 3 en 4 in de Serie Religion and Reason. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Rodney Needham, Right & left: Essays on dual symbolic classification. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. xxxix + 449 pp. 1973. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Ino Rossi, The unconscious in culture: The structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss in perspective. E.P. Dutton & Co., New York 1974. 487 pp. - David S. Moyer, Rodney Needham, Remarks and inventions: Skeptical essays about kinship. Tavistock Publications, London, 1974. 181 pp. - John Beattie, Hilary Henson, British social anthropologists and language: A history of separate development. Clarendon Press Oxford 1974. 147 pp. - Jeremy Boissevain, Joseph Aquilina, A comparative dictionary of Maltese proverbs. Royal University of Malta. Malta 1972. 1iii, 694 pp., bibl., Indices, Appendices. - Rita Bolland, Marta Hoffman, The warp-weighted loom, studies in the history and technology of an ancient implement. Universiteitsforlaget, Oslo, etc. (heruitgave van 1964, in: Serie Studia Norvegica, z.j., 425 pp. - Peter J.M. Nas, Abner Cohen, Urban Ethnicity. A.S.A. Monograph 12, Tavistock Publications Limited. London, 1974. XXIV + 391 pp., Figs., Maps. - P

  19. Codex Cumanicus'ta Hayvan Adları The Turkic Animals Names In Codex Cumanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akartürk KARAHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Codex Cumanicus is the first known Turkish monument written in Latin alphabet. It is thought that Codex Cumanicus was used for missionary and trading at the end of the XIII. century and the beginning of the XIV. century, in north of the Black Sea domains of Kipchak, Christian priests and Venetian merchants. In this book, except for the Persian, Latin, Kuman word lists, proverbs, riddles, hymns of Kipchaks are also provided. Although a work written for certain purposes, the Codex Cumanicus has a quite varied and rich vocabulary. The book draws attention to vocabulary specifically to all areas of daily life for example, precious metals, minerals, plants, animals, human and animal body, limbs, disease names, numbers names, color names, clothing, household goods, war materials, trading goods, religious terms, calendar (day, month, week names, law, measure, object names, food names and etc. The presence of these elements in the Codex Cumanicus, may give clues on many issues, such as Kuman-Kipchak language, lifestyles, cultures, geographies.For this purpose, in this article Turkic vocabulary of animals names in the Codex Cumanicus are discussed; and compared the field of historical and modern Turkic language. At the end of this study, most of the animal names of Codex Cumanicus were present the first texts in Turkic. Hapax legomenon animal names which aren’t encounterd in other periods of the Turkic languages have also been identified encountered. The Persian, Mongolian, Arabic, Greek, Russian quote animal names that are seen in this book is also remarkable. Some of the names of animals, however, only the Kipchak areas of historical and modern areas have been identified. This is observed only in the field names in Kipchak, the presence of these specific words Kipchak is evaluated. When the animal names are classified in Codex Cumanicus, it seems that the names of wild animals (twenty five percent and birds (twenty two percent form the majority

  20. WRITING ANXIETIES OF PEOPLE WHO LEARN TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE/TÜRKÇEYİ YABANCI DİL OLARAK ÖĞRENENLERİN YAZMA KAYGILARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat MADEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin proverb “verba volant scripta manent” meaning “spoken words fly away, written words remain” best shows the importance of writing skill which is one of the basic language skills. When it comes to writing skills of foreign students, making plans in target language in regards to this skill and develop a habit of writing are more difficult and exhausting compared to those for native speakers of a language. The aim of the study is to investigate writing anxieties of foreign students in Turkish universities according to such variables; “their gender, nationality, academic department, other foreign language they speak, their aim of learning Turkish, their level of Turkish and their reading habits and to explore whether there are any significant differences between the students’ writing anxieties with respect to these variables. For the study, 172 foreign students who study in different departments of Giresun University in 2014-2015 education year participated. The study is a survey type research study. The data was gathered through “Writing Anxiety Scale” which was created by the researchers in order to determine writing anxieties of foreign students. It was found that foreign students usually felt anxiety about writing in Turkish and their level of anxiety differentiated according to such variables; nationality, alphabet of their native language and their reading habits. Temel dil becerilerinden birisi olan yazma becerisinin önemini “Söz uçar, yazı kalır.” atasözü en güzel şekilde ifade etmektedir. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilere yazma becerisi kazandırma söz konusu olduğunda, bu becerinin hedef dilde planlanması ve alışkanlık hâline dönüştürülmesi zahmetli ve zor olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizde öğrenim gören yabancı uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinin yazma kaygılarını cinsiyet, uyruk, öğrenim gördüğü fakülte/yüksekokul, bildiği diğer yabancı diller, Türkçeyi

