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Sample records for aphorisms and proverbs

  1. [Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøland, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded. PMID:27078984

  2. Cultural Connotation and Translation of English Proverbs

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    彭姣

    2014-01-01

    There are more and more cross cultural communication nowadays. Different cultures have different features. Proverbs, as an essential part of language, reflecting the culture of a nation, have cultural connotations about geography, history, customs and religion. Therefore, in this paper I intend to analyze cultural connotations in English proverbs, and to discuss the translation strategy-Domestication and Foreignization, then to put forwards three aspects that should be paid attention to in English prov-erbs translation.

  3. Use of Proverbs and Narrative Thought

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    Outi Lauhakangas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on a research of the functions of proverbs insocial interaction. Academician Matti Kuusi’s characterization of proverbs as signs of situations and emotional loadings was a starting point for the writer to collect material of proverbs in their social contexts. The multicultural corpus consists of context examples borrowed from other scholars around the world, from Finnish folklore archives and fiction, from everyday situations and the media. The use of proverbs or proverb-like sayings deals with questions concerning the same themes as in folk narrative research in general: selective memory, reconstruction of experiences, explaining and reasoning about the past, giving instructions and warnings for the future, encouraging or amusing each other, etc. The speech where proverbs are used and its mode of rationality differ from logical and scientific argumentation. The point is in the narrative strength of proverbs in social contexts. Proverbs are multifunctional and flexible instruments of everyday reasoning, although they may maintain solidified attitudesor traditional modes of thought of a certain culture.

  4. The African Proverbs Project and After

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    John S. Mbiti

    2011-10-01

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    Abstract: The Pew Charitable Trusts financed the African Proverbs Project with Dr Stan Nussbaum as co-ordinator, for three years (1993?1996. He assembled a number of scholars who had collected and studied proverbs. The purpose of the Project was to encourage further work of collecting, studying and publishing proverbs. It organised international and interdisciplinary symposia and embarked on three types of publications. One kind of publication was the African Proverbs Series, with Prof. John Mbiti as editor. Five volumes were published in 1997, each with proverbs from respectively Ethiopia, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Their size ranged from 584 to 1 497 proverbs in African languages, with translations into English or French. Another set of publications with the Rev. Joshua Kudadjie as editor, covered proverbs for preaching and teaching purposes. Three volumes have come from Malawi, Ghana and Liberia. The Project also published an annotated bibliography by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. The report from one of the symposia appeared in 1997. The third manner of publication is in the form of a CD-ROM edited by Dr Stan Nussbaum and published in 1996. This is a very comprehensive collection and source of material that includes, inter alia, books from the Project, some 28 000 proverbs, a bibliography with 1 000 items, summaries and extracts from published collections, and a language survey of work on proverbs. The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs.

    Keywords: AFRICAN PROVERBS PROJECT, AFRICAN PROVERBS SERIES, PROVERB, PAREMIOGRAPHY, PAREMIOLOGY

    Opsomming: Die African Proverbs Project en daarna. Die Pew Charitable Trusts het die African Proverbs Project, met dr. Stan Nussbaum as ko?rdineerder, vir drie

  5. Proverbs and Medicine: The Problem of Applied Folklore

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    Larisa Fialkova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The difference between medical proverbs and proverbs in medicinehas been largely ignored. The former are proverbs used for medical purposes even though they may have no medical content. The perception of a proverb as medical in content is flexible, varying from collection to collection. In thematic proverb collections the items are usually taken out of the context but their very inclusion is in itself a context-specifying factor. A new definition of appliedfolklore is proposed, stressing the role of non-folklorists. The wish to use proverbs for concrete purposes inheres in the material itself as much as the wish to reveal its universal formulas.

  6. Using Proverbs and Sayings in the ESL/EFL Classroom.

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    Putnam, Mark Richard

    The use of proverbs and other sayings in English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction is discussed. The proverb is defined and its distinguishing characteristics are examined. The methods and reasons for using these characteristics today are discussed, and examples are given. The specific use of proverbs in teaching oral communication,…

  7. The Structure and Functions of Proverbs in African Societies.

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    Egblewogbe, Eustace Yawo

    1980-01-01

    Presents and briefly explains 31 African proverbs which are used to guide the behavior of growing childern and to help them to mold their characters. The proverbs deal with knowledge, experience, hard work, and human relations. The author believes that a study of language and literature, including proverbs, can help students understand other…

  8. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

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    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs, reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries. So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too. My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs, aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans, ...

  9. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

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    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou

    2011-10-01

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    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.

    Mots-clés: ANALYSE FORMELLE, ANALYSE SÉMANTIQUE, CLASSIFICATION THÉMATIQUE,DIDACTIQUE, DICTIONNAIRE, GENRE PROVERBIAL, IDIOMES, LEXICOGRAPHE,LEXICOGRAPHIE, LISTE CENTRALE, LITTÉRATURE ORALE, PRÉ-TEXTES, POST-TEXTES,PROVERBES

    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  10. About proverbs and sayings of the Persian language

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    Mahdikhanli S. Q., Zahraee S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each language has a certain number of proverbs and sayings that give it a distinctive flavor and Persian language is not an exception in this case. Born to popular wisdom proverbs is not just a combination of words, they’re art image, art painting in miniature. Proverbs and sayings of the Persian language, like any other, reflect its national identity and distinctiveness. In proverbs and reflected representations associated with work of the people, life, and culture. Proverbs and sayings are also a critical component of artistic expression. These units have long infiltrated the Persian literature – in prose and poetry. There was not a more or less well-known Persian poet, who did not give in to his works of proverbs and sayings.

  11. Selected Ika Proverbs: Their Aesthetics and Contexts of Usage

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    Egede, Canon Benji

    2007-01-01

    The thrust of the paper is the contention that, in their general application, proverbs are to be understood as a communal property. In specific terms, however, and as Isidore Okpewho, in African Oral Literature... (1992) affirms, "every proverb must have started its life as the product of the genius of an individual oral artist. But it becomes…

  12. How Adolescents Comprehend Unfamiliar Proverbs: The Role of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes.

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    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between word knowledge and proverb comprehension was examined in 150 typically achieving adolescents (ages 12, 15, and 18). Word knowledge was associated with proverb comprehension in all groups, particularly in the case of abstract proverbs. Results support a model of proverb comprehension in adolescents that includes bottom-up in…

  13. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs,reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries.So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too.My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs,aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans,and hope that this study also can be regarded as a data to give referential meaning to the further research on cross-culture and language comparison.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Deep Structure of Culture Reflected in English and Chinese Social Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Social proverbs contain life philosophies and experience as well as moral standards; aspects of social life are reflected in the mirror of social proverbs. Social proverbs are of both language and culture. Because of their abundant cultural information, social proverbs have been studied from the point of culture in many researches. Although many researches have been done to reveal the cultural similarities and differences between English and Chinese proverbs, they hardly focus on the deep str...

  15. Linguistic Sexism Phenomenon in English and Chinese Proverbs

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    牛双

    2015-01-01

    The study of language and gender is a big issue that the linguists always pay attention to. Especially, more attention should be given to the gender difference and gender discrimination in some special language. Proverbs are the fixed sentences which are transmitted by mouths. They can reflect the true life and profound principles by simple words. The very wide origin of proverbs makes them have the strong representativeness and be easy to pronounce. Linguistic sexism phenomena in proverbs can raise people's consciousness of gender difference and discrimination so as to reduce and even eliminate the phenomenon of gender discrimination in our speech and daily life and regulate the language.

  16. Psalm 26 and Proverbs: Tracing wisdom themes

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    Annette Potgieter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discernment of Psalm 26 as a cultic psalm has prevented noticing vital connections with wisdom literature. These connections with Proverbs and other known wisdom psalms provide clues for the composition of Psalm 26 to be set in the post-exilic period. The way in which wisdom literature is used conveys the religious ethos and daily life of a community. The fact that the wisdom character of Psalm 26 has been overlooked can be viewed as one of the main reasons why Psalm 26 has been interpreted solely in a cultic setting. The sapiential influence of this psalm has been confused to only reflect the cultic aspects. The psalmist wants to live a life according to wisdom as he seeks the rewards of being close to Yahweh.

  17. The testimony of the time: Aphorism

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Short literary form known as aphorism in the beginning of its development relied on saying. Aphorism concisely expresses general experience, life philosophy, situation and position of a man in this world, socio-political and historical paradoxes etc. Although it is often taken as a criticism of society, it can also be understood as a testimony of time. This paper reveals one aspect of this phenomenon that was neglected by literary theory - aphorism as a form of expressing author’s attitude towards society and its reality.

  18. THE SOCIAL AND ETHNO-CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION OF MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY IN AFRICAN PROVERBS

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    HUSSEIN, Jeylan W.

    2005-01-01

    Africa is a continent known for its rich oral arts. Proverbs are the most widely and commonly used in the continent's long-standing tradition of oral arts. Among such oral arts, the African proverbs have been facilitating the transmission of knowledge and conventions from generation to generation. This paper analyzes the role of African proverbs in creating and perpetuating gendered culture. The author analyzed the African sexist proverbs within the post-modern theory of power relationships b...

  19. Utilizing Proverbs as a Focal Point to Cultural Awareness and Communicative Competence: Illustrations from Africa.

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    Richmond, Edmun B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes a model of target- and native-language proverb comparison which can be used to assist proverb analysis in the language curriculum, using examples from Mandinka, a West African language. (Author/CB)

  20. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures of the Influence of Literal and Figurative Contextual Constraints on Proverb Comprehension

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    Ferretti, Todd R.; Schwint, Christopher A.; Katz, Albert N.

    2007-01-01

    Proverbs tend to have meanings that are true both literally and figuratively (i.e., Lightning really doesn't strike the same place twice). Consequently, discourse contexts that invite a literal reading of a proverb should provide more conceptual overlap with the proverb, resulting in more rapid processing, than will contexts biased towards a…

  1. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

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    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta

    2007-07-01

    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction. PMID:17521483

  2. Shared Wisdom: A Collection of Proverbs, Sayings and Quotations.

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    Zmich, JoAnn, Comp.

    Based on the idea that there are universal beliefs that unite people from every part of the world, this collection illustrates common sayings, stories, proverbs, and quotations from students in English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms. During the classes, students talk about their families, countries, and customs, including traditional foods and…

  3. A Lexical and Syntactic Study of Persian Proverbs

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    Hasan Zolfaghari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Proverbs along with metaphors, idioms, axioms and expressions are among the materials whose quality and quantity contribute to the enrichment of every language. In this article, the objective is, after defining it, to deal with this lingual category in two lexical and syntactic levels.   In the lexical level, the proverbial terms and lexicon will be investigated from different angles.  1. The usage frequency of alien, folkloric, or common terms, determined via the samples extracted from well-known proverbs, show that 14.4 percent is Arabic, two percent common and folkloric and about one percent others like "Shekasteh". Such studies are carried out comparatively to convey the frequency of the mentioned lexicon compared to the standard prose and other literary forms like legends, lullabies and proverbs.  2. Prohibited or taboo words form 2.75 percent of the total lexicon.  3. In the part of lingual advantage of proverbial terms, the function of proverbial lexicon and its influence on durability of Persian terms and in lingual studies are discussed.  4. Transformation and displacement of the terms in substitutive level is one of the features of proverbs whose causes will be studied in details.   In syntactic level, issues like proverbial expressions, the constituents of proverbial expressions and their sequence, verbal types, structure and mode will be studied.   Moreover, omission of constituents of proverbial expressions in eight grammatical types will be examined by presenting adequate evidence and also the quality and kinds of these omissions will be determined. In the end, the written and verbal categories will be rendered.   The methodology is descriptive-analytical based on the samples and case studies. 50 proverbs from five recorded proverbial sources in standard Persian have been provided. Therefore, spoken cases have not been included in this research.

  4. An FP7 "Space" project: Aphorism "Advanced PRocedures for volcanic and Seismic Monitoring"

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    Di Iorio, A., Sr.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.

    2014-12-01

    APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved GMES products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach is only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shake maps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterize the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.The project is funded under the European Union FP7

  5. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

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    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  6. A Bird in the Hand and a Bird in the Bush: Using Proverbs to Teach Skills and Comprehension.

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    Holden, Marjorie H.; Warshaw, Mimi

    1985-01-01

    Discusses objectives that can be accomplished through the study of proverbs. Suggests a number of exercises involving proverbs that can be used to improve reading comprehension and hone writing skills and to develop a vocabulary. (RBW)

  7. The Neurology of Proverbs

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    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  8. Una miscelanea de refranes espanoles raros, curiosos, y jocosos (A Miscellany of Rare, Curious and Humorous Spanish Proverbs).

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    Hayes, Francis

    This listing of unusual Spanish proverbs contains words of wisdom on money, doctors, agriculture, students, procrastination, pessimism, war, good and evil, religion, God, and a host of other topics. The topic of each proverb is given in English. (CHK)

  9. Proverbs Reveal Culture Diversity

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    Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of property of culture and proverb, it can be known that proverb can help one to understand a culture. The way proverb reveals culture diversity can be connected with the patterns of value dimension, which conveys the information of a culture’s deep meaning. From the perspective of uncertainty-avoidance, it can be seen that although Ireland and America both are low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures, they mainly have different life attitudes, because that Americans put more e...

  10. The Classification and Understanding of Korean Proverbs Representing a Parent-Child Relationship.

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    Cho, Bok Hee; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Hong Sook; Ahn, Sun Hee

    This study investigated Koreans' understanding of and agreement with Korean proverbs concerning the parent-child relationship. Ninety-five proverbs were selected from literature and categorized into nine areas: value of a child, affection toward a child, boy-preference, positive or negative affection toward a daughter, importance of a child's…

  11. Mental Imagery of Concrete Proverbs: A Developmental Study of Children, Adolescents, and Adults

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    Duthie, Jill K.; Nippold, Marilyn A.; Billow, Jesse L.; Mansfield, Tracy C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of mental imagery in relation to the comprehension of concrete proverbs (e.g., "one rotten apple spoils the barrel") was examined in children, adolescents, and adults who were ages 11 to 29 years old (n = 210). The findings indicated that age-related changes occurred in mental imagery and in proverb comprehension during the years…

  12. Proverbes anglo-americains (English/American Proverbs).

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    Giauque, Gerald S.

    A collection of the 550 best-known English-language proverbs provides an explanation of their meanings in French and gives French-language equivalents. A list of proverbs categorized by key words is appended. (MSE)

  13. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

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    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all. PMID:26305155

  14. TERM 2005 SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM PROVERBS AND IDIOMS FOR EDUCATIONAL AREAS

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    Fatma ÜNAL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is the basic of culture. It is a bridge that helps us to carry cultural values which belong to past, to now and from now to the future. At this aspect, language appears with features of carrying culture in the continuing time line. This feature of it gives both itself and the community that speak the language to be alive. Vocabulary is the component that brings forth the language. All words which are used in one language are the basis of vocabulary. Proverbs and idoms are the most important resource. Richness of a language can not be measured by how many words a language has but new meanings of the words of the language that gain in time. The words can not have new meaning differences by themselves. Events that community experiences and how people name them are predicated on words and these words develop with new meaning differences. That means language gets rich. The importance of proverbs and idioms in vocabulary belonging to a language is undoubtedly very great. Proverbs are the hortative words which were attributed to public and told on the grounds of long lasting experiences and observations. On the other hand, idioms are the stereotyped phrases which are somewhat different from their real meanings and have an intriguing meaning. Our proverbs and idioms are the converted verbal forms of our view of life, values, traditions and beliefs. In fact, every proverb, every idiom is our cultural value. Turkish language is very rich in terms of proverbs and idioms. This shows that how various ways of life perception and view of the world Turkish nation has. Proverbs and idioms which are the intangible particles of culture of the society are important in terms of both enriching the narration and carrying the cultural elements from past to present as the words of wisdom reflecting the philosophy of the society. Because of it, it is necessary to let adolescent genarations aware of this heritage and protect it. Just as one of general purposes of

  15. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

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    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  16. Proverbal Understanding in a Pictorial Context

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    Honeck, Richard P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The ability of 7-, 8-, and 9-year-olds to understand proverbs was examined by having subjects compare each proverb against two thematic pictures: a nonliteral correct interpretation of the proverb and a foil. The results, which contradict the literature, showed consistent above-chance performance across subjects, ages, and proverbs. (Author/JMB)

  17. The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge

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    Eija Stark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.

  18. Proverb interpretation in schizophrenia: the significance of symptomatology and cognitive processes.

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    Sponheim, Scott R; Surerus-Johnson, Christa; Leskela, Jennie; Dieperink, Michael E

    2003-12-15

    Although clinicians have patients interpret proverbs in mental status exams for psychosis, there are few empirical studies investigating the significance of proverb interpretation. In schizophrenia patients, we found abstraction positively correlated with overall intelligence but no symptom measures, concreteness negatively correlated with overall intelligence, executive functioning, attention, and memory, and bizarre-idiosyncratic responses associated with positive formal thought disorder but no cognitive functions. PMID:14630304

  19. LEXICAL-SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (PROVERBS) EXPRESSING ATTITUDE TO LABOR, WORK, AND BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, Tat'yana

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the lexical-semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs expressing the attitude of English and Russian people to labor, work, and business. The goal of the article is to show how the lexical-semantic differences of English and Russian proverbs influence the inadequacy of the expression of phraseological image, phraseological meaning and expressive-estimating connotations. The author also reveals paradigmatic relations in proverbs sphere, particularly synonymy p...

  20. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  1. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Akın

    2010-01-01

    Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exc...

  2. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  3. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeneva Elena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Some Selected Arabic Proverbs and Their English Translation Equivalents: A Contrastive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Essam Eldin Fahmi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine some common proverbs in Arabic and their English counterparts to shed light on significant socio-cultural differences. The choice of sample proverbs is based upon thematic classification. Proverbs are words combined together to form larger semantic units which are encoded by the speaker and decoded by the hearer by means of their underlined knowledge of the language itself. Proverbs, as metaphoric expressions or as cultural discourse, are codified on semantic structures. Thereby, Proverbs are figural and signifying acts of meaning that mediate interpretation and negotiate pragmatic signification at linguistic, philosophical and cultural levels. While proverbs make up and reflect the cultural identity of a specific society, and despite the uniqueness of languages and the profound differences between cultures, there are proverbs that shed light on universal truths of human life, common traditions and beliefs. Such proverbs have bridged linguistic and cultural barriers throughout human history.Keywords: Equivalence – English/Arabic Proverbs–Intercultural competence – Phraseology –Socio-semiotics

  5. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Animal Proverbs from Cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝敏

    2012-01-01

    Animals are human beings' friends. People associate an- imals with natural phenomena, personalities and emotions. Many ani- mals have become a kind of symbolism in people's thinking, which is reflected in, proverbs. Although proverbs are pithy, short and vivid, they can embody profound truth and wisdom. And animal proverbs, which are rich in excite imagination and wisdom, are of special in- terest to people. In daily life, it is easy to find that two identical animal words can share quite different connotations in the two cultures and two different animal words can also share similar cultural connotations. Then, how does this phenomenon happen? Culture works. Every country has its special background which has close re- lationship with the words which are related to geography, customs, and religion. In this paper, these factors causing differences of ani- mal words' cultural images will be discussed.

  6. Proverb preferences across cultures: dialecticality or poeticality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Chen, Hsin-Chin; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-04-01

    Peng and Nisbett (1999) claimed that members of Asian cultures show a greater preference than Euro-Americans for proverbs expressing paradox (so-called dialectical proverbs; e.g., Too humble is half proud). The present research sought to replicate this claim with the same set of stimuli used in Peng and Nisbett's Experiment 2 and a new set of dialectical and nondialectical proverbs that were screened to be comparably pleasing in phrasing. Whereas the proverbs were rated as more familiar and (in Set 1) more poetic by Chinese than by American participants, no group differences were found in relation to proverb dialecticality. Both the Chinese and Americans in our study rated the dialectical proverbs from Peng and Nisbett's study as more likable, higher in wisdom, and higher in poeticality than the nondialectical proverbs. For Set 2, both groups found the dialectical proverbs to be as likable, wise, and poetic as the nondialectical proverbs. When poeticality was covaried out, dialectical proverbs were liked better than nondialectical proverbs across both stimulus sets by the Chinese and the Americans alike, and when wisdom was covaried out, the effect of dialecticality was reduced in both sets and groups. Our findings indicate that caution should be taken in ascribing differences in proverb preferences solely to cultural differences in reasoning. PMID:16893007

  7. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  8. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  9. "Eat, shut up and stand in the sun”. From the popular proverbs to the knowledge of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Crovetto-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish language is rich in proverbs, many of which are related with food and health. The purpose in this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of some of those popular proverbs linking health and disease with the sun exposure. We describe the current knowledge about vitamin D, synthesis and mechanisms of action. The nurse should identify subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D, and prevent nutrient solutions, since sun exposure is not an appropriate measure because of the side effects of ultraviolet radiation, which contradicts the knowledge derived from some classic Spanish proverbs and sayings.

  10. Tous les chemins menent a Rome avec des proverbes (All Roads Lead to Rome with Proverbs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Yves

    1986-01-01

    Suggests activities for teaching proverbs, an important part of the cultural education of second language learners. Activities include identifying proverbs in common discourse, creating skits and cartoons or pictures based on them, creating puzzles, inventing original proverbs, and analyzing their practical value. (MSE)

  11. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  12. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  13. ECONOMIC ETHIC IN TURKISH PROVERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah ÖZBOLAT

    2012-01-01

    Economic ethic means sum of motifs and suggestions for the practical value and the preferred size in the regulating the daily lives of people. In this study that examines whether the attitude of economic ethic in proverbs, it has been argued in this study that proverbs have been inculcate an economic ethic to the Turkish society and proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism have not been consist of understanding of “a cardigan, a bite” (bir lokma, bir hırka). Economic ethic...

  14. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  15. Irony and proverb comprehension in schizophrenia: do female patients "dislike" ironic remarks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Langohr, Karin; Mutschler, Dorothee E; Wild, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r = -0.51) and proverb (r = 0.56) comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia. PMID:24991434

  16. ECONOMIC ETHIC IN TURKISH PROVERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZBOLAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic ethic means sum of motifs and suggestions for the practical value and the preferred size in the regulating the daily lives of people. In this study that examines whether the attitude of economic ethic in proverbs, it has been argued in this study that proverbs have been inculcate an economic ethic to the Turkish society and proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism have not been consist of understanding of “a cardigan, a bite” (bir lokma, bir hırka. Economic ethic that express an attitude against the world in the conceptual basis, on hand, is ascetism and fasting against leave from the path of God of goods of world on the other hand, is seeking of balance between for acquisition of property and maintaining a modest life as indispensable means. Individual in the economic ethic is in an effort to reconcile these two different poles relating to goods in the world. While forming the boundaries of this study proverbs that used in Turkey Turkish in the context of economic ethic, economic ethic in proverbs refers to properties such as halal earnings, frugality, thrift, temperance and diligence. It is possible to specify culture that inculcates accumulation and savings, it has been influence past experience such as hunger, famine and a religion that order to work in the forming of codes of historical and social meaning. Additionally it has been influence of seeking of balance of Sufi culture in the attitude against world and ethic in the proverbs. As a result, it refers to properties such as halal earnings frugality, thrift, temperance and diligence, proverbs in Turkey Turkish and it has not been with one-dimension of proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism.

  17. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences.Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  18. The Pragmatics of Chinese Proverb Quoting in the English and the Russian-Language Mass Media of PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Nikolaeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mass media of PRC in languages others than Chinese native (in the present research English and Russian are aform of cross-cultural communication between China and the rest of the world. In other-language mass mediaChina not only presents its views and attitude to the events described, but also reveals China “the whole self” byemploying the fragments of its traditional verbal culture, proverbs in particular being the ways of self-expression.However, the research provided evidence that the foreign-language press of China carefully considers theappropriateness of proverb quotations, and thoroughly estimates the degree of transmitted by them informal andindirect culture-based information, which the target audience is capable or incapable to grasp, share, and abideby. Proverbs generally being among the most indirect strategies of reasoning and persuasion in some contextualuse may convey straightforward and strict judgments. The paper studies significant theoretical issues andapplication aspects of proverb quoting in the foreign-language press of PRC which depends on crucial questionsof cross-cultural pragmatics: first, the addressor’s natural urge for culture-based self-expression alongside withstriving for intelligibility to the foreign target audience, and second, the addressor’s choice of higher / lowercontext in communication with different cultures-addressees. This accounts for the discrepancy betweenpresentation of information in the English-language press of PRC and the Russian-language periodical of China. Both questions suggest a wide range of options in proverb quoting (preserving/omitting a proverb, originalproverb with glossing / loan translation, meaning / connotation modulation of a proverb, etc.

  19. Cien Refranes, Cien Verdades (Spanish Proverbs for Second Year Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Diane; Statz, Jerry

    This unit on Spanish proverbs for second year students includes five main lessons, each dealing with a different way of using proverbs to teach or reinforce certain grammatical points and vocabulary. Each exercise and suggested vocabulary list also has a corresponding transparency. Lesson one contains 18 Spanish proverbs which have a common…

  20. The Structure of the Russian Proverb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Maurice I.

    Bipartite and tripartite Russian proverbs are analyzed in terms of devices of repetition. Major attention is given to formulaic devices, including correlative, contrastive, and conjunctive formulas. Grammatical and phonetic devices are also discussed. An argument is advanced for the basic binary division of the Russian proverb, since even…

  1. Discussion on Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper has penetrated into the sexism in English proverbs from different aspects to illustrate the sex discrimination in society. Now the phenomenon of sexism has got improved, but the work needs efforts and cooperation for long. Therefore we must adequately know the sexism in English proverbs especially in society and see it comprehensively.

  2. Proverbs as ethnolinguistic heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Anđelka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have based our analysis on proverbs of Serbian and Spanish language in order to demonstrate the role of these linguistic and cultural constructions in the ethnolinguistic investigation. Relativism observed in them, often reflected as contradictions, is of a huge significance for the ethnolinguistic analysis, since it shows or it might show the ways in which certain society adjust or opposes to the changes, how it reacts, whether it changes only on the surface, or its deep and inside values change as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178014: Dinamika struktura savremenog srpskog jezika

  3. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Bohrn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  4. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慧

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not. However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  5. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慧

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not.However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  6. Cross-cultural study of representations of happiness in Russian and American proverbs: search for points of contact with Hofstede''s dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    SHKURKO JULIA S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present the results of research into cultural differences in the folk perceptions of happiness of the Russian and American people that enter into their actual happiness experiences. I started from the premise widely accepted in paremiology that proverbs are one of the important sources of such information. Based on this idea, I conducted a cross-cultural analysis of Russian and American proverbs on happiness. The research reveals differences in 1) emotional ratings of the h...

  7. The Use of Proverbs in the Poems of Persian Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zolfaghari

    2012-09-01

    Not only the poets have benefited from the great treasure of proverbial literature, but also they have added to its wealth. This interaction has not been considered quantitatively and qualitatively up to now. In this article, a definition of the proverb and also its importance and background are presented. Then the usage manner of proverb in poets' poetry and Persian poetical proverbs and its position through paroemia are indicated. In addition, the difference between paroemia and comprehensive word, allusion, methods of equation and allegory are presented. With a quantitative and qualitative method, this article indicates the reflection of proverbs in poets' poetry of different centuries and analyzes the proverbs in poetry of the thirteen famous poets. In this way, we understand practically and theoretically the ways that poets have used the proverb and also its reflection in their poetry.

  8. Adequate proverb interpretation is associated with performance on the independent living scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fayeza S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine proverb interpretation performance and functional independence in older adults. From the limited literature on proverb interpretation in aging and its conceptualization as an executive function, it was hypothesized that proverb interpretation would be related to functional independence similar to other executive functions. Tests of proverb interpretation, additional executive functions, and functional ability were administered to nondemented older adults. Results showed that proverb interpretation accounted for a significant amount of unique variance of functional ability scores. This supports including a measure of proverb interpretation to the assessment of older adults. PMID:25313441

  9. A componential analysis of proverb interpretation in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy: relationships with disease-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carrie R; Delis, Dean C; Kramer, Joel H; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Iragui, Vicente J

    2008-05-01

    The ability to interpret nonliteral, metaphoric language was explored in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and matched control participants, to determine (1) if patients with FLE were impaired in their interpretations relative to those with TLE and controls, and (2) if disease-related variables (e.g., age of seizure onset) predicted performances in either patient group. A total of 22 patients with FLE, 20 patients with TLE, and 23 controls were administered a test of proverb interpretation to assess their ability to grasp the abstract meaning of nonliteral language. Participants were presented with a series of proverbs and asked to provide an oral interpretation of each. Responses to each proverb were scored according to their accuracy and level of abstractness. Patients with FLE, but not TLE, were impaired relative to controls in their overall interpretation of proverbs. However, a subgroup analysis revealed that only patients with left FLE showed impaired interpretation accuracy relative to the other groups, whereas patients with both left FLE and left TLE showed impaired abstraction. Patients with FLE were also impaired when they were asked to select the best interpretation of the proverb from response alternatives. In patients with FLE, only a left-sided seizure focus was associated with poorer performance. In patients with TLE, both an early age of onset and a left-sided seizure focus predicted poorer performance. Overall, FLE patients exhibit greater impairment than TLE patients in interpreting proverbs. However, the nature and disease-specific correlates of impaired performances in proverb interpretation differ between the groups. PMID:17853125

  10. Old proverbs in new skins - an FMRI study on defamiliarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization (the art of rendering familiar notions unfamiliar) contribute to the affective and esthetic processing of reading in an event-related functional magnetic-resonance-imaging experiment. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a) familiar German proverbs, (b) unfamiliar proverbs, (c) defamiliarized variations with altered content relative to the original proverb (proverb-variants), (d) defamiliarized versions with unexpected wording but the same content as the original proverb (proverb-substitutions), and (e) non-rhetorical sentences. Here, we demonstrate that defamiliarization is an effective way of guiding attention, but that the degree of affective involvement depends on the type of defamiliarization: enhanced activation in affect-related regions (orbito-frontal cortex, medPFC) was found only if defamiliarization altered the content of the original proverb. Defamiliarization on the level of wording was associated with attention processes and error monitoring. Although proverb-variants evoked activation in affect-related regions, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. PMID:22783212

  11. WISDOM VALUESIN THE BANJARESE PROVERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezqan Noor Farid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to reveal parts of Banjarese proverbs which contain wisdom values, to find kinds of wisdom values represented through the Banjarese proverbs, and to reveal social contexts influencing the producing and interpreting process of the proverbs. The data of this study are gathered and selected from several literatures of Banjarese which are then analyzed using critical linguistics.  The results of this study show that the parts which contain the wisdom values of the Banjarese people are the clues of interpretation. The wisdom values are also related to the good and the bad behaviours of Banjarese people. It is also found that Islam, as the religion followed by the majority of the Banjarese people, influences the Banjarese culture and Banjarese proverbs. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mencari tahu bagian mana saja dari peribahasa bahasa Banjar yang mengandung nilai kerarifan, menemukan bentuk nilai kearifan didalamnya, dan mengetahui apakah terdapat suatu konteks social yang mempengaruhi proses pembentukan dan penginterpetasian peribahasa itu sendiri. Data dalam studi ini dirangkum dari beberapa literatur yang ditulis oleh orang Banjar sendiri yang dipilih dengan alasan hanya literatur tersebut lah yang tersedia pada waktu studi ini dibuat. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisa dengan metode linguistic kritis. Studi ini menunjukkan bagian dari peribahasa Banjar yang cenderung mengandung nilai kearifan adalah penanda interpretasi. Hasil studi ini juga menunjukkan nilai kearifan dalam peribahasa Banjar terkait dengan sikap yang tidak patut ditiru dan sikap yang pantas untuk diikuti. Dan diasumsikan juga bahwa agama islam, yang terhitung sebagai agama yang dipeluk mayoritas penduduk Banjar, ternyata memiliki pengaruh terhadap kebudayaan dan peribahasa Banjar.

  12. Makin' a Way Outa No Way: The Proverb Tradition in the Black Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jack L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Argues that proverbs play an important role in the continuing development and survival of Africans and African descendants throughout the diaspora. Analyzes research of proverb studies conducted in Africa, the Caribbean, Pittsburgh, and Detroit. Provides recommendations for further research. (KH)

  13. Proverb Comprehension as a Function of Reading Proficiency in Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2001-01-01

    Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…

  14. Teaching the Old Testament Book of Proverbs via a Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Robin Gallaher

    2005-01-01

    As an Old Testament professor, I struggled with how to teach the Book of Proverbs and the genre of Wisdom Literature in general to my seminary students. As I read and re-read Proverbs, however, I saw it contained many character stereotypes. It is a very contemporary book, for it shows the qualities that contribute to success or failure in life…

  15. Development of Proverb Comprehension in Adolescents: Implications for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…

  16. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...

  17. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja...

  18. Viele "Vehikel" fuhren nach Rom: Sprichworter und Redensarten im Deutschunterricht (Many "Vehicles" Lead to Rome: Proverbs and Idioms in the German Language Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Mohamed

    1999-01-01

    Describes how German proverbs and idioms can be purposefully and efficiently incorporated into the German foreign-language classroom. Presents a holistic model with exercises on lexical approximations, semantic understanding, and pragmatic usage. Eighteen "vehicles" (chain reactions, association games) are introduced. (Author/VWL)

  19. Proverb comprehension impairments in schizophrenia are related to executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Hennecke, Marie; Mandok, Tobias; Wähner, Alfred; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Daum, Irene

    2009-12-30

    The study aimed to investigate the pattern of proverb comprehension impairment and its relationship to proverb familiarity and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. To assess the specificity of the impairment pattern to schizophrenia, alcohol-dependent patients were included as a psychiatric comparison group, as deficits of executive function and theory of mind as well as dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, which have been related to proverb comprehension difficulties, are common in both disorders. Twenty-four schizophrenia patients, 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 34 healthy controls were administered a multiple-choice proverb interpretation task incorporating ratings of subjective familiarity and measures of executive function. Schizophrenia patients chose the correct abstract and meaningful interpretations less frequently and instead chose the incorrect concrete (both meaningless and meaningful) proverb interpretations more often than alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients also chose more abstract-meaningless response alternatives and were impaired in all executive domains. Impaired divided attention was most consistently associated with proverb interpretation deficits in both patient groups. Taken together, schizophrenia patients showed a specific pattern of proverb comprehension impairments related to executive dysfunction and symptoms. The comparison with the alcohol-dependent subgroup suggests that a more comprehensive and severe impairment of complex higher-order cognitive functions including executive behavioural control and non-literal language comprehension might be associated with frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia as compared to alcohol use disorder. PMID:19906437

  20. The Style of ‘Lokaabharan’ in Indian Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Chakraborty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing pattern of Indian proverbs is very much reflected invarious literary creations, especially in modern Indian poetry. Proverbs are used in poetry as a mode of creative process which entails change. Indeed, it is mostly expressed in a poetic style of narration which may be termed as the style of ‘lokaabharan’. Various types of folk elements are used in the creative process and amongst such folk elements proverbs assume a very important position in the making of the style of ‘lokaabharan’.The central message of a proverb is often conveyed with a subtle touch of language use as a linguistic device. Patterns of changes in language use need to be examined with a view to measure the mode of expression of the proverb concerned. In order to understand the style of ‘lokaabharan’, we must examine how proverbs have been used as fixative factors. In this process, we need to compare and contrast the original proverbs used and their changing patterns available in the text of the poems concerned. Fixative factors are what may be called the core of folk elements used in a poem. This may be either a conscious creative effort or an unconscious artistic measure. It plays a vital role in conveying the central theme or message, whatever the case may be.

  1. Proverb Interpretation Changes in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three…

  2. Different Locks Must Be Opened with Different Keys: Using Chinese Proverbs for Teaching Finance to Chinese-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktimirov, Ernest N.; Feng, Jingtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of Chinese proverbs in the teaching of finance to Chinese-speaking students. Familiar proverbs facilitate teaching to Chinese students by appealing to students' prior knowledge, improving retention of new material, and creating a friendlier classroom environment. Using Chinese proverbs in finance instruction also…

  3. The Expressions of Animal Words in Western Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志新

    2015-01-01

    In the long course of the development of human history, animals usually keep a close relation with human beings. But the same animal may have different figurative meanings in proverbs of both nations. If we don't know the cultural information and only understand the proverbs according to our own cultural background, we would cause the deviation from information understanding and misunderstanding in intercultural communication.

  4. 谚语与日本商业文化的特性%Proverbs and Fundamental Features of Japanese Business Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    日语谚语是承载日本文化涵的一个重载体,同时也是反映日本文化特征的具体表现形式。本文从消费观、经商观、风险观等方面对日语谚语进行了归纳整理、试译与分析,并从中抽取出了日本传统商业意识与商业规范的特质。采用将语言、文化、经济、商业等多元因素相结合的手法,对日本谚语中所蕴涵和折射出的商业文化特征加以系统性论述。%Japanese proverbs are expressions of basic values created and passed down as wise or practical advice for living, and also specific forms presenting and revealing the essential characteristics of Japanese culture. This dissertation, from consumption attitudes, business view and risk view, sumarrizes and translates proverbs, from which Japan' s features of business consciousness and business norms are drawn. By integrating multiple aspects, such as linguistic, culture, economic and business factors, this dissertation mainly elaborates on the fundamental features of Japanese business culture contained and reflected in proverbs.

  5. Research on Language of Perception Still-Life as a Visual Aphorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolij P. Suprun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a categorical structure of perception of still-life painting. Analysis is done on the system of visual opposition elements in still-life. A still-life is considered a "perceptual statement about the world", and a "visual aphorism" The research is based on such methods as: semantic spaces constructing and their transformation at introduction of additional elements in still-lifes. It also gives full analysis of an interpretation of complex images and understanding of types of still-life as a visual hermeneutics.

  6. The Integration of Proverbs from Thai Didactic Literary Works for Secondary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Suphapanyawut Kannika; Boonsom Yodmalee; Sunate Potisan

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The integration of proverbs from Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students has been prepared for building the body of knowledge. The process of managing human thoughts in behaving and doing well can increase quality and efficiency to students in terms of mind, conscience and correct actions. (1) This article aimed to examine histories of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs (2) conditions of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs at present. (3) The integration o...

