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Sample records for aphorisms and proverbs

  1. Akan Proverbs and Aphorisms about Marriage | Agyekum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the Akan concept of marriage, and analyses aphorisms and proverbs that relate to Akan marriage. The aphorisms are discussed under four categories namely (a) marriage in general, (b) pre-marriage, (c) during marriage, and (d) post marriage. These maxims are analysed to depict how the Akans ...

  2. The African Proverbs Project and After

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs. Keywords: AFRICAN PROVERBS PROJECT, AFRICAN PROVERBS SERIES, PROVERB,. PAREMIOGRAPHY, PAREMIOLOGY. Opsomming: Die African Proverbs Project en daarna. Die Pew Charitable Trusts het die African Proverbs ...

  3. [Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøland, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded.

  4. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    expressed in it”. Proverbs form part of the various figures of speech in language, it is an embodiment of the wisdom and ethics of the traditional societies. A proverb is a condensed but .... meaning of any linguistic expression (be it a word, a phrase or a sentence) is determined by the context in which it is used. So, for one to ...

  5. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    It could be asserted that many proverbs that are used for encouragements are best deployed in conversational encounters involving a few culturally conscious members. Let us look at the underlisted proverbs. 3.1.2 Example B: Father, mother and son: 30. Ugomba: Papa nә mama iϕe m shị m gwaa m unu bә nacholә m iso ...

  6. UKRAINIAN HUT IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

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    LAHDAN S. P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern Ukrainian society, which is undergoing a national renaissance, greatly deepened interest in the symbols of material and spiritual culture as a form of identification and identity. Inseparable from life as language, song, were and are proverbs and sayings. As an expression of acute intelligence people, aesthetic preferences, high morality, humor, accuracy, wit and strength, wisdom and beauty of poetic language, they accompany mankind from antiquity and enrich the new generation. Valuable signs of Ukrainian culture proverbs are also the fact that generally have exemplary character, as giving advice, caution, warn, approve, condemn. Based on rich experience, proverbs reflect all sectors of the Ukrainian people, especially bright life, habits, lifestyle and mentality. The most important element of life without which you cannot imagine life before and today is the house - the personification of his native home, family, independence, well-being and hospitality. In the beginning attached great importance to the house, she was treated with great respect, ordered decorated holiday and protected. It found expression in many proverbs and sayings. These samples of folk wisdom affecting the eternal themes so do not lose their relevance today. Their research makes it possible to understand the deeper spirituality, especially the outlook of the Ukrainian people. Purpose. To find out the semantics of the component "khata" in the proverbs and sayings identify productivity in shaping Ukrainian folklore. Conclusion. Proverbs and sayings of the component "hut" reflect various spheres of life Ukrainian: the organization of life, family relationships, moral and ethical code, mentality, especially social relations. Home is inseparable from its inhabitants, becoming masters of character, its appearance characterizes the attitude of the hosts it, the house represents those relationships that have developed between family members

  7. Les proverbLes proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons. Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbe fait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Il reste un instrument d'éducation ...

  8. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

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    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.

    Mots-clés: ANALYSE FORMELLE, ANALYSE SÉMANTIQUE, CLASSIFICATION THÉMATIQUE,DIDACTIQUE, DICTIONNAIRE, GENRE PROVERBIAL, IDIOMES, LEXICOGRAPHE,LEXICOGRAPHIE, LISTE CENTRALE, LITTÉRATURE ORALE, PRÉ-TEXTES, POST-TEXTES,PROVERBES

    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  9. The African proverbs project and after | Mbiti | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs. Keywords: african proverbs project, african ...

  10. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  11. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figures of Speech are expressions which depart from the acceptable literary sense that are employed to give particular emphasis to an idea or a sentiment in order to beautify a literary work such as poetry and proverbs. These devices occupy an important position in proverbs and they perform functions which make the ...

  12. Metaphorical and literal readings of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    strategy in constructing a unitary moral vision, can also be observed within other .... noun in v 4b) has a marked alliterative effect, rendered all the more effective .... directly addressed. This is no longer the subtitle of the book, but a miniature foreword in which the first-tear users of the book are addressed: the wise who.