  1. The love moaning of a poet: the vocabulary of the letters written by Ahmed Arif to Leyla ErbilBir şairin aşk iniltileri: Ahmed Arif’ten Leyla Erbil’e mektupların söz varlığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Baskın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Arif, who is one of the Sociable Poets of the 1940s, wrote about the topics in his works in a romantic style. The enthusiasm and the romance in his works separates him from other poets of the era. Although he wrote only one poetry book, his poems such as Hasretinden Prangalar Eskittim, Haberin Var mı? (İçerde, Terketmedi Sevdan Beni became famous and were composed and sung by famous singers of Turkey like Funda Arar, Ahmet Kaya, Suavi, Edip Akbayram, Cem Karaca. These events made him become a famous poet not only in a narrow society who had similar thoughts, but also all over Turkey. There are many sources for the lyricism and romance that gave him this fame. However, the most important share among these many sources belongs to his love for Leyla Erbil. He did not limit his love with poems and he conveyed his love for Leyla Erbil in the letters he wrote, most of which were written between the years 1954-1959, and the last of which was written in 1977. In his poems, Ahmed Arif told his love, his environment, the intellectual world of the era, his exiles and the challenges he had experienced. All these reasons make the verbal existence of the Letters from Ahmed Arif to Leyla Erbil important. For this reason, in this study, the letters are examined in terms of verbal existence and the words in his works are classified under titles such as Basic Word Existence, Proverbs, Phrases, Terms, Verbal Structures, Reduplications, Slang and Expletives, Sayings specific to Diyarbakır, etc. and the concept areas are defined. As a result of this, it has been determined that Ahmed Arif was infatuated with Leyla Erbil, he even placed her in the very center of his personal life, sometimes he deified her, and defined her as “My lady, my friend, by sister, my daughter, my god, my messenger”. Moreover, it was also observed that the local sayings, phrases, and especially slang and expletives have important places in Ahmed Arif’s vocabulary.  

  2. Le lecteur du xviie siècle et l'argot. Problèmes de lisibilité et de pertinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Nédélec

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous proposons d'étudier ici quelquesdifficultés présentées par la mise en place du lecteur virtuel, et la substitution du lecteur réel au lecteur virtuel, dans des textes qui utilisent un langage "risqué", l'argot, parce qu'il pose à la fois des problèmes de compréhension (de façon réelle ou fantasmatique, il n'est argot que s'il est réputé secret et de tolérabilité (comment un écrivain peut-il parler à ses lecteurs le langage du crime ?. Comme le lecteur réel est un être dans l'histoire, nous nous servirons comme base d'analyse de trois textes situés dans un contexte historique précis, le début du 17ème siècle : un extrait du roman intitulé la Vie généreuse des Mercelots, Gueux et Bohémiens (roman anonyme signé du pseudonyme de Péchon de Ruby, Lyon, 1596, un poème tiré des Premières Oeuvres poétiques du capitaine Lasphrise (par Marc Papillon, seigneur de Lasphrise, Paris, 1597 et une scène de la Comédie de proverbes (par Adrien de Montluc, comte de Cramail, Paris, 1634. Mais il est d'abord nécessaire de définir quelque peu ce qu'il faut entendre par argot.

  3. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genres are everywhere and we all know how to use them. However, they are also elusive and hard to describe. We act and interact through genre, understand through genre, and organize through genre, but we have a hard time defining individual genres, and an even harder time understanding what a genre...... is and what a genre does. Therefore, genre is a central concept in many areas of scholarship today and is interlinked with many other central scholarly concepts, but its core function is still a subject of debate, and its connections with other core concepts remain sorely under-examined. Genre and … explores...... these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  4. Les stéréotypes lexicalisés comme répétitions connotées dans une fugue littéraire : Diálogo en Re Mayor de Javier Tomeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Fournié-Chaboche