  7. Research on Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs%浅谈汉英谚语中的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2014-01-01

    谚语是语言的特殊形式,是熟语的一种。古往今来,人们对谚语的评价向来很高。有人曾言:谚语乃语言中的盐,一束智慧的花。作为现实世界的一面镜子,语言真实地反映了各种社会习俗和价值观念。谚语作为语言的精华,浓缩了文化的内涵,涉及到社会生活的方方面面,从侧面反映了各民族的思维方式和价值观念。因而中西方文化中对女性带有贬义的看法和评价在汉英谚语中就会有所反映。笔者将以女性主义为视角分别探讨性别歧视在汉英谚语中的体现、性别歧视的根源及其发展趋势。%Proverbs are the special form of language and a type of idioms. All along people speak highly of proverbs. They are said to be the salt of language and a bunch of flowers of wisdom. Language,a mirror of the real world,,can truly reflect different kinds of social conventions and values. As the essence of language,proverbs enrich the cultural connotation,involve the social life and reflect a nation’s way of thinking,values and psychological characteristics from one side. Therefore many social views of women containing derogatory sense and evaluation are reflected in the proverbs. In this paper,the author will explore respectively the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs,the deep-rooted causes of gender discrimination and its developing trend in the perspective of feminism.

  8. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients. PMID:11758092

  9. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility. PMID:26040105

  10. 两汉谣谚理论考论%Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶

    2014-01-01

    汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。%The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .

  11. Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty%两汉谣谚理论考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶

    2014-01-01

    The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .%汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。

  12. A Linguistic Study of Cairene Proverbs. Indiana University Publications, Language Science Monographs Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Fatma Mohammed

    This work presents a linguistic study of the proverbs indigenous to Cairo (Egypt) culture. These forms recur in the everyday speech of both learned and unlearned Cairene Arabic speakers. The 900 proverbs, which are presented in phonemic transcription, are analyzed according to their phonological and stylistic characteristics, and then their…

  13. Extending the search for folk personality constructs: the dimensionality of the personality-relevant proverb domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Heather A

    2002-04-01

    College students (95 men and 264 women) rated how well 211 familiar proverbs described their behavior and beliefs. A factor analysis of these data yielded 7 major dimensions; many of the factors were similar to recognized lexical personality factors. Big Five Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were each strongly associated with a single proverb dimension (interpreted as Restraint and Enjoys Life, respectively). Big Five Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Intellect/Imagination were all associated with several proverb dimensions. Agreeableness was most strongly associated with proverb dimensions representing Machiavellian behavior and strong Group Ties, and both Extraversion and Intellect showed particularly notable associations with an Achievement Striving dimension. The 2 remaining proverb dimensions, which represented a belief that Life is Fair and an attitude of Cynicism, could not be accounted for by the Big Five. PMID:11999926

  14. PROVERBS AND SOME OF THE USAGES IN THE EPIC OF KÖROĞLU / ATASÖZLERI VE KÖROĞLU DESTANI’NDA BAZI KULLANIMLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin BARS (M.A.H.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The epic of Köroğlu is an epical work that left deep influencesall over the Turkish world and over the nations lived together withTurks for long centuries. Even today when taken into consideration ofthe wideness of its narrated and listened geopraphical area, itsimportance from the view of maintaining the cultural integritybetween Turks will be understood much better. Đt is difficult to comeacross such a work like the epic of Köroğlu which maintains itsimportance with a wide performance area, in the lives of other nations.As for proverbs they are the expressions which tell a nation’s standardof judgement. These expressions containing the acquirement of thelife experiences for centuries inform that nation’s thought, yearning,criticism, observation and ideas. They advise people the principles andthe rules aiming to teach the good, the beautiful and the truth. Đn ourwriting the proverbs which take place in Turkoman variant of Köroğluwill be discussed.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations). The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motiv...

  16. Frames of Reference in African Proverbs on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-five proverbs relating to disability were collected from sub-Saharan African countries and analyzed for larger frames of reference of personhood and cosmogony. Themes include warnings against laughing at a disabled person, personhood, existential insecurity, acceptance of what is, and the function and nature of disability. (DB)

  17. The Power of Proverbs: Dissonance Reduction through Common Sayings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    After reading a detailed account of a serious mistake in which a similar-age other went against personal values or a prior commitment, undergraduates rated their feelings of dissonance (regret, hypocrisy, and stupidity) had they been in the actor's place. Relative to a control condition, reading relevant proverbs such as "everybody makes mistakes"…

  18. Aspects of Modern Egyptian Arabic: Its Structure, Humor, Proverbs, Metaphors, Euphemisms and Common Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Naguib

    The Arabic language used in Egypt is traditionally divided into two major types: classical and colloquial. The idea is that classical or literary Arabic is to be found mostly in formal writing and speaking, whereas colloquial Arabic is used mainly in daily conversation. When it comes to actual usage, however, this distinction is not always clearly…

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations. The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motivation of proverbs is presented as a key aspect, which influences the frequency of their use as an argument. The author analyzes the differences between the definitions of a word’s motivation and a proverb’s motivation. The article contains the author’s definition of the paremiological motivation and author’s classification of proverbs’ motivation degrees (examples of motivation, partial motivation and demotivation in proverbs and their influence on the use of proverbs as an argument. The author highlights the interdependence of idiomatic and analytical meanings of proverbs’ components, the influence of demotivation of analytical components on gradual demotivation of idiomatic meaning of proverbs. Proverbs with archaisms and historicisms gradually become inefficient arguments, therefore they are rarely used during critical discussions because they can cause misunderstanding.

  20. Discursive Depiction of Customary Conflict Management Principles in Selected African Proverbs

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    Mehari Yimulaw Gebregeorgis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore how proverbs of traditional African societies contribute to depicting the communities’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. To this end, proverbs collected from different parts of Africa, mainly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia were analysed using socio-semiotic approach to discourse studies and interpretive analysis. The findings of the study show that the proverbs of traditional African societies are instrumental in depicting the societies’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. Together with the ‘prevention is better than cure’ doctrine, taking communal responsibility, transparent truth-finding, participatory negotiation, win-win solution, and reconciliation and restoration of social harmony are among the traditional African conflict management principles that are portrayed through different African communities’ proverbs.

  1. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja tunsimme koko perhe olevamme yhä. Tuimmeaina lasten kesken toinen toisiamme ja pienempää piti aina ohjata ja auttaa ja puolustaa. Äitini aina sanoikin että heikompaa on aina autettava ja että köyhän ainoa pääoma on rehellisyys, rehtiys ja oikeamielisyys, ja kun kasvatte suuriksi niin pitäkää itsenne miehinä, joihin voi luottaa. Eikä minunkaan ole sitten koskaan tarvinnut noista periaatteista luopua.‘The atmosphere at home was gentle and all the family felt to be one and same. We children gave our support to each other and we were supposed to guide and help and defend the smaller ones. My mother always said that you have to always help those who are weak and the only capital a poor person has is sincerity, honesty, and uprightness. When you’ll be grown-ups, see that you still are those ones to whom others can trust. I have never given up those principles.’

  2. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  3. Pragmatic Functions of Crisis - Motivated Proverbs in Ola Rotimi's "The Gods Are Not to Blame"

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    Odebunmi, Akin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the pragmatic functions that crisis-motivated proverbs play in Ola Rotimi's The Gods is not to Blame. It picks its inspiration from the little attention hitherto paid, in the linguistic literature, to both the specific proverbs that are spurred by crisis in the play and the pragmatic roles of such proverbs. For data, only the proverbs that are necessitated by the crisis-situations in the text are sampled, and these are analysed, using the recent theory of pragmatic acts (Mey 2001.The study reveals that crisis-motivated proverbs in The Gods are not to Blame, which are of two types: social and political, are characterized by practs such as those of counselling, cautioning, challenging, veiling, persuading, prioritizing, encouraging, threatening and admitting. These are psychological acts which exploit contextual features such as reference, metaphor, inference, shared situation knowledge, shared cultural knowledge and relevance. The paper concludes that studying literary proverbs used in crisis situations, from a pragmatic perspective, both throws additional insights into the paremiological pool and promises to provide a veritably helpful tool for language teaching.

  4. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  5. APhoRISM FP7 project: the A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore; Pierdicca, Nazzareno

    2014-05-01

    The APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedure for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring - project is an FP7 funded project, which aims at developing and testing two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data for seismic and volcanic risk management. The objective is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. One of the two methods deals with earthquakes, and it concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The method is named APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. Indeed, a wide literature and projects have addressed and focused such issue, but usually the proposed approaches are only based on change detection techniques and/or classifications algorithms. The novelty of APhoRISM-APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by: - InSAR time series to measure surface movements - shakemaps obtained from seismological data - vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map from earth observation satellite sensors (either Optical or Synthetic Aperture Radar) to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms.

  6. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  7. Setswana proverbs within the institution of lenyalo [marriage]: A critical engagement with the bosadi [womanhood] approach

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    Itumeleng D. Mothoagae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Setswana proverbs point to the rich oral history of the Batswana people, their cosmology, morality, indigenous knowledge system, rituals, drama, sayings and memo scripts which are deeply embedded in memory. They emerged from reflections on existential experiences and animal behaviour. In her analysis of Proverbs 31:10�31 found in the Hebrew text, Masenya rereads this text in conjugation with her Northern Sotho proverbs regarding women from a bosadi [womanhood] approach. It is in this approach that she attempts to engage structures of �patriarchy� and the marginalisation of women�s identities. In so doing, the approach grapples with issues such as the mythological thinking of male dominance, cultural subjugation, gender equality, political marginalisation and economic transaction. The decolonial turn as a theoretical framework acknowledges the particularity and universality of cultures and knowledge. Whilst there is particularity among African cultures, there is also universality. In this article I will refer to Setswana proverbs in the context of marriage to engage the bosadi approach. It is the intention of this article to argue that proverbs such as lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi need to be contextualised within their historical location as well as within the context of the institution of lenyalo that is anchored in the practice of bogadi. Furthermore, there is a need to critically engage with terms such as patriarchy, oppression, structure and hierarchy. The paper will use the decolonial turn as a theoretical framework. A conclusion will be drawn from the discussion above.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has an interdisciplinary approach, it touches on Historical analysis of Setswana Proverbs, the missionary era and the transition between �Setswana traditional� worldview and �Euro-Christian� worldview. Furthermore, it pertains to the understanding of the Proverbs within the custom of Lenyalo

  8. "COME ON, BUDDHIST NUN"--ON A CHINESE TRANSLATION CONTROVERSY INSPIRED BY NIETZSCHE APHORISMS IN 1925-26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raoul David Findeisen

    2002-01-01

    This study takes as a point of departure a Chinese translation from one single chapter of Nietzsche's work Beyond Good and Evil (1886) prepared in 1925.It focuses on the controversy that soon broke out and resulted in not less than four different versions of one single Nietzsche aphorism published within one year.Closer scrutiny reveals that the yet unnoticed controversy may be seen as an indicator of a sociological shift in translation work, marked by the move to a paradigm of first-hand mediation. Briefly tracing the channel via Japanese and/or English intermediary sources, then well-established for some three decades, it concludes that despite contrary claim in contemporary discussions, conceptual and thus misreadings presented transcultural obstacles rather than linguistic obstacles. It therefore opts for reading translations as sources for the intellectual landscape in the target audience in a given historical moment, hitherto considered deficient.

  9. Le détournement de proverbes en FLE, transgression ou création ?

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    Syrine Diaz-Daoussi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Notre article portera sur la didactique d’unités phraséologiques, plus précisément les proverbes et leur détournement en Français Langue Étrangère (FLE dans un contexte d’enseignement/apprentissage à partir d’un niveau B1-B2. Il s’agira de familiariser les apprenants à la structure du proverbe puis de s’approprier ces structures afin de pouvoir les manipuler en transgressant la norme établie par le figement. Twisting proverbs in FLE, transgression or creation? Abstract: This article will focus on the teaching of phraseological units, specifically proverbs and the way to twist them through French Foreign Language (FLE in a context of teaching / learning from a B1 -B2 level. This will familiarize learners with the proverb structure and help them appropriating these structures in order to manipulate by transgressing the norm established by the frozenness.

  10. Concepções sobre relações amorosas / conjugais e sobre seus protagonistas: um estudo com provérbios Conceptions about conjugal/romantic relationships and about their protagonists: a study with proverbs

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    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os provérbios contêm informações culturalmente importantes sobre temas como casamento e relações de gênero, uma vez que constituem discurso autoritário e estereotipado aceito e memorizado pelas pessoas desde a infância. O presente estudo envolveu seleção e categorização de provérbios sobre relações amorosas, casamento, descasamento, bem como sobre as condições socioculturais que caracterizam a vida masculina e feminina com o objetivo de analisar singularidades e regularidades reveladoras das concepções presentes em tal modalidade de produção cultural. A seleção dos 569 provérbios examinados foi feita a partir de fontes documentais. Os provérbios foram classificados em 4 grandes temas (Amor, Casamento e Relações Conjugais, Homem, Mulher que comportaram 104 subcategorias de análise. Os resultados revelaram um universo cultural construído a partir da perspectiva masculina, no qual estão presentes concepções sobre a natureza feminina e sobre as relações amorosas que justificam o desequilíbrio de poder nas relações conjugais que se constata ainda hoje.Proverbs contain culturally important information about themes such as marriage and gender relations, since they constitute an authoritarian and stereotyped discourse which is accepted and memorized by people from early ages. The present study involved selection and categorization of proverbs about romantic relationships, marriage, separation, as well as about the socio-cultural conditions that characterize masculine and feminine life, with the objective of analyzing revealing singularities and regularities of the conceptions present in such modality of cultural production. The selection of the 569 examined proverbs was made from documental sources. The proverbs were classified in 4 broader themes (Love, Marriage and Conjugal Relations, Man, Woman which spanned 104 analysis sub-categories. The results revealed a cultural universe constructed upon the male

  11. The Integration of Proverbs from Thai Didactic Literary Works for Secondary Students

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    Suphapanyawut Kannika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The integration of proverbs from Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students has been prepared for building the body of knowledge. The process of managing human thoughts in behaving and doing well can increase quality and efficiency to students in terms of mind, conscience and correct actions. (1 This article aimed to examine histories of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs (2 conditions of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs at present. (3 The integration of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students is a qualitative research study Approach: The research data documents and fieldwork, were collected in Roi-Et, Mahasarakham and Kalasin. Province by using a basic surveying, observations interviews and focused group dissension. The samples were 150 people. Results: The research findings were presented in from of descriptive analysis. For histories of the uses of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works, the proverbs aimed to teach people involving honesty, discipline; love of the country, religion and the king; grateful to people to whom you are obligated and attention to learning. The proverbs teach us to live sufficiently, to intend to study, to love Thainess and to have public awareness. The proverbs teach us to have good behaviors, to talk politely, to speak straightforward the purpose needed, to teach about beliefs, merits, deeds, black magic and magic, to teach about association with other people, to keep cool, not to be frightened easily and not to believe rumor and bad news. The proverbs teach about forgiveness perseverance, cultures, traditions which are good to everyone in the society so that they will live happily together to have love and unity. For the current conditions of the uses of Thai didactic literary works, they are used for teaching at schools only. After graduation from their schools, these people seldom study further to increase knowledge of proverbs. The teachings

  12. Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1969: proverbs in the literary texts of Miguel Delibes

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    Marina García Yelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article presents the general classification of how proverbs are inserted into texts and analyzes three basic types of enunciation in literary text Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1969 of Spanish writer Miguel Delibes. In the seventeen chapters we read about the everyday, iterative and timeless life of the geographical environment of the people of Castile, with special focus on their customs and language. The latter is characterized by all kinds of proverbs. Delibes employs proverbs to show a popular language, full of references to the collective knowledge, and inserts them in the discourses of the characters in two fundamental ways: directly without referring to the fact that this is a judgmental statement or indirectly.

  13. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

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    J.H. Potgieter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  14. 英语谚语中的性别歧视%Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许之所; 李丽芳; 李丽敏

    2000-01-01

    As is known to all that language & culture are closely related, culture influences and shapes language and language reflects culture. English proverbs, as an essential part of the vocabulary and as the sinew of the language, they can more or less reflect geography, history, views, behavior and system of the society and of course provide a little glimpse or clues to the sex discrimination. The author in this essay focuses on the study of sexism in English proverbs.%就英语谚语中存在的一些性别歧视问题进行了分析和探讨。

  15. The structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic employed in a reading of Proverbs 14:2

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ricoeurian hermeneutic affords readers of the Old Testament an opportunity to access the biblical text anew as a source and norm for faith. Reese gave a convenient summarising description of Ricoeur’s hermeneutical approach. Ricoeur organised his considerations around four poles, namely distanciation, objectification, projecting of a world, and appropriation. These operate as the structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic and were illustrated with a sample proverb (i.e. Pr 14:2 from the collection Proverbs 10:1–15:33.

  16. Some Interlinguistic Relationships in the First Hungarian Proverb Collection of 1598

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    Gyula Paczolay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a short historical introduction, referring to more than athousand Hungarian students studying at Wittenberg and other universities in the 16th century, the article presents proverbs included in the first 1598 Hungarian collection, which was compiled by the Strasburg graduate schoolmaster János Baranyai Decsi and was based on the 1574 edition of Adagiorum Chiliades by Erasmus, and others. It includes universal proverbs like “What isn’t good for you, isn’t good for others”, European loan proverbs originating in the Greek classics, like “To keep a snake in the bosom” (Aesop, from Roman classics, like “To carry wood to the forest” (Horace, “Cobbler do not go beyond your last” (Pliny the Elder, “Go slowly, you arrive earlier” (Suetonius, proverbs from the Bible “He digs a pit for others and falls in himself” (Proverbs 26: 27 – “You see a splinter in another’s eye, but fail to see a beam in your own” (Matthew 7: 3.From Medieval Latin there is, for example, “One need not inspect the tooth of a gift horse”, “Where a pig is offered, be there with your bag”, “Where there are three women, there is a market.” There are also some Hungarian variants of European proverbs. Regional and sub-regional proverbs include those having Nordic (Slavonic, Baltic affiliations, like “Peel the lime tree until it peels”. “A cheap meat has a dilute broth” has Northern and Southern Slavonic, Baltic and Turkish equivalents (meat is replaced by fish in Estonian, Finnish, Zyryan and Ukrainian, “One stone is enough [to frighten] one thousand crows” can be found in Bulgarian, Turkish and Persian. “One sitting among the reeds can make a whistle of his choice” and “It does (not bring much to the kitchen” have earlier exact German equivalents, while “A liar is caught sooner than a lame man” is found in different Romance languages. There are a number of proverbs found only in Hungarian, like

  17. Proverbe et expression figée

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    Laura Cîţu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

  18. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  19. WOMEN AND THE SOCIO- PYSCHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMAN IN IDIOMS AND PROVERB ABSTRACT ATASÖZÜ VE DEYİMLERDE KADIN VE KADININ SOSYO-PSİKOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

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    Zekerya BATUR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms are seen as a data source shedding light on a society's social structure. These data sources reveal social relations, daily life and the cultural context. Proverbs and idioms are thought to hold an important place to understand the society’s views towards individual's attitude and behavior from the past to present. This study made by general scanning model. Proverbs and idioms were scanned and words, which included women, identified. After that, meaning and mission of woman in bloc words analyzed. In conclusion, women showed sometimes source of fidelity, sometimes dishonored affection, sometimes hostility and sometimes antagonism and repulsion in bloc words. Atasözü ve deyimler, bir toplumun sosyal yapısına ışık tutan birer veri kaynağı olarak görülmektedir. Bu veri kaynakları sosyal ilişkileri, günlük yaşamı ve kültürel yapıyı gözler önüne sermektedir. Toplumun geçmişten günümüze bireyin tutum ve davranışlarına ilişkin bakışını anlamak için atasözü ve deyimlerin önemli bir yer tuttuğu düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma genel tarama modelinde yapılmıştır. Çalışmada atasözleri ve deyimler taranarak kadın kavramının geçtiği sözler tespit edilmiştir. Daha sonra kadının kalıp sözlerdeki anlamı ve görevi sözlerden hareketle incelenmiştir. Sonuçta kalıplaşmış sözlerde kadın, bazen sadakatin bazen karşılıksız sevginin bazen düşmanlığın bazen de kin ve nefretin kaynağı olarak gösterilmiştir.

  20. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  1. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

  2. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Citizenship Education: Using African Proverbs as Tools for Teaching in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Preparing today's children to be tomorrow's global citizens will require social educators who have knowledge of the histories, experiences, and cultural practices of the children they teach. This article offers culturally responsive pedagogy and the African proverb as frames for teaching African American students to become engaged local and global…

  3. Some Reflections on Human Needs, Peace, Transculturality and Igbo Proverbs in the Light of Emmanuel Edeh’s African Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh’s concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some refl ections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace… of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics;...

  4. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

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    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour illustrer une situation, donner une leçon ou encore appuyer un discours, les proverbes sont un canevas linguistique dont on ne peut se passer dans les joutes oratoires. Pour ce qui concerne est des proverbes alimentaires, on peut se rendre compte qu’ils permettent d’observer comment les Bulu appréhendent le monde et montrent de ce fait la société dans sa dimension holistique. Cet article s’attèle à une analyse anthropologique de quelques proverbes alimentaires de la socioculture bulu. Ces parémies font intervenir la vision bulu de l’organisation politique, de l’économie, des relations de parenté, de la diplomatie, de l’education, de la mort, de la justice, de la construction de la personnalité,etc. Feeding in negro-cultures generally and particularly on Bulu’s people have an importance which goes beyond the biological needs. In fact, it intervenes in this society as a social total fact and permits to apprhehend it on political, economical, medical, religious, artistic, juridical, linguistic angle. From the linguistic point of view, proverbs constitute a favorable space to the demonstration of representations on food. Used to illustrate a situation, to give a learning or to support a speech, proverbs are a linguistic framework which is not possible to avoid during verbal sparrings. Concerning food proverbs, it can be realized that, they permit to observe how Bulu’s people apprehend world and show society in this

  5. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS IN THE CONTEXT OF GENDER IN TURKISH TOPLUMSAL CİNSİYET BAĞLAMINDA TÜRKÇEDE ATASÖZLERİ VE DEYİMLER

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    Bülent ÖZKAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture, includes all the abstract and concrete structures institutions in a society. In this sense, „culture‟ can be defined as a social knowledge that is containing both nationality and universality. When considering about the culture, it can be seen some mutual determinations in a terms of gender mainstreaming roles. The gender stereotype creates the culture; and also the culture allows the transfer of interpersonal and intergenerational structures. In this context, an imminent structure of language descriptively has a translative role in all the cultural features as identifier. While doing this, it uses some forms of expression of the verbal culture traditions. These expression forms are proverbs and idioms. In cultural transmission, these are important as reflecting the point of view of society and perspectives of them.The purpose of this study, to present the role of man and woman in Turkish society by the direction of proverbs and idioms, and also the expectations of society from these roles. In this study, the proverbs and idioms are including notions of “girl, boy; woman, man” will be evaluated and these notions will be examined in the context of gender mainstreaming. Kültür, bir toplumda soyut ve somut bütün kurumları yapısında barındıran, hem ulusallığı hem evrenselliği içeren toplumsal birikim olarak tanımlanabilir. Kültür kavramı, toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri açısından ele alındığında, birtakım karşılıklı belirlemeler söz konusudur. Toplumsal cinsiyet kalıpları kültürü oluştururken kültür de söz konusu kalıpların bireylerarası ve kuşaklararası taşınmasını sağlar. Bu bağlamda dil kültürün tanımlayıcısı olarak içkin yapısında o toplumun kültürel tüm özelliklerinin taşıyıcısıdır. Bunu yaparken de sözlü kültür geleneği olan birtakım anlatım biçimlerini kullanmaktadır. Söz konusu anlatım biçimleri atasözleri ve deyimlerdir. Bu formlar kültürü ta

  6. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer's disease with proverbs (STADP for the elderly Validade e confiabilidade do teste de rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com provérbios (TRDAP para idosos

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    Mauricéa Tabosa Ferreira Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence Alzheimer's disease with age compromises memory, language, executive functions, constructive praxis and abstraction, requiring early evaluation with standardized tests. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP, elaborated using pieces from the proverb memory game. METHOD: The test contains three stages (A: short-term memory, B: executive functions and language and C: episodic memory. The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals with minimum age of 60 years and one year of schooling, CDR of one or zero, cared for at specialized services of UFPE, HGA and private institutions. Sociodemographic data, habits and health perception were assessed. Among the tests used were MMSE (convergent validity and GDS (discriminating. RESULTS: A good correlation with standardized test was found, acceptable internal consistency (0.71, cutoff point for schooling of 6.49 (low (80% and 77.8% and 8.66 (high (84.6% and 86.1%; Kappa coefficient of 1 (p=0.000 inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: STADP is a valid test for screening Alzheimer's disease.A prevalência da doença de Alzheimer com o envelhecimento, que compromete memória, linguagem, funções executivas, praxia construtiva e abstração, necessita avaliação precoce com testes padronizados. OBJETIVO: Validação do Teste de Rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com Provérbios (TRDAP, elaborado com pedras do jogo de memória de provérbios. MÉTODO: O teste contém três etapas (A: memória curto-prazo, B: funções executivas e linguagem e C: memória episódica. A amostra tinha 91 idosos com mínimos de 60 anos e de um ano de escolaridade, CDR (um ou zero, de serviços especializados da UFPE, HGA e particular. Avaliaram-se dados sociodemográficos, hábitos e percepção de saúde. Dentre os testes utilizados - MEEM (validade convergente, EDG (discriminante. RESULTADOS: Apontaram para boa correlação com testes padronizados, consistência interna

  7. 日语动物相关谚语汉译%On the Translation of Japanese Animal Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玲玲

    2015-01-01

    谚语是民族智慧的结晶,更是传承民族文化的桥梁。翻译谚语则是构筑不同民族文化交流的桥梁之一。为进一步增进中日文化交流,以与人类关系最为密切的动物相关谚语为例,从句子成分省略、感情色彩差异方面来考虑日语动物谚语汉译时影响因素,探寻顺译、意译的汉译方法。%Most of sport tourism products in Hainan are experienced, introduce of wearable technology would enhance the experience and help improve the image recognition of Hainan tourism.The development of Hainan tourism should pay more attention to the need of experiential and combining with history, natural and cultural and sports culture in Hainan to achieve the goal of tourism destiny.The proverb is the expression of the cultural wisdom and bridge between different cultures .The translation of proverbs is one of ways for ex-change of different cultures.To improve further cultural exchange between China and Japan, the paper take the most closely related things with people, the animal-related proverbs as an example, to study the influen-cing factor of Japanese animals proverb translation from the perspective of sentence components, as well as o-mitted and emotional color differences.explore variety of proverb translation methods.

  8. A Study of Strategies for C-E Interpreting of Adages and Proverbs in Diplomatic Speeches from the Perspective of the Interpretive Theory%释意理论视角下的国家领导人外交讲话中俗语和谚语的口译探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗嘉婧; 张婵; 景晨

    2015-01-01

    The state leaders of China, headed by President Xi Jinping, frequently adopt adages and proverbs in their speech as a way of bonding with the audience, which is also true in their diplomatic speeches. This paper intends to take President Xi as an ex⁃ample and study his diplomatic speeches for interpreting strategies for the adages and proverbs from the perspective of the interpre⁃tive theory. A quantitative analysis will also be conducted to examine how different strategies are being used.%以习近平主席为首的国家领导人讲话风格朴实,善用俗语和谚语等民间常用语表意和明理,拉近与听众的距离。外交讲话中,这种情况也很突出。该文从释意理论的角度入手,以习主席多次外交讲话为例,探究俗语和谚语的英译策略,并通过对语料进行量化分析,得出不同策略的运用情况,以图为俗谚语的口译提供有益启示。

  9. "Forget to whom you have told this proverb": directed forgetting of destination memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Antoine, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. PMID:25918456

  10. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

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    Böck, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  11. Counter-Storytelling with African Proverbs: A Vehicle for Teaching Social Justice and Global Understanding in Urban, U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Although the current demographics of urban schools in the United States reflect a rapid growth of culturally and linguistically diverse students, curricula continue to emphasize mainstream culture; cultural and linguistic experiences of these diverse students are ignored. In this article, the author examines how the use of counter storytelling in…

  12. Discussion on the Relationships between the Proverb of Good Doctor to Cure Fur and the Preventive or Therapeutic Strategies with Chronic Kidney Disease%试论“善治者治皮毛”与慢性肾脏病防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬云; 毕礼明; 陈英兰

    2013-01-01

    “善治者治皮毛”是医家治疗疾病的最重要原则之一.慢性肾脏病(CKD)极为常见,其治疗目的包括延缓进展、需要评估心血管危险因素、鉴别和治疗相关的并发症,或者行肾脏替代治疗.综合的多重干预可延缓甚至阻断CKD进展,减少CKD死亡的首位原因心血管并发症的发生.本文试着讨论“善治者治皮毛”与CKD防治策略的关系.%The proverb of good doctor to cure fur was from "Internal Classic of Huang Di". It had been widely guided by the medical scientist as one of the most important therapeutic principles. And CKD ( chronic kidney disease )was very common. The objectives were to slow the progression of CKD to take all the cardiovascular risk factors into account,to screen for and treat specific complications and to prepare,if necessary,for renal replacement treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management could slow or even stop the progression of CKD and reduce its cardiovascular complications,which was the leading cause of death in these patients. In this paper,we tried to discuss on the relationship between the proverb of good doctor to cure fur and the preventive or therapeutic strategies of chronic kidney disease.

  13. The impact of an indigenous proverb on women’s mental health: A phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seepaneng S. Phiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proverbs and idioms represent cultural and societal beliefs and values inherited from the forefathers. An example is lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi. Over many decades African people have used such ancient instructions to counsel women to be resilient in their marriages thus impacting on their mental health.Objective: The purpose of this article was to explore and describe that proverb and its impact on women’s mental health.Method: Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore and describe the prover band its impact on indigenous women’s mental health. The population included married, divorced, widowed and single women who were attending social clubs or networks in the cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg. Snowball and purposive sampling was used to select 57 participants. Five face-to-face interviews and eight focus groups interviews were conducted. Colaizzi’s data analysis method was used to analyse data.Results: Oppression and stigmatisation of women and their families and harmful effects that may result in death were identified as having an impact on women’s mental health. Some women shared that they were oppressed in many ways. In addition, they feared stigmatisation should they wish to divorce. They constantly lived in fear of being harmed or killed by their spouses.Conclusion: There was a need for nurses to develop awareness regarding cultural issues so that women are better served in primary healthcare settings. Women who are suspected of experiencing abuse, should be screened for abuse so that they can be assisted accordingly.

  14. Traduction et interprétation du livre des Proverbes à travers le Talmud et les commentaires juifs médiévaux

    OpenAIRE

    Smilévitch, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Since the Greek Septuagint, the biblical book Mishlei is translated "Book of Proverbs". But in the Jewish hermeneutic tradition, the correct translation is "parables". This new meaning changes the meaning of the whole book. It was therefore necessary to translate the Hebrew text of Mishlei on a new basis, following the Talmudic and midrashic hermeneutics, extended and developed in medieval times by commentators, philosophers and Jewish grammarians. Thus, we propose a new translation, with com...

  15. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  16. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  17. A STUDY ON ANTONYMOUS RELATIONS IN TURKEY TURKISH PROVERBS AND IDIOMS TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİ ATASÖZÜ VE DEYİMLERİNDE KARŞIT ANLAMLILIK İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship established by and between antonymous words is defined as antonymy. Such relationships are founded on the same logic; however, the building blocks and links between them are different. The present study on Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms aims to handle antonymous relations under five headings, namely structural, substitutional, reversive, converse (relational, and complementary. The headings were identified as: Structural antonymy, under which nouns and verbs are treated based on their affirmative and negative senses. Substitutional antonymy refers to replacement of a component in a sentence. Reversives means a relationship established between a verb/noun and its reverse counterpart. Converse antonymy is built upon the position of similar and different elements. Complementary antonymy rests on the elimination of deficiencies. Accordingly, Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms have been examined and detailed under the corresponding headings. It can be concluded that antonymy fulfils such functions as organizing comparative narration at sentence level, structures of change, generalisation, and imperatives, agreement and links between constituents; as well as determining and ordering negated meaning, direction, communication, description, and preference. Anlamı birbirine karşıt olan sözcüklerin kurduğu ilişkiye, karşıt anlamlılık denir. Bu ilişkiler, aynı temel mantıkla kurulur. Ancak kurucu unsurlar ve bunların ilişkileri, farklıdır. Türkiye Türkçesi atasözü ve deyimleri üzerine yapılmış bu çalışma, karşıtlık ilişkilerini yapısal, değişimsel, çevriksel, konumsal ve bütüncül olmak üzere beş başlıkta incelemiştir. Bu beş başlık, şu şekilde belirlenmiştir: İsim ve fiillerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönleriyle ele alındığı yapısal karşıtlık. Başka bir unsurla yer değiştirme şeklindeki değişim tarzı karşıtlık. Bir isim veya fiille, onların tersinin kurduğu kar

  18. The problem of money in the hand of a fool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Loader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focused on a single proverb, viz. Proverbs 17:16. The syntax and stylistic features were analysed to demonstrate the extreme polyvalence that can characterise terse aphorisms. Fifteen readings were examined and evaluated, resulting in the distillation of four equally valid clusters of meaning. This informed the argument that the terseness of aphorisms is con­ducive to multiple legitimate interpretations which constitute the ‘read ings’. The implications were considered in terms of intentionality and text­im man ence in detailed exegesis. It was concluded that a combination of sophisticated linguistics and styl istic sensitivity in proverb exegesis can, in the sense of Her derian and Gunkelian ‘Ein­füh­lung’ in minutiae, uncover a richness in ostensibly simple texts – which is to be distinguished from traditional methods claiming to probe ‘under the surface’.

  19. Exploration on Chinese-English Activities of Chinese Proverbs from the Perspective of Translation Features%翻译特性视阈下汉语谚语英译探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐季

    2016-01-01

    The proverbs are phrases which embody the living experience and folkways of the nations.This paper analyzes the effect of the Chinese-English translation of Chinese proverbs from the perspective of five translation features,social,cultural,symbolic transformational,creative and historical features.%谚语是凝聚一个民族生活经验和民俗文化的短语.在此从翻译的五大特性,社会性、文化性、符号转换性、创造性和历史性入手,分析翻译特性对汉语谚语英译的影响.

  20. The Base Text and Its Commentaries: Problems of Representing and Understanding the Cārvāka/Lokāyata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Bhattacharya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The base texts of most of the philosophical systems of ancient India are in the form of a collection of aphorisms (sūtra-s. The aphorisms are so brief and tersely worded that their significance can seldom be understood without the help of a commentary or commentaries. Sometimes, the literal meaning of an aphorism needs to be qualified or modified by an explanation found in the commentary. If a reader relies exclusively on the literal meaning of the aphorisms in the base text without having recourse to any commentary or disregards all commentaries, he or she may miss the point. Contrariwise, if a reader relies exclusively on a commentary and disregards the literal meaning of an aphorism, he or she will commit another kind of blunder. Ideally, equal attention should be paid to the base text as well as the commentary or commentaries. Even then, all problems are not automatically solved, for it is an uphill task to decide when to go by the literal meaning of the aphorisms and when to follow the commentary. In their polemics against the Cārvāka/Lokāyata, Jayantabhaṭṭa (c. ninth century C.E. and Hemacandra (eleventh century C.E. erred because they did not follow the golden rule stated above and consequently misunderstood and misrepresented their opponents’ contentions.

  1. 湖南湘乡方言谚语的隐喻认知阐释%The Cognitive Metaphor Elucidation of Hunan Xiangxiang Dialectical Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2013-01-01

    Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs are short and concise ,meaningful and profound ,vivid and popu-lar ,and easy to memorize and inherit .It not only reflects the characteristics of Xiangxiang dialect ,but also records the Xiangxiang unique productive and living mode ,the natural environment and the folk culture .It is the crystallization of people’s life experience and wisdom ,which holds Xiangxiang’s unique local culture .This paper elucidates the Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs and emphasizes its cognitive and linguistic functions from the per-spective of cognitive metaphor .%  湘乡方言谚语简短凝练、寓意深远、形象通俗易懂、便于记诵和传承,不仅反映了湘乡方言的特点,还记载了湘乡独特的生产生活方式、自然环境和民俗风情,承载着湘乡独特的地方文化。从隐喻认知的角度对湘乡方言谚语进行解读,着重指出其认知功能和语言学功能。

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF PROVERBS OF ERZINCAN ERZİNCAN ATASÖZLERİNİN COĞRAFİ ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem BAŞIBÜYÜK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human being is in interaction with the place on which he lives. This interaction appears, in the way that environmental conditions determine and direct human life, human gives his environment a shape and predispose it in favour of himself. Environmental conditions have long had a significant impacts on human varying from dietary forms to wearings, daily behavioral forms to habitats, beliefs forms to art and culture, in various way. Proverbs are non-materialistic cultural documents that human has brought out with his experiences in the course of interaction of human with his environment. In the proverbs, the truths of which are approved by society, in which recommendations and messages are processed, the main target is simplifying comprehension, keeping permanence, affecting listeners and telling more with less. The proverbs used in all over the world concist of universal messages for human, whereas a great part are limited to local. Initial usage and transfer through generations are possible with long observations and experiences. These observations and experiences may be weathering events such as rain, heat, wind or natural marks such as mountain, hill, tree, water, or a human activity. In some proverbs, while the event is told directly, there is a deep meaning in statement. In our study, the proverbs of Erzincan and its surroundings are analyzed as to their geographical features. İnsanoğlu üzerinde yaşadığı mekân ile karşılıklı etkileşim halindedir. Bu etkileşim sürecinde çevresel şartlar insan hayatını çeşitli şekil ve boyutlarda etkilerken, insan da çevreyi değiştirmekte veya kendi yararına uygun hale getirmeye çalışmaktadır. Çevresel şartlar yüzyıllardır insanlar üzerinde beslenme kalıplarından giyimlerine, günlük davranış biçimlerinden yaşadıkları meskenlere, inanç biçimlerinden sanat ve kültürlerine kadar çok çeşitli yönlerden belirleyici olmaya devam etmektedir. Atasözleri de

  3. Language on Interpretation of the Proverb Semantic of "Nang" in Uighur%维吾尔“馕”谚语语义解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苹

    2012-01-01

    从语言学、民俗学、心理学的角度,对极具地域性、固化性、传承性和宗教性等特点的维吾尔馕谚语进行较为详细而全面的梳理和解构,阐述了维吾尔馕谚语中的馕是神圣的,是生命之本,是富足的标志,蕴含着丰富的人生哲理。维吾尔族人对馕的这些认知在日常的食馕过程中,会广泛而持久地在其心理层面不断积淀,产生模因效果,起着一定社会教育的心理暗示及强化的功能。%From the aspects of linguistics, folklore as well as psychology, by a detailed combing and destruction of Uighur proverbs about Nang, which are full of features of territoriality, curing property, consistency and the sacred, this paper elaborates that Nang in Uighur proverbs is sacred. It is life and symbol of wealthy, which contain philosophy of life. The cognition of Uighur people to these keep on resting upon their mind extensively in the daily eating of Nang and produce Meme effect with a function of social education, psychologi- cal implications and reinforcement.