  13. Metaphorical and literal readings of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a corollary, illustrations of the many instances where literal readings are necessary, so that such an overriding hermeneutical perspective cannot be convincing. Interpreting a metaphor is one thing, reading metaphorically is another, notably a creative act independent of whether its “correctness” can be demonstrated by ...

  14. Psalm 26 and Proverbs: Tracing wisdom themes

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    Annette Potgieter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discernment of Psalm 26 as a cultic psalm has prevented noticing vital connections with wisdom literature. These connections with Proverbs and other known wisdom psalms provide clues for the composition of Psalm 26 to be set in the post-exilic period. The way in which wisdom literature is used conveys the religious ethos and daily life of a community. The fact that the wisdom character of Psalm 26 has been overlooked can be viewed as one of the main reasons why Psalm 26 has been interpreted solely in a cultic setting. The sapiential influence of this psalm has been confused to only reflect the cultic aspects. The psalmist wants to live a life according to wisdom as he seeks the rewards of being close to Yahweh.

  15. Metaphorical conceptualization of success in American success books, aphorisms and quotes

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    Łącka-Badura Jolanta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to investigate how SUCCESS is conceptualized metaphorically in popular American success books, aphorisms and quotes. The study is based on an analysis of a corpus comprising over 600 utterances in which the lexical entry SUCCESS is regarded as constituting part of a metaphorical expression. The utterances have been extracted from the initial corpus of 10 success guide books, as well as 150 success aphorisms and quotes by famous Americans. The study investigates two aspects of this conceptualization. In the first instance, it examines which metaphorical source domains, as understood within the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, prove to be most productive in the corpus. Secondly, in line with the frequently expressed views that the significance of conceptual metaphor as an explanatory construct is sometimes overstated in cognitive linguistic research, the paper attempts to analyze examples of linguistic metaphors which appear to be motivated in ways that are, at least in part, independent of well-established conceptual mappings, with particular emphasis on the resemblance-based and image metaphors associated with the predicate nominative forms ‘X is a Y’.

  16. A Comparison of English and Japanese Proverbs Using Natural Semantic Metalanguage

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    Miles Neale

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the meaning of semantically similar English and Japanese proverbs. It uses textual data sourced from online corpora to highlight and compare the different cultural and conceptual elements embedded within these proverbs. The findings of this investigation demonstrate that matching proverbs from different languages is a potentially problematic exercise, both in dictionaries and in the second-language classroom.

  17. Ancient Israelite and African proverbs as advice, reproach, warning, encouragement and explanation

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    David T. Adamo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, the majority of biblical scholars (Euroamericans and Africans concentrate on comparing ancient Israelite proverbs with the so-called ancient Near Eastern proverbs. Despite the importance of proverbs in Sub-Saharan Africa it is doubly unfortunate that the majority of African biblical scholars did not think it wise to compare proverbs from ancient Israel with Sub-Saharan African proverbs. It is also a double tragedy that young people in Sub-Saharan Africa are ignorant of proverbs because they have refused to learn them because they think them archaic. Proverbs in both ancient Israel and in Africa are similar in function and classification. Thus, they serve as advice, reproach, warning, encouragement and further explanation of some facts. They have great value and importance, such as giving a sense of identity, community, culture, respect for authority and elders, sacredness of everything under the sun and a sense of hospitality and others.

  18. Proverbs as Discourse: The Example of Igbo Youth and Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, their contextual explication and communicative content are often revealing of the cultural history and contemporary experience of those who use them. Drawing upon the Igbo example, this paper explores the discourse potentials of proverbs with the aim of depicting crucial aspects of the Igbo cultural heritage and ...

  19. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    In this paper, our aim is to examine some figures of speech in Ondo proverbs. However, the main thrust of this paper is on figures of association and figures of sound. A follow up paper will examine the other poetic devices that have not been discussed here. Before we go into the analysis of this first part, we shall give a brief ...

  20. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian. Proverbs: Examples from Ondo Culture. (Pp. 118-132). Akinmade, C. Arinola - Department of English, University of Jos. arinakinmade@yahoo.com. Abstract. Figures of Speech are expressions which depart from the acceptable literary sense that are employed to give ...