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudiera la littérarité des formes lexicales porteuses de stéréotypes (expressions figées et proverbes, très nombreuses dans le roman de Javier Tomeo, Diálogo en Re Mayor (1993. Une réflexion théorique sur la stéréotypie et le figement linguistique, amènera à introduire la notion de stéréotype lexicalisé, en la préférant à celle de stéréotype lexical. On expliquera que ces formes fixes imagées sont porteuses de répétitions connotées en raison du processus de répétitions diachronique qui a contribué à leur formation. On exposera le principe d'une isotopie de la répétition (regroupant ces répétitions connotées mais aussi toutes les répétitions discursives intra-textuelles et on démontrera son existence en mettant en lumière la structure répétitive très originale de ce roman.Este artículo estudiará la literaridad de las formas léxicas con estereótipos (expresiones fijas y refranes muy numerosas en la novela de Javier Tomeo, Diálogo en Re Mayor (1993. Una reflexión teórica acerca de la estereotipia y de la fijación lingüística llevará a introducir la noción de estereotipo lexicalizado que es preferible a la de estereotipo léxico. Explicaremos que estas formas fijas y figuradas conllevan repeticiones connotadas gracias al proceso de repetición diacrónica responsable de su formación. Expondremos el principio de una isotopía de la repetición (que abarca las repeticiones connotadas pero también todas las repeticiones discursivas intratextuales y demostraremos su existencia poniendo de realce la estructura repetitiva muy original de esta novela.

  5. Science and Technology and Counterterorrism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J

    2002-04-03

    Major scientific and technological breakthroughs played a pivotal role in our ability to win the Cold War. The possibility of a different type of war, in response to terrorism, has long been recognized. Indeed, countermeasures to address specific terrorist acts have been developed and are deployed, for example, at special sporting and political events. The current threat environment, however, has created an intense and compelling set of concerns; consequently, the challenge to the scientific Community to develop new concepts and products on an accelerated timeframe is clear. Also, the spectrum of terrorist threats is broad. It includes the use of conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear and radiological weapons, not to mention cyber-based attacks. The imperatives for advances have been amplified now that attacks are clearly possible within the U.S. borders. For example, advanced sensors and detectors that are able to monitor the proliferation of all the above warfare agents and their movement at entry points into the U.S. are clearly needed. The investments over the last decades in research and development efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories in nonproliferation have led unique technologies and detection capabilities that have proved useful; yet, many challenges remain. In particular, the development of accurate, robust, and low cost techniques that are easily deployable by first responders, law enforcement agencies, and military personnel is urgently needed. Advancements are needed in radiation, nuclear proliferation, and next-generation biological detection, as well as photonics and optics for global surveillance, information. science to convert data into useful forms, and forensic attribution. Current research and development efforts highlighting technical challenges, especially to the materials science community, will be presented.

  6. Fun and Games and Boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-08-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  7. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  8. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  9. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua

    2005-01-01

    [1]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.2 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992, 1-116.[2]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.3 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-175.[3]Xu Dongyu, Chen Zongtuan, Meng Xiangying, Late Cenozoic Palaeoenvironments and Events in the Central Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 1-11.[4]Bischoff, J. L., Heath, G. R., Leinen, M., Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments from the Pacific manganese nodule province: Domes, A, B and C, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province (eds. Bischoff, J. L., Piper, D. Z.), New York: Plenum Press, 1979, 397-436.[5]Riech, V., Grafenstein, R. V., Sedimentological and geochemical trends in deep-sea sedimentation of the Clarion-Chipperton block southeast of Hawaii since the early Miocene, in: Manganese Nodules and Sediments in the Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, Sonne Cruise SO25, 1982 (eds. Von Stackelberg, U., Beiersdorf, H.), Hannover: Burdesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Geologischelandes(a)mster in der Bundesrepublic Deutschland, 1987, 71-104.[6]Johnson, G. C., Toole, J. M., Flow of deep and bottom water in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Reseach, 1993, 40(2): 371-394.[7]Marine Geology Department of Tongji University, Introduction to Palaeo-oceanography (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1989, 45-147.[8]Seibold, E., Berger, W. H., The Sea Floor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 97-125.[9]Rea, D. K., The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 1994, 32: 159-195.[10]Menard, H. W., Marine Geology of the Pacific, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.[11]Chamley, H., Clay Sedimentology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 259-289.[12]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth

  10. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your meals: butter, margarine, sour cream, cream cheese, peanut butter gravy, sour cream, cream cheese, grated cheese avocados, ... immune system. whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts Limit to 400 mcg per day. ...

  11. Fun and Games and Boredom

    OpenAIRE

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, t...

  12. Fun and games and boredom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...

  13. Apples and Oranges and Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    Private high schools have higher test scores than public schools. Does this mean they are better? Most studies of public versus private schools have explored the full range of income and achievement, one recently finding little if any difference that could not be accounted for by demographic differences. In this article, the author discusses the…

  14. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  15. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  16. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'': Mr. Brian Shrager, Energy...

  17. Caffeine and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Caffeine and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine Depression and Migraine Diet Do I ...

  18. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  19. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... importation of certain cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  20. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van Vianen; B.A.G.W. Dalhoeven; I.E. de Pater

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and per