  4. Dietary variation and overlap in Central and Northwest European Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) influenced by habitat diversity. "You'll have to take pot luck!" (proverb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    To trace the dietary evolution of the two abundant Middle to Late Pleistocene rhinoceros species Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in Europe over several climatic cycles, we examined comprehensive material of stratigraphically well-defined palaeopopulations from different regions and interglacials. Using morphometrics and mesowear analysis, these reconstructions of Stephanorhinus diets indicate that habitat diversity and interspecific competition with closely related rhinoceros species induced variation in feeding behaviour. Although anatomical features of both species suggest significantly higher dietary specializations compared to the Early to early Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, their mesowear signals are characteristic of a mixed feeder diet, similar to that of extant mammal species in relatively open habitats. Both species retained a degree of dietary flexibility, enabling them to survive in a range of environments. Although each of these rhinoceroses preferred different habitats, species identity alone is not sufficient to establish the real dietary traits of a Stephanorhinus palaeopopulation. As a consequence, their occurrence in a faunal assemblage alone cannot be taken to indicate a specific habitat. S. kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus were embedded in a dynamic process of temporo-spatial replacements and interspecific differentiation of rhinoceroses in the western Palaearctic. However, dietary specialization in these Middle to Late Pleistocene European rhinoceroses was not the result of a directed time-transgressive evolution. Rather, within the range of each species' ecological tolerance, it was controlled by environmental parameters, with habitat variability as the main factor.

  5. Bachirou, Mohamed. – Du côté des proverbes comoriens

    OpenAIRE

    Hecquet, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, les proverbes des Comores sont principalement analysés dans leur fonction sociale, l’auteur insistant sur leur rôle d’affirmation de la cohésion sociale et de rappel de la tradition. Une telle approche semble pertinente dans le contexte de la société comorienne, fortement stratifiée et marquée par une pression intense du groupe sur l’individu. Chaque personne s’inscrit dans un groupe social défini par le quadrillage de ses caractéristiques individuelles : âge et rang de nais...

  6. Educational and social values expressed by proverbs in two cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa

    2005-01-01

    Die Arbeit verfolgt zwei Ziele: Ein reichhaltiges und bisher nicht erforschtes Kulturerbe der Menschen im Sudan zu erschließen und den Sprichwortgebrauch in zwei Ländern zu vergleichen. Sprichwörter werden verstanden als Ausdruck der Lebenswelt und der Werte der Menschen in einer Gesellschaft und ihrer Einstellung zu ihrer Umgebung. Die Arbeit erforscht nach ethnographischem Ansatz den Sprichwortgebrauch, gestützt auf umfangreiche Feldarbeit im Sudan und in England. Ein Schatz von über 800 Sp...

  7. Review of the Dali' s Agricultural Civilizations Indicated in Proverbs%试论大荔俗语中的农耕文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝梅菊

    2011-01-01

    大荔是黄河流域古老农耕文明发祥地之一。大荔先民在农业生产方面的探索大量渗透于日常俗语中,这些俗语探索自然规律,总结种植经验,反映农耕文明,其中人与自然的和谐,值得现代人借鉴。%Dali, a county in Shaanxi province, is one of the cradles of the ancient agricultural civilization in the Yellow River Basin. Volumes of farming exploration experiences were adopted into the everyday proverbs by ancient Dali residents. These pro- verbs reflected the agricultural civilization by summarizing laws of nature and experience of farming. The harmony between the nature human beings is worth learning for modern people.

  8. N. H. Heinen, Proverbes égyptiens relatifs aux poissons et aux oiseaux

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Il s’agit d’un ouvrage agréable à lire, dans lequel sont consignés 369 proverbes ayant en commun la thématique annoncée dans le titre à savoir les poissons ou les oiseaux. Le corpus a été rassemblé, pour une petite part, lors d’une « enquête de terrain », spontanément entreprise par l’auteur durant un séjour d’apprentissage professionnel « à Maṭariyya, qui domine le lac Manzala » (p. 2). Il a été complété par des relevés effectués dans neuf sources manuscrites ou imprimées, s’étendant du ixe ...

  9. De la fraseologia a la lingüística aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Vicent Salvador

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fuzzy concept of phraseology and correlated notions (from interjections and true idioms to proverbs or aphorisms), as viewed from the viewpoint of Cognitive Linguistic and Discourse Analysis. Grammatical constructions, processes of grammaticalization, and discourse functions of lexical phrases are basic tools to deal with the field of idiomaticity, sociolinguistically relevant and indispensable in the framework of Applied Linguistics for tasks such as translations or...

  10. De la fraseologia a la lingüística aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Salvador

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fuzzy concept of phraseology and correlated notions (from interjections and true idioms to proverbs or aphorisms, as viewed from the viewpoint of Cognitive Linguistic and Discourse Analysis. Grammatical constructions, processes of grammaticalization, and discourse functions of lexical phrases are basic tools to deal with the field of idiomaticity, sociolinguistically relevant and indispensable in the framework of Applied Linguistics for tasks such as translations or language teaching.

  11. Wisdom's Gift: Generation X and the Problem of Print-Oriented Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Proverbs as an approach to teaching, learning, speaking, and listening. Argues that using Proverbs is a means to meet the conventions of the Generation X community and to learn about the ambiguity and paradoxes of God. Suggests that how and when a teacher speaks can be formative and potentially transformative. (CAJ)

  12. The Role of Working Memory and Divided Attention in Metaphor Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D.

    2014-01-01

    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., "The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.") place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs.…

  13. AN EXAMINATION OF ABOUT PROVERBS IN KAZAKH RELATED TO FAMILY MEMBERS / KAZAK TÜRKÇESİNDE AİLE BİREYLERİ İLE İLGİLİ ATASÖZLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR ÇALIŞMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsrafil UÇAR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Türk toplumları tarih boyunca ailenin toplumsal bir birim olarak yaşamasına önem vermişlerdir çünkü Türk kültüründe “aile” kavramı hususi önem arz etmektedir. Şüphesiz, bu durum Türklerin ulusal ve kültürel değerler sisteminden kaynaklanmıştır. Aile yapısında görülen düzen, aileye bağlılık, şeref ve onur kavramları, ailenin muhafazası ve kutsallığı, yüzyıllara dayalı oluşum ve kuşaklar boyu aktarılan geleneksel birikim şüphesiz atasözlerine de yansımıştır. Sözlü kültür ürünü olan ve hayatı doğru yaşamak için oluşturulmuş olan atasözleri; ders verme, yol gösterme gibi birçok anlamsal özellik taşımaktadır. “Aile” konusu da atasözlerinin anlamsal niteliğiyle ilgilidir. Bu makalede Kazak atasözlerinde aile konusu ele alınmış ve ayrıca Türk kültüründe atasözü, Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Kazak Türkçesinde atasözü kavramları, tarihten günümüze atasözünün adlandırılması, Kazak Türklerinde aile, Kazak Türkçesinde aile bireyleri ile ilgili atasözleri anlamsal açıdan incelenmiştir. / Throughout the history, Turkish Societies have given a importance to family so as to have it lived as a corporate element because the ‘family’ concept have a particular significance in Turkish culture. Inarguably, this circumstance has arisen from Turk’s national and cultural ethos. Order, dependence on family, honor and pride concepts, conservation and holiness of family, organism based on centuries and traditional accumulation transformed throughout the generations, which are observed in family structure, have been reflected to proverbs. Proverbs as a product of oral culture and having been formed to live life truthfully have the semantic features such as instructing and guidance. The issue of ‘family’ is also related to semantic value of proverbs. The ‘family’ matter throughout the proverbs in Kazak language were handled in this paper, and

  14. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun) : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-01-01

    L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour...

  15. Massimo Montanari, Entre la poire et le fromage, ou Comment un proverbe peut raconter l’histoire

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Alban

    2012-01-01

    Ce petit volume est la traduction d’un ouvrage du spécialiste bolonais d’histoire et d’anthropologie de l’alimentation médiévale, paru simultanément en plusieurs langues . À partir d’un proverbe italien a priori assez obscur – Al contadino non far sapere quanto è buono il formaggio con le pere, « Ne dis pas au paysan combien le fromage est bon avec les poires » –, l’auteur reconstitue, de l’Antiquité à l’époque moderne, toute l’histoire sociale, mentale et parfois même politique et économique...

  16. 维吾尔谚语中的价值准则浅析%A Brief Analysis on the Values in Uighur Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海艳

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大提出了社会主义核心价值观。从公民个人行为层面,倡导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善的价值准则。这也是我国公民应遵守的基本道德。文章以维吾尔谚语为切入点,透视其中蕴含的公民的基本价值观,以便使人们全面了解和认识维吾尔民族道德教育内核,进一步继承和发扬维吾尔族传统道德中的先进因素,将社会主义核心价值观转化为民族的道德信仰,改进社会风尚,推动社会进步。%The 18th National Congress of the CPC proposed core socialist values. From the level of citizens themselves, it advo-cates patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship, which is al-so the basic morality Chinese citizens should observe. With Uighur proverbs as the breakthrough point, this paper analyzes the basic values embodied in it, so as to make people compre-hensively learn about the core of Uighur national moral educa-tion, further inherit and carry forward the advanced factors in Uighur traditional morality, transform core socialist values into national moral belief, improve social atmosphere and promote so-cial development.

  17. Legislation on Freedom of Information : Trends and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2004-01-01

    Coined at the dawn of the scientific age, Bacon's aphorism has taken on new meaning today, when government agencies have at their disposal massive amounts of information about nearly every aspect of modern life. Striking an appropriate balance between the power of government and of citizens to control it demands widespread access to government-held information. As a result there is growing...

  18. "We Share the Same Biology..." Cultivating Cross-Cultural Empathy and Global Ethics through Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della

    2010-01-01

    The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…

  19. Kırgız Atasözlerinin Cümle Yapısı Üzerinde Bazı Gözlemler Some Observations On The Sentence Structures of The Kirghiz Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirghiz Turks have a rich treasure of folklore. Their proverbs, the numbers of which are given in some litery works over ten thousands, build an essential part of this treasure. We explore 97 Kirghiz proverbs,most of them chosen from Bir Miñ Kırgız Eliniñ Makal-Lakaptarı (BM,published in Kirghizstan and Kırgız Atasözleri (KA, published inTurkey, regarding their sentence structure in our article. Kirghizproverbs are classified according to their sentence structure: 1. simple,2. complex: a. coordinated, b. proverbs presenting a subordinatedsentence structure having infinitive verb forms such as infinitives,participials or gerundial forms, c. conditional, d. proverbs presentingcomplex sentence structures with a direct quote and 3. proverbs havinga mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-10 are classifiedaccording to their meaning as: declarative sentences and imperativesentences. Coordinated sentences (11-25 are also studied according totheir word order as sentences presenting regular turkic word order withpredicates placed at the end of the sentence in question and sentenceswith diversed word order. Conditional clauses (26-44 are examinedaccording to their functions as adverbials, subject clauses, concessiveclauses etc. Direct quote (45-55 embedded in main sentences arestudied regarding their functions as object clauses or relative clausesbuilded by degen. We study subordinated clauses formed by infinitiveverb forms such as infinitives, participials or gerundials (56-78 and tryto determine their functions in the main sentences they take part in.Sentences comprising two or more independent clauses, at least one ofwhich has one conditional clause or a clause builded by infinitive verbforms mentioned above are definited as mixed sentences (79-97. Kırgız Türkleri zengin bir folklor hazinesine sahiptir. Bu hazinenin önemli bir bölümünü de bazı çalışmalarda sayısı on bini aşan atasözleri oluşturmaktadır. Biz bu

  20. Rituaalse aasta kajastumine vanasõnades: üldisi tähelepanekuid

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    Irina Sedakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses expressions of folk wisdom which allude to the concept of time, the system structured according to the calendar and the rituals, performed on certain dates. The yearly cycle has developed a system of folk aphorisms concerning almost every day in the calendar and covering all the activities of the man and of the nature in great detail. Terms like aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, etc. are used to denote various folklore (speech genres depicting the ritual year in a rather provisional manner. Apart from the genres mentioned, idioms, comparisons and some spells and curses are also examined.These speech folklore genres are a vast field of research. The question of whether we can speak of ethnic paremia, as asked by the prominent folklorist Dan Ben-Amos (1969 and supported by other scholars, is still very topical, especially in view of the type of proverbial sayings under discussion. The main issues that are examined in the paper are: what is universal and what is unique. The article mainly focuses on sayings which concern the ritual year and outlines the specific features of the folk perception of time as reflected in the calendar. Folk aphorisms reflect the ritual year through names of holidays, terms of ritual objects, food and participants, and through allusions to certain celebration throughout the year. The paremia can express direct meaning, appropriate for only one situation, or they can be of metaphorical nature, describing a set of situation. Each European culture has developed its own ways of seeing the ritual year through metaphorical proverbs, idioms and sayings. Although the set of holidays chosen by each folk paremiological tradition may be different, unique even, the major principles of mentioning a rite in a proverb have universal value and correspond to the structural and semiotic rules of the folklore genre.

  1. An exploration of the symbolic world of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to ‘the fear of the Lord’

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to text interpretation have introduced an opportunity to understand the biblical text afresh. One such an alternative approach is a Ricoeurian hermeneutic. Ricoeur’s understanding of the referential intention of poetic texts will be drawn on to explore its interpretive contribution to a reading of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to the phrase ‘the fear of the Lord’. It is suggested that the proposed reading strategy is a most productive effort.

  2. ‘Children and fools, they say, cannot lie’: un dicton tourné en plaisanterie dans Misogonus d’Anthony Rudd ‘Children and fools, they say, cannot lie’: a Proverb Turned Upside Down in Anthony Rudd’s Misogonus

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    Pauline Blanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the play entitled Misogonus that is attributed to Anthony Rudd by one of its editors, Lester E. Barber, the Vice-character, Cacurgus, stands out as a virtuoso performer even though he merely demonstrates a moral lesson. The double-dealing servant of two masters, Cacurgus goes out of his way to prove the ill-founded premises of the saying “Children and fools, they say, cannot lie”. He deceives both of his masters, but remains loyal to his audience for whom he performs a highly entertaining play. The two aspects of his role are shown to be quite distinct as he intervenes on the outside and inside of two separate plots in which the twists and turns of a devious mind are displayed as being a series of disagreeable tricks played upon a group of malleable, credulous victims.

  3. THE POET MINDING THE LOCAL INSTRUMENTS: AHMED-I DÂI (THE PROVERBS AND IDIOMS YEREL MALZEMEYİ ÖNEMSEYEN BİR ŞAİR: AHMED-İ DÂİ (DİVANINDA KULLANDIĞI ATASÖZLERİ VE DEYİMLER

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    M. Ziya BAĞRIAÇIK

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about the language and style of classic (Divan poem has always been one of the major discussion in literature. While the poets of XIV and XV centuries have kept significant distance with the meaning by focusing on the local matters, their successors have profoundly focused on the poems that attempt to explore the meaning further. However, the latter poems have been criticized for gradual engagement in exhibition of their ingenuities. On the contrary to the establishing era, in Gibb’s expression, “the İranization was more prominent”at XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries. Although there were some efforts against this resignation in terms of localization during the following centuries, these have not been successful so far. Because, the indigenous attitudes of poets in exspressing their poems in Turkish at early stage have nearly been replaced by the artificial efforts right after the localization. This indigenous style initiated by Yunus and Sultan Veled at earlier era has been followed by Asik Pasa, Gulsehrî, Ahmedî and Kadı Burhaneddin. Right at the beginning of the XV century, Ahmed-i Daî has taken over the mission and turned it over to Necati. This article deals with Ahmed-i Dai’s efforts. Klasik (divan şiirin dil ve üslubu günümüze değin hep tartışılagelmiştir. Teşekkül (XIV-XV aşamasındaki şairler yerel malzemeye sarılıp satıhta dolaşmışlar; halefleri ise manayı daha derinleştirme gayretiyle aşkın şiirler söyleyerek, işi zamanla bir hüner gösterme yarışına dönüştürdükleri için eleştirilmişlerdir. Kuruluş döneminin aksine XVI-XVII-XVIII yüzyıllar Gibb’in deyimiyle Îranîleşmenin daha belirgin olduğu bir dönemdir. Her ne kadar daha sonraki yüzyıllarda bu teslimiyete mahallîleşme adında bir tepki çabası gösterilse de çok başarılı olduğu söylenemez. Zira ilk başlardaki şairlerin Türkçe söyleme konusundaki takındıkları tabiî tavır mahall

  4. PROVERB CREATING STATUS OF COMMON HIGHEST-FREQUENCY SEVEN WORDS OF EASTERN DESCENT IN THE TURKISH TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİNDE SIKLIĞI EN YÜKSEKDOĞU KÖKENLİ YEDİ KELİMENİN ATASÖZÜ OLUŞTURMA DURUMU

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    Meryem EKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Quoted words are too few in Orkhon Turkic. However, in the period of Uygur Turkic quoted words have increased fairly in Turkish by the effect of different religions and cultures. Arabic and Persian words as defined “Eastern descent Words” have gained intensity in Turkish after Turks accepted Islam.To use a word in proverbs by people of the culture circle and adoption should be used for many years. Arabic and Persian words are used from immemorial time in Turkish, our language was also included in proverbs. During this study we has also benefited from the work Yazılı Türkçenin Kelime Sıklığı Sözlüğü of İlyas Göz. So, we have discussed proverb creatıng status of common highest-frequency seven words of eastern orıgın.7 words of 27 common highest-frequency quoted words of Arabic and Persian used in proverbs. This case shows that human, world, man, money, government, too, every words have been adopted and reflected to life despite the quoted words. Orhun Türkçesinde alıntı kelimeler yok denecek kadar azdır. Uygur Türkçesi döneminde ise değişik din ve kültürlerin etkisiyle Türkçede alıntı kelimelerin sayısı epeyce artmıştır. Türklerin İslamiyeti kabul etmelerinden sonra genel olarak “Doğu Kökenli Kelimeler” olarak da tanımlanan Arapça ve Farsça kelimeler Türkçe içerisinde yoğunluk kazanmıştır.Bir kelimenin atasözlerinde kullanılabilmesi için bulunduğu kültür dairesinin insanları tarafından uzun yıllar kullanılması ve benimsenmesi gerekir. Türkçede çok eskiden beri kullanılan Arapça ve Farsça kelimeler, dilimizde atasözleri içerisinde de yer almıştır.Biz bu çalışmamızda İlyas Göz’ün Yazılı Türkçenin Kelime Sıklığı Sözlüğü adlı eserinden de faydalanarak sıklığı en yüksek doğu kökenli yedi kelimenin atasözleri oluşturma durumlarını ele alacağız.Arapça ve Farsçadan dilimize geçen sıklığı en yüksek 27 kelimeden 7 kelime atasözleri i

  5. The mind is for seeing, the heart is for hearing (Saudi Arabian proverb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Ritu

    2011-03-01

    These "reflections" offer a glimpse into Cancer sociology, through the eyes of a pathologist intimately involved in interdisciplinary management, at an Oncology centre. The interaction of a specialist, usually relatively remote from direct patient contact with cancer patients, evolved from diagnostician to confidante and co-traveler along a difficult journey. The range of shared experiences, the mutual human and humane accruals of this camaraderie are traced through a quarter century of living within the world of cancer and with those afflicted by it. PMID:20532724

  6. Identifying the Evaluative Impulse in Local Culture: Insights from West African Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to cultural competence has significantly increased in the human services over the last two decades. Evaluators have long had similar concerns and have made a more concentrated effort in recent years to adapt evaluation methodology to varying cultural contexts. Little of this literature, however, has focused on the extent to which local…

  7. Iron, hormesis, and protection in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman

    2016-07-01

    Iron is critical for cellular, organismal, and possibly universal existence. Use of iron complexes to treat human diseases is ancient and is described in detail in Ayurveda/Siddha systems of medicine. Old aphorisms from Siddha medicine ("Alavukku Minjinal Amirdhamum Nanjagum," an elixir turns poisonous when taken in excess) and Paracelsus ("Die Dosis macht das Gift," the dose makes the poison) are of practical relevance in understanding the role of this ancient metal in acute kidney injury. PMID:27312440

  8. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field. PMID:26263879

  9. Vygotsky and Bakhtin: The educational action as a dialogic project of meaning production

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    Júlio Flávio de Figueiredo Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a dialogue between Vygotsky and Bakhtin, using Vygotsky’s concepts associated with the zone of immediate development and Bakhtin’s concepts related to dialogism as theoretical parameters. By using these parameters, it proposes to reflect upon the educational process through the theoretical principles or aphorisms which claim the specificity of the mediation that establishes the educator/educatee relation.

  10. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Rani; Dilipkumar Pal; Rahul Rama Hegde; Syed Riaz Hashim

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activ...

  11. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

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    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  12. Tahsin Ömer’in “Darb-I Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” Adlı Atasözleri Seçkisi A Selection of Proverbs from Tahsin Ömer’s “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat”

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    Abdulmuttalip İPEK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms include very different matters ranging from the life styles of the societies they belong to to their frames of mind, from standards of judgements to moral insights due to the fact that they are based on lasting observations, experiences and lives of those societies. As a result, they are stereotyped words which are on the position of the soul of all the culture and value world of the nation they belong to. Proverbs, which make a short-cut and efficient expression possible, also reflect the philosophy of a nation. From this point of view, the realization and preservation of these verbal entities are of vital importance. From the time of Diwanu Lugat et-Turk, the oldest known dictionary of Turkish language, to our day, important dictionaries have been authored to preserve and record these verbal entities. Each of these dictionaries are very important resources as regards with Turkish language and culture. This manuscript will mention about an anthology of proverbs. According to the searches and surveys the anthology has been mentioned only in a few articles until today. The booklet “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” was written by Tahsin Ömer and was printed in Evkaf Printing House in Şehzadebaşı, İstanbul between 1337 and 1340. The printed copy of the booklet in the library of the University of Toronto with the recording number of PN 6505 T8 035, is translated into Modern Turkish from Ottoman Turkish with an additional short review. As the result of a revisal of about 5000 proverbs used in our country, nearly 200 proverbs were sorted out according to their meanings and Tahsin Ömer says in the two and a half pages of foreword that this 16 pages booklet was written to make people learn and draw some lessons. The most exciting parts of this booklet are that the writer examines the proverbs in moral aspects and presents a sorting method. Another important part is the presented analytical assasments in the

  13. Kırım-Tatar Atasözlerinin Sentaksı Üzerine Bir Araştırma A Syntactic Study On The Crimean Tatar Proverbs

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    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Tatar Turks live today mainly in Crimea, Uzbekistan, Rumania and Turkey. Crimean Tatar belongs to the northwestern (Kipchak group of Turkic languages. Crimean Tatar has become a written language in the 19th century and standardized in 1920’s. Inthis article, we explored 168 Crimean Tatar proverbs selected fromKırım-Tatar Atasözleri regarding their sentence structure. The proverbsstudied have been classified according to their sentence structure: I.simple, II. complex: 1. coordinated, 2. conditional, 3. proverbspresenting complex sentence structures with a direct quote, 4. proverbspresenting a subordinated sentence structure having infinitive verbforms such as infinitives, participials or gerundial forms, and III.proverbs having a mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-23have been classified according to their predicate as verbal sentencesand nominal sentences etc. Compound sentences (24-61 have beendivided in a. compound sentences without any conjunctions, b.compound sentences introduced by coordinating conjunctions.Conditional clauses (62-83 have been examined according to theirfunctions as adverbials, object, subject, concessive clauses etc. Directquotes (84-96 embedded in main sentences have been studiedregarding their functions in the main clause. We studied subordinatedclauses built by infinitive verb forms such as infinitives, participials orgerundials (97-150 and tried to determine their functions in the mainsentences they take part in. Mixed sentences (151-168 are investigatedat the last part of this study. Kırım-Tatar Türklerinin çoğu, bugün Ukrayna’ya bağlı Kırım ile Özbekistan, Türkiye ve Romanya’da yaşamaktadır. Türk dilinin Kuzeybatı (Kıpçak grubuna giren Kırım-Tatar Türkçesi, 19. yüzyılda edebî dil olmuş ve 1920’lerde ise standartlaşmıştır. Kırım-Tatar atasözlerinin cümle bilgisi yönünden incelendiği bu çalışmada Kırım-Tatar Atasözleri adlı eserden seçilen 168

  14. Scrivere la vita di una donna nel XVII secolo

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    Chava Turniansky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I wish to highlight some of the main characteristics of the autobiographic writing by Glikl Hamel (1645-1724, a German Jewess who wrote her memories. She knows she is doing something that no woman has done before in Yiddish literature. She carefully mingles several literary genres, mixing stories with practical suggestions, proverbs, aphorism, parables, and elements of the so called Muser-literatur, books of moral behavior and instructions on how to be an observant Jew. The author was forty-five years old when she began to write, and her maturity is clearly present in the text, where she presents herself as well aware of what she wants to write, why and how. Glikl often relates about historical events. In particular here two examples are given, one about the relation with some Christian merchants, and the second about the impact of the news on Shabbetay Zevi, the false messiah, on her community.  

  15. Creativity and the Young Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindham, Carole

    2005-01-01

    There is a Chinese proverb which tells that a child is like a piece of paper: everyone who touches it leaves a mark, so one should make sure those marks are positive. In this article, the author raises an issue which concerns providing for, recognizing and celebrating creativity in children's play. It involves challenging the set of ideas about…

  16. Mrs. Chase and her descendants: a historical view of simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Michael; Pollard, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand". This ancient proverb written by Confucius both sums up simulation and emphasizes the educational merits of performance practice and experiential learning. The history behind simulation shows a progression not only in technological advances but, more importantly, in promoting adult learning principles and improving patient safety. PMID:20879616

  17. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  18. Paremiological Correspondence and its After-Thoughts

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    Outi Lauhakangas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Outi Lauhakangas had the privilege to communicate with academicianArvo Krikmann during the Finnish-Estonian project on common proverbtypes of the Balto-Finnic people, Proverbia Septentrionalia II. In the beginning of the project she was eager to ask, by e-mail, anything that seemed interesting for close differentiation and Krikmann was patient enough to answer her, often in thorough detail. Lauhakangas obtained a new approach to proverb types that differed from her routines for dealing with the international type-system ofproverbs by academician Matti Kuusi. She had to look at proverbs and the motives for using them from a closer perspective. Could we really understand the situations and archaic mentality connected to some cryptic texts without any further information or supporting evidence given by authentic users? And on the other hand, how exclusive has the use of some proverbs originally been? Lauhakangas re-examines and reappraises the intensive paremiological correspondence from a temporal distance after some experience of proverb studies.

  19. Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi (true fungi and fungus-like organisms such as slime molds) are documented in miscellaneous folkways (such as remedies, crafts and foodstuffs) and in oral and written folk literature (such as proverbs, folktales, fairy tales, drama and fiction). The impact of fungal phytopathogens and clinical...

  20. A ORIGINAL OTTOMAN PROVERB SAMPLE MEÂLÎ’S PROVERB’S KASIDEORİJİNAL BİR DURÛB-I EMSÂL-İ OSMÂNÎ ÖRNEĞİ MEÂLÎ’NİN ATASÖZLERİ KASİDESİ

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    Metin HAKVERDİOĞLU

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Literature has made advice culture very important in essays and poems. One of the products is also Durub-ı Emsâl-i Osmânî (Ottoman’s Proverbs. The kaside of a poet; named Meâlî whose name isn’t mentiened in the sources is an interestry example for these literary products. This poem is a different kaside from the point of view of forming an example for young educaters. This poem takes place in Fâiz Efendi and Şâkir Bey meganere which we shorten it as FŞM, and it first meets the literature scholar. It is the first time it has met teh literative world. Türk Edebiyatı nasihat kültürünü nesirde ve nazımda ön plana çıkarmıştır. Bu mahsullerin biri de Durûb-ı Emsâl-i Osmânîyelerdir. Kaynaklarda adı geçmeyen Mealî adlı şâirin kasidesi, bu edebî verimlerin ilginç bir örneğidir ve genç eğitimcilere için örnek teşkil etmesi bakımından farklı bir kasidedir. Bu manzume, FŞM şeklinde kısalttığımız Fâiz Efendi ve Şâkir Bey Mecmuasında yer almakta ve edebiyat âlimi ile ilk kez tanışmaktadır.

  1. Transforming Energy Systems and Indian Initiatives in Intelligent Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Ancient words of wisdom have remarkable clarity, brevity, universality and timelessness in their applicability. They cut across civilizations, systems, and situations, almost effortlessly. The positive take is that mistakes can be committed, but can be rectified. What may be appropriate in one situation, has to change in another context. Two proverbs from diverse civilizations are very relevant in the current context...

  2. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  3. AN ANTHOLOGY OF KRIO FOLKLORE AND LITERATURE, WITH NOTES AND INTERLINEAR TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH. VOLUME 1 OF THE KRIO LANGUAGE OF SIERRA LEONE, WEST AFRICA, IN TWO VOLUMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURNER, LORENZO D.

    MOST OF THE KRIO FOLKLORE AND LITERATURE TRANSCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME HAS NEVER BEFORE APPEARED IN PRINT. IT IS INTENDED FOR THE PEOPLE OF SIERRA LEONE THEMSELVES, AS WELL AS FOR PERSONS WHO WISH TO LEARN MORE ABOUT WEST AFRICAN CULTURE AND THE KRIO LANGUAGE. INCLUDED IN THE FOLKLORE RECORDED HERE ARE PROVERBS, RIDDLES, AND FOLK TALES GATHERED IN…

  4. 'Yes' ifs, ands or buts: examining performance and correlates of the repetition task in the mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Lin, R; Bleich, A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of sentence used in the repetition task included in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) affected performance in a group of 79 demented and 19 non-demented Hebrew-speaking elderly persons. The cognitive functioning of the participants was assessed using the MMSE and CAMCOG examinations. The performance of the repetition task was evaluated by using three sentences: the literal translation of the English language expression used in the original MMSE; a well-known Hebrew proverb consisting of monosyllabic words and rhythmic effects; and another well-known Hebrew proverb without such attributes. Only a third of the participants successfully repeated the literally translated expression. It showed low predictive value and was highly affected by education. The well-known Hebrew monosyllabic proverb showed moderate predictive value but no discriminatory ability. The other well-known Hebrew proverb performed the best. The translation of the repetition task in the MMSE to other languages is problematic. Strict adherence to the original language proved to be the least desirable choice. PMID:10479742

  5. Language Development during the Adolescent Years: Aspects of Pragmatics, Syntax, and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Aspects of language that develop during the adolescent years are discussed in the domains of pragmatics, syntax, and semantics. Selected topics include complex conversational behaviors that adolescents employ, syntactic attainments associated with persuasive writing; and the understanding of proverbs and figurative expressions. Relevant…

  6. The Family in Hawaiian Culture: Lessons from Nature [and] The Family in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wanda; Azevedo, Helen Selma

    1994-01-01

    Young discusses three functions of the Hawaiian family--environment, nourishment, and family relationships--using chants, proverbs, stories, oral histories, and readings as illustrations. Azevedo describes families in Brazil, where the extended patriarchy was predominant, but simple family models have prevailed among poor people and in the south.…

  7. Differences between Visual Style and Verbal Style Learners in Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Jung

    2014-01-01

    English proverb is an interested part when learner applied it in real life situation. The participants of this study were chosen from a big university in the middle area of Taiwan. The researchers selected some learners from Department of Foreign Language (DFL) and Department of Non-Foreign Language (DNFL). 40 students were from DFL, and 40…

  8. The vox populi and structural elements of the book of Ezekiel

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. van Rooy; E.J. Smit

    1990-01-01

    The authors study the influence of the vox pop~ as expressed by two proverbs (Ez 12:22 and 27; 18:2), on the structure of chapters 12 to 33. They conclude that Ezekiel 33 serves as a conclusion to this section, and forms a bridge to Ezekiel 34 onwards.

  9. Goals of Education in Asian and American Cultures. Reflective Essay #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this and other key educational…

  10. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON CATARACT AND EYE CARE, IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG PATIENTS THOSE WHO HAVE UNDERGONE CATARACT SURGERY IN RETINA INSTITUTE OF KARNATAKA, BENGALURU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seena P Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available “ The light of the eye Rejoices the heart” Proverb 15 : 30“Being blind in a rural village in the developing world leaves a person in darkness and dependence, often unable to earn a living or assist in the duties of their household”, William H. Gates.(2000.

  11. Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fournet-Perot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le « langage stéréotypique » représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, « une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre ». Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grâce à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’œuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès.El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.

  12. On the efficient determination of most near neighbors horseshoes, hand grenades, web search and other situations when close is close enough

    CERN Document Server

    Manasse, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The time-worn aphorism ""close only counts in horseshoes and hand-grenades"" is clearly inadequate. Close also counts in golf, shuffleboard, archery, darts, curling, and other games of accuracy in which hitting the precise center of the target isn't to be expected every time, or in which we can expect to be driven from the target by skilled opponents. This lecture is not devoted to sports discussions, but to efficient algorithms for determining pairs of closely related web pages -- and a few other situations in which we have found that inexact matching is good enough; where proximity suffices.

  13. 「食」にかかわることわざの日中比較

    OpenAIRE

    徐, 小艶

    2008-01-01

    The language is a mirror which reflects the national characteristic. The proverbs, which have concentrated people's intelligence, especially reflected the national personality. There are a large number of proverbs related to food in Japanese and Chinese. This paper lias collected some Japanese and Chinese proverbs related to food and analyzed the origins of the proverbs in the living environment and folk-custom, etc. Based on comparison and analysis of these proverbs, the culture background, ...

  14. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare)

    OpenAIRE

    Arvo Krikmann

    1999-01-01

    The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity) of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: present...

  15. The Politics of Civil Society and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2015-01-01

    Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other hand......, we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting the...... essence of culture but also everything about the Somalis. For instance the nation’s short histories and proverbs contain not only description and analysis of the society, but also solutions to the numerous challenges facing the country (Kapchitz, 2010). Somalis themselves, as well as the rest of the world...

  16. 《金瓶梅俚语俗谚》疑义浅析%Analysis of Uncertainties about "Slangs and Proverbs of Jinpingmei"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建波

    2003-01-01

    李布青先生编著的一书,曾引起学界的注意.披阅之余,觉仍有疑义,如"割股的也不知,捻香的也不知"、"水米不打牙"等有望文生义之嫌.断句也有可商榷之处,如"没时运的人儿--漫地里栽桑"、"睡里梦里,要知山下路"等.另外关于俗语的界定也有不准确的地方,如把"说出来的话,灰人的心"等不成其为俗语的词条列入.

  17. A Comparative Study of Gender Bias in Chinese and English Proverbs%汉英谚语中性别偏见的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 卢志鸿; 王燕斐

    2014-01-01

    谚语反映了社会体系以及人们的价值观念,社会中包含着对女性的偏见必然会在谚语中体现出来.所以,从谚语中探索性别歧视更具代表性和说服力.本文采用对比方法,分别从女性的社会地位、婚嫁、言行三个方面对汉英谚语中的性别歧视进行阐述.这些例证体现了女性的负面形象:卑微、唠叨、愚昧、柔弱、邪恶.本文还从历史文化因素和社会角色因素两个方面进行分析.目的是通过对谚语的分析以揭示语言中的性别偏见现象,从而提高人们对这一歧视现象的认识,更好地理解语言与社会的关系.

  18. "No where no betta dan yard?": Negotiating ldentities and Sexualities between Jamaica and the Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Rochelle; Campbell, X

    2013-01-01

    Jamaican popular culture and literature are key sites for the representation and dissemination of Jamaican cultural identity, being located at the intersection of race, class, gender and sexuality. These identity concepts not only transmit a national self-confidence, which we find embodied in the international success of Jamaican athletes and artists, or expressed in the Jamaican proverb “we likkle but we tallawah”. They also need to be read as an empowerment of the young nation’s citizens, w...

  19. Development of coping with stress scale based on Turkish proverbs-CSSTPTürk atasözlerine dayalı stresle başa çıkma ölçeğinin (TASBÖ geliştirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Bahar Aydın

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, coping with stress scale was developed by utilizing Turkish proverbs. Data were collected in 2012 from 157 participants whose age average is 35,58, and have at least a bachelor’s degree. As a result of analyzing data through Explanatory Factor Analysis, the scale consists of 36-items and three factors were obtained. The factors (components are titled as 1 Inclination Religion, 2 Optimism, and 3 Acquiring Power. Also, in order to determine the relationships between CSSTP and personality type, Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI and Almost Perfect Scale- Revised (APS-R were utilized. The examination of data showed that there are significant positive correlations between all factors of the CSSTP and only extroverted factor of the FFPI. There are significant relationships in a positive direction and at low and medium levels between the religious inclination factor of the CSSTP and all factors (high standards, dissatisfaction, and discrepancy of the APS-R. According to internal consistency analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficients of the CSSTP ranged between 0.75 and 0.91. In conclusion, some suggestions were offered to counselors, researchers, Turkish language experts, and the politicians.  ÖzetBu araştırmada, Türk atasözlerinden yararlanılarak, Türk Atasözlerine Dayalı Stresle Başa Çıkma Ölçeği -TASBÖ geliştirildi. Veriler, 2012 yılında yaş ortalaması 35, 58 olan, en az üniversite mezunu 157 katılımcıdan toplandı. Elde edilen verinin Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi yöntemiyle analiz edilmesi sonucunda, 36 maddelik ve üç faktörden oluşan bir ölçek elde edildi. Faktörler; 1 Dine Yönelme, 2 İyimserlik ve 3 Güç Elde Etmedir. Ayrıca, TASBÖ’nün kişilik tipiyle ilişkisini belirlemek amacıyla, Beş Faktörlü Kişilik Envanteri (BFKE ve Gözden Geçirilmiş Mükemmeliyetçilik Ölçeği (GMÖ kullanıldı. Bu inceleme sonucunda, TASBÖ’nün tüm faktörlerinin, BFKE’nin yalnızca,

  20. Postnatal infant crying and maternal tiredness : examining their evolution and interaction in the first 12 weeks postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing for her family” is an old Swiss proverb. Maternal rest and recuperation after birth was a common concern in the past and was frequently supported by the extended family. However, mothers today barely enjoy restful days after birth; instead they enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and selfcare. They often struggle to soothe a crying baby, while coping with their own exhaustion, which can adversely affect family healt...