  1. The testimony of the time: Aphorism

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Short literary form known as aphorism in the beginning of its development relied on saying. Aphorism concisely expresses general experience, life philosophy, situation and position of a man in this world, socio-political and historical paradoxes etc. Although it is often taken as a criticism of society, it can also be understood as a testimony of time. This paper reveals one aspect of this phenomenon that was neglected by literary theory - aphorism as a form of expressing author’s attitude towards society and its reality.

  2. The New Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian Idioms and Proverbs

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    Bárdosi Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly surveying the research carried out in Hungary on the origin of sayings, proverbs and adages, this paper introduces and exemplifies the way the new Hungarian phraseological etymological dictionary has been compiled. It subsequently presents excerpts from the dictionary that will expound on the origin of 1800 set phrases and statistically analyses the linguistic, cultural-historical, historical, literary, ethnographic and intercultural background of the Hungarian set phrases included in the dictionary.

  3. The Neurology of Proverbs

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    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  4. Una miscelanea de refranes espanoles raros, curiosos, y jocosos (A Miscellany of Rare, Curious and Humorous Spanish Proverbs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Francis

    This listing of unusual Spanish proverbs contains words of wisdom on money, doctors, agriculture, students, procrastination, pessimism, war, good and evil, religion, God, and a host of other topics. The topic of each proverb is given in English. (CHK)

  5. Study of allegories and proverbs used in Kalim Kashani’s Divan

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    Mohammad Mir

    2016-12-01

    As mentioned information, it can be found that as a famous poet in Hindi style, Kalim Kashani did not abstain using proverb and allegory in his Divan and put these literary devices in his poetries in the best way. The poet has used proverb in his Divan more than allegory and the allegory device has less appearance.

  6. On the role of Igbo proverbs in conflict resolution and reconciliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected in both planned and spontaneous settings. The study adopts the speech act theory in the analysis of some selected proverbs bringing out the various functions and impact of proverbs in enhancing conflict resolution and promotion of peaceful co-existence in human interpersonal relationships.

  7. Igbo Proverbs and the Emergence of a Metaphysical Model of Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of proverbs in the search for a model of analysis is the focus of this work. Igbo proverbs have continually offered access and insight into the thought patterns of Igbo people. Even though a collective consciousness may not be called a philosophy in the strict sense, an analysis of the thoughts, experiences and ...

  8. Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality | Olatunji | Legon Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempted to establish some links between traditional Yorùbá instrumental music and instrumentation or performance with proverbs. Eleven Yorùbá proverbs that reflect either vocal or instrumental performance were collected, categorized and analysed according to their respective functionalities among members ...

  9. Woman Wisdom and the ethical vision of the book of Proverbs: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article has approached the book of Proverbs from an ethical perspective and has argued that the African view of ethics has a rich quality embedded in communitarian values that can be explored heuristically to interpret the ethical vision of the book of Proverbs. Such an approach, it is suggested, has pedagogical ...

  10. Translation difficulties in the Romanian version of Arthur Schopenhauer’s Aphorisms. A contrastive and diachronic analysis (I

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    Cecilia-Iuliana Vârlan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on a late work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life, and on its only Romanian version, delivered at the end of the 19th century by Titu Maiorescu. The existence of five editions of this Romanian version, that have been published by the translator himself during a period of 40 years, represents a clear proof of the fact that transposing a German philosophical text into Romanian involved a series of translating difficulties. Observing the way Titu Maiorescu tried to overcome these difficulties by adopting specific translation solutions produced an analysis which was conducted from the linguistic perspective and which followed two directions: the contrastive one (as a result of direct comparison between source-text and target-text and the diachronic one (which considered the interventions made by the same translator on his own text at different points in time. The linguistic analysis of a philosophical text was considered to be the most appropriate and useful approach not only for the present research, but also for future translators of the Aphorisms, who would aim at adapting the discourse of Titu Maiorescu’s version to the contemporary Romanian language, by taking into consideration its obvious evolution, especially in terms of its philosophical vocabulary.

  11. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  12. The Roles of Age and Gender in Applying Proverbs and Expressions in Daily Conversations of Shirazians

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    Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Change and transformation are the basic characteristics of languages. Each community incorporates different generations with different ideologies toward life and obviously use different dialects. The difference in dialects among different generations in Iran is so drastic that it seems people speak different languages. This research has attempted to study the amount of applying proverbs and expressions in different age-groups of the society. Therefore, two groups of 24 respondents were randomly selected from both male and female as the statistical population so that investigating age and sex factors in the type and amount of applying proverbs and expressions in the daily conversations become possible. All participants were interviewed individually and their sentences were transcribed accurately. By counting the number of proverbs and expressions in the sentences of Middle-aged and teenager groups, and also by counting the male and female participants, and considering their Expression Density; i.e., the proportion of the number of proverbs and expressions to the total number of the words of each sentence, and by using the method of inferential non-parametric statistics, these results have been achieved: 1.The Middle-aged Group use more proverbs and expressions than teenagers. Perhaps, because they are more familiar with the culture and literature, and they are much more aware of the delicacies of language and literature. 2.Teenagers also use proverbs and expressions; however, these are of the type of words which were inserted suddenly into the lexicon of the society through printed matters or media and cyber networks. 3.Moreover, men totally use more proverbs and expressions than women in their daily conversations.

  13. Similarities and Differences between the Romanian and Serbian Proverbs. Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic and Anton Pann

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    Virginia POPOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sayings and proverbs are the elements of spirit and wisdom of a people, represent the force of thought and metaphor, intelligence and spiritual wisdom, the power of observation, the truths of skills argumentation and to explore life, the power of language to express much in few words. From everything that exists in literary creation, a particular difficulty lies in translating sayings and proverbs from one language to another. From what has created in the whole literary work, a particular challenge is to translate the sayings and proverbs from one language to another. Romanian and Serbian reflects very well the virtues which are adapted to express sayings and proverbs, communicate more in a few words say more than what is said with words, if that partner has the satisfaction to decipher the intentions of the author. Both pickers’ sayings, Vuk Karadzic and Anton Pann have desire as their collections through this remember the sayings and proverbs Serbian and Romanian, and contributed to their entry into our everyday language, and gave the magnitude and expressiveness.

  14. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marc H; Chance, Steven A; Cram, David F; Crow, Tim J; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were transcribed from recorded interviews with patients with schizophrenia and control subjects. The productive aspect of implicatures was assessed by quantifying the use of 'connectors' in discourse. Receptive aspects were assessed by scoring interpretations of four common proverbs. Statistically significant effects were found: patients with schizophrenia used connectors less than controls as well as performing worse in proverb comprehension. Positive correlations between connectors and proverb interpretation in all subjects suggested an underlying pragmatic root for both productive and receptive aspects. The relative number of connectors (as a percentage of words used) provided a better index of pragmatic ability than total number because total output appeared to be influenced by additional factors such as IQ. Deficits were found in the use of connectors and in proverb interpretation even when controlling for verbal IQ, suggesting that pragmatic aspects of language are particularly vulnerable in schizophrenia compared with other verbal abilities.

  15. World And Woe: A Sociological Reading Of Proverbs As An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emphasis in this paper is how proverbs are used in the Yoruba socio-cultural societies to therapeutically achieve stability, in all spheres, in a woe-ridden world, using relevant indexes. The investigation done in this paper is predicated on the sociological school of criticism which sees literature as a reflection of the ...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of Some Selected Arabic Proverbs and Their English Translation Equivalents: A Contrastive Approach

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    Marwa Essam Eldin Fahmi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine some common proverbs in Arabic and their English counterparts to shed light on significant socio-cultural differences. The choice of sample proverbs is based upon thematic classification. Proverbs are words combined together to form larger semantic units which are encoded by the speaker and decoded by the hearer by means of their underlined knowledge of the language itself. Proverbs, as metaphoric expressions or as cultural discourse, are codified on semantic structures. Thereby, Proverbs are figural and signifying acts of meaning that mediate interpretation and negotiate pragmatic signification at linguistic, philosophical and cultural levels. While proverbs make up and reflect the cultural identity of a specific society, and despite the uniqueness of languages and the profound differences between cultures, there are proverbs that shed light on universal truths of human life, common traditions and beliefs. Such proverbs have bridged linguistic and cultural barriers throughout human history. Keywords: Equivalence – English/Arabic Proverbs–Intercultural competence – Phraseology –Socio-semiotics

  17. Polysemantics of Zoomorphic Images in Proverbs and Sayings of the English and Kazakh Languages

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    Shara Mazhitaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of zoomorphic images in proverbs and sayings of the English and Kazakh languages. The work studies and compares national specific features of Kazakh and English linguistic cultures. This knowledge is crucial for intercultural research. The paper is focused on comparative analysis of English and Kazakh proverbs, containing lexical units “wolf” and “dog”. The analysis detected polysemantic character of wolf and dog images in the studied languages. Similarities and differences of wolf and dog images reflect general and specific character of ethnic-oriented culturological constants, existing in consciousness of representatives of different ethnic groups.