  1. COLLOCATION DICTIONARY OF ADJECTIVES IN TEACHING TURKISH: METHOD AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Bülent ÖZKAN

    2010-01-01

    To collect the main vocabulary of a language is the major aims of lexicology works. Lexicology looks after to prepare not only for general purpose lexicon for mother tongue users but also particular purpose lexicons for special aims (e.g. proverbs and idioms dictionary, terms dictionary, synonym words dictionary, antonym words dictionary, collocation dictionary etc.). Today, when the studies are considered about the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish, general purpose lexicon works, and particular p...

  2. Corporal punishment of children in England and the United States: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Proverbs has eight sets of instructions on beating children, but that book does not contain the often cited proverbial "spare the rod and spoil the child." This form of discipline, which is thousands of years old, has only recently been abandoned and forbidden in many states in the US, and in much of Europe. It is still legal in Britain and some US states, and remains a controversial issue. PMID:15682262

  3. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    OpenAIRE

    Xhaferri, Gëzim

    2014-01-01

    The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedo...

  4. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  5. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-01-01

    According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song) of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  6. Semantic and Rhetorical Shift as Stylistic Devices in Soyinka’s Dramatic Works

    OpenAIRE

    K. B. C. Ashipu

    2012-01-01

    One of the major attributes of language is its creativity. Every natural language is capable of expressing a vast range of experiences both real and imaginary. Alongside this non controversial claim is the uncertainty concerning the exact nature of the creative attribute of language within the scope of translation, especially of proverbs. Since creative writers, for instance, have at some point, used the creative opportunities available in language as tools for encoding an already tangible pr...

  7. ‘Farm’ Animal Metaphors in Malay and Arabic Figurative Expressions: Implications for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabariah MD Rashid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used in figurative expressions, such as proverbs and idioms. Their features, characteristics, and/or behaviours are employed as metaphors to convey certain meanings. This study sought to examine animal metaphors of Malay and Arabic figurative expressions.  Data examined comprised Malay figurative expressions such as simpulan bahasa (two-word idioms and peribahasa (proverbs, as well as Arabic figurative expressions such as istiarah (proverbs containing ‘farm’ animals, such as cow, donkey, horse and goat. The analysis focused on the description of animal images used in the expressions and their connotations. Findings of the study revealed some similarities and differences, in terms of the images and connotations used in the expressions of the two languages, which may be attributed to cultural differences. The differences reflected in the Malay and Arabic figurative expressions may contribute to the difficulty in grasping the meanings of the expressions amongst learners of these languages.Thus, it is essential that learners of each language be exposed to the elements related to the cultural differences of the two languages to help them understand the expressions better and become effective language learners.Keywords: Animal metaphors, Images, Connotations, Language learning

  8. PAREMIO-IDEOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL PHENOMENON OF LIES AND DECEIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ryabinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenon of lies and deception is considered in the context of paremiological Soviet period of our country, leaving only a vast linguistic heritage. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society and meant finding them new mental attitudes. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society meant finding them new mental attitudes. "Soviet people" as a unique historical community, had an equally unique, ideologically adjusted moral reference which originally combines traditional Russian values with party views. This peculiarity is reflected in the fund of Soviet proverbs presented at many volumes known as "Proverbs of the Soviet people", an appeal to which the purpose of this study makes it possible to assess the originality of the Soviet approach to the phenomenon of lies and deceit with ideological positions to identify its characteristic features. This article analyzes the relevant thematic overview of the Soviet proverbs to assess the role of ideological beliefs in the moral education of the masses; marked features of the Soviet approach to the issues indicated; illustrative examples are given unique paremic hybrid embodying contamination "old" and "new" views on the eternal human vices; a comparison of the Soviet and pre-Soviet values approach, when we analyze the paremic card files.

  9. All good things come to those who wait.Time and tide wait for no man.%凡事都要肯等,久等必有一善。岁月不待人。

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小叶

    2012-01-01

    牛顿第三定律:每一个作用力都有一个大小相等、方向相反的反作用力。以此推之,每甸谚语都有一句与其同样机智的、但意思相反的谚语和它相对。任何事情都有两个方面。%Newton's third law states: "To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction." So it would stand to reason that every proverb has an equal and opposite proverb. There always exist two sides of the same coin.

  10. Funny Talks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万柯

    2009-01-01

    @@ A Lady:Don't be afraid of the dog.You know the old proverb,"A barking dog never bites."(谚语:吠犬不咬人.) Sam:You know the proverb.I know the proverb.But does your dog know the proverb? B Diner:Bring me some soup and make sure a fly isn't in it.Yesterday there was a fly in my soup.

  11. Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Azerbaycan Türkçesinde “Su” Unsurlu Atasözlerinin Gramer Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÖKSÜZ

    2014-11-01

    , history and culture of a nation are all reflected in the language. Proverbs are the aphorisms transferred to us from our ancestors and reflect their opinions giving counsels and advices gathered with their observation for a long time. Proverbs are expressed with different terms in different languages; Kashkarli Mahmud expressed as "sav" in Turkish, but later in Ottoman Turkish it is expressed as "darb-ı mesel" or "durûb-i emsal". While it is denoted as "atasözü" in today's Turkish language, it is told as “atalar sözü” in Azerbaijani. Proverbs tell us the lessons to be drawn from the events happened in the community in terms of an advice or a counsel briefly. Therefore the most important aspect of the proverbs that distinguishes them from other expressions is that a judgment is mentioned in a proverb. On the other hand, various Turkish communities have gathered their own proverbs and have several works done on them. In this regard, investigation of proverbs and idioms are of special importance. Turkey and Azerbaijan are the states that have provided the coexistence of both culture and language from history up to this time. Although we speak the same language, there are slight differences in both culture and language depending on having different neighborly relations and influence from the different cultures and languages. These differences are also seen in proverbs. In this study, we will try to put forward different and similar aspects emphasizing the grammatical features of proverbs contain the word water in both languages. Keywords: Proverbs, Turkish, Azerbaijani Turkish, Turkish grammar, Turkish culture, Turkish language.

  12. KELİME SIKLIĞI AÇISINDAN TÜRK ATASÖZLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman GÜZEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An Evaluatıon on Turkısh Proverbs in Accordance to Word Frequency. Proverbs; which are the products of the common mind of a society where they exist are among the elements of spoken culture. Societies have used conveying of meanings which they have got through experiences with proverbs as a method. Proverbs are the effective expressions where expressional arts are used. They become exist in sentences. In this respect each proverb explains one determination. When considered them one by one, it can be understood that they refer to a specific condition or an event an individual can go through. The words/concepts that build proverbs have an essential importance in exploring the common mind of a society. The studies on proverbs are very limited. Considering the vocabulary of proverbs as a whole is very important in finding out the sensitiveness of a society. The researches which will be done on quantity, frequency and parts of speech of their vocabulary can explore interesting findings. The aim of this study is to determine the word frequency of Turkish proverbs. For this reason, proverbs of Turkey Turkish have been determined and a proverb pool is formed. Vocabulary and word frequency of proverbs can be seen and the findings are evaluated according to fundamental measurements of word frequency and finally, they are compared with general word frequency lists and commented.

  13. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and walk...do not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth. PMID:18392218

  14. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy Acetamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Rani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethylacetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer, SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma, anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenylethyl-2-(4-nitrophenoxyacetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  15. Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of synthesized 2-(substituted phenoxy) acetamide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a-j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

  16. [Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent epistemological inadequacy of the epidemiological time to recognize the social and historical aspects involved in the complexity of the disease expressions in human populations. PMID:10886816

  17. [Cancer and Malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Norimasa; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Ito, Akihiro; Ohara, Hiroshi; Futamura, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    A Japanese proverb says that a balanced diet leads to a healthy body. However, the relation between healthy life and nutrition has not been established precisely and quantitatively. Cancer cachexia, which is malnutrition in cancer patients, has been studied extensively. Appropriate nutrition support can prevent the progression of malnutrition in cancer patients and advance the tolerance for anticancer therapy. In refractory cachexia (terminally cancer patients), we will judge the necessity of reduction of nutrition support, what it is called "gear-change", because the support is burden for the body. It is important to restrict the quantity of nutrition and to give medical treatment to retain bodily function in these patients. PMID:26197740

  18. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures. PMID:17434420

  19. English to Chinese Subtitling:A Skopos based Commentary Domestication and Foreignization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高楠

    2013-01-01

      Domestication and foreignization as translation strategies are used to achieve the purpose so as to fulfil the expectations and needs of target audience in target text. The research question is‘how does skopos theory lead the text in choosing the transla⁃tion strategies as domestication and foreignization?’In this essay the movie of Mulan was chosen and analyzed in terms of movie Titles, Names and Forms of Address, Proverbs and Idioms. The analysis of the translation shows how foreignization and domestication co-exist as co-strategies in order to convey the meaning clearer for the target audience.

  20. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. PMID:26116909

  1. 普世与特殊--论希伯来智慧思想的两极结构和教育空间%Universality and Particularity:The Two-Pole Structure and Pedagogic Space of Hebrew Wisdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德平

    2015-01-01

    This article is written out of the author’s interest in the interface between educational and biblical studies. It is part of his ongoing effort to develop a canonical perspective on education. Informed by contemporary studies in wisdom literature, the paper argues for a common pattern of thought between theBook of Proverbs and theWisdom of Ben Sira (Sirach in Greek and Ecclesiasticus in Latin), despite their universalistic and nationalistic outlook demonstrated most notably inProverbs 8 andSirach 24 respectively. Against a common view that Proverbs reflects the international outlook of sages in the First Temple period and Sirach “the nationalization of Wisdom” in the Second Temple period, this paper aims to demonstrate a subtle co-existence of universal and particular horizons in both books and an ever-present tension therein. Disclosing the dual horizons of sapiential practice that includes observing, reflecting and teaching is significant for three reasons. First, the universal perspective of Hebrew sages is an Axial-age breakthrough no less signiifcant than the contribution made by the prophets. Second, such a universal horizon in the wisdom literature, which is different from that associated with organized missionary movements, provides the impetus to recover the sapiential dimension of biblical ideas of education eclipsed by the instrumental notion of education as a proselytizing strategy. Finally, the reclamation of the dual horizons in sapiential practice is pivotal in the development of a wisdom approach to religious education that will enable the community of faith to engage the world in a prudent and authentic manner.

  2. Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative meanings.

    Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY.

    Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en

  3. Documenting Spreadsheets with Pseudo-Code: an Exercise with Cash-Flow and Loans

    CERN Document Server

    Paine, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    "Look before you leap"; "a stitch in time saves nine"; "more haste, less speed". Many proverbs declare the wisdom of planning before doing. We suggest how to apply this to Excel, by explaining and specifying spreadsheets before coding them, so there will always be documentation for auditors and maintenance programmers. The specification method uses "pseudo-code": code that, for precision and conciseness, resembles a programming language, but is not executable. It is, however, based on the notation used by our Excelsior spreadsheet generator, which is executable. This paper is structured as a tutorial, in which we develop a simple cash-flow and loans spreadsheet.

  4. The Justice of Proverbs in the Writings of A. Kourouma and A. Ryckmans. Towards a Deconstructive Reading of Bambara and Négropolitain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    Under henvisning til antropologers studie af juridisk praksis i fransk-sprogede kolonier i Afrika og i de efterfølgende uafhængige stater, foretages der en kritisk analyse af anvendelse af ordsprog i retspraksis og i den populære formidling af denne. Som eksempelmateriale tages der udgangspunkt i...

  5. 俄汉成语、谚语中动物形象的定型隐喻%Stereotypic Metaphor of Animal Images in Idioms and Proverbs of Russian and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2010-01-01

    动物的定型隐喻,就是通过动物形象的隐喻化过程来形成对人或事物的概括性的认识.俄汉成语、谚语中都包含有大量的打上民族文化烙印的动物定型隐喻.在民族文化的制约下,俄汉两民族对动物的定型隐喻既有同一性,又有差异性.根据动物与其定型隐喻的对应关系,可将俄汉动物定型隐喻分为重合型、包合型、交叉型、冲突型和空缺型五种.正确认识此类定型,具有重要的现实意义.

  6. 从中英谚语看中西人际关系价值取向的差异%On the Value-oriented Discrepancy of Interpersonal Relations between China and West from the Angle of Chinese and English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童修文

    2010-01-01

    谚语是民族文化的宝库,从中英谚语我们可以看到中西文化在各方面的差异.中西文化受历史传统、宗教信仰等诸多因素的影响,在人际关系取向上呈不同的价值观.文章从人际关系的角度,对中英谚语进行了比较和分析,剖析了中西文化在人际关系价值取向上的差异.

  7. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter : A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    OpenAIRE

    Dianna T Kenny; Susan Blacker; Mark Allerton

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title ( Step back in order to jump better ) reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus prima...

  8. Saying' s Semantic Leveles and Classification in Zen Books%禅籍俗语语义层次及其分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳琴; 李豪杰

    2015-01-01

    禅籍中保留了相当大一部分俗语俗谚,"除宋元评话、元明杂剧和明清小说而外,保存汉语民俗语言最富者,当属禅宗典籍和俗讲文献".[1](p101)禅录堪称唐宋时代俗语俗谚之宝库.本文将出现在禅籍中的俗语的语义层次分为一般义和宗门义两个层次,按此划分,将禅籍俗语分为三类:第一类是只具有一般义的俗语;第二类是同时具有一般义和宗门义的俗语;第三类是只具有宗门义的禅林生造俗语.同时重点讨论了第三类俗语.%It retains a considerable part of the proverb saying in Zen books."In addition to the Song and Yuan Storytelling,Yuan and Ming Dynasty and the Ming and Qing novels ,the richest saved Chinese folk language,un-doubtedly is Zen books and folk talking."[1](P101)Zen books can be called treasure trove of Tang and Song Dynas-ties. The proverb saying in this article will be divided into two levels :the general meaning and the munekado meaning. According to the division,the proverb saying in Zen books can be divided into three categories:the first kind is only has the general meaning of idioms;the second is have general meaning and munekado meaning at the same time;the third kind is only have munekado meaning. Meanwhile,the third type of slang is discussed emphat-ically in this article.

  9. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz D. Calibayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  10. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops". PMID:24001641

  11. Anything new under the sun of African Biblical Hermeneutics in South African Old Testament Scholarship?: Incarnation, death and resurrection of the Word in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Madipoane Masenya; Hulisani Ramantswana

    2015-01-01

    In this article, two lenses are used to engage the task of African Biblical Hermeneutics. The one lens is derived from African wisdom, i shavha i sia muinga i ya fhi?, in which there is a need for people to affirm their own roots. Drawing from the wisdom of the preceding proverb, we argue that, in their scholarship, African biblical scholars have to take seriously their own African heritage and thus do justice to their contexts rather than rely heavily on Western paradigms if their scholars...

  12. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju

    2014-01-01

    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  13. Definicja przysłowia w wybranych opracowaniach francuskich, niemieckich i polskich oraz próba konfrontatywnej analizy problemu

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Paweł

    2002-01-01

    In the paper Definition of proverb in selected French, German and Polish papers and an attempt of contrastive analysis of the issue, there is an attempt of creating a concise and clear definition of proverb, by comparing the definitions of different authors. Thus, proverb is a short and autonomous expression, with normative and didactic message, transferred metaphorically. In addition, the paper describes briefly the current results of sociolinguistic research, studying th...

  14. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  15. Aplikasi Kamus Digital Peribahasa Indonesia Menggunakan Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Nurhamidah

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to build applications that can be an invaluable tool in education, especially in the Indonesian field in which there Proverb. Digital Dictionary of Proverbs Indonesia was designed using the software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and other supporting software. The research method used is book study is research conducted by the library to obtain the theoretical data, such as collecting data retrieved from the dictionary many proverbs. Based on those writers intereste...

  16. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  17. Tarih Ve Günümüz Kültürü/// History and Today's Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Sakal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic issues of philosophy of history is about the thesis either the past brighten to-day or to-day explains the past. The social institutions of today, language and folklore largely bear the imprint of the past. Then we can say that the history is a continuous interaction between the past and today. We are trying to explain this by studying on our folklore products, on some concepts of our language and proverbs.The folkloric materials are signs of history of a society at present. The epics, historical anecdotes and proverbs give clues of historical events. Even folk music‟s and names can help a researcher if the research has ability to evaluate them. As known, some times the statesmen evade some documents, which may contain unpleasant information, to be put on the shelves of archives. In this case, the folkloric material can be very vital source of documents for a researcher to find out a historical event.

  18. Emsâl ü Nesâyih-i Türkî ve Dil Özellikleri Üzerine The Emsâl ü Nesâyih-i Türkî and Its Language Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip DOĞAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proverbs that reflect the characters of nations, their manner and mentality against life are connected to lots of fields such as language, literature, history, folklore, sociology, psychology and philosophy. Also these sayings are very important language characteristics in terms of strong expression and conceptual richness.When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thoughtand we can see that they are made use of all the opportunity oflanguage. The proverbs which are one of the products of oral culturesetting have the power of expressing every kind of events about life withevery aspect and colorfulness. So we can see the religious, moral,understanding, common values, mental state, imagination andintelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Turkish proverbs show thecharacter of Turk beyond the differences like geography and dialect andalso they have the characteristics of a historical document. Proverb inTurkish language was called as the words like sav, mesel anddarbımesel. Today, Azerbaijan Turks use the terms like atalar sözü, atababa sözleri, emsâl, emsâl-i Türkân instead of proverb.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì inMeraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in the early years of 20th century. Thehandwritten literal work has Talîk-Divanî font style. Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-iTürkì is thirty three pages and includes proverbs. Proverbs were savedaccording to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet and their dialectcharacteristics were saved.In this study, spelling, voice and form properties of proverbs inThe Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. In addition to this,language properties have been compared with historical dialects anddialects of Oguz group. Milletlerin karakterlerini, hayat karşısındaki tutum ve zihniyetlerini yansıtan atasözleri; dil, edebiyat, tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe gibi çeşitli alanlarla yakından ilgilidir. Bu sözler ayr

  19. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barnett II

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  20. D'un complex d'inferioritat proverbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is is a paper about the history of Catalan proverbs borrowed by Spanish tradition and lost in modern Catalan. The authors give the real origin of such proverbs and stress the sociolinguistic relevance of this «oblivion», as a kind of inferiority complex, to the present-day consciousness of the Catalan speech community.

  1. Headache in the writings of Moses Maimonides and other Hebrew sages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1993-06-01

    In the history of philosophy, theology, and medicine, Maimonides shares the limelight with Arabic scholars such as Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sinna and Ibn Zuhr, chronologically between the great intellectuals of classical Greece and Rome and those of the later Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Maimonides was a very great philosopher and theologian, usually underrated by the historians. He was also an outstanding medical practitioner and teacher. Moses Maimonides had an incredible literary ability and an encyclopedic knowledge. He wrote extensively in the fields of theology, mathematics, law, philosophy, astronomy, ethics, and, of course, medicine. His medical writings are varied, comprising extracts from Greek medicine, a series of monographs on health in general and several diseases in particular, and a pharmacopoiea. The present essay extracts, primarily from Maimonides' medical writings, his pronouncements dealing with headache. Since most of Maimonides' pronouncements about headache in his Medical Aphorisms were derived from Graeco-Roman medical writers such as Hippocrates, and especially Galen, in regard to these statements Maimonides was merely a compiler--not an innovator. Some of his concepts about the causes of headaches being related to a dysequilibrium of the body humors are clearly medieval in origin. Other statements demonstrate this concern with preventive medicine and the maintenance of a healthy regimen of daily living. Medications to treat illness should only be used if non-medicinal means such as diet and exercise are not effective. The heritage of Maimonides' writings is being more and more appreciated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349474

  2. Vanasõnad pedagoogilises kõnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1 control of one’s own life and living with others; 2 work; 3 livelihood, support and care; 4 Christian way ofliving, and 5 proverbs without a context. As a conclusion it can be said that for a child proverbs are combinations of socio-cultural contexts, people, emotions and information in various situations. For a child as a listener the content of the proverb is, above all,connected with the situation and the person involved, and it serves primarily as a piece of concrete advice.

  3. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Ama Fening

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  4. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  5. The secret of the care of the patient is in knowing and applying the evidence about effective clinical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, R M; Sherman, H B

    2015-11-01

    American physicians and dentists conduct approximately 140 000-160 000 patient interviews in a practice lifetime, making the interview the most frequently performed medical procedure. Over the past 75 years, a steadily growing stream of scientific research has confirmed the fact that patient-clinician communication affects the course, direction, and both biomedical and functional outcomes of care. The field of clinical communication research has matured from anecdotes and aphorisms about 'bedside manner' to sophisticated randomized control trials and evidence-based outcomes that have been translated into reliable practice guidelines. Several key skills or habits of practice have been identified and studied in terms of their efficacy and effectiveness. These include the importance of agenda-setting, eliciting patients' perspectives about the nature of their ailments, communicating caring and concern, and testing for patient comprehension and agreement with proposed treatments. In addition to being effective, interpersonal communication can be deeply satisfying as well as offering a lower probability of law suits in the event of an adverse outcome. PMID:24725164

  6. Kenntnis und Gebrauch von Sprichwörtern bei zwei Gruppen österreichischer Jugendlicher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipavic-Oštir, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results and findings of the study on the levels of knowledge and use of proverbs among students from two secondary education institutions in Austria (a comprehensive school in a small town in Styria and a general upper secondary school in Vienna based on a relevant survey. The students taking part in the study very surveyed on their knowledge of various proverbs (the proverb database in the questionnaire included 76 entries and on the meaning of the respective proverbs. Furthermore, the students were encouraged to estimate the frequency of their use of proverbs in speaking and writing. The results show that the "rural environment" factor is not statistically significant with reference to proverb preservation (both as part of the passive as well as the active vocabulary. The male and female students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria know less proverbs compared to their peers, enrolled in the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. What is more, the students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria also know the meaning and use proverbs in speaking and/or writing less frequently than their peers from the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. Rather than the aspect of "rural environment", the results hint at the aspect of "type of school" to be the determining factor (comprehensive school vs. general upper secondary school. Further analyses, including additional test subjects, would provide more insight on whether the relations between proverbs and the linguistic as well as intellectual education are prominent to such an extent that a distinct degree of reception and production of proverbs could be linked to a particular type of school. The study also features an analysis of the difference between the students with reference to gender (male vs. female, with the results showing a relatively consistent distribution.

  7. The learned physician as a charismatic healer: Urso of Salerno (flourished end of twelfth century) on incantations in medicine, magic, and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lugt, Maaike

    2013-01-01

    Urso, the last of the great Salernitan physicians, was both an ardent defender of a theoretical, scientific medicine and the first in the medieval West to propose, in his aphorisms, a rational and naturalistic explanation of the healing power of incantations. The article explores this paradox and provides an in-depth analysis of Urso's highly original and hitherto ignored argument, as well as its intellectual and social background. According to Urso, the efficacy of incantations relies not on the power of words, but on the charismatic physician's "aura"-spirits emanating from his body-and the patient's confidence in and conformity with the physician. Urso compares medical incantations to teaching, fascination, demonic magic, sacraments, and prayer. It is argued that Urso's incursions into theology are both a tactic to defend his bold naturalism against accusations of unorthodoxy and a reflection of his ambition to create a comprehensive "science of everything." Urso's text and an English translation are provided in an appendix. PMID:24096557

  8. Climate Change: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.; Davis, Michael G.

    2010-09-01

    Questions about global warming concern climate scientists and the general public alike. Specifically, what are the reliable surface temperature reconstructions over the past few centuries? And what are the best predictions of global temperature change the Earth might expect for the next century? Recent publications [National Research Council (NRC), 2006; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007] permit these questions to be answered in a single informative illustration by assembling temperature reconstructions of the past thousand years with predictions for the next century. The result, shown in Figure 1, illustrates present and future warming in the context of natural variations in the past [see also Oldfield and Alverson, 2003]. To quote a Chinese proverb, “A picture's meaning can express ten thousand words.” Because it succinctly captures past inferences and future projections of climate, the illustration should be of interest to scientists, educators, policy makers, and the public.

  9. Policy Pathways: Q and A Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    There are two main messages for this series. First, with respect to energy efficiency, countries know what to do, but not necessarily how to do it. These Pathways try to fill this 'know-how' gap. Second, the IEA acknowledges that simply making recommendations to countries is not enough. We have made 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations, but we know that countries need assistance with how to implement them. We can reinterpret the proverb about teaching a man to fish. ''Give a country an energy efficiency recommendation, and you hold their attention for a day. Help a country to implement the recommendation, and you are more likely to launch energy savings that last for years.''

  10. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queseth, Per-Olaf

    2010-07-01

    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)

  11. The teacher-disciple tradition and secret teaching in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin

    2014-01-01

    The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing. PMID:24126973

  12. English Film Subtitle Translation from the Perspective of Domestication and Foreignization-A Case Study of Ice Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亭伊; 周敏

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries have become increasingly frequent, which boosts the development of film industry and highlights the importance of subtitle translation. However, in China, subtitling is a relatively new research field of translation. This study explores the guiding role of domestication and foreignization strategies in English film subtitle translation. On the basis of material from Ice Age, the paper carries on the analysis of film subtitle translation in terms of expressions with typical cultural features and idioms&proverbs under the effective guidance of domestication and foreignization translation strategies. It’s concluded that domestication and foreignization strategies can provide theoretical guidance for subtitling and appropriate combination of the two strategies can achieve better translation effects.

  13. IRRIGATION SYSTEM, WATER MANAGEMENT AND AGRARIAN SYSTEM IN SOUTHERN PENNAR VALLEY UNDER THE CHOLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.RAJAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the major non-industrial sector of India since ancient times. In Tamil country, as explored in Tamil literature, the major economic activity had been agriculture. Particularly, there is a poetic proverb among Tamils, “Cholanadu Chorudaithu”, which means Chola country that is the Thanjavur delta is the “Grannery of South India”. Like the Thanjavur delta, Naduvil-nadu a territorial division lays in, Southern Pennar River Basin of Tamil country still has been a strong agrarian belt. The area of the riverside basin of southern Pennar (South Pennaiyar or Ponnaiyar in Naduvil Nadu lying between Gadilam river on the left and Ginji river or Sangaraparani river on the right. Most of the scholars have agreed that the term Naduvil-Nadu comes from the territory in between Tondai-Nadu and Chola-Nadu.

  14. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  15. THE PLACE OF GRAPE IN TURKISH FOLK CULTURE AND IN CONTEXT OF MYTHOLOGY / TÜRK HALK KÜLTÜRÜNDE VE MITOLOJIK BAĞLAMDA ÜZÜMÜN YERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ebru ŞENOCAK

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The grape grown since the pre-historic eras has adistinct part within the verbal cultural tradition as wellas being an important health source meeting thenutrition need in Turkish folk culture. The grape thatwas the theme of folk songs, riddles, proverbs, idioms,tales and legends in folk literature was also used with itsboth curing and symbolic meanings in having a child,marriage and wedding customs, drinking wine, dowrytradition, folk beliefs and folk medicine in our folklore. In the researches carried out depending on the factthat the grape, raw material of the wine, is accepted asthe drink of the Gods in mythology and it is mentioned inTorah, Bible and the Psalms of David as the sacred drink,it was determined that in Turkish culture and mythology,the grape is the symbol of beauty, fertility, blood, soul,love and health.

  16. The role of working memory and divided attention in metaphor interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D

    2014-10-01

    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.) place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs. Forty healthy participants completed the Metaphor Interpretation Test (developed by the authors). The task includes 20 items chosen from a list of metaphors that were rated on several scales (e.g. imagery, aptness) in a study by Katz et al. (Metaphor Symb Act 3(4):191-214, 1988). Participants were asked to rate the familiarity and provide an explanation of each metaphor. A scoring system was developed to categorize answers into: abstract complete (AC), abstract partial (AP), concrete (CT), and other/unrelated (OT) types. Participants also completed short-term memory and divided attention tests. Overall, participants produced 56 % AC, 25.38 % AP, 7.88 % CT, and 10.88 % OT responses. It was found that a measure of verbal short-term memory span was the best predictor of performance on this task (adjusted R(2) = .369). It appears that short-term memory span, not working memory or divided attention, contributes most to providing abstract responses in explaining metaphors. This is in line with the idea that when one accesses the semantic network associated with a novel metaphor, one must hold this information in mind long enough to search for and link similar cognitive networks. PMID:24030772

  17. Shakespearov šepet v Smoletovi Antigoni:

    OpenAIRE

    Stanovnik, Majda

    2010-01-01

    This article further develops the intertextual links already established with Dominik Smole's Antigone, primarily those with Sophocles and Anouilh, by drawing attention to the reminiscences from Shakespeare's plays, especially Hamlet. Similarities and analogies are observed in its rhythmic and rhetorical design, and in part also in its structure, the complexity of characters, and their notable aphorisms, irony, and paradoxes.

  18. Cosmic Pessimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of After Life (University of Chicago Press presents a series of aphorisms exploring pessimism's motility and its sessility. "A long, low funereal sigh" opens the reader onto an abrupt anatomical study of pessimism, its moral and metaphysical considerations and music. Songs of spite, of futility, of sleep, of doom and further mournful voices resound.

  19. Koera keele otsas rohi, kassi keele otsas tõbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sõukand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The above proverb is found in the database of Estonian proverbs in different variations 160 times, making this the second most widespread proverb about cats and the fourth about dogs. The article outlines the roots and background of this belief, viewing the behaviour of both animals and their habits in co-existence with humans. This kind of differentiation between cat and dog is rather a reflection of people's accustomed behaviour and expectations derived from the animal's behaviour - both animals' mouths contain both pathogenic micro-organisms and healing substances.

  20. 英语谚语的理解和翻泽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郐滨

    2009-01-01

    Proverbs are the glittering gems of the cultural treasure house in the world. On the whole, they are deep in meaning and rich in rhyme. Moreover, they are not only the carriers of intelligence and wisdom of the people but also the reflectious of the languages and the arts. From the per-spective of their content, proverbs are all the collective wisdom of peoples, distilled from centuries of experience of dealing with the problems and difficulties of life. In sbort, proverbs have long been justifiably entided a highly condensed encyclopedia, which is deep in meaning, pithy in form and pleasant in sound.

  1. Una cançó de refrany i cobles glossadores del segle XVI basada en la frase "Mal aja qui en dones fia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Romeu i Figueras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author studies the origin, spread and connotations of a misogyny proverb picked up from a xvi century refrain that circulated in Valencia and Catalonia as a symbiosis of popular tradition and Renaissance flavour.

  2. Tegelikkuse mõtestajad: vanasõnad poola grafitis

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    Grzegorz Szpila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates proverbial elements in Polish mural inscriptions. The main aim of the paper is to consider paremic mural inscriptions with an eye to determining if proverbs are used in Polish graffiti only as content-free play on traditional folk wisdom. The starting point in this analysis is the assumption that proverbs and non-paremic graffiti exhibit both similarities and differences and that most paremic uses in graffiti can be classified as anti-proverbial in character. Many studies suggest that the dominant feature of anti-proverbs is their mocking and humorous nature. The paper then tries to establish if mural anti-proverbs can be treated also as carriers of various sentiments which do not necessarily deny the traditional nuggets of wisdom, but are used to convey observations and truths based on them, which pertain to contemporary reality and regulate it in the same way as traditional paremias do.

  3. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  4. Vanasõnad pedagoogilises kõnes

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1) control of one’s own life and living with others; 2) work; 3) livelihood, support a...

  5. Logical Analysis of Inconsistent Data (LAID) for a Paremiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cavique, Luís; Mendes, Armando Brito; Funk, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    15th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Inteligence - EPIA 2011. Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 10-13 Outubro 2011. A paremiologic (study of proverbs) case is presented as a part of a wider project, based on data collected by thousands of interviews made to people from Azores, and involving a set of twenty-two thousand Portuguese proverbs, where we searched for the minimum information needed to identify the birthplace island of an interviewee. The concept of birt...

  6. Spreuke 7:6-23 � 'n Po�tiese verhaal

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Venter

    1987-01-01

    Proverbs 7:6-23 � A poetic narrative A narrative in poetic form is a contradictio in terminus from the viewpoint of modern literary criticism. In this article the poetic narrative in Proverbs 7:6-23 is read from both the narrative and poetic angles, investigating the effect on the reader of this unexpected combination of two different literary genres in one literary unit.

  7. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952). PMID:24367238

  8. How does “A Stitch in Time Save Nine” in EFL Classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail ÇAKIR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely admitted that understanding a language does not only refer to knowledge of grammar but also peculiar features and characteristics of that language such as idioms, proverbs, metaphors, etc. Admittedly, such utterances extensively take place in native speakers’ oral or written utterances. However, due to such nonliteral expressions it is not always possible for nonnative speakers to get the gist of the message implied by the native speakers. To comprehend what is meant, it is necessary to have an efficient competence in the related language which covers what a speaker needs to know how to communicate effectively in culturally significant settings. Proverbs pertaining to this setting do frequently occur in many authentic materials, and require special attention in foreign language teaching circumstances. As in foreign language teaching classrooms most of foreign language teachers avoid using or handling these cultural expressions, students cannot learn and use them adequately and appropriately. Considering this fact, this paper aims to probe how to deal with proverbs in learning and teaching a foreign language. A classroom implementation to develop learners’ lexical competence through proverbs will be presented in this paper after giving the necessary review of literature related to proverbs and their function in foreign language learning. Moreover, some ideas and suggestions on teaching proverbs will be focused on within the context of this study.

  9. A Multi-Sensor Approach for Volcanic Ash Cloud Retrieval and Eruption Characterization: The 23 November 2013 Etna Lava Fountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corradini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activity is observed worldwide with a variety of ground and space-based remote sensing instruments, each with advantages and drawbacks. No single system can give a comprehensive description of eruptive activity, and so, a multi-sensor approach is required. This work integrates infrared and microwave volcanic ash retrievals obtained from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI, the polar-orbiting Aqua-MODIS and ground-based weather radar. The expected outcomes are improvements in satellite volcanic ash cloud retrieval (altitude, mass, aerosol optical depth and effective radius, the generation of new satellite products (ash concentration and particle number density in the thermal infrared and better characterization of volcanic eruptions (plume altitude, total ash mass erupted and particle number density from thermal infrared to microwave. This approach is the core of the multi-platform volcanic ash cloud estimation procedure being developed within the European FP7-APhoRISM project. The Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy volcano lava fountaining event of 23 November 2013 was considered as a test case. The results of the integration show the presence of two volcanic cloud layers at different altitudes. The improvement of the volcanic ash cloud altitude leads to a mean difference between the SEVIRI ash mass estimations, before and after the integration, of about the 30%. Moreover, the percentage of the airborne “fine” ash retrieved from the satellite is estimated to be about 1%–2% of the total ash emitted during the eruption. Finally, all of the estimated parameters (volcanic ash cloud altitude, thickness and total mass were also validated with ground-based visible camera measurements, HYSPLIT forward trajectories, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite data and tephra deposits.

  10. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.

    2015-04-01

    working at Catania airport (Sicily, Italy) and observing the Mt. Etna fountains about 33 km far away. Collocated infrared satellite observations will be shown as well to complete the investigation. The case study on November 23rd, 2013 is taken as reference case due to its strength and its well-defined narrow plume, which is transported by the prevailing wind hundred kilometers away. For this case study, the X-band radar in Catania tracked the ash-signal from 9:40 UTC to 10:30 UTC every 10 min providing, at each acquisition step, the following variables, abbreviated as ZDR, RHV, VEL, SWD KDP and ZHH. The latter stand for differential reflectivity, correlation coefficients, radial velocity, spectral width, specific differential phase shift and reflectivity, respectively. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that the interpretation of polarization diversity and Doppler shifts might introduce new insights in the estimates of the fraction of ash mass loading due to larger particles and its rate of mass flux. This would be an important achievement for the APhoRISM Project in witch this work is framed. APHORISM is a 3 years FP7-EU project started on December 2013 that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis.

  11. O amor entre filosofia e psicanálise Love between philosophy and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Murta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos a condição do amor como ponto de inflexão entre a filosofia e a psicanálise. A referência escolhida no campo de possibilidades de relação entre a filosofia e a psicanálise baseia-se no pensamento de Lacan. A possibilidade de relação entre dois discursos distintos é abordada, no pensamento lacaniano, a partir de seu aforismo maior, segundo o qual "não há relação sexual". Mesmo para a relação que não existe, Lacan propõe uma suplência - o amor, o qual surge como uma das suplências possíveis para a "relação sexual impossível" que pode se apresentar como um campo possível para a relação entre a filosofia e a psicanálise.We investigate the condition of love as a point of inflection between philosophy and psychoanalysis. Taken in the field of possibilities of relation between philosophy and psychoanalysis, this reference is based on Lacan's thought. The possibility of relation between two distinct ways of thinking is focused on Lacan's thought from his main aphorism "there is not sexual relation". Lacan proposes a supplementing for this relation that does not exist - love. So love appears as one possible supplementing for an "impossible sexual relation" and as a possible field of relation between philosophy and psychoanalysis.

  12. Emergentism and its application in lexical acquisition%试析涌现理论及其在词汇习得中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳

    2011-01-01

    As a new concept system,emergentism supplements the deficiency ot the tradlt!onal aphorism and empiricism and emphasizes the interaction between organism and environment, holding that the expression of complex language naturally occurs after the exposure of relatively simple learning mechanism to complex language environments. Such a theory broadens the scope of second language acquisition study and provides more study area. This paper briefs the basic contents of emergentism and explores the problem of the combination of emergentism and lexical study in language acquisition. Moreover, the paper unveils the features emergent in the acquisition process of learners at the lexical level and raises new proposals for the lexical teaching of second language.%涌现论,作为一种新的认知理论视角,弥补了传统先验论与经验论存在的不足,强调机体和环境间的互动,认为相对简单的学习机制和大量复杂的语言环境相接触,促使了复杂的语言表达自然发生。此理论为语言习得的研究拓宽了思路,提供了更多的研究范围。简单介绍了涌现论的基本内容,探讨了涌现论与语言习得尤其是词汇习得研究相结合的问题。从词汇层面对学习者习得过程中涌现的特征进行了揭示,并为二语词汇教学提出了一些建议。

  13. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Krikmann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: presenting source material, pointing out the main problems that have been caught the interest of paremiologists so far, such as 1 the frequency of animals in proverbs and 2 the repertoire structure of animal proverbs. Animal proverbs as a research subject has been divided in the following semantical-rhetorical categories: A. Proverbs concerning animal identity. B. Proverbs concerning the relationship between people and animals (usually in metaphorical meaning. C. Proverbs concerning the relationships between (metaphorical, as a rule animals . D. Proverbs concerning the relation of animals (either metaphorical or non-metaphorical towards non-zoological nature and dimensions. The article provides a brief characterisation of stereotypes belonging to the latter three categories under discussion. Follows a more detailed overview of material belonging to category A, i.e. proverbs concerning the problem of specific identity of animals, or to be more exact, two subcategories determined by the topics and statements of the literal level of meaning: 1 The animal retains its specific identity ~ it will not ~ cannot be turned into another animal; 2 Son -- parent relationship, transmitting of special characteristics from parents to their offspring. A few examples of groups extracted from subcategory 1:Quasi-autologies:'Animal X is X ~ remains an X'All representatives of species X are identical, similar, alike, there is no significant difference between themAnimal X behaves as

  14. Drug Design and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  15. 谚语翻译的文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祎

    2009-01-01

    谚语是一种结构简洁,并富有生活哲理性的语句.谚语内容精辟,寓意深邃,因而有广泛的感染力,谚语往往能反映一个民族的地理、历史、社会制度、社会观点和态度.简而言之,谚语就是反映了人们的生活及生活环境,基于此,谚语同时也反映了其不同的文化特征.文章首先介绍了文化空缺的由来,然后对英汉两种语言中,谚语所蕴含的文化内涵从地理、历史、宗教三个方面进行了比较.%A proverb is "a short well-known statement that contains advice about life in general;; proverbs contain folk wisdom and therefore they provide intersting Glimpse or clues to a people's geography, history,social organization,social views,attitudes. In short ,they reflect a people's living and living environment .For this reason proverbs are culture-specific.This paper first deals with the origin of cultural vacancy and the relationship between culture and proverbs,then attempts to compare proverbs, Chinese proverbs versus English proverbs,from the perspective of cultural contexts ,that is ,regional, conventional ,and religious cultures.

  16. " La science des urines de Maurus de Salerne et les Sinthomata magistri Mauri inédits "

    OpenAIRE

    Moulinier, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Born by 1130, the salernitan doctor Maurus died in 1214, and his numerous writings are today rather scattered and sometimes not even published. The medical semiology holds a big part in its production, and he wrote about urines, blood, and fever; the uroscopy in particular takes the lion's share there, and we shall not forget neither that he composed a comment on Theophilus, nor that he wrote a comment of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates speaking about many of the urines. Furthermore, the anonymo...

  17. Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz Bornmann; Félix de Moya Anegón; Loet Leydesdorff

    2010-01-01

    [Background] In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able ???to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants,??? one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. [Methodology/Principal Findings] The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited) papers...

  18. Symanzik-Becchi-Rouet-Stora lessons on renormalizable models with broken symmetry: the case of Lorentz violation

    CERN Document Server

    Del Cima, Oswaldo M; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue intensively studied in recent years on the generation of terms by radiative corrections in models with broken Lorentz symmetry. The algebraic perturbative method of handling the problem of renormalization of the theories with Lorentz symmetry breaking, is used. We hope to make clear the Symanzik's aphorism: "{\\it Whether you like it or not, you have to include in the lagrangian all counter terms consistent with locality and power-counting, unless otherwise constrained by Ward identities.}"

  19. Conceptual associations of [time] as a dictionary entry. Spanish and German phraseological occurrences and their usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Piñel López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All humans experience time as a subjective experience, socially and culturally mediated. From birth we inherit a conception of the perception of time that has been transmitted by popular culture and is manifested mainly through oral tradition as phrasal expressions, proverbs and proverbial phrases. The differences in the perception of reality between different communities are expressed in their languages. They ultimately result in distinct symbols and conceptual associations, even if there is a common cultural tradition, as in the case of German and Spanish. These symbols and conceptualizations are realized in phraseology which refers, sometimes in a metaphorical way, to some aspects of reality. Phraseological creation is determined by universal conceptualizations, based on biological and psychological factors, and particular conceptualizations rooted in specific cultural variables associated with a social community of group. This paper is a revision of the concept of ‘time’ as reflected in German and Spanish phraseology. ‘Time’ is associated, among other notions, with concepts of destruction, medicine, opportunity, patience, change, justice, truth and advice. The phrasal idioms that illustrate the above concepts in both languages show that, despite the cultural differences, the perception of time, its conceptualization and its influence in the lives and behaviour of people.

  20. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ . PMID:23163785

  1. Sports in metaphor and metaphor in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Kesić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the metaphors and idioms in the English language that have sports as their motivation and attempts to draw certain parallels with their corresponding semantic equivalents in Serbian. To establish the origin of an idiom is not an easy task, it is even more difficult to segregate them in groups relating to the metaphorical motivation. One of the groups that is worth exploring relates to those that seem to be sport generated. They are probably so prevalent among metaphoric constructions on account of their convenience as an interplay between different meanings which at the same is indeed a real play between people. What distinguishes them from other types of expressions is that they include sport terminology while referring to something totally different, sometimes involving ordinary folk, sometimes even state dignitaries. What they all have in common though is the transfer of meaning, from one sematic field into a different arena, this time it being a sport arena. This would imply that phraseology encompasses proverbs, sayings, idiolect and every other form of collocated wording used to denote an object, advice, idea or anything else with a meaning that, to some extent, deviates from the exact meaning of the words used in them. In the methodology chapter, the paper looks at more than 20 different metaphorical sport expressions, while the introduction, results, discussion and conclusion explore the theoretical bases that underpin any twist in meaning once a group of several words are joined together, thereby changing the sum of their individual meanings.

  2. Nonliteral language in Alzheimer dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Wild, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The use of nonliteral language in clinical assessment, especially testing the patients' ability to interpret proverbs, has a long tradition in psychiatry. However, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in dementias is not yet clear. The aim of this review article is to examine the current evidence on nonliteral/figurative language (proverb, metaphor, metonymy, idiom, irony, sarcasm) comprehension in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. A comprehensive literature search identified 25 studies (16 proverb, 3 metaphor, 0 metonymy, 5 idiom, 3 sarcasm) on nonliteral language comprehension in dementia. Studies predominantly indicate a deficit. Most studies investigated Alzheimer's dementia. Applied correctly, nonliteral language is a worthwhile diagnostic tool to evaluate language and abstract thinking in dementias. During assessment, familiarity testing (e.g., by asking "are you familiar with the proverb XY") is obligatory. Still, future research is needed in several areas: evidence on decline of nonliteral language over the course of the illness is limited. So far, almost no studies delineated proverb comprehension in high risk populations such as patients with mild cognitive impairment. Currently, there is a lack of studies addressing performance in direct comparison to relevant differential diagnosis like older-age depression, delirium, brain lesion, or other psychiatric conditions. PMID:21241530

  3. Immunofluorescence detection of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in tissue and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Clerc, Josiane; Hinz, Boris

    2010-01-01

    "A picture is worth a thousand words" goes the proverb. A poor picture however can be worse than saying nothing at all. This is particularly true for immunofluorescence pictures that in addition to their informative character bear an esthetic component. We here provide a panel of straightforward methods to process tissue sections and cultured cells for immunostaining of cytoskeletal elements, primarily those associated with actin filaments. We want to emphasize to the reader the fact that the choice of the processing method will have an important influence on the outcome of the immunostaining and thus on the interpretation of the results. Fixation of cultured cells with cross-linking reagents such as paraformaldehyde efficiently preserves structural elements at the expense of reduced antigenicity. The degree and timing of cell permeabilization with detergents, along with chemical cross-linking, contributes to the clarity and resolution of distinct structures but can also lead to loss of information. Fixation with organic solvents like methanol will, in most cases, better preserve antigens but will produce a higher background and impact on structural integrity. Therefore, it is recommended to test different protocols for a "new" protein or epitope - the results will pay back your investment. PMID:19960321

  4. The adornment of evil. Narrativity, evil and reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo W.A. De Wit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Are we at all able to recognise for what it is, that phenomenon which in contemporary political opinion, in our philosophical and theological traditions, but also in prayers such as the Lord’s Prayer, is designated ‘evil’? And here I mean: are we able to think it without betraying it, without ‘changing the subject’, without reducing it to something more reassuring, not reconciling it prematurely, but at the same time without being seduced by it, by positing it as omnipotentor imbued with an implacable necessity? This seems to be no easy task, for as the proverb goes, ‘the devil is the master of disguise”. He tricks us, and seduces us to self-deception. Evil goes incognito, and, in a society such as ours, where power – according to Michel Foucault’s well-known statement – is no longer primarily aimed at repressing or prohibiting something, but rather at promoting usefulness, productivity and health, it not infrequently assumes the form of the forces of humanity and the humanitarian, as the implementation of good within a recalcitrant world.

  5. A DIALOGIC ENLIGHTENMENT PERSPECTIVE; APPROACH TO THE OTTOMAN AND EUROPEAN RELATIONS IN PSEUDO-ORIENTAL LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hasan BAKTIR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly held that pseudo-oriental letters used anOriental mask to comment on contemporary European society andmanners; Eastern contexts, proverbs, customs and culture were thoughtto be supplementary to the central theme. Therefore, the representationof the Ottoman Orient in the letters was taken as of mostly illustrative(Conant, 157-61. However, it is not illuminating to argue that pseudoorientalletters were mainly concerned with the discussion ofcontemporary social and political issues. We can find more thanillusion in the letters in terms of the representation of the OttomanOrient. We will survey the historical process can disclose theinteraction between Europe and the Orient and unravel the consistentspirit which reinforced the negotiation between East and West. Thecritical perspectives in the Turkish Spy and Persian Letters blended thepositive and negative aspects of the two worlds; the pseudo-orientalletters amalgamated the familiar and unfamiliar, ridiculous and seriousfacets of the Eastern and Western cultures. The use of Orientalnarrators worked as a metaphor for the intellectual and culturaltransformation of Eastern and Western perceptions of each other. Thistransformation created a critical narrative tradition where Eastern andWestern values had contact, clashed, and found a way to get rid ofreligious prejudice. Using Bakhtin’s concept of dialogy, the presentpaper aims to discuss how the two continents interanimated each otherby disclosing the serious and absurd aspects of the two cultures.

  6. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment. PMID:26810438

  7. FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION IN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the functional description of figurative expression in the phraseological units of Russian and Chinese languages. Metaphor is able to provide re-examination of the knowable through conscious and recorded as the value of a linguistic unit – metaphor for linguistic objective environmental object of conscious vision of reality. Phraseology as one of the «antropoemkih» sections of the linguistics with the language of phrasebook – as mirror, in which the community identifies Lingvokulturnaja their national identity. Proverbs and idioms literally difficult to precisely translate into others languages, because their value is based on the nationally-specific manner. A characteristic feature of phraseology is a «figurative situational motivation, which is directly linked to the worldview of the people – a native speaker, mediastinum cultural connotations, which is its figurative base. Every culture develops its own symbolic language and its image of the world in which his unit gets its value. Shaped spheres attention is drawn to the characters as cultural semantics is mostly symbolic. The symbol can be attributed to the stereotype phenomena characteristic for any culture. 

  8. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are agents capable of helping others, learning new behaviours and forgetting old ones. The evolutionary approach to archaeological systems has therefore been hampered by the 'modern synthesis' - a gene-centred model of evolution as a process that eliminates those that cannot handle stress. The result has been a form of environmental determinism that explains human evolution in terms of heroic struggles and selective winnowing. Biologists committed to the modern synthesis have either dismissed agency as a delusion wrought in our bodies by natural selection, or imposed a sharp, Cartesian split between 'natural' and 'artificial' ecologies. We revisit the seminal literature of evolutionary biology and show that the paradigmatic fault lines of 21st century anthropology can be traced back to the 19th century and beyond. Lamarck had developed a two-factor evolutionary theory - one factor an endogenous tendency to become more advanced and complex, the other an exogenous constraint that drove organisms into conformity with environment. Darwin tried to eliminate the progressive tendency and imposed linearity constraints on evolution that Thomas Henry Huxley rejected. When experimental evidence falsified Darwin's linear hypothesis, the race began to develop a new, gene-centred model of evolution. This became the modern synthesis. The modern synthesis is now under pressure from the evidence of anthropology, sociology, palaeontology, ecology and genetics. An 'extended synthesis' is emerging. If evolution is adequately summarised by the aphorism survival of the fittest, then 'fitness' cannot always be defined in the heroic sense of 'better able to compete and reproduce'. The fittest organisms are often those that evade selective winnowing, even when their ability to compete and reproduce has been compromised by their genes. Characteristically human traits like language, abstraction, compassion and altruism may have arisen as coping strategies that

  9. Cultural borrowing - Serbian jogurt between the east and the west

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analysis of the cultural borrowing process of the Turkish word yoğurt ‘yogurt’ in Serbian. The study begins with the analysis of the Serbian lexical material from the 19th century, when the word jogurt was marked as an exclusively foreign word. The comparison with the present status of the meaning and usage of the word jogurt in contemporary Serbian, in which the word is part of the standard language, shows two different layers of the borrowing process: the Ottoman Turkish period and the Non-Turkish one. The most recent, Post-Ottoman borrowing layer is illustrated by the usage of jogurt as an element of a proverb that is a calque from the Turk. Sutten ağzı yanan yoğurdu (veya ayranı ufleyerek yer (veya icer “who gets burned by milk, blows into yogurt as well”. Aiming to present a complex process of this cultural borrowing, the data from Serbian is compared to the relevant data from other Balkan and European languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika i br. 178009: Lingvistička istraživanja savremenog srpskog književnog jezika i izrada Rečnika srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika SANU

  10. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  11. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhaferri, Gëzim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedonia is, in my opinion, a necessary step toward the establishment of smooth and peaceful communication between the country's two largest cultural groups (Macedonians and Albanians, and is therefore also a prerequisite for the successful integration of every citizen into their home country's society. This paper also investigates Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural society, which serves as a successful and positive example of how a nation can deal with a multilingual population and the integration of its population. With this in mind, the question is raised here whether the model of Switzerland's language policy and national language instruction can perhaps also serve as an example for the Republic of Macedonia.

  12. Confusing redaction and corruption: A house going to hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Loader

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two dimensions to the argument offered in this article, both of them pertaining to methodological issues. The first is that of distinguishing textual criticism from redactional criticism, especially with recourse to the critical apparatus of the Stuttgart Hebrew Bibles. Secondly, the danger of over-emphasising the sound distinction between so-called �literary� and �historical� exegetical modes into an unsound separation between them. Proposals for the emendation of the text in Proverbs 2:18 are used as an example of both issues at once. It is advanced that a historical enquiry into the origin of the text can shed light on an analysis of the text �as it stands�, which undermines the reading of the �final text� as an exercise that can, and may, have nothing to do with enquiry into the growth of that text. This article endeavours to advance its argument by means of a practical contribution to solving the perceived textual problems of the crux interpretum, rather than indulging in the kind of theoretical skirmishes that characterised South African debates at the end of the previous century.

  13. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  14. Fixed Expressions with Sacred Numerals (on the Basis of Kazakh and English Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Mazhitayeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The numerals are specified by their symbolic meanings along with digital ones. One can find them mostly infixed expressions, legend stories, zhyr-dastans. The article is devoted to the use of the sacred numbers in fixedexpressions. The names of the numerals frequently appear in phraseological units, fixed expressions in Kazakhand English languages relating to religious beliefs, customs and traditions have been collecting from the earlytimes depict all specific features of wealthy sentience and considered to be a word-hoard. The actual materialswere collected from phraseological dictionaries of Kazakh, Russian and English languages. And also exampleswere taken from art works. There are different numerals used in phraseologisms and proverbs (two, four, five,six, eight, fifty, hundred, thousand and so on. The authors define a series of numbers which are considered to besacred ones according some concept beliefs. In article are determined the peculiarities of using numbers three,seven, nine, thirteen, twenty five, forty, fifty in fixed expressions and the use of these numbers in differentmeaning, to possess the sacred name.

  15. Metallic superconductors. 3. Na3Sn and V3Ga wires (Part one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays Nb3Sn wires are being widely used as one of the key materials in advanced science and technology, with various applications such as NMR, fusion and cryogen-free superconducting magnets. In this article, at first microstructures and fundamental aspects as well as the effect of additional elements in Nb3Sn are outlined. Intrinsic superconducting performances, e.g. Tc and Bc2, are quite sensitive to the stoichiometry of the Sn concentration. A small amount of Ti and Ta doping is much effective for the increase of Bc2 in Nb3Sn. The effect of Cu on the enhancement of Nb3Sn synthesis has yielded a significant breakthrough for the industrial production of the wires. At present the bronze process and internal Sn process are the twin major fabrication techniques of Nb3Sn wires. The recent status of both processes is reviewed in this article. Pronounced progress has been achieved in the performance of Nb3Sn wires fabricated through both techniques. Although just half a century has passed since the first fabrication of Nb3Sn wire, further progress in Nb3Sn technology may be expected like the proverb saying 'Fresh water still comes out from an old spring'. (author)

  16. Ertel's vorticity theorem and new flux surfaces in multi-fluid plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated to Professor Harold Weitzner on the occasion of his retirement“Say to wisdom ‘you are my sister,’ and to insight ‘you are my relative.’”—Proverbs 7:4Based on an extension to plasmas of Ertel's classical vorticity theorem in fluid dynamics, it is shown that for each species in a multi-fluid plasma there can be constructed a set of nested surfaces that have this species' fluid particles confined within them. Variational formulations for the plasma evolution and its equilibrium states are developed, based on the new surfaces and all of the dynamical conservation laws associated with them. It is shown that in the general equilibrium case, the energy principle lacks a minimum and cannot be used as a stability criterion. A limit of the variational integral yields the two-fluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A further special limit yields MHD equilibria and can be used to approximate the equilibrium state of a Hall-MHD plasma in a perturbative way

  17. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  18. Relationship between theory of mind and functional independence is mediated by executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fayeza S; Miller, L Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to comprehend another person's perspective. Although there is much literature of ToM in children, there is a limited and somewhat inconclusive amount of studies examining ToM in a geriatric population. This study examined ToM's relationship to functional independence. Two tests of ToM, tests of executive function, and a measure of functional ability were administered to cognitively intact older adults. Results showed that 1 test of ToM (Strange Stories test) significantly accounted for variance in functional ability, whereas the other did not (Faux Pas test). In addition, Strange Stories test performance was partially driven by a verbal abstraction-based executive function: proverb interpretation. A multiple mediation model was employed to examine whether executive functions explained the relationship between the Strange Stories test and functional ability. Results showed that both the combined and individual indirect effects of the executive function measures mediated the relationship. We argue that, although components of ToM are associated with functional independence, ToM does not appear to account for additional variance in functional independence beyond executive function measures. PMID:23795763

  19. IMAGINABLE AND AXIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONCEPT SPHERE OF LAND IN THE MENTALITY OF MODERN BRITISH ETHNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyanich Andrey Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the cognitive and semiotic development of imaginable and axiological parameters (characteristics of the concept sphere of land that are assimilated by the representatives of contemporary British ethnicity, and their reflection in the mentality of the ethnic society. The study is aimed at identifying these characteristics of the investigated concept sphere by using the associative experimental techniques of questioning informants of British origin native residents of the UK, whose origin is a true Anglo-Saxon. The reflections received from informants enabled to represent the concept sphere of land as an agricultural object, the object of work, institutional object, the object of entertainment, the object of aesthetic perception, the object of pragmatic use (object of lease, sale, economic profit extraction. The axiological characteristics were identified: firstly, by linguosemiotic analysis of the linguistic resources which are accumulated in the mental and linguistic fund of an English-speaking ethnic group, keeping in memory the language signs indicating the axiological potential of the sphere; secondly, by means of informants answers to the questionnaire on the evaluation of proverbs. The axiological and cognitive reflection of the concept sphere of land was recorded through the evaluation of epithets, stylistically marked as positive adjectives; evaluative statements semanticizing the state of delight or satisfaction; phraseological units with a positive connotation; paremias.

  20. Efficiency evaluation of the disinfectant based on silver and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Srđan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary science has confirmed that silver is one of the most powerful natural antimicrobial agents which can destroy more than 650 species of known pathogen microorganisms. Very high technological demands in the production of colloids and ionized particles are responsible for the fact that silver is used for water disinfection only in the most developed countries. Therefore, proverb in the west says 'silver is not the privilege of wealth, but of health'. The aim of the research was to examine the efficiency of the disinfectant SANOSIL SUPER 25® used for 0.5 liter PET bottles washing in the process of the bottling of the carbonated soft drink 'Orange ROSA'. This multi-component disinfectant (based on silver and hydrogen peroxide was used in concentrations of 40 ppm. After the washing of the PET bottles in the machine 'Bluestar-Simonazzi' a standard bacteriological examination of 192 bottle samples was performed. In none of the examined samples could the presence of bacteria be discovered. The results of the examination of the chemical content of bottled orange soft drink indicated that the concentration of silver was within lawful limits. Based on all acquired results the conclusion is that SANOSIL SUPER 25®, with concentrations of 40 ppm, may successfully be used as a disinfectant used in the preventive washing of PET bottles to be used for the bottling of the carbonated soft drink 'Orange ROSA'.

  1. Folklore as historical and cultural legasy of the lower Volga region in the first third of the XXth century: B.S. Laschilin, A.M. Listopadov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova Olga Igorevna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the question of the folklore phenomenon in the folk art of the Lower Volga Region in the first third of the 20th century is considered. In the course of research high emphasis was placed on the Cossack subject matter. The role of B.S. Laschilin and A.M. Listopadov in collecting and publishing folk art, the folklore of the Don Cossacks, is revealed. Boris Stepanovitch Laschilin’s work left a great impact in the artistic life of our region. In B.S. Laschilin’s books, that were published in Rostov-on-Don, Saratov, Stalingrad-Volgograd, contained tales, fairy tales, bylinas, legends, songs, ditties, proverbs, sayings, ancient dramas of the first Russian folk theatres, exorcisms. Boris Stepanovitch kept selecting songs and ditties, chastooshkas for Voronezh Folk Choir “Voronezh girls”, which are still in the repertoire of the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Chorus. Folklorist and musician Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov, who collected and studied folk songs from his youth up, and recorded them in the Don Region hamlets and Cossack villages, spent more than 50 years of his life on the research of the Don Cossack’s musical culture. Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov’s heritage made an important contribution to the native musical folklore study. Folklore compositions is a unique source of knowledge of history, way of life, moral and other national concepts, which allows us to reconstitute a linguistic personality of a definite historical epoch.

  2. Uncoupling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--a double-edged sword for β-cell function? "Moderation in all things".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sheila; Pi, Jingbo; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav

    2012-12-01

    The ability of the mitochondrion to (a) manage fuel import to oxidize for adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) generation while (b) protecting itself and the cellular environment from electron leak, which can generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a delicate balancing act. ATP is the currency of the cell and as such serves a signaling function as a substrate partner to many kinases and ion channels. While various ROS species have been viewed as a dangerous and toxic group of molecules, it also has a role as a signal derived from mitochondria, as well as other enzymatic sources: a double-edged sword. Current efforts to understand the biochemical mechanisms affected by ROS as a signal--usually noted to be hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))--are exciting, but this duality of ROS effects also pose challenges in managing its levels to protect cells. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), UCP3, and the permeability transition pore have been integral to efforts to try to understand what role mitochondrial-derived ROS have in cells. In this piece we reflect on mitochondrial ROS and uncoupling proteins as signaling regulators. It seems that when it comes to ROS and uncoupling the proverb "Moderation in all things" is apt. PMID:23168277

  3. Saving the “Undoomed Man” In Beowulf (572b-573

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxim Wyrd oft nereð // unfӕgne eorl, / þonne his ellen deah “Fate often spares an undoomed man when his courage avails” (Beowulf 572b-573 has been likened to “Fortune favors the brave,” with little attention to the word unfӕgne, which is often translated “undoomed”. This comparison between proverbs emphasizes personal agency and suggests a contrast between the proverb in 572b-573 and the maxim Gӕð a wyrd swa hio scel “Goes always fate as it must” (Beowulf 455b, which depicts an inexorable wyrd. This paper presents the history of this view and argues that linguistic analysis and further attention to Germanic cognates of (unfӕge reveal a proverb that harmonizes with 455b. (Unfӕge and its cognates have meanings related to being brave or cowardly, blessed or accursed, and doomed or undoomed. A similar Old Norse proverb also speaks to the significance of the status of unfӕge men. Furthermore, the prenominal position of unfӕgne is argued to represent a characterizing property of the man. The word unfӕgne is essential to the meaning of this proverb as it indicates not the simple absence of being doomed but the presence of a more complex quality. This interpretive point is significant in that it provides more information about the portrayal of wyrd in Beowulf by clarifying a well-known proverb in the text; it also has implications for future translations of these verses.

  4. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  5. 'Dancer in the Dark?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Two famous Old Testament texts – Proverbs 8 and Job 28 - contain descriptions of wisdom as a pre-existent being with a special relationship to God before the world was created. However, these texts present pre-existent wisdom in two very different contexts and perspectives: In Proverbs 8 the...... context is concerned with wisdom as the teacher and benefactor of humans, providing them with knowledge, life, and blessing. Wisdom portrayed as a female figure – Lady Wisdom – communicates with humans, tells them of her ways and gifts, and informs them how she was present before God before the creating...

  6. Die vrou Wysheid, God, en ekobillikheid: Liggaamsideologie in Spreuke 8:1–9:18

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    Philip P. Venter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The woman Wisdom, God, and ecojustice: Ideology of the body in Proverbs 8:1–9:18This article examines the ideology of the body, specifically in terms of the gender of Wisdom and God, from an ecojustice perspective. Femininity within a God construct could contribute to a value system that incorporates compassion, interrelatedness and mutual care. In Proverbs 8:1–9:18, however, the woman Wisdom does not represent an ecofriendly construct, but simply enhances and supports the patriarchal, masculine values incorporated in the God Yahweh.

  7. THE LEGENDS IN DIVANU LUGATI’T-TURK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye KÖKSEL

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Divanü Lugati’t-Türk is a very important work for Turkısh culture. A lot of proverbs and poems ın Divanü Lugati’t-Türk. For that reason, by the time the proverbs and poems are generally studied. But by the time there is no work about legends in Divanü Lugati’t-Türk.We have seen some legends related with Divan ü Lugati’t-Türk. One of them related with extraordinary existances. The others are historical and religius.The study investigates the legends in Divan ü Lugati’t-Türk

  8. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Beardsley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+] and aerosol liquid water content (LWC with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA. Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of the photooxidation products and the sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (8 groups and aerosol phase reactivity (6 groups. UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid catalyzed reactions, and organosulfate formation assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic–inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx. The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor UF APHOR chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total OM formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC, and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H+] but is dynamically related to all three parameters. For VOC / NOx > 10, with increasing NOx both

  9. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Ross L.; Jang, Myoseon

    2016-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+], mol L-1) and aerosol liquid water content (LWC) with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA). Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of photooxidation products and sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (eight groups) and aerosol phase reactivity (six groups). UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid-catalyzed reactions and organosulfate formation) assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic-inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx (VOC - volatile organic compound). The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor University of Florida Atmospheric PHotochemical Outdoor Reactor (UF APHOR) chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total organic mass formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H

  10. Life in the Village: Teacher Community and Autonomy in an Early Childhood Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jolyn

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative case study of a public early childhood education center whose motto, the familiar African proverb "It takes a village to raise a child," reflects the emphasis given to teacher community in the official school discourse. The meanings teachers gave to professional community were investigated.…

  11. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

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    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  12. Pesquisa em Educação Matemática e mentalidade bélica Mathematical Education Research and militaristic mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, vamos considerar a questão da relação entre pesquisa em educação matemática e transformação social. Num primeiro momento, argumentaremos em favor do ponto de vista de que a mentalidade bélica teria constituído o principal fator que teria levado ao surgimento histórico do matemático profissional e do professor de matemática, bem como ao surgimento da matemática e da educação matemática como práticas sociais autônomas de pesquisa. Em seguida, com base no aforismo estético de Whitehead de que a função da razão é promover a arte da vida, argumentaremos em favor da necessidade de se combater essa mentalidade bélica através do desenvolvimento de uma educação ético-política baseada em usos sociais da matemática, no passado e no presente, que nunca são neutros em relação a essa ética. Palavras-chave: Pesquisa em Educação Matemática. Mentalidade Bélica. Educação Ético-Política.In this paper, we are going to consider the question about the relationship between research in mathematics education and social change. First, we make the argument that a militaristic mentality constituted the main factor that led to the historical rise of mathematicians and mathematics teachers, as well as mathematics and mathematics education as autonomous social practices of research. Next, based on Whitehead’s aesthetic aphorism, stating that the function of reason is to promote the art of life, we will assert the need to counter this militaristic mentality by developing an ethical-political education based on current or past social uses of mathematics, which are never neutral in relation to these ethics. Key-words: Mathematics Education Research; Militaristic Mentality; Ethical-Political Education.

  13. 国内外政府服务绩效评估研究的比较*--基于WOS与CNKI数据的分析%A Comparison of Overseas and Domestic Research on Government Service Performance Evaluation Based on the Data from WOS & CNKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚虎平; 忠格草

    2013-01-01

    Being the "eyes of the society", the scholars can find some deep social rules before the multitude,and we can get some useful information to forecast the government performance status quo by studying the academic researches on such topics. After establishing two"image databases" based on 373 abroad studies and 97 domestic studies collected from WOS and CNKI, we use the two variables of focus degree ( FD) and focus ratio ( FR) to compare the differences between the two types of studies. Eventually, we find that the Chinese scholars take a holistic perspective to understand government service and try to establish a"service-oriented government performance eval-uation system", while the oversea counterparts try to evaluate the specific government performance services. It is suggested that a new met-aphor of government service be implemented, and government service market segmentation be made to improve the research qualities and practice efficiencies.%借助学者这个“社会的眼睛“来把握政府服务绩效的现状,这是一种数据挖掘评价的路径。通过对WOS ( Web of Science)和CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure)数据库中政府服务绩效评估研究的比较,可以发现,国外通过解构的方式,将“政府服务“细化为交通、卫生、基础设施等具体服务进行绩效评估研究,其目的是为了实现公民满意,在竞争中保证服务质量。国内各种研究都要纳入“服务型政府“的范畴,力图构建一个整体性的“服务型政府绩效评估“体系。借鉴国外经验,我们需要破除研究中的“刮风“习惯,推进有明确对象的政府服务绩效评估研究;在实践中需要对政府服务进行市场细分,推进政府在服务提供中的终极责任制。

  14. Tempos históricos, tempos físicos, tempos epidemiológicos: prováveis contribuições de Fernand Braudel e Ilya Prigogine ao pensamento epidemiológico Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto é uma abordagem acerca do tempo enquanto categoria científica para a epidemiologia. A partir do aforismo tempo-lugar-pessoa, o tempo é apontado como elemento pouco pensado pela epidemiologia, embora esteja presente em vários dos seus conceitos. No entanto, o tema tem sido objeto de reflexão importante na movimentação recente de várias disciplinas, tais como a história, a geografia, a biologia e a física, e deve por isto representar para a epidemiologia um ponto de vista interessante, tanto no que concerne ao diálogo interdisciplinar quanto ao estabelecimento de um olhar crítico voltado para a própria disciplina. Com o objetivo de argumentar a respeito destes aspectos, apresenta-se o tempo histórico de Fernand Braudel e o tempo físico de Ilya Prigogine, construções teóricas que serão comparadas com um provável tempo epidemiológico. Ao final, usando a questão das infecções emergentes como exemplo, faz-se considerações sobre a aparente inadequação epistemológica do tempo epidemiológico para reconhecer e lidar com os aspectos sociais e históricos envolvidos na complexidade do adoecer humano coletivo.The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent

  15. ЯЗЫКОВЫЕ РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИИ БАЗОВЫХ ЭМОЦИЙ ЧЕЛОВЕКА В ЛИНГВОКУЛЬТУРОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ АСПЕКТЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Белая, Е.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural information is kept in metaphors, in inner form of phraseological units and proverbs. The sources of cultural interpretation are culture codes, system of images-models, ceremonial forms of national culture, images of Christianity, theosophy and corresponding to them ideas of morality, characters of imaginative literature, philosophy, history and others.

  16. Metonímia i metàfora des d'una perspectiva cognitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Hilferty

    1995-01-01

    The author presents some principles of Cognitive Linguistics useful in dealing with metonymy and metaphor as semantic resources in relation to idioms and proverbs. Beyond their interest for studies of Literature and Linguistics, these resources show how the human mind works.

  17. Metonímia i metàfora des d'una perspectiva cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hilferty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author presents some principles of Cognitive Linguistics useful in dealing with metonymy and metaphor as semantic resources in relation to idioms and proverbs. Beyond their interest for studies of Literature and Linguistics, these resources show how the human mind works.

  18. Adinkra Banners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Adinkra cloth is a stamped fabric that is made in Ghana, Africa. Symbolic motifs that represent proverbs are carved from calabashes, a type of gourd, and are dipped into a black dye made from the bark of the badie tree. Adinkra artists divide the fabric into squares and create patterns and repetitive designs using the inked stamps. When it is used…

  19. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve the…

  20. Contextual predictability enhances reading performance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Guinjoan, Salvador; Sapognikoff, Marcelo; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2016-07-30

    In the present work we analyzed fixation duration in 40 healthy individuals and 18 patients with chronic, stable SZ during reading of regular sentences and proverbs. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. We used lineal mixed models to analyze fixation durations. The predictability of words N-1, N, and N+1 exerted a strong influence on controls and SZ patients. The influence of the predictabilities of preceding, current, and upcoming words on SZ was clearly reduced for proverbs in comparison to regular sentences. Both controls and SZ readers were able to use highly predictable fixated words for an easier reading. Our results suggest that SZ readers might compensate attentional and working memory deficiencies by using stored information of familiar texts for enhancing their reading performance. The predictabilities of words in proverbs serve as task-appropriate cues that are used by SZ readers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using eyetracking for measuring how patients with SZ process well-defined words embedded in regular sentences and proverbs. Evaluation of the resulting changes in fixation durations might provide a useful tool for understanding how SZ patients could enhance their reading performance. PMID:27236087

  1. There Is No Business Model for Open Educational Resources: A Business Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The economic proverb "There is no such thing such as a free lunch" applies also to open educational resources (OER). In recent years, several authors have used revenue models and business models to analyse the different sources of possible funding for OER. In this article the business models of Osterwalder and Chesbrough are combined with research…

  2. Sharing best practice in stoma care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willams, Julia

    A problem shared is a problem halved; a very poignant proverb that forms the essence of this year's World Council of Enterostomal Therapists (WCET) UK conference in Coventry. Sharing experiences from practice is invalid if clinical practice is to grow and develop. It raises awareness, offering the opportunity to question and review practice. Sharing practice offers opportunities to enquiring minds. PMID:19797996

  3. It Takes a Village: Making the Cliche a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Jodi

    2001-01-01

    In Atqasuk, Alaska, a catchy proverb has become the Meade River Schools' mission statement. When isolated from its community, the 85-student school had nearly a 100 percent dropout rate. Assisted by the community, the school improved academically and became a second home for students and community members. (MLH)

  4. ON THE VARIETY OF METAPHOR IN LANGUAGE SIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOVA E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the variety of relationships between the meaning and the inner form of a proverb. The coexistence of concrete-abstract and specific-generic relationships which shows the diversified character of metaphor realization is described.

  5. Put Power into Your Presentations: Using Presentation Software Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.; Burmeister, Marsha L.

    2009-01-01

    Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and OpenOffice Impress are relatively common tools in the classroom and in the boardroom these days. What makes presentation software so popular? As the Chinese proverb declares, a picture is worth a thousand words. People like visual presentations. Presentation software can make even a dull subject come to…

  6. Taking the thrombin "fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    The proverb that probably best exemplifies my career in research is attributable to Yogi Berra (http://www.yogiberra.com/), ie, "when you come to a fork in the road ... take it." My career is a consequence of chance interactions with great mentors and talented students and the opportunities provided by a succession of ground-breaking improvements in technology. PMID:20554951

  7. Agricultural Renaissance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An old Chinese proverb says that "poverty gives rise to the desire for change," and this may in part explain why 18 farmers from a rural village in east China’s Anhui Province made the bold decision in 1978 to fix farm output quotas per

  8. UNSUR-UNSUR BUDAYA DALAM AMTSÂL ’ARABIYYAH (PERIBAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mahwiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze the cultural values in proverb of Arabic (amtsal. The analysis of Amtsal are from the history of ancient Arabian. The results shows that Amtsal reflect cultural values such as; culture, life style, mindset, geography position, and economic activity of ancient Arabian.

  9. Along with GREPA towards EHS, meeting AHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, R

    2004-12-01

    The popular proverb that says "Happy people have no history" is not true. This short chronicle, from experience inside GREPA-EHS, by one of its founding members, tells the contrary to the reader. It suggests that, by meeting together, hernia surgeons got much welfare through scientific assessment, a more efficient practice, and increased recognition of their art. PMID:15185125

  10. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  11. Take action: influence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative. PMID:24579394

  12. Nurturing Ethical Values in the 21st Century Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Joanne Fitzmaurice

    2009-01-01

    There is a wise proverb that insists it takes a whole village to raise a child to adulthood. In light of the expanding convolution of contemporary values, it is especially important to attentively nurture the inherent desire in each developing human person to seek good and avoid evil, especially during the critical years of adolescent formation.…

  13. Traditsioonilise kujundkõne nüüdisaegsest uurimisest / Anneli Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Anneli, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Phraseologie und Parömiologie (sari ilmub aastast 1999; http://www.phraseologie.net ) ; Claudia Aurich. Proverb Structure in the History of English: Stability and Change. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, 2012 ; Urška Valenčič Arh. "Ein Prinz auf der Erbse". Phraseologie und Übersetzung. Schneider Verlag GmbH, 2014

  14. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  15. ВОСПИТЫВАЕМ ЧЕСТНОСТЬ У ДЕТЕЙ CТАРШЕГО ДОШКОЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА

    OpenAIRE

    Губайдулина, Ж.

    2012-01-01

    Honesty - property of human character to put into words the true relation (thoughts) to any subject. Growing inquisitiveness and frequent interdictions of adults induce the child to bypass the restrictions imposed by adults that generates children's lie. Education of honesty at children of the senior preschool age was promoted by discussion of acts of heroes of books, situations, analysis of sayings, proverbs about honesty

  16. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  17. [Italian testimony about Maimonides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, R A

    1991-01-01

    As Moses Maimonides' philosophy, validly contributing to both Frederick II's political trend, and Christian theology against the most extremist theses of the Averroists, was introduced into Western Europe, it didn't fail to interest physicians. Thus, starting from the 16th century, some of the author's fundamental texts were read in many Medical Schools of Northern and Central Italy: his Aphorisms especially, which represent a rich selection of sentences drawn from classic and contemporary authors, collected and commented upon by Maimonides himself, anticipated a new wisdom in the scientific field. PMID:11640118

  18. E. M. Cioran: The Conjurer of Beauty. The Murmur of the Body in the Contradiction of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Izquierdo López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the aesthetic ideology, the style, the theory of knowledge, the conception of the subject and language of the Romanian writer E. M. Cioran. Leaving aside his widely publicised nihilism and scepticism, this essay focuses on the poetic nature of his aphorisms which is intended to create a place outside of the language contradicting the language itself. A place where concepts become something physical, like flesh-and-blood words where thepoet poured everything he knows about the body intending to create a defamiliarization effect.

  19. Urkönig-Urmenscg: il romanticismo politico di novalis ed il katechon del re

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Panno

    2005-01-01

    Faith and Love [Glaube und Liebe] is not only a praise of the monarchy or a collection of great aesthetical aphorisms which belong to the usual definition of Romanticism. This paper aims to recognize the frame of the political thought of NOVALIS through an analysis of SCHMITT’s critique of Romanticism. To understand the figure of King and Queen means to find out their roots in NOVALIS’ conception of the exchange between I and Not I. This contribution focuses on the way in which NOVALIS tri...

  20. A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction designs

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, L. S.; Sun, Meng

    2009-01-01

    If, as a well-known aphorism states, modelling is for reasoning, this chapter is an attempt to define and apply a formal semantics to interaction patterns captured by UML 2.0 sequence diagrams in order to enable rigourous reasoning about them. Actually, model transformation plays a fundamental role in the process of software development, in general, and in model driven engineering in particular. Being a de facto standard in this area, UML is no exception, even if the number and diversity of d...

  1. Mass Communication and Mass Media: A Concept of Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tafazzoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the historical point of view, the formation and evolution of media in the form that we know today, and according to the age of several thousands of years of human's social life on the soil planet, has changed to reality later. This has happened while the media has evolved in a larger scale with an incredible speed. In those far periods of time the wide propagation and distribution of information to the lots of contacts was not possible because of technical limitations. But people were trying to communicate in a limited form with each other and with their contacts by using other methods. This communication didn't go beyond the human's voice. Through experience they have learnt that if they make a horn with their hands and speak loudly in it from its narrow part, attracts the contact that is further than the usual sound board. But with society's being more complicated, giving information in the shortest time became very important. Various methods of transferring information were formed according to the technology and facilities. In middle ages the bellmen, the singers and the badger storytellers had the duty of information exchange by poems and proverbs, or news and information were written on the animal skin or clay or stone tablets for the distribution and propagation of news. But bringing news and information with primary tools for the contacts were along with some barriers, because their duplication was a hard, time consuming and costly task. Scholars and rulers had found that when the political and governmental information and news reaching time is shorter, consequently its effects on the contacts and their reaction toward the received data would be more.

  2. A Study of the Journal of Yaşar Şâdi Efendi’s “Hutût-ı Meşâhir”

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    The periodicals of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” can be considered as a type of journal. (Hutût-i meşâhir: The writings of celebrities) Many different people may be offered to write on these journals with their handwriting and they are expected to express themselves via anything like poems, aphorism or any other artistic skills spontaneously. The most comprehensive journal among the reprints of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” that are discovered up to now, is the one that belongs to Yaşar Sadi. In the period coveri...

  3. STORIES – A POWERFUL TOOL IN TRIBAL LITERATURE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOW MARTEN GOT HIS SPOTS: AND OTHER KOOTENAI INDIAN STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sripadmadevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, stories hold prime place in the process of individuation. The art of story-telling is as old as human civilization. And the world of Tribe is of no exception. Many of the rural and tribal societies are oral in nature. Their history is not written but orally transmitted from one generation to another, in the form of poetry, songs, proverbs, stories, narrative dances and various rituals. Their historical and cultural information are passed on through some of these means. Primarily they used stories for imparting knowledge and courage to the budding generation. Among the array of tribes across the world, the Kootenai people – a particular sect of tribe - today exist in south-eastern British Columbia, Washington State, Idaho and Moutana. For centuries, Kootenai children and adults gathered on cold, dark winter nights to listen and learn from stories. Recorded by their elders and illustrated by Kootenai artists from the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana, these Kootenai stories are originally intended to educate young tribal members about their history and culture. The collection of How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories packed with morals, in which Marten learns a hard lesson in obedience; Coyote and Trout, in which Coyote learns the consequences of greed; Little Weasel's Dream, in which the child Little Weasel learns the importance of listening to his elders; and Tepee Making, an illustrated lesson in construction. The main focal point of the present paper is to exhibit, how by employing the technique of storytelling, these tribes can communicate and mould their rising generation, with special reference to How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF POMEGRANATE IN FAIR TALES COMPILE IN TURKEY AND MYTHS MİTOLOJİLERDE VE TÜRKİYEDE DERLENEN MASALLARDA NARIN YERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münir CERRAHOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the unknown period of date (history, pomegranate is a fruit met by chance rather close together besides the source of healthy at the great religion, at the religious boks, and at the mythologic short story. At the mythologic context pomegranate was accepted forbidden fruit ascribing sacredness to it and it has been the symbol of abundance prosperity immortality of spirit, prolificacy and was symbol of prolificacy abundance and prosperity. Again at the mythology pomegranate is accepted the sign of wealthy, immortality of soul, productivity and abundance invincibility power of heros,. Besides it is used to symbolize matrimany tie of becoming untied life and rebirth.At the turkish public culture and reportece pomecrenate has been subject fairly tales folk songs, epics of lovers dream motifs, proverbs a tradetional turkish guatrain forms and riddies (aplay ful Formula found in folk narratives riddles, a traditional Turkish guatrain forms, proverbs, folk songs, fairy tales, epics of lovers and drinking wines. At the interior of verbal tradition it has been a subject to fairy tales vather freguently. At fairy tales pomegranate is an answer of riddle, it’s a magic fruit to couse to have a child for who hasn’t a child, it’s a experience mediator, given material and spiritual presents, it’s a magical medicine to recover patients and sometimes it causes obstinacies to come to someane’s head. Tarihin bilinmeyen dönemlerinden itibaren nar, sağlık kaynağı olmasının yanında, büyük dinlerde, dini kitaplarda, mitolojik öykülerde adına sıkça rastlanan bir meyvedir. Dini ve mitolojik bağlamda nara kutsallık atfedilerek nar yasaklı meyve kabul edilmiş, doğurganlığın, bolluk ve refahın sembolü olmuştur. Mitolojide nar zenginliğin işareti, ruhun ölmezliği, doğanın verimliliği ve bolluğu, kahramanların yenilmezliği ve güçlülüğünün işareti olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ayrıca evlilik bağının

  5. NATURALIZATION AND SEYHULISLAM YAHYA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE ŞEYHÜLİSLAM YAHYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Local factors which are important source of our classical literature in terms of contents were used more characteristicly by some classic poets. One of these poets, Şeyhülislam Yahya, although he has an identity of Muslim preacher, employed the delight and entertainment of life with elegant Turkish of Istanbul. Above all in his ghazals, he is highly successful in expressing the coloured stage chosen in daily life by using elegant Turkish, idioms proverbs, and folk sayings. Understanding of this art is effective in his being one of the most important represantative of naturalization at XVII. century. Klasik edebiyatımızın dil ve muhteva bakımından önemli kaynaklarından olan mahallî unsurlar, bazı klasik şairlerimiz tarafından daha belirgin bir şekilde kullanılmıştır.. Bu şâirlerden biri olan Şeyhülislam Yahya, bir din adamı kimliğine sahip olmasına rağmen hayatın zevk ve eğlencelerini sade İstanbul Türkçesini kullanarak şiirlerinde işlemiştir. Özellikle gazellerinde kullandığı sade Türkçesi, deyimleri, atasözleri ve halk deyişleri vasıtasıyla günlük hayatın içinden seçtiği canlı sahneleri anlatmada çok başarılıdır. Bu sanat anlayışı, onun mahallîleşmenin XVII. yüzyıldaki en önemli temsilcilerinden biri olmasına neden olmuştur.

  6. Study of Sexism in Language and Its Development%语言中的性别歧视及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to make a systematic study of the reasons of sexism in English by means of an⁃alyzing sexism phenomenon and try to study the sexism in English from the following aspects:generic mascu⁃line, naming and addressing terms, semantic derogation of woman, masculine-feminine order and sexism in proverbs and idioms. In this paper,by linking language with culture ,the origin and cause of sexism phenome⁃non are analyzed and dealt with, which enables people to deeply understand the reasons for sexism in lan⁃guage and realize the necessity to eliminate the phenomenon,furthermore, both linguistic approaches and so⁃cial efforts are put forward to eliminate the sexism in language, which makes a contribution to further study.%分析英语中的性别歧视现象,深入研究造成该语言现象的原因。从男性词、称谓语中的性别歧视现象、女性词语的“贬化”现象、男先女后的词序、谚语中的性别歧视现象五个方面分析英语中的性别歧视现象,把语言和社会文化紧紧联系起来,使人们深刻理解性别歧视现象产生的根源,意识到消除这种现象的必要性及其方法,为以后的研究做出贡献。

  7. Anything new under the sun of African Biblical Hermeneutics in South African Old Testament Scholarship?: Incarnation, death and resurrection of the Word in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madipoane Masenya (Ngwan'a Mphahlele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In this article, two lenses are used to engage the task of African Biblical Hermeneutics. The one lens is derived from African wisdom, i shavha i sia muinga i ya fhi?, in which there is a need for people to affirm their own roots. Drawing from the wisdom of the preceding proverb, we argue that, in their scholarship, African biblical scholars have to take seriously their own African heritage and thus do justice to their contexts rather than rely heavily on Western paradigms if their scholarship is to impact communities and also contribute towards shaping the face of biblical hermeneutics as a whole. The other lens is an analogy derived from the following events in Jesus� life: incarnation, death and resurrection. The task of African Biblical Hermeneutics has to be a three-fold process for the Bible to be �gospel� in Africa: Firstly, the incarnation of the Word � the Bible as the Other has to incarnate into African contexts for it to become an African Word. Secondly, the death of the Word � this entails a critical engagement with the Word from multiple perspectives for it to be relevant to the struggles of African people. Thirdly, the resurrection of the Word � the biblical text has to be allowed to address and transform an African person in new creative ways. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  8. Ahmet Efe’nin Çocuk Hikâyelerinde Değer Eğitimi ve Hikâyelerin Türkçe Eğitimine Katkısı Value Educatıon In Ahmet Efe’s Children Stories And Contrıbutıons Of These Stories To Turkısh Educatıon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekerya BATUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ahmet Efe’s children stories works are examinedfrom the aspect of value education and Turkish education. Efe’schildren stories are taken as examples. It is used the method of storymap for analizing those stories. Those stories are given value educationpart. Those stories contributed development of Turkish education.Ahmet Efe’s stories are analized and those values are found: dearment,God dearment, motherland dearment, family dearment, frienddearment, nature dearment, animal dearment, honesty, sincerity,goodness, helpful, the valve of work and production, the valve of mercy,the valve of pity, the valve of school life, life happiness in the thosestories. In those stories being critizing behaviors are: lie and cheat, notobeying advice, jealousy and anger, betroying trust, theft and greedy arefound and examined in the those stories. Consequently, with regard tovalue education it is seen that they have a rich content.Ahmet Efe’s works are examined in terms of their contributionstoTurkish education, and usage of proverb, idiom, reduplication,routines and echoic words. In these works intensive usage of proverbs,idioms, duplications, routins and echoic words is seen. Examinedstudied used effectively proverbs, idioms and sayings mold.In the light of this data it is deduced that Ahmet Efe’s works areresources which are to be benefited in the process of value educationand Turkish education. Bu çalışmada, Ahmet Efe’nin çocuk hikâyelerinde değer eğitimi ve hikâyelerin Türkçe eğitimine katkısı bakımından incelenmiştir. Örneklem olarak Ahmet Efe’nin yazdığı çocuk hikâyeleri alınmıştır. Bu hikâyelerin çözümlenmesinde ise hikâye haritası yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Hikâyelerin çocuk edebiyatı açısından taşıdığı özellikler “Değer Eğitimi” olarak belirlenmiş, sözcük çeşitliliği açısından ise Türkçenin gücüne katkısı ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ahmet Efe

  9. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopolang H. Sekano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa etelelwa pele ke e namagadi di wela ka lengope� [those who are led by a female leader fall into dongas]. In the light of this situation an intensive study regarding the need for an egalitarian concept and constructive interpretation of Bible passages, Setswana proverbs and idioms regarding the inevitability of female leadership is paramount to people who have an androcentric concept of religion and culture.

  10. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  11. Erste Annäherung einer Hermeneutik des משׁﬥ in alttestamentlichen Schriften mit Überlegungen zur Rezeption dieses Begriffes in den neutestamentlichen Evangelien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    respectively. Etymologically משל I has several meanings: "proverb", "byword", "reproach" and "parable". Despite these different meanings coherence can still be found within the hermeneutical setting of the word, where it seems to signify either a positive or negative relationship between Yahweh and Israel. In...... the negative sense of the word it appears as "proverb", "byword" or "reproach" indicating a broken relationship between Yahweh and Israel caused by disobedience to the Word of the Covenant. In the positive sense of the word it indicates a manifest and unique relationship between Yahweh and the one...... goes forth directly from the mouth of Yahweh, the revelation of the Will of Yahweh is not expressed in משל, but in אמר, דבר, in Septuagint λόγος or ρήμα. Though the Synoptic παραβολή is commonly understood as a riddle or simile it is remarkable that these riddles do not appear without exhortation...

  12. [Role of context recall in destination memory decline in normal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Allain, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, little was known about destination memory, or memory for the destination of outputted information. In the present work, this memory was evaluated in 32 older adults and 36 younger adults, who had to associate proverbs to pictures of famous people and decide, on a subsequent recognition task, whether they had previously told that proverb to that face or not. When deciding about the destination, participants had to provide contextual judgment, that is, whether each picture had been previously exposed in color or in black and white. Participants also performed a neuropsychological battery tapping episodic memory and executive functions. Findings showed poor destination recall in older participants. Destination recall in older adults was reliably predicted by with their context recall. Destination memory seems to be particularly affected by aging, a deterioration that can be related to deficits in processing contextual features during encoding. PMID:25515908

  13. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Ex...

  14. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  15. L’organisation et la gestion de l’espace dans la langue et la culture igbo du Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    This study based on Igbo language and literature – especially proverbs and folktales – focuses on the use of space, the way it is distributed, organised and managed. It reveals a highly structured use of a communal space organised around the person, considered as member of the group. Traditions, which protect the communal space and ensure its being handed down from one generation to the next, equally give everyone an individual share in it. This space is both versatile and highly partitioned,...

  16. The role of graphic design in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Daša

    2014-01-01

    Well designed visual image is the first step of advertising that has an impact on our business partners and consumers. According to Slovenian proverb that "clothes make the man" we could say the same for graphic design and marketing. Well executed graphic design and visual communications enable the communication of our product with a customer. This could be also a communication with artistic approach and a special connection. In order to obtain good results, advertisers use techniques to get...

  17. In Search of Cultural Universals: Translation Universals. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela DIMA

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the world is disclosed under various shapes, among which language is the best representative. Specific to humans, it renders feelings and thoughts concerning different communication contexts where words become dynamic primitives endowed with meanings, which recreate themes and reconfigure space and time as universal coordinates. The main objective of the paper is to provide a tentative analysis of the way in which translation universals are manifest in translating proverbs and...

  18. EXPRESSIONS FROM REZMÎ DİVAN
    REZMÎ DİVANI’NDA DEYİMLER

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRBÜZ, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Expressions and proverbs are language structures which received production of savings from past to today imagination and memory of society. Poets benefit from these possibilities of language to enhance their definitions on their poems and to make interest or to be clear and understandable abstract dreams which they have into brains more or less. Expressions were already formed with art understanding has an important role at this preference.Expressions are in Divan of Safiye Sultanzade Mehme...

  19. "It Doesn't Seem like Work, It Seems like Good Fun": Perceptions of Primary Students on the Use of Handheld Game Consoles in Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, John; Main, Susan; Ellis, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A Chinese proverb suggests "Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand." How to involve or engage today's learner is at the forefront of much educational research and was the impetus for the study reported herein. This study explored the perceptions of Year 4/5 students from nine separate schools in Western…

  20. ‘I am like a green olive tree’: The Wisdom context of Psalm 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the thesis of Walter Beyerlin from 1980 that Psalm 52 is a paraenetic- didactic Wisdom poem from the late Persian period. Beyerlin reached his conclusion from a comparison of Psalm 52 with post-exilic Wisdom psalms such as Psalms 37, 49, and 73. The direct literary influence that Psalm 52 received from the book of Proverbs and the motifs it shares with Jeremiah 9 are investigated here, since the author contends that the Wisdom influence on the Psalm was even greater than Beyerlin had envisaged. The article comes to the conclusion that the author(s of the Psalm attempted to compose a psalm by establishing a network of allusions to a corpus of authoritative texts, inter alia, the Wisdom psalms. The end product is a brilliant composition which interprets the teaching of Proverbs for the needs of a group of Jewish believers who probably lived at the end of the Persian period.

  1. Contribution of Visualized Phrases on Word Using Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Zekerya

    2013-01-01

    In this study it was researched whether visualized proverbs, idioms and epigrams have effect of primary school 3rd, 5th and 7th grade students' speaking skills. The study was executed in spring semester of the academic year of 2010-2011, with 30 students studying at primary school in 3rd, 5th and 7th grade. The students who participated in…

  2. Le Pays Igbo du Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Since the Biafran war (1967-1970), no book has ever been published in French on Igboland of Nigeria. The present book reveals an Anglophone territory in close contact with France, a region which has been sending missionaries to the five continents, and a rich culture with a vibrant oral literature, its folktales and proverbs, attached to communal values and tradition. Igboland is also the birthplace of Nollywood, this new African cinema which has inspired the whole of the African continent. ...

  3. M(o)TOR of aging: MTOR as a universal molecular hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    A recent ground-breaking publication described hypothalamus-driven programmatic aging. As a Russian proverb goes “everything new is well-forgotten old”. In 1958, Dilman proposed that aging and its related diseases are programmed by the hypothalamus. This theory, supported by beautiful experiments, remained unnoticed just to be re-discovered recently. Yet, it does not explain all manifestations of aging. And would organism age without hypothalamus? Do sensing pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic...

  4. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    OpenAIRE

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-01-01

    This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary), and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside fro...

  5. THE WINDOW TO THE WORLD OF THE GOSPEL TRUTH: THE POWER OF RUSSIAN FOLK SPEECH IN NIKOLAI GOGOL'S NOVEL "DEAD SOULS"

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imagina...

  6. "Est bon, tout ce qui fait pétiller le feu?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodegem

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Classifying proverbs and other sayings is often awkward. To consult any collection easily, the reader must be taken into account. The classification preconised here is based on a common semantic content : the basic needs of Man. Hence, some 80 stereotyped quotations taken for a coherent whole are offered here about the sentimental life of human beings. The Wisdom of people speaking 18 different languages judges in very similar manner the relation between Man and Woman.

  7. Elisabeth Linnebuhr: Sprechende Tuecher. Frauenkleidung der Swahili (Ostafrika).

    OpenAIRE

    Geider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Women in East Africa appear to be in a unique position worldwide: their everyday dresses are not only significant in their habitual textile codes, but also as textures exhibiting meaningful verbal elements in complex density and seemingly endless variety These textual elements are proverbs or proverbial phrases written in Swahili, which seem to interact with the colour and design of the cloth (termed kanga), being either abstract or figurative in ornament, which the female wearer may choose a...

  8. The Analysis of Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory——From The Point of AD Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, originally called dynamic equivalence raised by Eugene A. Nida is directed primarily towards equiva-lence of response rather than equivalence of form. From the application of proverbs and advertising translation, this article aims to discuss the translation strategy, in order to help readers flexibly use the "functional equivalence" theory, and then make this theory be able to work for us.

  9. Der Einsatz von indigenen Kommunikationstechniken im Fremdsprachenunterricht in Kamerun

    OpenAIRE

    Ebong, Balbina

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the use of indigenous techniques of communication can have a positive impact on the motivation of the learner of English as a foreign language in Cameroon. By indigenous techniques of communication we mean techniques like role-play, songs, the telling of folktales, riddles and proverbs. This work is intended as a contribution to the search for improvement of student motivation and enthusiasm, whereby they can be more responsive as they participate spont...

  10. Traditional lore in population communication: the case of the Akan in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankah, K

    1992-01-01

    Traditional modes of communication, including songs, riddles, appelations, and proverbs, remain predominant in small African communities and should be given greater attention as a means of disseminating government policy on family planning. An examination of the folklore of the Akan, an ethnic group in Ghana, demonstrates both the power of traditional communication and its intrinsic stability and tendency to resist messages of change. The persuasive power of art forms such as songs, proverbs, and stories derives from their link to ancestry and their representation of collective ideals. A review of Akan folklore reveals themes of communality and the creation of numerical strength through large family size. Qualification as an ancestor requires proven fertility, and fruitfulness of the womb receives special mention in dirges. At the same time, proverbs and songs emphasize quality child care and the importance of being able to support one's children adequately. The realities of economic hardships have found their way into Akan folklore, and the message that small numbers of adequately cared for children can provide the community with greater quality than large numbers of children who cannot be nurtured is emerging. Although this sentiment is consistent with government goals, it derives from a drive to preserve the traditional community. The government should seek to avoid any element of coercion in the dissemination of population control messages to this population given resistance to change, yet be alert to the tendency for traditional forms of communication to adapt themselves to changed social situations. PMID:12284766

  11. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  12. Measures to be Taken to Enhance Freshmen's English Listening-Speaking Abilities in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-hua; Cao Rui; ZHANG Guang-ling

    2009-01-01

    The English Listening-Speaking abilities of college freshmen should be trained in a multi-faceted approach.This paper suggests some effective training methods which can enhance the abilities in English Listening-Speaking for freshmen such as: story telling,special topics,picture talks,free talks,proverbs,debating,oral reports,group discussions and so on from a practical point of view.

  13. Ecosystem services of natural floodplain segment - Lužnice River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pithart, David; Křováková, Kateřina; Žaloudík, Jiří; Dostál, T.; Valentová, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabová, J.; Dušek, Jiří

    Southampton: Wit press, 2010 - (Proverbs, D.; de Wrachien, D.; Brebbia, C.; Mambretti, S.), s. 129-139. (WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. 133). ISBN 978-1-84564-444-4 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : floodplain * ecosystem services, * monetary evaluation flood mitigation * carbon sequestration * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.witpress.com/978-1-84564-444-4.html

  14. Die Didaktisierung von Phraseologismen im DaF-Unterricht anhand multimodaler Texte

    OpenAIRE

    Rentel, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Semantically complex units cover a high percentage of the lexicon of a language, ranging from collocations or routine formula to proverbs. The difficulty for learners of a foreign language lies in the fact that in many cases the meaning of those elements of the lexicon does not result just from addition of the meaning of individual constituents. Although (active and passive) knowledge about such lexical elements can be considered essential for successful communication in a foreign language, t...

  15. Probabilistic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Voortman, Hessel

    In this report is described the failure modes in the computational reliability program implemented at Aalborg University within PROVERBS.......In this report is described the failure modes in the computational reliability program implemented at Aalborg University within PROVERBS....

  16. Thanks to literature and fellow scientists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal training has the disadvantage that trainees may simply accept what they are taught without questioning it, unlike the autodidact who can only learn by asking questions all the time. Sometimes, he will not get an answer and that need not be because the question is stupid, but may be because his peers are used to there being no satisfactory answer and have simply accepted the conventional mythology without further question. So it is about time to ask some assorted questions and where possible, suggest how to find an answer: 1 Why does the composition of the solvent used to extract oil from oilseeds affect the amount of oil being extracted and its phosphatide content? 2 Why does a heat treatment (Alcon, Exergy, expander increase the phosphatide content of the crude oil and decrease its non-hydratable phosphatide (NHP content? 3 Why does water degumming of crude oil remove relatively more magnesium than calcium? 4 What is the mechanism of phosphatide removal by silica hydrogel and why is it enhanced by simultaneous soap removal? 5 What is the mechanism of NHP-removal during alkali neutralisation? 6 Could it be that the Long Mix neutralisation process as used in the US leads to insufficient removal of the pro-oxidants copper and iron and that this explains why oil tends to less stable in the US than in Europe, especially when it contains linolenic acid? 7 Could different deodorisation conditions explain this geographically determined anomaly? 8 What happens during flavour reversion? 9 Why is walnut oil more stable in the nut than in the bottle? 10 How much oil is lost by saponification or hydrolysis during refining? 11 What is the mechanism of colour fixation? 12 Does the activity of interesterification catalysts depend on their counter cation? 13 What is the chemical nature of the colour formed on interesterification catalyst activation? 14 What is crystal memory? Does it exist? However, we should not forget the Dutch proverb that:

  17. Evidence for a workspace model of working memory from semantic implicit processing in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Sergio; van der Meulen, Marian; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Logie, Robert H

    2010-09-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that activation of semantic memory from perceptual input does not require initial retention of the perceptual material in working memory as assumed by a widely held view of information processing. In Expt 1, two brain-damaged patients with left-sided unilateral spatial neglect were tested. They were asked to listen to and read a series of familiar (British) and unfamiliar (foreign) proverbs and to choose which proverb was the best match to a depicted figure shown with the target object(s) on the left (neglected side) of the patients' visual field. Expt 2 simulated the testing conditions for the neglect patients with healthy participants using subliminal presentation of one half of each picture. Using different materials, Expt 3 replicated the outcomes of Expts 1 and 2 with a third neglect patient and a new group of controls. In all three experiments, participants appeared to be unaware of target features; however they selected familiar, but not unfamiliar, target proverbs above chance. The results showing implicit processing of semantic material can be explained by a model in which working memory is a separate system that deals with activated contents of semantic memory, and in which there is direct activation of semantic memory from perception without intermediate stages of processing in working memory. PMID:20226121

  18. The Tibetan Concept of Ethics and Morality in Daofu County of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENJIA Wengmu; LIAO Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    morality in folk literature .Folk literature is another mirror that accumulates, pre-serves and reflects the Tibetan's concept of ethics and morality.For thousands of years, the tradition-al ethics and morals of the Daofu Tibetans have been given a vivid and lively interpretation in the proverbs and folk stories of Daofu .Proverbs and folk stories are the two most representative styles in the folk literature of the Tibetans in Daofu .They are the cultural artistic forms with unique ethnic characters created in the process of the Daofu Ti-betans’ living and production .The proverbs and folk stories open a door for us to step into the spir-itual world of the common Tibetan .Moreover, the concept of virtue and vice has always been a value system with which to judge the moral standard in the Tibetan society .Speaking from moral philoso-phy, virtues are moral, and vices are immoral.It is a moral evaluation of an individual or a group and involves all aspects of the society .In brief, most orally transmitted literature is always filled with the praises about the bravery, strength, hard-working, kindness, and the philosophy of Tibetan Buddhism, including promoting good and abstai-ning from evil, cause-and-effect transmigration, maha-karuniko, benefitting the whole and self-lessness .All of these can still give people great enlightenment and moral lessons . The Daofu Tibetan's concept of ethics and mo-rality has the following basic characteristicFirst-ly, it takes religious morality as its core;secondly, it is characterized by of compatibility and open-ness; thirdly, it is characterized by universality;fourthly, it is characterized by stability and gradual change.In general, during the long process of the history, the Tibetans who have lived in Daofu of western Sichuan for generations are gradually de-veloping, continuing, and enriching their value system of ethics and morals from their own unique way of thinking .It is not only an important part of the Tibetan culture, but

  19. The Importance of MS PHD'S and SEEDS Mentoring and Professional Development Programs in the Retenion of Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.

    2012-12-01

    According to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences, underrepresented minority (URM) participation in STEM disciplines represents approximately one third of the URM population in the U.S. Thus, the proportion of URM in STEM disciplines would need to triple in order to reflect the demographic makeup in the U.S. Individual programs targeting the recruitment and retention of URM students in STEM have demonstrated that principles of mentoring, community building, networking, and professional skill development are crucial in encouraging URM students to remain in STEM disciplines thereby reducing this disparity in representation. However, to paraphrase an old African proverb, "it takes a village to nurture and develop a URM student entering into the STEM community." Through programs such as the Institute for Broadening Participation's Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science and the Ecological Society of America's Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), URM students are successfully identifying and benefitting from meaningful opportunities to develop the professional skills and strategies needed to achieve their academic and career goals. Both programs share a philosophy of professional development, reciprocal mentoring, field trips, internships, employment, research partnerships, collaborations, fellowships, scholarships, grants, and professional meeting travel awards to support URM student retention in STEM. Both programs share a mission to bring more diversity and inclusivity into STEM fields. Both programs share a history of success at facilitating the preparation and advancement of URM students. This success has been documented with the multitude of URM students that have matriculated through the programs and are now actively engaged in the pursuit of advanced degrees in STEM or entering the STEM workforce. Anonymous surveys from

  20. [Less salt--more health. Croatian action on salt and health (CRASH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaković, Bojan; Kaić-Rak, Antoinette; Milicić, Davor; Premuzić, Vedran; Skupnjak, Berislav; Reiner, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    for reducing salt intake. Our motto is Less salt-more health, and one of our principles is based on an old proverb Firstly sweep around your own front door Thus all physicians and nurses are invited to be health enlightened and permanently active. PMID:19514255

  1. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eholié, Serge-Paul; Aoussi, François Eba; Ouattara, Ismael Songda; Bissagnéné, Emmanuel; Anglaret, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Many successes have been achieved in HIV care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): increased number of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), wide decentralization, reduction in morbidity and mortality and accessibility to cheapest drugs. However, these successes should not hide existing failures and difficulties. In this paper, we underline several key challenges. First, ensure long-term financing, increase available resources, in order to meet the increasing needs, and redistribute the overall budget in a concerted way amongst donors. Second, increase ART coverage and treat the many eligible patients who have not yet started ART. Competition amongst countries is expected to become a strong driving force in encouraging the least efficient to join better performing countries. Third, decrease early mortality on ART, by improving access to prevention, case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases and by getting people to start ART much earlier. Fourth, move on from WHO 2006 to WHO 2010 guidelines. Raising the cut-off point for starting ART to 350 CD4/mm(3) needs changing paradigm, adopting opt-out approach, facilitating pro-active testing, facilitating task shifting and increasing staff recruitments. Phasing out stavudine needs acting for a drastic reduction in the costs of other drugs. Scaling up routine viral load needs a mobilization for lower prices of reagents and equipments, as well as efforts in relation to point-of-care automation and to maintenance. The latter is a key step to boost the utilization of second-line regimens, which are currently dramatically under prescribed. Finally, other challenges are to reduce lost-to-follow-up rates; manage lifelong treatment and care for long-term morbidity, including drug toxicity, residual AIDS and HIV-non-AIDS morbidity and aging-related morbidity; and be able to face unforeseen events such as socio-political and military crisis. An old African proverb

  2. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge-Paul Eholié

    2012-08-01

    African proverb states that the growth of a deep-rooted tree cannot be stopped. Our tree is well rooted in existing field experience and is, therefore, expected to grow. In order for us to let it grow, long-term cost-effectiveness approach and life-saving evidence-based programming should replace short-term budgeting approach.

  3. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  4. Telemedicina y Cirugía Plástica Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cabrera Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La Telemedicina es aplicable a todos los campos médicos, incluyendo la Cirugía. Poca atención se ha prestado a sus aplicaciones diagnósticas, de las que sin embargo, nuestra especialidad, en la que es perfectamente aplicable el antiguo proverbio chino "una imagen vale mil palabras", podría salir muy beneficiada. Esto permitiría una mayor reducción de costes con contundentes mejoras en eficiencia y calidad. Presentamos un modelo de Telemedicina tipo envío y almacenaje (store and forward desarrollado y aplicado en un hospital británico del sureste de Inglaterra desde hace 7 años. Comentamos las ventajas e inconvenientes del sistema y sus posibles aplicaciones en nuestro medio. Es un hecho claro que estas tecnologías van a producir un gran cambio en la sociedad y en el quehacer diario del médico durante la próxima década. Lo que hoy conocemos como Telemedicina, en breve perderá el prefijo "tele" porque la población entenderá este tipo de Medicina y de aplicaciones telemáticas como algo habitual. Sin duda, nuestra especialidad será una de las grandes beneficiadas de la aplicación de estas tecnologías.Telemedicine is available in any medical fields, including Surgery. Poor attention has been showed to diagnosis application. Nevertheless, Plastic Surgery, is a practice in which the application of the old chinese proverb: "A picture is better than thousand words", would be very benefited, reducing costs and improving efficiency and quality. We present a Telemedicine store and forward model developed and worked in a Plastic Surgery Unit of southern England for 7 years. We show system advantages and disvantages and its potential applications in our country. It's clear that this technology will be able to produce a great change in our society and in our daily medical activity in the next years. What today we knows as Telemedicine, in a few time will lose "tele" prefix, because people will understand as usual this kind of Medicine and

  5. A Summary on Buddhism and the History and Culture of Chaoshan%佛教与潮汕历史文化综论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群辉

    2013-01-01

      佛教从南朝刘宋年间传入潮汕,1500多年来历朝历代的基本面貌虽有不同,但对潮汕文化的塑造产生了巨大的影响。佛教传入潮汕后,逐渐适应本地的自然、人文环境,并积极参与到社会文化的发展进程中,与社会经济、道德、习俗等相互渗透、相互作用、相互构筑,从一个重要的侧面塑造了特质鲜明的潮汕文化。从潜藏的思想观念到触目可见的文化事相,潮汕文化无不透露出众多的佛教元素,诸如饮食文化中的素食、建筑文化中的寺塔建筑、方言文化中的佛教俗语、民间艺术中的潮州佛乐、礼仪文化中的佛化葬俗、节俗文化中的佛教节日以及组织文化的善堂等,就是其中荦荦大者。%Buddhism was introduced into Chaoshan Area during the Liu Song years of Southern Dynasty and had an important role in shaping the Chaoshan culture over the past 1500 years, during which China wit-nessed changes with different dynasties. After its arrival, Buddhism gradually adapted to the local natural and human environment, and participated actively in the development process of social culture, and thus created the distinctive characteristics of Chaoshan culture from an important side through mutual penetration, interac-tion, mutual construction with social economic, moral, custom. Whether from its hidden concepts or from some visible cultural events and phenomena, Chaoshan culture always reveals plenty of Buddhist elements, of which most essential points include vegetarian in Chaoshan’s food culture, the temple constructions in architectural culture, the Buddhist proverbs in the dialect culture, the Chaozhou Buddhist music in folk arts, the Buddhist fu-neral custom in etiquette culture, Buddhist festivals in festival culture and the almhouses in organizational cul-ture.

  6. Metaphor, language, and culture Metáfora, linguagem e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kövecses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and language are connected in a myriad ways. Proverbs, rules of turn-taking in conversations, pronouns of power and solidarity, background knowledge to the understanding of conversations, politeness, linguistic relativity, the principle of cooperation, metaphor, metonymy, context, semantic change, discourse, ideology, print culture, oral culture, literacy, sociolinguistics, speech acts, and so forth, are just some of the concepts in which we find obvious connections between culture and language. Several disciplines within the language sciences attempt to analyze, describe, and explain the complex interrelations between the two broad areas. (For a brief and clear survey, see Kramsch 1998. Can we approach this vast variety of topics from a more unified perspective than it is traditionally done and currently available? The present paper focus on such possibilities.A cultura e a língua estão conectadas numa miríade de formas. Provérbios, regras de tomada de turnos na conversação, pronomes indicativos de poder e solidariedade, conhecimento prévio para o entendimento de conversas, polidez, relativismo linguístico, o princípio a cooperação, metáforas, metonímias, contexto, mudança semântica, discurso, ideologia, cultura impressa, cultura oral, letramento, sociolinguística, atos de fala, além de outros, são apenas alguns dos conceitos nos quais encontramos conexões óbvias entre cultura e língua. Várias disciplinas das ciências linguísticas tentam analisar, descrever e explicar as interrelações complexas entre estas duas grandes áreas. (Para uma revisão breve e clara, consultar Kramsch 1998. Será que podemos abordar esta vasta variedade de tópicos de uma perspectiva mais unificada do que tem sido tradicionalmente feito e está geralmente disponível? O presente artigo enfoca tais possibilidades.

  7. THE WISE MAN BIAS OF PRIENE: THE TRADITION ABOUT HIS TIME, HIS BACKGROUND, AND THE MEANING OF HIS NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мирко Обрадовић

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tradition about Bias of Priene, one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece about whom many stories were told, his background and the meaning of his name. In the absence of reliable historical sources, testimonia mostly come from a variety of disparate sources compiled in Hellenistic times or later and we may only suppose that local anecdotes, proverbs and short sayings reflect historical events. The paper provides detailed treatment of the several conflicting traditions about Bias of Priene. Nevertheless, the surviving biographical information about Bias point to the period of the reign of King Croesus and the Persian conquest of Asia Minor (ca. 560–540 BC, as the best time of his political activity. For this reason he might be designated as the sixth-century philosopher and statesman who was a generation younger than most others from among the Seven Sages (e.g. Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mytilene, Periander of Corinth. In the second part of the paper the possible meaning of the name Bias has been examined. This name as a personal name was almost certainly taken from the heroic repertoire of Greek names with an intention of connecting Bias’s family, who obviously belonged to the aristocracy of Priene, with the world of heroes, and through them, with the world of gods. The most famous mythical bearer of the name Bias was the hero Bias, the son of Amythaon and the brother of the legendary seer and healer Melampus. This Bias married Pero, the daughter of Neleus, the founder of Pylos in Messenia, and he had with her glorious offspring, before he settled in Argos. The choice of that heroic name as a personal name in the family of the wise Prienian might not be by chance, and it can be best explained with possible Neleid and Messenian connections generally existing among the local aristocracy in the Ionian poleis of the Archaic period. These connections were quite expected because the Neleids were ubiquitous

  8. Il metodo della fisica e le problematiche della biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the ancient Hermetic aphorism solve et coagula, we investigate the nature of the interface between physics and biology by moving up and down the different temporal and spatial scales which enter the description of natural phenomena. Various indications seem to support both the existence of such an interface and the possibility of finding methods, languages, and targets shared by such two disciplines. However, this possibility becomes remote if one moves further and further from the microscopic level of atoms and molecules (and, correspondingly, of molecular biology. We conclude that the biologically founded epistemology proposed by Maturana and Varela as well as cultural anthropology and sociology cannot yet be treated with the methodology of physics.

  9. Arte y religión en Schopenhauer: de la necesidad metafísica a la justificación estética de la existencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ruiz Callejón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I analyze the concept of «need for metaphysics» and its relationship to art and to the author’s project of philosophy.

  10. Matthias Neuenhofer: Videos 1988-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    sorts of meanings” that might be read from the quoted aphorism, with a consistency which is rare within the media arts field in general and which he early on made part of his working method. This entails renouncing the use of a video camera while simultaneously integrating the obvious self......, an additional, yet crucial possibility – to waive even the most General, the origin of all distinctions: the white noise of the world and the feedback sprung from it. Matthias Neuenhofer seems nevertheless to escape this theoretically fascinating and seductive potentiality. He does not fall back to a mimesis...... (even in its most general form and with advanced technical means of digital morphing) and makes no use of the computer-generated simulation of feedback-figures and -processes. Instead of programming the beauty of the used basic shapes, Neuenhofer gets them directly from the seemingly indiscriminate...

  11. The Driving Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    There is a popular aphorism in China,"The third-class enterprise produces products,the second-class creates brands,and the first-class develops standards".This shows that Standardization has been heavily emphasized in China.As the super large govemment-owned enterprise,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) bears the mission of providing public energy and implementing social responsibility with the construction and operation of national power grid as its core business,SGCC has been always paying great attention to the standardization work since its establishment,and made outstanding achievements in both standardization and corporate development,ranked 7th in the FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 in 2011.

  12. Le lion, l’étoile y l’hélice: estudio descriptivo de la metáfora en textos técnicos franceses del ámbito de la automoción y de su traducción al español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez Gutiérrez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical texts are usually character- ized by the use of terminology, and they are said to be clear, concise, precise and objec- tive. It is terminology which is normally considered one of the most important diffi- culties to understand specialized concepts because they are expressed by means of this terminology. Nevertheless, there are other linguistic and cognitive elements which are frequently used to express specialized con- cepts, for instance, metaphors. In this paper we aim to analyze the use of cognitive met- aphors in a corpus of French semi- specialized technical texts and to consider whether the use of these metaphors could be a problem should these metaphors have to be translated into Spanish.

  13. 模因论与电影片名翻译%Memetics and the Translation of Movie Title

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳子玉

    2014-01-01

    Memetics is a new theory based on Darwin ’ s evolutionary theory to interpret the law of cultural evolution .As a new subject , it shows strong power of transmissibility since it was born .The scholars from different fields have been combining Memetics with their own subjects in order to gain more inspiration .A movie is the combination of culture , artistry, commercialization, and a growing number of foreign movies has made the translation of movie title very important .In translation of the titles , we always use our mind-set factors such as idioms , allusions and proverbs .This paper attempts to start from the theory of Memetics , to analyze and explain the influence of Meme in the translation of foreign movie title .%模因论( Memetics)是基于达尔文进化论的观点来解释文化进化规律的新理论。作为一门新兴学科,模因论从诞生后就表现出强大的传播性。各个领域的学者们都在将模因论与各自的学科相结合以获得新的启示。电影集文化性、艺术性以及商业性于一体,国外电影的逐渐普及使得影片片名的创作和翻译也显得极其重要。在人们心中早已成为思维定势的成语、典故、俗语等中国传统文化因子常常被借用、模仿和复制在外国电影的片名中。拟从模因论的理论出发,分析、解释模因在外国电影片名翻译中的影响。

  14. Degree of nutrient consumption as an aging index of upwelling or vertically mixed water in the northern Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chentung Arthur; HSING Liyu

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the relative aging status ofupwelled or vertically mixed water in the northern Taiwan Strait, a recently developed method of calcularing the degree of nutrient consumption (DNC) was employed. Upwelling was detected at a water depth of about 75m in summer. Bottom waters in the aphoric zone and newly-upwelled waters in the euphoric zone were found to be low in terms of their DNC. In general, a low DNC was noted alongside the other traditional upwelling indicators, such as lower temperature and degree of oxygen saturation, but higher salinity, apparent oxygen utilization, nutrient contents and chlorophyll-a. Enhanced vertical mixing,but without an apparent upwelling signal, was detected near the same location in winter.

  15. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq. "till eye can see

  16. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  17. Martwy za życia. Zombie jako metafora odrzucenia społecznego we współczesnej rosyjskiej fantastyce grozy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    Anna N. Wilk’s chapter Living Dead: The Zombie as a Social Rejection Metaphor in Contemporary Russian Horror Literature discusses the image of the zombie as a met-aphor of discrimination, based on the following works: Anna Starobinets’s Yasha’s eternity, Sergey and Marina Diachenko’s Лихорадка [Likhoradka], Vadim Voznesen-skiy’s Капля за каплей [Kaplya za kapley], Andrеy Brem’s Мучин крест [Muczin krest] and Georgyi Gerasimov’s Якутск отмороженный. Исход [Yakutsk ot-morozhennyy. Iskhod]. In t...

  18. "They're gonna explain to us what makes a cube a cube?" Geometrical properties as contingent achievement of sequentially ordered child-centered mathematics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Gardener, Rod

    2012-09-01

    In mathematics education, there is a continuing debate about the nature of mathematics, which some claim to be an objective science, whereas others note its socially and individually constructed nature. From a strict cultural-historical perspective, the objective and subjective sides of mathematics are but manifestations of a higher-order phenomenon that may be summarized by the aphorism that mind is in society to the extent that society is in the mind. In this study, we show, drawing on exemplifying materials from a second-grade unit on three-dimensional geometry, how mathematics manifests itself both as objective science all the while being subjectively produced. A particular three-turn interactional sequence comes to play a central role. We conclude by re-assigning a positive role to a much-maligned sequentially ordered conversational routine.

  19. Social cognition in "pure" delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bömmer, Isabel; Brüne, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Introduction. Delusional disorders are characterised by monothematic, "encapsulated" and incorrigible false beliefs and misinterpretations of social signals. Due to the rarity of cases with "pure" delusional disorder (DD) in clinical settings most studies of social cognition in delusional patients have focused on patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study we sought to examine emotion recognition, theory of mind abilities, and pragmatic language comprehension in patients with delusional disorder. Methods. Social cognition was assessed in 21 patients recruited over a 3-year period who were diagnosed with delusional disorder, paranoid, erotomanic, or jealous type. In addition to an emotion recognition and theory of mind test battery, we included a novel German Proverb Test, which has been found indicative of subtle theory of mind deficits in schizophrenic patients. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). Patients' task performance was compared to a group of 22 healthy control persons paralleled for verbal intelligence, education, and age. Results. Patients with DD made significantly more perseverative errors in the WCST, they performed more poorly on the theory of mind tasks and the proverb test, but were unimpaired in basic emotion recognition abilities relative to controls. When executive functioning was co-varied out, the group differences in theory of mind disappeared, whereas the greater propensity of patients with DD to interpret proverbs literally remained significant. Conclusions. In "pure" DD the basic social cognitive abilities appear to be preserved. Difficulties in metaphorical speech comprehension and executive functioning could, however, indicate more subtle social cognitive deficits in these patients. PMID:17354084

  20. [Spiritual pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Satoru

    2011-09-01

    We defined a spiritual pain as feelings of failure and regret at end-of-life, followed by hopelessness and worthlessness in patient's own life. In Japanese, spiritual pain should be assessed in patient's dignity, psycho-social factor, and prognostic stage, not only in religious context. And patient's spirituality should be supported with providing pain and symptom relief based on human relationships. "Sterbebegleitung" is a German proverb, introduced by Alfons Deeken, and seemed to be a suggestive word for such hope-recovering relationships. PMID:21950035

  1. Team networking in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Odette

    2011-01-01

    "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members. PMID:21811361

  2. Team networking in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Spruyt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  3. Lise öğrencilerinin atasözlerini kavrama düzeyleri üzerine nitel bir araştırma / A qualitative study on high school students’ proverbs comprehending levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf TEPELİ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ÖZETBireylerin sahip oldukları dili ve kültürü edinebilmesi ve bunu etkili bir şekilde kullanabilmesi için öncelikle o dil ve kültürü tanıması gerekmektedir. Türk kültürünün en önemli unsurlarından biri atasözleridir. Atasözleri söyleyişi ve fikirleri kuvvetlendirme, birkaç cümle ile etkili metinler oluşturabilme açısından konuşma ve yazma eğitiminde; ilgi ve merak uyandırma açısından dinleme eğitiminde; metinleri daha anlamlı hâle getirip vurgu ve tonlamayı kolaylaştırma açısından okuma eğitiminde kullanılabilecek ürünlerdir. Bu yüzden dil öğretiminde ve değer aktarımında atasözlerinden yararlanmanın gerekliliği kabul edilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Türk Edebiyatı ile Dil ve Anlatım ders kitaplarında geçen atasözlerini öğrencilerin kavrama düzeyleri araştırılmış, atasözlerinin öğretiminde ortaya çıkan eksiklikler belirlenmeye çalışılmış ve bunlarla ilgili çözüm önerileri sunulmuştur. Araştırmada nitel araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunda, Kütahya il merkezinde öğrenim gören dokuz öğrenci bulunmaktadır. Araştırma verileri yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği ile toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma bulgulara göre, lise öğrencileri atasözlerinin öğüt verici yönüne dikkat çekmişlerdir. Öğrencilerin çoğu günlük konuşmalarda -yeri geldiğinde- atasözlerinden yararlandıklarını belirtmiştir.

  4. In Search of Cultural Universals: Translation Universals. Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the world is disclosed under various shapes, among which language is the best representative. Specific to humans, it renders feelings and thoughts concerning different communication contexts where words become dynamic primitives endowed with meanings, which recreate themes and reconfigure space and time as universal coordinates. The main objective of the paper is to provide a tentative analysis of the way in which translation universals are manifest in translating proverbs and sayings in the short novels Popa Tanda (Pope Tanda and Moara cu Noroc (The Lucky Mill by Ioan Slavici.

  5. Team Networking in Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Odette Spruyt

    2011-01-01

    "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges f...

  6. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    OpenAIRE

    Gopolang H. Sekano; Maake J. Masango

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa e...

  7. Planning for giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Charles A.

    This ancient Chinese proverb stresses the importance of the role of AGU in the field of continuing education. When the Committee on Financial Resources made the recommendation that the Union should be on a firmer basis and the Council approved the 5-year fund drive, the vision was toward the future—decades at least—and far beyond ‘rice’ and ‘trees.’A large percentage of AGU members contribute regularly and liberally to their alma maters. This financial support to universities and colleges is essential. The donors are well rewarded with the knowledge that their gifts are to be used for education.

  8. CONCEPT OF «TRUTH» (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chongyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a linguistic-cultural study of the concept of TRUTH in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. The concept of TRUTH is an important part of Russian national consciousness and is especially fully disclosed in the proverbial fund of the Russian language. The study of paremiological content of the concept of TRUTH is based on the texts of the National corpus of Russian language. It is noted, that God's Truth is one thing, but the Truth of life is another thing. In the second case, a person has to choose between truth and untruth. This antonymy is present in many of the proverbs: «To live true – means to distance from people, to live untrue means to anger the God». But in many Russian Proverbs there is a duality of consciousness: «One can’t live without truth as well as with truth», «One doesn't want to live with untruth and can’t live with truth». Moreover, it is noted that truth can be used for selfish purposes: «Truth is like a chained dog: it will bite whom it is released for». Thus, proverbs and sayings reflect the existence of different types of attitude of Russian people to the truth. Analysis of the materials allows to mark the following conceptual features of the truth: 1. Truth of the divinity. 2. Truth is goodness, light, frankness, integrity, heroism. 3. Truth of the «earth»: a Truth is dangerous; b There is no Truth on earth; it is weak; it can be bought. 4. It is hard to live on the earth without truth; it is necessary to tell the truth. 

  9. Do Not Cry for Me, Confucius: The Reconstruction of Chinese Female Identity During the Cultural Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese women were portrayed as delicate and submissive. The most famous proverbs prevailed in imperial China were “A woman without knowledge is a woman of virtue” and “It is the law of nature that woman should be held under the dominance of man.” Indeed, the rule of surviving in a society for any ancient Chinese women was “three obedience and four virtues”: a woman had to be obedient to her father before marriage, to her husband after marriage and to her son after her husband's d...

  10. Własności psychometryczne Testu Przysłowie-Metafora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szajer, Katarzyna; Grzywa, Anna; Parnas, Josef;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract thinking belongs to intellectual abilities of the highest level of the evolutionary development, thanks to which operations such a classification, systematisation and comparison are possible.AIM: An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test (TPM) which has been...... (according to ICD-10 criteria). METHODS: PANSS and TPM was carried out amongst 15 patients at the beginning of the hospitalisation (the first stage of the research) and among all persons during the remission of syndromes (the second stage). The WAIS-R (PL) was used in the second stage. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  11. Türkçe Öğretiminde Metin Seçimi

    OpenAIRE

    Firdevs Güneş

    2013-01-01

    In our world, from 1900s to the present day, many kind of texts have been used in language teaching. These texts are grouped under the headings such as literary, produced, original and private texts". The choosing of the texts changes depending on the language teaching approaches and methods. Each approach has used its own text.The literary texts have been used in traditional approach due to focus on teaching of issues such as grammar rules, proverbs, literature and general culture. In behavi...

  12. The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers. Assurance: grk. Hupostasis meaning: full and sustained confidence and trust; unwavering conviction. There is a favourite Ghanaian proverb which says "if a naked man says he will clothe you, listen to him quietly". Before someone could assure you of something, he must be self-reliant or independent. Christ Jesus has assured His followers because He is capable, has done it before, continues to do it and will do it. Isaiah 50:4-9a; talks about the qualif...

  13. Can the "Peasant" Speak? Forging Dialogues in a Nineteenth-Century Legend Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Pooley, William

    2010-01-01

    The folklore collections amassed by Jean-François Bladé in nineteenth-century southwestern France are problematic for modern readers. Bladé's legacy includes a confusing combination of poorly received historical works and unimportant short stories as well as the large collections of proverbs, songs, and narratives that he collected in his native Gascony. No writer has ever attempted to study any of Bladé's informants in detail, not even his most famous narrator, the illiterate and "defiant" G...

  14. Extending Capabilities of English to Marathi Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sugandhi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Machine Translation is one of the fastest growing research areas in the field of Natural Language Processing, with a special area of focus being Asian languages. Substantial work has been done in the case of Hindi and Bengali. The scope of this paper is to discuss the future scope of machine translation, with specific focus on translation of Marathi - a language spoken by over 70 million people [1]. The process of machine translation can be expanded to include the use of spelling and grammatical checks, intermediate language, sentiment analysis, proverbs and phrases.

  15. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    L. van Rooyen; J. le Roux

    2000-01-01

    According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life st...

  16. La cigüeña en las literaturas populares francesa y española

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Muñoz, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Estudio de la presencia de la cigüeña en varios géneros de las literaturas populares francesa y española (fábulas, coplas, adivinanzas, refranes), con el objeto de descubrir las peculiaridades y la simbología de este animal, así como la cultura popular que ha servido de fuente de inspiración. Study of the presence of stork in several of the genres in French and Spanish popular literatures (fables, songs, riddles, proverbs) in order to show up the particular characteristics and the symbols ...

  17. USING TURKISH OF NECATİ BEY
    NECATÎ BEY’İN TÜRKÇESİ

    OpenAIRE

    Şerif Ali BOZKAPLAN

    2011-01-01

    Necatî who have studies with old Anatolian Turkish, is known and gets attention as a man who speaks and uses Turkish very perfectly. It should be mentioned that idioms, proverbs, reduplications, mottos etc. Which are main stones of Turkish are take parts in poetry of Necatî. In addition to these Poet Necatî applies some structures spoken languages into literal language.Therefore, it is possible to see some archaic words aren’t used anymore in actual Turkish in Necatî’s poetry.In conclusion Ne...

  18. The Gull Sees Farthest Who Flies Highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirri, Anthony N.

    2005-04-01

    The proverb from Richard Bach's book Jonathan Livingston Seagull expresses the theme that he in life who thinks and acts ahead of the flock lives live to the fullest and enjoys the freedom that is the very nature of being. This keynote address will give examples of three noted professionals who were not content to make small improvements in technology but strove to make giant leaps. Their work became the driving force for those of us who became their followers in seeking fulfillment from our professional lives.

  19. İLERİ DÜZEY YABANCI UYRUKLU ÖĞRENCİLERİN ZORLANDIKLARI KÜLTÜREL DİL UNSURLARININ TESPİTİ VE SINIFLANDIRILMASI / THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURAL LANGUAGE ELEMENTS THAT GIVE DIFFICULTIES TO ADVANCED FOREIGN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice SEYMEN

    2015-09-01

    da Türkçenin anlatım gücünün oldukça yüksek olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. / Although the teaching of Turkish as a second language and as a foreign language shows similarities in many areas, there is a major difference between them. The social contexts and cultural dimension of the language come to the fore if it is learned as a second language; because, the language is learnt in that culture as a second language. Thus, the people who have a second language are more advantageous than the other who learns the same one as foreign language. In this study, it is aimed to identify and classify the language usage of 10 foreign undergraduate students in ÇOMÜ. The study was designed as a case study. Data of the study is obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with advanced foreign students and diaries that were kept for 30 days of their lives. In the study, 1165 expressions were reflected into the diaries of advanced foreign students. According to the analyses conducted by three experts in the area, the most difficult expressions that give difficulties to the students are idioms (f= 458, allusion (f = 288, metonymy (f = 166 and double-entendre (f=105. Apart from these, students have faced some figures of speech in the daily life such as hyperbole, simile, metaphor, identification, kind assumption, proverbs, repetition, inquiry, interjection, symmetry, open metaphor, amphibology and riddles. This case has suggested that the literary language should be also used along with idioms, proverbs and expressions in the teaching of the second language. In the interviews conducted, it has been indicated that the language of Turkish is rich in terms of the idioms and the advance foreign students always face these idioms, they are frequently surprised by the sarcastic use of the language and sometimes ridiculed by the misunderstanding

  20. BURU BABI: POLITIK IDENTITAS LAKI-LAKI MINANGKABAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Minangkabau is widely known for its matrilineal system. One of the matrilineal values is the man (sumando that positioned as marginal. Sumando is a stranger in his wife's family, as shown in the traditional proverb saying like ashes on the stump (seperti abu di atas tunggul. This position is not profitable, so they have to negotiate with the woman as a "ruler" to strengthen their "masculine identity". This article argues that pig hunting is a media of the identity politics of Minangkabau’s men in establishing and strengthening their identity in the domination matriarchal of the Minangkabau.

  1. On Both Sides of the Portal: Gender Attitudes to the Conscription during Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One widespread proverb in Bulgaria, knowing some different versions, says that: A man, who cannot passed conscription is not a man, A boy, who failed to enter military service is second-hand man, A man, who has not walked a soldier knows nothing. What exactly is conscription according to public understanding of the Bulgarians? What attitudes have the society to compulsory conscription? Frontier of what is the portal on the military unit? These and other questions related to conscription during socialism will be explored.

  2. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving towards a knowledge economy: an economy in which the application of knowledge replaces the importance of capital, raw materials, and labor as the main means of production. He suggests that knowledge...

  3. 轻松一刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓敏

    2008-01-01

    Does the dog know the proverb,too? A little boy did not like the look of the barking dog."It’s all right."said a gentleman."Don’t be afraid. Din’t you know the proverb‘Barking dogs don’t bite’?""Ah, yes."answered the little boy."I know the proverb, but does the dog know the proverb, too?"

  4. COLLOCATION DICTIONARY OF ADJECTIVES IN TEACHING TURKISH: METHOD AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Bülent ÖZKAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To collect the main vocabulary of a language is the major aims of lexicology works. Lexicology looks after to prepare not only for general purpose lexicon for mother tongue users but also particular purpose lexicons for special aims (e.g. proverbs and idioms dictionary, terms dictionary, synonym words dictionary, antonym words dictionary, collocation dictionary etc.. Today, when the studies are considered about the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish, general purpose lexicon works, and particular purpose lexicons for special aim works are insufficient and limited. In lexicology, collocation dictionary is one of the main products of lexicology, seen as a non mentioned subject at the study of Turkey Turkish vocabulary. On the other hand, in lexicology, collocation has been taken place in literature as an important applying method, especially in the corpus linguistics applications and defining the stage of preferences in language teaching.This study’s object is to investigate the collocations in a corpus-based approach, is defined as adjective and lexicalized 11.320 lexemes as headword in Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Dictionary which is including the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish. This study has speciality is being the first, about purpose, content and method also executing by experienced researchers at similar studies. The anticipated outcomes of this study are as follows: 1.It will be defined the adjectives’s syntactic features which have intense usage in generally language and especially in Turkey Turkish. 2.It will be made semantic and syntactic corpus-control of adjectives in Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Dictionary which is including the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish. 3.It will be defined the concept domains of adjectives-noun and noun-adjectives relationship in Turkish. 4.It will be defined the adjective-noun usages based by frequency appearance relationships about mother tongue and second language teaching for Turkish. 5.It will be collected main

  5. The dynamic and ever-changing volcanic nature of Iceland -An outdoor laboratory for education on natural processes and the human impacts on them-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    "Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand" (Chinese Proverb). Throughout the global history fundamental knowledge on utilizing natural resources, nowadays known as ecoliteracy, was passed on to next generations by our ancestors. Nevertheless, their practices were often unsustainable and lead directly or indirectly to severe ecosystem degradation. Nowadays, overexploitation of natural resources is still a global main driver for ecological degradation, water quality decrease and climate change. While ecoliteracy is still an essential knowledge, the societal structures required to maintain the knowledge have diminished. Today, about 80% of the population in Western countries lives in urban areas dominated by concrete structures with frequently only isolated green spaces. Environmental education is dominated by theoretical concepts taught using a wide range of multimedia technologies to simulate direct experiences of natural processes. Nevertheless, these technologies can only provide a superficial insight into the functioning of natural processes. Only direct on-sight investigations can provide a thorough experience of the dynamic, ever-changing environmental processes. Iceland is a 103,000 km2 large island, located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge just south of the Arctic Circle. In that area the earth crust is only a few km thick, leading to frequent volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. Due to the long winter and the wet climate glaciers formed on all major peaks and cover 11% of the island. Most riverbeds are in their pristine state and water quality is in general excellent. The Icelandic nature may look pristine but is indeed severely degraded. Unsustainable landuse, namely deforestation and overgrazing, in an environment characterized by harsh winters and volcanic activities had devastating effects on the nature. Since settlement 1100 years ago 40% of its vegetation and soil have been lost. Soil conservation and

  6. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  7. Nota complementaria a “La escritura proverbial de Santillana”

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    Alicia Esther Ramadori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to complement Miguel Ángel Pérez Priego’s article, “La escritura proverbial de Santillana” (1992, which approaches the question of stylistic variation introduced by the Proverbios or Centiloquio in the poetic production of the Marquis of Santillana. By placing the poems within the generic category of the proverb, Pérez Priego identifies the particular features of proverbial writing in Santillana’s text, and, at the same time, distinguishes the stylistic uses of proverbs and sayings according to the types of poems in which they are included. Through the study of the interpolation of paraemiae in his lengthy doctrinal poems, in representative lyric compositions and prose texts, we are able to contribute to another distinguishing aspect of the proverbial speech of the poet: the confluence of the medieval paraemiological tradition and the new humanist paradigms. This is the result of the vast erudition and knowledge of the classic Antiquity, as well as of a continuous interest in popular culture, that typify the work and formation of the Marquis of Santillana.

  8. The Use of Proverbial Ideophones in Anaang, Southern Nigeria

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    Itoro Michael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This  research centres on Anaang1 proverbial ideophones and its relevance in communication in. Data for this work was gathered during several field trips undertaken to the four speech communities of Anaang to collect data on Anaang folklore, for the on-going research on the Lower Cross Languages Development Project  (LCLDP sponsored by the Linguistics Department of the University of Uyo, for the documentation and revitalization of  the endangered  languages in the Cross River Area.  A vast number of data on proverbs were recorded during  interview with the people on a folk session. From the recordings, data on proverbial ideophones were elicited and used for this work. This paper adopts the theoretical framework of Speech Acts theory for analysis. It has been observed that Anaang proverbial  ideophones are rich in  the use of style and language, as well as  literal and contextual  techniques. The contents as well as the contexts are carefully selected to reflect the socio-cultural background of the people. The application of proverbial ideophone is a special skill in speech, and requires a clear  knowledge of the socio-cultural background of the people. This work is therefore, an invaluable foundation for cultural communication in Anaang, Southern Nigeria.Keywords: proverb, ideophone, Anaang, language, communication, culture.

  9. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

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    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  10. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author’s aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrence in the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text.Keywords: Old Testament; Proverbs; Hermeneutics; The fear of the Lord/Yahweh;  Walter Brueggemann; Paul Ricoeur;  Ignatius of Loyola; Imaginal engagement

  11. “Forget to Whom You Have Told This Proverb”: Directed Forgetting of Destination Memory in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Antoine, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. PMID:25918456

  12. Los animales y el cuerpo en el refranero: un análisis semántico

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    María del Refugio Pérez Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste trabajo muestra un análisis de las paremias en español conformadas por sustantivos anatómicos y faunísticos cuya interpretación es metafórica. La propuesta consiste en explicar el sentido de estas expresiones a partir de los marcos semánticos de los sustantivos de ambos dominios, ya que, aunque se ha señalado que este tipo de construcciones no son susceptibles de un análisis componencial, consideramos que, recurriendo a la semántica de marcos, es posible encontrar su motivación semántica. AbstractThis work presents an analysis of some proverbs in Spanish that are built upon anatomic and faunistic nouns, and that have a metaphoric interpretation. The approach consists in explaining these expressions’ meanings using noun semantic frames in both domains. Although there has been pointed out that these constructions can’t be analyzed componentially, we consider that using frame semantics it is possible to find their semantic motivation.Key words: proverb – metaphor – anatomic domain – faunistic domain

  13. The Making of Islamic Political Tradition in the Malay World

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    Jajat Burhanudin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the word "Islamic" in the title of this study, "The Making of the Islamic Political Tradition", it might be significant to take the above quotation into consideration. In the Malay tradition, what the people say about themselves seems to support the argument which is revealed in the sentences quoted. One of the most well-known Malay proverbs runs as follows: "to convert to Islam is to become a Malay". This proverb obviously expresses the feelings of the Malay people who identify themselves with Islam. Islam is acknowledged as having constituted a significant part of Malay society; Islam is regarded as the source of its cultural identity. Thus, if what is conceived of as being Islamic as such is accepted, perhaps there is no reason to wonder how "Islamic" Malay society is; and there is a solid validation for taking the sentence quoted as the argument for this study.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v8i2.687

  14. On Doing Mathematics: Why We Should Not Encourage "Feeling," "Believing," or "Interpreting" Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, M. Padraig M. M.

    2012-01-01

    P. R. Halmos recalled a conversation with R. L. Moore where Moore quoted a Chinese proverb. That proverb provides a summation of the justification of the methods employed in teaching students to do mathematics with a modified Moore method (MMM). It states, "I see, I forget; I hear, I remember; I do, I understand." In this paper we build…

  15. Plant-Lore with Reference to Muslim Folksong in Association with Human Perception of Plants in Agricultural and Horticultural Practices

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    M. M. AHMED

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Muslims in the Manipur valley are a Manipuri speaking community. The study of folksong texts of Muslims in Manipur is a parameter for exploring native plant resources which certainly help to take conservation steps by examining the way of the human perception of plants. Man-plant interaction in agricultural as well as horticultural practices unfolds human dependence on plants in their various functions leading to a comfortable living. Some plants are used directly by men without any process, while some are selectively avoided. Tapping off heritage of ethnobotanical lore has been practiced by Muslims, conserving Pogostemon purpurascens Dalz in many graveyard for its religious significance. It has been proved that some plants are prevalent in the human language (proverbs, folksong, similies etc. to make sense of their expression.

  16. The Beowulf manuscript reconsidered: Reading Beowulf in late Anglo-Saxon England

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    L. Viljoen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a hypothetical late Anglo-Saxon audience: a multi-layered Christian community with competing ideologies, dialects and mythologies. It discusses how that audience might have received the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. The immediate textual context of the poem constitutes an intertextual microcosm for Beowulf. The five texts in the codex provide interesting clues to the common concerns, conflicts and interests of its audience. The organizing principle for the grouping of this disparate mixture of Christian and secular texts with Beowulf was not a sense of canonicity or the collating of monuments with an aesthetic autonomy from cultural conditions or social production. They were part of the so-called “popular culture” and provide one key to the “meanings” that interested the late Anglo-Saxon audience, who would delight in the poet=s alliteration, rhythms, word-play, irony and understatement, descriptions, aphorisms and evocation of loss and transience. The poem provided cultural, historical and spiritual data and evoked a debate about pertinent moral issues. The monsters, for instance, are symbolic of problems of identity construction and establish a polarity between “us” and the “Other”, but at the same time question such binary thinking. Finally, the poem works towards an audience identity whose values emerge from the struggle within the poem and therefore also encompass the monstrous, the potentially disruptive, the darkness within B that which the poem attempts to repress.

  17. Theory of Chemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael

    In order to deal with the complexity of natural systems simplified models are employed to illustrate the principal and regulatory factors controlling a chemical system. Following the aphorism of Albert Einstein: Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler, models need not to be completely realistic to be useful (Stumm and Morgan 1996), but need to meet a successful balance between realism and practicality. Properly constructed, a model is neither too simplified that it is unrealistic nor too detailed that it cannot be readily evaluated and applied to the problem of interest (Bethke 1996). The results of a model have to be at least partially observable or experimentally verifiable (Zhu and Anderson 2002). Geochemical modeling theories are presented here in a sequence of increasing complexity from geochemical equilibrium models to kinetic, reaction path, and finally coupled transport and reaction models. The description is far from complete but provides the needs for the set up of reactive transport models of hydrothermal systems as done within subsequent chapters. Extensive reviews of geochemical models in general can be found in the literature (Appelo and Postma 1999, Bethke 1996, Melchior and Bassett 1990, Nordstrom and Ball 1984, Paschke and van der Heijde 1996).

  18. Outlook for mineral raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhoff, H.A.

    1979-04-01

    No better summary of the outlook for the mineral raw materials industry during the next two decades can be offered than the oft-repeated aphorism, The more things change, the more they remain the same. Each mineral commodity will pursue its own individual course, but overall, the growth and increasing sophistication of the world population will double consumption and narrow such gaps as exist between supply and demand. Sources of supply will be found over a widening geographic range and will cross an increasing number of political boundaries. Although the need for an international mineral policy is obvious, confrontation between the industrial nations of the West and the anti-colonialism and nationalism of Third World countries offers little hope of anything better than ad hoc solutions in the form of bilateral agreements or cartelization of specific commodities involving several producing nations with common interests. Japan has shown the efficacy of bilateral agreements; the International Tin Council and OPEC are examples of cartelization. Although its mineral resources make the USSR all but self-sufficient, analysis of its military and maritime programmes indicates that one of its aims is to fill the vacuum created by the lack of an international mineral policy. It is following closely a modernized formula for world domination set forth by Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904. Success would enable it to impose a mineral policy on the rest of the world, which will be well advised to ponder this possibility.

  19. First a tragedy, then farce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian

    2008-09-01

    It is impossible to think about the problems in the UK over the last 10 months arising from the £80m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) without recalling Marx's famous aphorism: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce." Certainly the repetition of a funding crisis in UK particle physics and astronomy is hardly unexpected; they seem to occur every decade or so with unwelcome regularity. The consequent loss of morale, jobs and opportunities in the UK for the brightest young people to pursue their dreams in what is widely acknowledged to be world-class science is a tragedy. What perhaps marks the uniqueness of the funding crisis this time round is the level of farce. The sums that did not add up; the consultations without interlocutors; and the truculent and damaging statements about withdrawal from the Gemini telescopes based in Hawaii and Chile, and the International Linear Collider (ILC) - the next big particle-physics project after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  20. Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis.

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    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able "to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants," one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited papers would equally refer to papers with a medium impact. The Newton hypothesis would be supported if the top-level research more frequently cites previously highly-cited work than that medium-level research cites highly-cited work. Our analysis is based on (i all articles and proceedings papers which were published in 2003 in the life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, and (ii all articles and proceeding papers which were cited within these publications. The results show that highly-cited work in all scientific fields more frequently cites previously highly-cited papers than that medium-cited work cites highly-cited work. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that papers contributing to the scientific progress in a field lean to a larger extent on previously important contributions than papers contributing little. These findings support the Newton hypothesis and call into question the Ortega hypothesis (given our usage of citation counts as a proxy for impact.

  1. Ngaji Rasa dalam Pandangan Komunitas Dayak Indramayu

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    Khaerul Umam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The belief system, in many different aspects, is not created from an empty space. It emerges from many different and extraordinary experiences of human life and has sacred dimension. In practice, however, this belief system needs a medium to be understood and implemented. This research explores the mystical aspect of the belief system among Dayak community in Indramayu by employing field research method. This study shows that Ngaji Rasa is the actualization of the belief system which emerges from the life history of Dayak community in Indramayu among their extraordinary experiences around their world. The doctrine of Ngaji Rasa emphasizes understanding spiritual dimension of the shelf before assessing and judging of others. In addition, include as one principle in Ngaji Rasa is to determine whether one self is ready or not to accept something from others in the relationships between human being and other creatures.  The aphorism of “if being hit was hurt, so do not hit others,” is the principle of Ngaji Rasa in Dayak Indramayu.

  2. SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN SUSHRUTA SAMHITA

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    Singh R.K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita is an Ayurvedic text, by the legendary Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine (Indian traditional medicine, with innovative chapters mainly on surgery. There is a general impression that Sushruta Samhita is only an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text book of surgery. Sushruta Samhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. It still retains the land mark position in the field of surgical texts. In addition to his worldwide known work of historical significance on plastic surgery, he also made similar unique contributions on numerous aspects of medicine, such as fracture and dislocations, urinary stones, skin diseases including leprosy, Pancha Karma (Purification procedures, toxicology, pediatrics, eye diseases, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynaecology, etc. A very limited conceptual work has been performed on the selected chapters of Sushruta Samhita. Therefore a review conceptual study has been carried out on the various surgical concepts of Sushruta Samhita. Outcome of this study shows, Sushruta Samhita is written in the aphorism form and the techniques described in it are eminently in line with technical abilities of the times. It is need of the hour to explore the hidden truth by decoding the versions of the texts.

  3. Teaching the uses of Italian verb forms to Slovene speakers

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    Tjaša Miklič

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Goethe's paradoxical aphorism concerning our knowledge of complex phenomena could be used to identify the feelings which may prevail at two different stages oflearning a foreign language, at an early and at an advanced one. So, for example, it is not surpris­ ing when our students, back from an exchange visit abroad, complain about having felt blocked by their thorough structural language awareness, noticing at the same time that some other foreign students showed off their fluency and richness of vocabulary, while calmly violating certain grammatical conventions. 1 Such self-conscious learners seem to miss their past lack of inhibitions, when they still naively thought oflanguage differ­ ences principally as neatly observable dissimilarities in language forms, feeling that their present awareness of more hidden foreign-language properties is rather a disadvantage in communication; so much so that they wonder whether it would not have been better to have invested all that time and energy into the acquisition of the lexicon instead.

  4. "As mulheres voam com seus maridos": a experiência da diáspora palestina e as relações de gênero

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    Denise Fagundes Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, proponho uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e as formas de organização da experiência imigratória contemporânea no bojo da experiência diaspórica dos palestinos. Segundo um provérbio árabe, coletado em trabalho de campo, "as mulheres voam com seus maridos". A explicação se refere a um funcionamento peculiar da vida da família árabe que recebe as noras na unidade doméstica do marido, e, por conseguinte, essa unidade é também a do pai do marido. Foi através desse provérbio que tive acesso a um comentário nativo sobre o "ir e vir" de esposas da Palestina ou de outras cidades para residir na cidade do Chuí (RS e de lá para outras localidades. No mundo pós-colonial, as mulheres se converteram em potentes símbolos de identidade de sociedades e nações. As mulheres islâmicas e, em especial, as palestinas se encontram dentro desse debate ideológico sobre a integridade e autenticidade cultural. Essa fala proverbial nos dá acesso a diferentes pontos de vista sobre os dispositivos culturais que presidem esses fluxos e nos exige uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e o modo como analisamos o protagonismo das mulheres muçulmanas.This article proposes a reflection about gender relations and the forms of organization of contemporary Palestinian immigrants' experience. According to an Arabian proverb, collected during fieldwork, "the women fly with their husbands". The explanation refers to a kinship structure through which daughters-in-law come to live in the husband's father's domestic unit. This proverb reveals some aspects about the "coming and going" of Palestinian wives who reside or come from other localities to settle in Chui city. In the post-colonial era, women were converted in powerful identity symbols. Islamic women, specially Palestinians women, are part of a ideological debate about cultural integrity and authenticity. That proverb gives us access to different viewpoints on the cultural

  5. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  6. Physical punishment: an unnecessary risk to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, C

    1997-10-01

    Using physical punishment to control, guide or correct the behavior of children has long been practised in Western culture. "Spare the rod and spoil the child," recite its advocates, both misquoting and misinterpreting the biblical proverb. In recent years, child care experts, health care practitioners and parents have begun questioning the practice of physical punishment and considering its role in child abuse. Child abuse, a form of family violence, is a major public health issue with far-reaching effects and costs and many implications for health policy, prevention and promotion strategies. Because nurses are often called upon to provide guidance and advice on parenting and discipline, we should be aware of the issues and risks of physically punishing children. PMID:9369549

  7. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  8. THE SOCIAL ECONOMY A STEP TOWARD CREATIVITY

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    Daniela Vîrjan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The social economy gives people the opportunity to put their heads together and unleash your imagination and creativity to create goods and services that meet the real needs of the community. The social economy which supports the classical economics no longer could I give any chance to earn a living and to this end they shall endeavor to produce a good or provide a service to contribute to the smooth conduct of economic and social activity and not Finally the individual welfare. A Romanian proverb says "small stump fell great oaks" in this social economy will eventually provide opportunities for all people who want to get involved in promoting and developing it and thus meet the needs of individuals at a highest level.

  9. [What did pigs look like in the Middle Ages?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H

    2006-01-01

    The conformation of medieval swine is less well documented by written reports or osteological states. This paper evaluates the conformation of medieval pigs from about 140 pictures of various sources (books of hours, misericords, illustration of bibles text or proverbs, sculptures etc.). The pictures demonstrate that medieval pigs mainly were long legged, slender, razor backed, bristly with long snouts and prick ears (Tab. 1) well adapted for herding in forests and waste land. In mediterranean countries in early and high Middle Ages as well as in some regions of France and England in the late Middle Ages compact animals with shorts snouts and lopears were depicted. Probably these typs resulted from other housing and feeding conditions (stall feeding with wastes from fields, gardens, kitchen etc.). Medieval pigs were one-coloured white, grey, black and sometimes red, pictures from saddle-back animals came from Italy or south Germany. PMID:16475550

  10. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

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    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  11. TRANSFORMATION OF AXIOLOGICAL OPTIONS OF THE CONCEPT ‘DOCTOR’ IN MODERN RUSSIAN LINGUISTIC CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriet Kadirbechevna Bolokova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to important and topical issues of transformation of value-parameters of concepts, in particular, the concept ‘doctor’ in the modern linguistic culture. The study is based on such materials as modern literature, magazines, newspapers, proverbs and sayings, reflecting the linguistic picture of the modern Russian language. After observation of the transformation of axiological parameters of the concept “doctor” in modern linguistic culture, the author states that there are two opposite trends: 1 strengthening of positive evaluation, 2 destruction of positive evaluation of this concept. The concept ‘doctor’ includes universal cultural values that form axiology of this lingualcultural unit. The article also tells about stereotypes and their representation through concepts; for both of them axiological component is significant. By and large, most of people associate a doctor (not a particular one but a generalized image with positive results - improving health, saving lives.

  12. Die ambivalente aard van skoonheid en begeerte in die Ou Testament

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    L. Kruger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 45:12 and Proverbs 5:25 are identified as the only two places in the Old Testament where the Hebrew word יפה for beauty is the subject of the two verbs אוה and הפד found in the Tenth Commandment (Deut. 5:21 for covet/crave.' desire. An exegetical comparison between the two text verses shows an attitude towards the desire for beauty which proves to be ethical ambivalent. According to this exegesis the social religious context determines the positive or negative experience or consequences of beauty and desire. This ambivalence introduces another perspective on the Tenth Commandment, as this view cancels any rigid interpretation of coveting: because the integrity of the covenant relationship between God and his people sanctions the acceptability or not of the use of beauty, or the desire of it.

  13. Sustainable supply of fuel-wood for the rural areas of Pakistan: farm-forestry s a renewable-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It costs as much to heat the pot as to fill it. This old African proverb illustrates the energy-problems faced by majority of the world, who live in the villages and urban slums of developing countries, such as Pakistan. For a majority of them, the real energy-crisis is a daily scramble to find wood to cook meals and nearly 90% of their domestic energy demands are derived from wood. This essential resource, however, is threatened. The developing world is facing crisis of a critical shortage of firewood as serious as the petroleum-crisis. The shortage of firewood is resulting its soaring prices; a growing economic burden on rural poor; the wasteful burning of animal dung; and an ecologically disastrous and potentially irreversible spread of treeless landscapes. (author)

  14. M(o)TOR of aging: MTOR as a universal molecular hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-07-01

    A recent ground-breaking publication described hypothalamus-driven programmatic aging. As a Russian proverb goes "everything new is well-forgotten old". In 1958, Dilman proposed that aging and its related diseases are programmed by the hypothalamus. This theory, supported by beautiful experiments, remained unnoticed just to be re-discovered recently. Yet, it does not explain all manifestations of aging. And would organism age without hypothalamus? Do sensing pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) and IKK-beta play a role of a "molecular hypothalamus" in every cell? Are hypothalamus-driven alterations simply a part of quasi-programmed aging manifested by hyperfunction and secondary signal-resistance? Here are some answers. PMID:23872658

  15. O papel da imagem na tradição Árabe

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    Aida R. Hanania

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the role of the image in the Arabic tradition, since the “word” has a fundamental importance in its cultural field (which, as time goes on, has revealed itself through both the sentential tale and the koranic word as well as the calligraphic art, and the proverb. For this, it has become an instigative action to analyze its opposite “the image” (even doing it in a straight way of analysis, due to the fact it is not a limitless paper, being as inciting as to investigate its values not only in the religious dimension but also in its communicative, anthropological and cultural dimensions, and by this means organizing a close observational way not only to look at the Arabic reality, under the Islamic protection, but also to include the prior Islamic reality of the Arabic peninsula, where the last huge monotheistic religious was born.

  16. THE WINDOW TO THE WORLD OF THE GOSPEL TRUTH: THE POWER OF RUSSIAN FOLK SPEECH IN NIKOLAI GOGOL'S NOVEL "DEAD SOULS"

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    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imaginative pictures and traits of characters. The more generalized form they take, the more they resemble the traditional folk and poetic formulas. The article also reveals the hidden message of a Russian proverb Russians are good at thinking in hindsight (“Russkiy chelovek zadnim umom krepok”. This characteristic of the Russian mind is the one with which Gogol connects the great destiny of Russia. At the end of his first volume the author resorts to the allegorical form of a parable that plays a key role in the perception of the novel. Transforming into the generalized symbol, its characters accumulate the most significant generic features and qualities of Dead Souls’ characters. The grotesque images of Kifa Mokiyevich and Mokiy Kifovich help to look at the characters of the novel from every possible side, not from one side only that shows them as small-minded and worthles people. Gogol’s characters do not possess definitely disgusting and ugly qualities, which should be eliminated for the sake of people's improvement. Sobakevich's powerful physique and pragmatism, Plushkin's thrift, Manilov's meditativeness and cordiality, as well as Nozdryov's valor and energy are not bad qualities at all and do not deserve condemnation. However, all of them as Gogol used to say are carried to extremes and take perverse and exaggerated forms.

  17. Use of transoesophageal echocardiography during the peri-operative period for trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, K; Hebballi, R; Peterson, M K

    2010-12-01

    The medical facility at Camp Bastion continues to evolve as a consequence of the increased throughput of battlefield trauma patients. There is a requirement for rapid and accurate diagnosis of haemodynamic instability and continued haemodynamic monitoring throughout the peri-operative period. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has been used for this purpose in the arena of cardiac anaesthesia since the mid 1980s. It is being introduced to other peri-operative settings where severe haemodynamic instability is expected. The old proverb: 'There are none so blind as those who cannot see' (Jeremiah 5:21) is applicable to this topic, in that TOE is proven to be a rapid, portable, safe and effective tool in the assessment of the haemodynamically unstable patient. This paper explores the application of TOE for the assessment of the major causes of haemodynamic instability in the trauma population. PMID:21302659

  18. The value of preoperative planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Matt L

    2013-10-01

    "Better to throw your disasters into the waste paper basket than to consign your patients to the scrap heap" has been a proverb of Jeff Mast, one of the greatest fracture and deformity surgeons in the history of our specialty. Stated slightly more scientifically, one of the major values of simulation is that it allows one to make mistakes in a consequence-free environment. Preoperative planning is the focus of this article. The primary goal is not to provide you with a recipe of how to steps. Rather, the primary goal of this article is to explain why preoperative planning should be standard, to clarify what should be included, and to provide examples of what can happen when planning is ignored. At the end of this, we should all feel the need to approach fracture care more intellectually with forethought, both in our own practices and in our educational system. PMID:23880563

  19. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations. PMID:19713008

  20. ONE SEGMENT OF THE BULGARIAN-ENGLISH PAREMIOLOGICAL CORE

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    KOTOVA M.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English proverbial parallels of the Russian-Bulgarian paremiological core are analysed in the article. The comparison of current Bulgarian proverbs and their English proverbial parallels is based upon the material of the author’s multi-lingual dictionary and her collection of Bulgarian-Russian proverbial parallels published as a result of her sociolinguistic paremiological experiment from 2003 (on the basis of 100 questionnaires filled by 100 Bulgarian respondents and supported in 2013 with the current Bulgarian contexts from the Bulgarian Internet. The number of 'alive' Bulgarian-English proverbial parallels, constructed from the paremiological questionnaires (pointed out by 70 % - 100 % respondents is 62, the biggest part of which belongs to the proverbial parallels with a similar inner form (35, i.e. the biggest part of the segment of the current Bulgarian-English paremiological core (reflecting the Russian paremiological minimum contains proverbial parallels with a similar inner form.

  1. The Horse With Two Saddles-Tamxhwe in Modern Golok

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    Fernanda Pirie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three examples of oral sayings, mainly from the Golok area, used in conflict mediation are presented and discussed in terms of their usage by mediators and how they reflect Tibetan values and life. ''You have to go to Golok to hear real tamxhwe." Conflict resolution is a topic most Amdo Tibetans will readily discuss and the oratorical skills of the zowa (gzu ba 'mediators' are always emphasized. It was in Golok that they were said to be particularly impressive. ''They make displays of oratory during the early stages of the mediation process,'' explained one informant, a respected mediator from Machu (Rma chu. ''They use proverbs and riddles that are difficult to understand. It is like jousting with words, a display of skill.'' He was referring to the representatives of individual parties, but the same skills are even more important for mediators. The more serious and entrenched the conflict—two Amdo tribes may fight for generations over valuable grassland—the more important it is to secure a high-status mediator, often a lama or local leader with a reputation for oratory. The mediators' task is to persuade reluctant parties to compromise and accept compensation in lieu of taking revenge for an injury or killing; this can require a lengthy and elaborate process extending over several days. ''In Golok,'' my informant continued, ''they use tamxhwe; those who can make good speeches and employ it well enjoy high reputations.'' The tamxhwe, it appeared, were like proverbs or riddles and in one or two cases an informant was able to repeat one of them to me, but I was repeatedly told that I had to go to Golok to learn more. The oratorical skills of the Golok mediators obviously had a considerable reputation throughout Amdo, and in the summer of 2004 I went to this large area in southern Qinghai Province to investigate. ...

  2. A “bitter” end to asthma revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Sheng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Speaking of asthma,one is immediately reminded of incessant coughing and wheezing,and the unsightly scene of phlegm-spitting.A wide range of remedies have been tried,ranging from ancient folklore belief of smelling honey to modem inhaling β2-adrenoceptor agonists,but none proves to have long-lasting effect for this common chronic pulmonary disease.As a Chinese proverb says,a good medicine always tastes bitter.Maybe the problem with those old remedies is that they are not bitter enough.Jokes aside,there may actually be some truth in this,as shown by a recent study from Stephen B.Liggett's laboratory in the University of Maryland (Deshpande et al,2010).In a survey for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM),this group inadvertently identified several types of bitter taste receptors,which are members of the GPCR family.

  3. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

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    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  4. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  5. Interpreting ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 in the light of Psalm 119

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    Philippus J. Botha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that Psalm 37 and Proverbs 1–4 served as sources for the composition of Psalm 1. The emphasis in both donor texts on the righteous people’s inheriting the Promised Land seems to have imprinted also on Psalm 1, a factor that could change our understanding of it. All three contexts in turn played a role in the composition of Psalm 119, but whilst the author of this long psalm also understood the ‘Torah’ of Yahweh as the incarnation of true wisdom, it seems that ‘Torah’ also subsumed the Promised Land for him. The investigation showed that ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 should be understood as an arch-lexeme for all the religious texts its author used to compose, similar to what was the understanding of the author of Psalm 119 a little later.

  6. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  7. Information transfer in verbal presentations at scientific meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Edward A.

    The purpose of this note is to suggest a quantitative approach to deciding how much time to give a speaker at a scientific meeting. The elementary procedure is to use the preacher's rule of thumb that no souls are saved after the first 20 minutes. This is in qualitative agreement with the proverb that one cannot listen to a single voice for more than an hour without going to sleep. A refinement of this crude approach can be made by considering the situation from the point of view of a linear physical system with an input, a transfer function, and an output. We attempt here to derive an optimum speaking time through these considerations.

  8. Семантико-прагматическая характеристика паремий со значением волеизъявления

    OpenAIRE

    Маслова, Л.

    2005-01-01

    The article considers the functioning of Slavic (Russian, Serbian, Bulgarian) proverbs in utterances of various pragmatic orientation such as advice, requirement, request, promise. Methods of pragmatic analysis are applied.

  9. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  10. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  11. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  12. “Wood for the Trees”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the t rees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resou rce rather than the collective wood[s] , implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of fore st and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high - value timber. By the late twentieth c entury, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movement s against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region . Wood for the t rees , curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington , plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawi lil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial p ole , Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into c olonisation , Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory s tick , and Añ A Wojak’s (2008 Unread b ook (in a forgotten language . Our art writing on the works, a practi ce informed by Bal (2002, Mueck e (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to t hat which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  13. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

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    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  14. Norma y uso: las ideas educativas en Juan de Robles / Etymology and use: The educational ideas of Juan de Robles

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    Alejandro Gómez Camacho

    2014-10-01

    El culto sevillano (1631. This paper focuses on the educational ideals in Robles´s works and the relationships between spelling and teaching of reading. By examining Robles´s pedagogical references, one prominent idea is emphasized: teaching of reading aren´t encouraged by phonetic spelling. Consequently, new letters of the Spanish alphabet and new alphabetical order have been rejected. The grammarians who defended phonetic spelling assert the new letters help Spanish children to learn to read faster and better than the traditional literacy. Letter names and alphabetical order are also changed to facilitate literacy learning. In contrast, traditional alphabet and etymological spelling are reclaimed by Juan de Robles for teaching reading and writing, because the phonetic spelling had slowed down the learning of literacy. Robles also criticizes Jesuit schools and Ratio Studiorum. The primacy of Spanish over Latin and the use of tales and proverbs for education are the major discrepancies between Robles and Jesuit pedagogy. The results of this paper show that pedagogic arguments that link Spanish grammar and spelling with teaching of reading and writing in the Spanish Golden Century are incorporated into the controversy over Spanish orthography reform also to defend traditional spelling around the first third of the seventeenth century.

  15. A tríade naturalizante na concepção educacional de Pestalozzi e Froebel: homem, Deus e natureza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Arce

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O presente artigo é resultado da tese de doutoramento que versou a respeito do estudo da idéias de Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 e de Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852. Neste trabalho nosso objetivo é o de apresentar e analisar as idéias que estes autores possuíam sobre o Homem, a Natureza e Deus. Esta triade constitui-se na pedra fundamental de suas teorias educacionais. Para tanto o estudo realizado centra-se sobre duas obras fundamentais de ambos A Educação do Homem - Aforismos de Pestalozzi e A Educação do Homem, de Froebel. A conclusão a que chegamos aponta para o processo de naturalização e mistificação dos três integrantes desta tríade, o que lhe atribuiria um caráter a-histórico e reacionário.Palavras chave: Pestalozzi, Froebel, escolanovismo.   Abstract This article belongs to our doctorate thesis studies, which one analyzed Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 and Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852 educational thoughts. The aim of this article is to present and analyze the ideas of Froebel and Pestalozzi about Man, God and Nature. This triune substantiated author's educational theory. Therefore this study focuses on two fundamental books written by each authors: The Education of Man - Aphorisms from Pestalozzi and The Education of Man from Froebel. The conclusion of this work shows us a comp1etely naturalization and mystification of the triune integrants, which make it not historical and conservative for this century. Key words: Pestalozzi, Froebel, progressive education. 

  16. The best advice I ever got.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wademan, Daisy

    2005-01-01

    A young manager faces an impasse in his career. He goes to see his mentor at the company, who closes the office door, offers the young man a chair, recounts a few war stories, and serves up a few specific pointers about the problem at hand. Then, just as the young manager is getting up to leave, the elder executive adds one small kernel of avuncular wisdom--which the junior manager carries with him through the rest of his career. Such is the nature of business advice. Or is it? The six essays in this article suggest otherwise. Few of the leaders who tell their stories here got their best advice in stereotypical form, as an aphorism or a platitude. For Ogilvy & Mather chief Shelly Lazarus, profound insight came from a remark aimed at relieving the tension of the moment. For Novartis CEO Daniel Vasella, it was an apt comment, made on a snowy day, back when he was a medical resident. For publishing magnate Earl Graves and Starwood Hotels' Barry Sternlicht, advice they received about trust from early bosses took on ever deeper and more practical meaning as their careers progressed. For Goldman Sachs chairman Henry Paulson, Jr., it was as much his father's example as it was a specific piece of advice his father handed down to him. And fashion designer Liz Lange rejects the very notion that there's inherent wisdom in accepting other people's advice. As these stories demonstrate, people find wisdom when they least expect to, and they never really know what piece of advice will transcend the moment, profoundly affecting how they later make decisions, evaluate people, and examine--and reexamine--their own actions. PMID:15697111

  17. Urkönig-Urmenscg: il romanticismo politico di novalis ed il katechon del re

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Panno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Faith and Love [Glaube und Liebe] is not only a praise of the monarchy or a collection of great aesthetical aphorisms which belong to the usual definition of Romanticism. This paper aims to recognize the frame of the political thought of NOVALIS through an analysis of SCHMITT’s critique of Romanticism. To understand the figure of King and Queen means to find out their roots in NOVALIS’ conception of the exchange between I and Not I. This contribution focuses on the way in which NOVALIS tries to free Fichtes’ principles of the first Doctrine of Science from their theoretical prison and to apply them to a practical field. NOVALIS’ true Utopia is the achievement of an individual’s capacity to be more than a simple I, through recognizing the internal division of the subject and its necessity to build up a non-subjective relationship to the world. The true identity which exists between Subject and Subject is nothing that can be considered safe for always, rather it bases the giving up of an illusory world-construction. The way NOVALIS intends to avoid the Subject-Object relation and it runs through the death of the illusory world of the I as an abdication in the meaning of PESSOA’s work. To imitate the symbol of the King, who looses his character of temporal power to become a pure soul, which means to be that man, who able to achieve his true nature by letting the Not I become a You.

  18. Syphilis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockman, Solomon; Buescher, Lucinda S; Stone, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue).(1) For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty-syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)-devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as "the great imitator." Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler's well-known aphorism, "The physician who knows syphilis knows medicine."(2) When penicillin was discovered, and used to treat syphilis in 1943, some thought that syphilis would go by the wayside, but syphilis continued what it has been doing for so many years . . . inconspicuously infecting humans. The United States has seen the incidence of syphilis increase numerous times throughout the past 70years. Every decrease in the incidence of syphilis is followed shortly by an increase. A marked shift in the epidemiology occurred from 1990 to 2000. In the 1990s, syphilis primarily occurred in heterosexual minority groups. In the new millennium, a majority of cases of syphilis are now transmitted among men who have sex with men (MSM).(3) This contribution discusses the incidence of syphilis in the United States and the reasons these trends continue. PMID:24559556

  19. Homeopatia: prática médica coadjuvante Homeopathy: coadjutant medical practice

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    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em vista do binômio saúde-doença da concepção homeopática abranger aspectos diversos da individualidade humana, a escolha do medicamento deve englobar as características psíquicas, emocionais, gerais e físicas do paciente. Neste processo de "individualização do medicamento", o entendimento da complexidade humana exige tempo e dedicação, encontrando a resposta satisfatória após um conjunto variável de atuações. Atuando de forma coadjuvante às demais práticas médicas, o médico homeopata deve ter consciência de que poderá suspender os medicamentos alopáticos necessários à manutenção da integridade do paciente tão somente quando tiver certeza da ação substitutiva do medicamento homeopático escolhido. Deste modo, estará cumprindo o aforismo hipocrático primo non nocere.Considering that in the homeopathic conception, the binomial health-disease encompasses several aspects of human individuality, choice of the medication should include the patient's psychic, emotional, general and physical characteristics. In this process of "individualization of medication", understanding the human complexity demands time and dedication to finding the satisfactory reply after a variable number of attempts. Acting as coadjutant to other medical practices, the homeopath should be aware that he may only interrupt administration of the allopathic drugs necessary for maintenance of the patient's integrity when he is assured of the substitutive action of the homoeopathic medication chosen. This way, the Hippocratic aphorism primo non nocere will be fulfilled.

  20. Reflections on the Mediostructure in Special-Field Dictionaries. Also According to the Example of the Dictionary for Lexicography and Dictionary Research *

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    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    One who runs alone cannot be outrun by another(Ethiopian proverb

    Abstract: The central question posed in this contribution is: What constitutes the differencebetween a special-field dictionary article giving a cross-reference with a fixed textual referenceposition on the one hand, and a special-field dictionary article giving a cross-reference without afixed reference position on the other, with regard to systematic cross-referencing? Because this veryspecial type of question can only be answered systematically with reference to a theory of themediostructure, some necessary terms are firstly introduced by means of illustrative analyses ofspecial-field dictionary articles giving cross-references, such as e.g. homogeneously externally orientateddictionary article, heterogeneously externally orientated dictionary article, item identifying the starting-point of the reference, item giving the reference, item giving a reference marker, mediostructural articlenetwork, the user’s pre-knowledge relevant to the reference, position-bound reference, item-bound reference,single and expanded domain for the starting-point for the reference, mediostructural selection and manymore. On the basis of various analyses of different special-field dictionary articles with variableand fixed reference positions, a picture evolves which comes close to the situation where the questionat the beginning of the contribution can be answered as follows: When the results of an appropriatemediostructural selection are presented by means of the application of the method of itemboundreference in special-field dictionaries with a variable reference position, and also when thishappens by means of the application of the method of position-bound reference in special-fielddictionaries with a fixed reference position, it is possible in principle that a systematic referenceorientated to the dictionary functions can result. It can continuously be established, however, thatin

  1. Kutadgu Bilig ve Divanü Lûgat-it-Türk’e Göre ‘Saç-Sakal’ Kültürü Üzerine About the Culture of Hair-Beard According to Kutadgu Bilig and Divanü Lûgat-it-Türk

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    Adem AYDEMİR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The critical edition of Kutadgu Bilig, which is one of the works of Karahanlı Turkish period, was published by Prof. Dr. Reşit Rahmeti Arat in 1947. The translation of Divanü Lugati’t Türk, which was published by Besim Atalay in 1939/ 1941. In this article, for thispurpose we used the Reşid Rahmeti Arat Besim Atalay publications ofknowledge for wealth.Kutadgu Bilig and Divanü Lugati’t-Türk is very important worksfor Turkısh culture. Therefore, Kutadgu Bilig and Divanü Lugati’t Türkwhich is the first source about the Turkish world’s literature, language,cultural, social situation in the 11th century gives us very important andoriginal knowledge’s for Turcology researching.Written in Karahanlı Turkish by Kâşgarlı Mahmud, the founder ofthe Turkology, Divanü Lugati’t Türk is one of the main guideline workson Turkish language in many directions. This work has an illuminatingsignificance not only for Karahanlı Turkish period but also for precedingand following periods as Kâşgarlı Mahmud enriched his work, which isprimarily a dictionary, with some grammatical elements besidesvocabulary. The Kutadgu Bilig and Divanü Lugati’t Türk which is thesource about the Turkish world’s literature, language, cultural, socialsituation in the eleventh century gives us very important and originalknowledge’s for Turcology researching. But it has not been analyzedwithin the detailed context of culture of hair-beard. Therefore, in thisarticle, investigates of culture of hair-beard of Turkish culture accordingto Kutadgu Bilig and Divanü Lugati’t Türk. This study made by generalscanning model. Therefore, firstly scanning Kutadgu Bilig and DivanüLugati’t Türk line by line, all words, idioms, proverbs, couplets, andwritten-in-verse components reflecting culture of hair-beard of its agehave been indexed and listed in itself. Karahanlı Türkçesi eserlerinden olan Kutadgu Bilig’in karşılaştırmalı metin yayını 1947 y

  2. Sözlü Kültürden Yazılı Kültüre Bir Metin Aktarımı Örneği: Muğla’dan Derlenmiş Bir Efsane ile Kurumuş Ağaçlar Hikâyesinin Mukayeseli İncelemesi An Example Transferring Text From Oral To Written Culture: A Comparative Study of a Legend Compiled from Muğla and the Story of Kurumuş Ağaçlar (The Dried Trees

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    Sibel TURHAN TUNA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exactly like works of art, literature, which is a branch of art, andits works, cannot be considered separately from people, society, andtherefore from the culture it is fed in. Even the starting point of themost abstract work, is a part of the culture. In this context, literature,which incorporates cultural elements, has two arms such as oral andwritten literature; both of which is away from the other regarding thestyle, but closely related to it in the sense of content; eventually theyboth are nourished by the same source, this common source is thehuman. Starting from all these, the subject of this study is decided tobe the comparative studies of two narratives in the sense ofintertextuality; one of which is written, and the other is still kept alivein the oral tradition. One of the texts belongs to Ömer Seyfettin, a storynamed Kurumuş Ağaçlar (The Dried Trees, for which Ömer Seyfettinwould said that he heard the story from Ali Canip’s mother in the year1920. And the other is a legend which is similar to Ömer Seyfettin’sstory with regards to the story line, and is compiled in November 2007by us, and ascertained that it was heard from the source person’s fatherby him. In the study, factors such as the elements are brought toforefront and are maintained while the oral narrative, which is natural,is transferred into the written narrative, which is an artificial one basedon the personal conception of language; the attitude of the author andnarrator regarding the texts; and the common messages that both textsseek to convey; are discussed with regards to intertextuality. In fact,after studying both texts, one of which belongs to the oral and the otherto the written literature, in accordance with the aforementionedmethod; it is indicated that both of them converge on the proverb “Everycloud has a silver lining.”, which is one of the cultural codes. Tıpkı sanat eserleri gibi, sanatın bir kolu olan edebiyat ve onun eserleri de

  3. The Role of Shahnameh’s Verses in Textual Coherence of Tarikh-e Jahangosha

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    فرزانه علوی زاده

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarikh-e Jahangosha is the most important work about Kharazmshahian and the Mongols. Utilising imagery, rhetoric, abundant Persian and Arabic poems, Quranic verses and traditions, and proverbs have caused the prose to resemble poetry, fading its historical goals. Here, quoting verses from the mythological parts of Shahnameh, Rostam and Sohrab stories (37verses, and Rostam and Esfandiar (26 verses doubles the literary value of the book on the one hand, and brilliantly indicates Joveini’s inclination to Shahnameh and Ferdowsi on the other. Studying the coherence and the congruency between the verses of Shahnameh and the prose of Tarikh Jahangosha, this essay seeks to scientifically demonstrate that this connection has occurred with a rhetorical approach, mentioning that it should be attended more in connection to the structural aspect than the historical goals of the book. Therefore, the functions of Shahnameh’s Verses in Tarikh-e Jahangosha and the methods of their merging has been studied from three aspects of syntactic, semantic, and literary, and each with appropriate evidence. Key Words: Tarikh-e Jahangosha, Shahnameh’s Verses, Syntactic Connections, Semantic Connections, Literary Connections, Textual Coherence.

  4. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

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    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  5. A quadrilha e o circo: aspectos linguísticos, discursivos e intertextuais em uma análise comparativa de editoriais de jornal

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    Renata Aparecida Freitas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of two metropolitan newspaper editorials, published at the same day and concerning to the same subject: the dossier about the governmental expenses of former Brazilian President Cardoso. Its aim was to analyze the editorials under linguistic and discursive points of view, and to identify intertextual references. The discursive and linguistic analysis was based on the conception of discursive genre by Bakhtin (1992 rescued by Charaudeau (2006 and applied to the genre newspaper editorial, considering the conditions in which it is produced and its instance of enunciation. The analysis was also based on the ideas of Melo (1985, Fuser (2002 and Cheida (2002 to comment the neutrality searched by the editorialist when expressing the newspaper opinion. Intertextual references were identified and classified according to Maia (2006 and Walty and Cury (2005. Proverbs analysis was based on the papers of Rodrigues (2009, Vellasco (2009 and Sande (2009. The results showed linguistic similarities, intertextual references to add a literary aspect or credibility to the texts, critics to the ruling government and search for neutrality in both editorials.

  6. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  7. THE EFFECT OF FRENCH ON THE TANZİMAT LİTERATURE AND SERVET-İ FÜNUN ( WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE

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    Ali YAĞLI

    2012-03-01

    century. Education in both French and Turkish was given in navigation schools, in medicals schools and engineering schools which were opened during the time of Ahmet III; they were rearranged again and were supported by Mahmut III. In the process of arranging books, similar books from Europe were taken as an example. Besides books, encyclopedias were speedily published. The negative influence of French newspapers published in İzmir and Istanbul continued to affect the Turkish language. It is possible to see the words such as madam, museum, operas, committee, modern, fabricator, economics, political and democrat in the first issue of the newspaper called Basiret in 1870. Nouns like restaurant, café, hotel, school, cinema, theatre and patisserie began to appear in commercial and economical domains in the 19th century as well. Lots of new commercial companies in Beyoğlu in Istanbul preferred some French names. It is worth pointing out that French was the most recognized foreign language spoken in those times. The officials of those times were trying to encourage everyone to learn a foreign language keeping in mind the proverb “A man who speaks a language is a man, a man who speaks two languages is worth two men, a man who speaks three is worth all mankind.” For example, the newspaper Mecmua-i Lisan(1898-1900 taught its readers French through translation. During the Tanzimat Period of the Ottoman Empire, when “western literature” was mentioned, French literature was the most acknowledged among all. Almost all of our writers were influenced by French writers when writing their first books. For this reason, most of our writers knew French. For example, Şinasi learned French while working as a secretary at Reşat Bey’s office. Later on, when he went to France, he started to be well known in literature by translating Lamartine’s books. Another example is Ziya Paşa, who knew French and Arabic. He learned French while working at the Palace as a secretary; Ethem

  8. Türkçe Öğretiminde Metin Seçimi

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    Firdevs Güneş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In our world, from 1900s to the present day, many kind of texts have been used in language teaching. These texts are grouped under the headings such as literary, produced, original and private texts". The choosing of the texts changes depending on the language teaching approaches and methods. Each approach has used its own text.The literary texts have been used in traditional approach due to focus on teaching of issues such as grammar rules, proverbs, literature and general culture. In behavioral approach, the language has been considered as a behavior and has been teached via repetation, imitation, memorizing. The produced texts have been used in this approach instead of literary texts. In cognitive approach, the view of “language is a communication tool” has spreaded and the original texts have been started to use in this approach. Nowadays, the understanding of “ language is a social interaction tool” has been come up via constructivist learning approach. The original and private texts have been started to use in this approach. Thus, the literary, produced, original and private texts have been used in language teaching, respectively.These developments in our world have been also seen inTurkish teaching. In the past, the literary texts were used in Turkish teaching, however, the original and private texts have been used in a new Turkish Teaching Programme and this new Turkish Teaching Programme includes text structures such as narrative, informative and poetry.

  9. Digging One's Own Grave

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    Arvo Krikmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that some points in the explicationof the figurative expression digging one’s own grave via the concept of blending given by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner are problematic: (1 Not understanding the consequences of one’s deeds is an almost universal presuppositionof and impulse or motivation for actualizing any utterance with a forewarning or gloating content (e.g., proverbs, not the singularity characterizing just the expression of grave-digging as such. (2 The inversion of causal and temporal structure is not the case because of metonymic association between the concepts of the grave and death, as a result of which specific causal and temporal order loses any significance. Many synonymous examples can be given in which the image refers to events before the death, between the death and funeral, as well as those after burial. (3 The source domain needs not to be restricted to natural death and modern civilized funerals but should include also the cases of violent deaths, e.g., the scenario of execution and the scenario of hunting and trapping. Preliminarily, a very brief synopsis of the main phases of development of cognitive linguistic theory of metaphor and some favourite examples of blends, used also in previous works, is provided.

  10. KESALAHAN PENERJEMAHAN BAHASA MANDARIN PADA MAHASISWA SASTRA CHINA BINUS UNIVERSITY PADA MATA KULIAH TERJEMAHAN UMUM

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    Agustinus Sufianto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Translation is an activity that transforms a written or verbal language to other written or verbal language. In its process, a translator should overcome the difficulty that caused by the cultural differences, habits, vocabularies and grammars which could help the translator to translate precisely without changing the original meaning of translations source. Through the translation lesson, the writer found some factors that caused the students mistake in translating Chinese into Indonesian or Indonesian into Chinese. On the other side, The writer found that the translations mistakes are caused by the lack of understanding Chinese and Indonesians history, culture and habit. There are some factors that lead to the lack of understanding of Chinese history, culture and habit such as the inability of student to understand the meaning of history, culture and habit that usually are contained on the words, proverb and sentences, the environment that are not supporting students to have a deep understanding of Chinese history, culture and habit. The deeper understanding of Chinese culture, history and habits could help student to translate Chinese that influenced by history, culture and the habit of Chinese precisely. Through the observation, the writer will analyze some factors and analyze how the lecturers could overcome the difficulties of translation that are faced by students.

  11. "WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT NOW" PROVERBIAL RHETORIC IN THE CHURCHILL-ROOSEVELT CORRESPONDENCE

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    Wolfgang Mieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Both Winston S. Churchill (1874-1965 and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 882-1945 were masters of the English language and effective orators, rallying their people through word and deed to fight as allies against the dictatorial powers during the Second World War. Their public speeches and interviews are replete with proverbs, proverbial expressions, and other phraseologisms. This is also true for their private and secretive letters, messages, memoranda, and telegrams, as can be seen from the materials that Warren F. Kimball edited in the three volumes of Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. The proverbial language, especially metaphorical texts referring to the body, animals, and the military, gives their important communications a lively and humane flavor that illustrates their deep friendship, trust, and support of each other. Frequently used as metaphorical arguments, these proverbial interjections into an otherwise factual epistolary exchange from 1933 to 1945 bear witness to the determination of these two world leaders to win the struggle for a free world.

  12. Wenceslau de Moraes, interpreter of japanese culture

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    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p153 In this article we will comment on the critical and creative aspects of Japanese poetry in the work of Portuguese author and diplomat Wenceslau Moraes, who was the first translator of Japanese haiku into Portuguese. The author adopted the form of quatrain poem using lines of five or seven syllables for transcription of Japanese three line verses.  Wenceslau valued puns, popular expressions and other elements of poetic function present in the traditional haiku. The author also commented on aspects of poetic art, philosophy, religion, aesthetics and Japanese language from the philosophical principles of Shinto and Buddhism. His complete works, in the form of essays, letters, diaries and travel reports, include 14 volumes dedicated to Japan and Japanese culture, with special attention to Relance da alma japonesa, published in 1925, a work that covers from tradition court poetry, collected from court anthologies published since the VIII Century a.D, to the classic haiku and popular songs and proverbs.

  13. “Civis romana sum”. La Londra intertestuale di Bernardine Evaristo

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    Samanta Trivellini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bernardine Evaristo’s novel in verse The Emperor’s Babe (2001 features the story of Zuleika, the daughter of Nubian immigrants, who lives in Roman London at the beginning of the third century A.D.. Evaristo’s sources are both classical – Latin poetry, proverbs, mottos, myths, as well as material culture – and modern – for example, Oscar Wilde’s perspective on history informs the revisionist intent of the novel.This article aims to examine the role of quotations and intertextual echoes in the development of the storyline and in the dialectic between past and present. If apparently they contribute to the recreation of the ancient cultural background, at a deeper level, they also engender ironic tensions and parodic effects through discrepancies in tone, style and narrative situations. Moreover, in relation to the protagonist’s gendered and subaltern position, quotations and other references are a crucial aspect of Evaristo’s rewriting of history: by mapping today’s post-imperial and multicultural London on to the Roman city, The Emperor’s Babe subverts the myth of the nation at its roots.

  14. Even an old technique is suitable in the molecular world of science: the everted sac preparation turns 60 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L

    2014-04-15

    An old proverb states "necessity is the mother of invention." This certainly holds true in science as one pursues research questions. Experimental techniques have evolved as scientists have asked more specific research questions. Indeed, techniques such as the Ussing chamber, the perfused renal tubule preparation, patch-clamp, polymerase chain reaction, and site-directed mutagenesis have been developed over the past 60 years. However, sometimes, simple techniques may be useful and still very informative, and this certainly applies to intestinal physiology. Indeed, Gerald Wiseman and Thomas Hastings Wilson described the intestinal everted sac preparation some 60 years ago. Since then, this technique has been used for numerous research purposes including determining ion, amino acid, water and solute transport across the intestinal epithelium; and drug metabolism, absorption, and interactions in pharmaceutical/pharmacological research and even in education. This article provides a historical review of the development of the in vitro intestinal preparation that led to the everted sac preparation and its use in science. PMID:24573083

  15. Bibliographical Sources on Music Therapy in Nigeria

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    Charles Onomudo Aluede

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Issues relating to health and healing are quite often very primary in the minds of every Nigerian. This is why in the country, short phrases, sentences and proverbs in appreciation of good health are either constantly said or inscribed on door lintels and vehicles by their owners. The   eminence of health is captured in texts such as: Health is Wealth, When Health is Lost all is Lost, No Sickness No Suffering, Death is a small enemy but Sickness is The Great Destroyer. These comments are indicative of the peoples’ views of illness and its effect on the society. To combat illness, allopathic and other forms of therapies are used. Music without doubt, remains one of such. In this regard, music is employed in diverse ways to obtain healthful and healing consequence by the people. Arising from the above, this paper identifies the works so far done in the area of Music therapy in Nigeria. It is the hope of this researcher that this step will help contemporary scholars and enthusiasts venturing into this field to find resource materials to rely on as they conduct field research and experiments.

  16. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  17. Mitigating global warming: traditional versus alternative approaches in a planning versus a market context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerup, Brita [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or alternative process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised. (Author)

  18. Cost-efficient or not cost-efficient is not the relevant question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerup, B. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management

    2002-02-01

    Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised.

  19. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  20. A Stylistic Introduction to Nushāfarin Nāme

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    حسن ذوالفقاری

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nushāfarin nāme is an Iranian prose folk tale recounting the passionate love and courageous acts of “Prince Ibrahim”, the son of “Jahangir Shah”, a king of China, to attain the hand of his beloved, Nushāfarin Gowhartāj ,the daughter of Damascus king. There are stylistic features of folk tales and traditional romances to be perceived in this tale, as heroic deeds, and the presence of supernatural creatures, plants, places, objects of wonder, use of cyclic plots, cliché statements, ballads, folk songs, proverbs, ironies and hyperboles, to count just a few. A semi-literary language has been employed there, with a prose reminiscent of that of the Gājār period, lacking the old fashioned style of the Safavid era's writings. There are many instances of descriptive verbs and colloquial expressions, with conspicuous folk tale and chivalric legendary themes. This tale, along with the tale of “Shiroyeh Namdar” have functioned as models of story-telling for Naqib-ol-Mamalek in writing Amir Arsalān. The present paper, having introduced Nushāfarin- nāme, explores elements of its influences on Amir Arsalān Nāmdār, while discussing and analyzing various features of the former.