  18. Proverbs as a Communication Strategy: (Decodification of Meaning and Pragmatic-Discursive Function

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    Xavier Pascual López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, theoretical overview of how proverbs are used as a communicative and discursive strategy, taking into account the speaker’s communicative intention. I will pay attention both to the benefits of the use of this type of formulaic sequence in the construction of the speech, and to the illocutionary force and pragmatic implications entailed by these utterances. In order to do so, some considerations will be required – the encoding of the meaning of the proverbs, the decoding process by the addressee, and the way proverbs are inserted in the discourse. This paper inspects the importance of such factors as the need for articulation of fluent speech, the assumption of cultural patterns, the appeal to proverbiality that aligns the speaker with power structures of the community, or the masking of the speaker’s voice behind a collective entity in order to socialize and release tensions related to interpersonal contact.

  19. The case of proverbs in Northern Sotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The Use of Proverbs in Hip-hop Music: The Example of. Yoruba Proverbs in 9ice's Lyrics. Proverbium 31: 35-58. Čermák, F. 2014. Proverbs: Their Lexical and Semantic Features. Burlington, Vermont: University of. Vermont. Chabata, E. 2013. The Language Factor in the Development of Africa: A Case for the Compilation.

  20. FEATURES OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION IN A MIRROR OF THE RUSSIAN AND FRENCH PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

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    Tatiana ZHARKOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, requirements to the communicative aspect of speech and features of business communication are considered on the basis of the Russian and French proverbs and the sayings the knowledge of which promotes adopting of trainees to the culture of the people of the country of the studied language, and also facilitates the process of cross-cultural communication.

  1. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  2. Idioms and Proverbs in Official Documents of the Slovene School System

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    Brigita Kacjan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an interesting and important, but hitherto neglected phenomenon, the presence of idioms and proverbs in the Slovenian curricula and/or knowledge catalogues. These are official national documents and at the macro level they set out a framework for language teaching and idioms and proverbs are constituent parts of them, as they are natural, multiword, frequent, stable linguistic units with idiomatic characteristics. They represent a significant part of everyday language and it would be expected that they will be accordingly represented in curriculum/knowledge catalogues for the language subjects in the entire vertical of the Slovenian school system. In the empirical part, where excerpts from a total of 11 curriculum/knowledge catalogs are cited, it is shown that idioms and proverbs occur in only a very modest size, unsystematically and sporadically, that the related terminology is not uniform and that the methodological guidelines are often only indicated. This presentation is rounded up in the conclusion, where possibilities to improve the unsatisfying state concerning idioms and proverbs are presented.

  3. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  4. PROVERBS AND METAPHORS IN THE ENGLISH CULINARY LANGUAGE / PROVERBES ET MÉTAPHORES DANS LE LANGAGE CULINAIRE ANGLAIS / PROVERBE ŞI METAFORE ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ DIN DOMENIUL CULINAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Matrozi Marin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food is “an essential source to survival with great symbolic force, food has been central to human history”. (Fellner, 2013: 243. The aim of this article is to emphasize the strong relationship between food and cooking, on the one hand, and language and communication, on the other. Culinary words and concepts infiltrated local sayings and proverbs in English culture, thus becoming important pieces of cultural and historical evidence, if reliably dated. Culinary metaphors are equally important, as they reflect and reveal cultural and social realities.

  5. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  6. Gender Stereotypes in Selected Igbo Proverbs | Ezeifeka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates observed encodings of gender stereotypes in Igbo proverbs, the obvious pigeonhole effects of these stereotypes on male-female operational spaces, and how the fixed formats of these proverbs present them as taken-for-granted, impermeable for deconstruction and recontextualization. Drawing ...

  7. Hippocrates' First Aphorism: Reflections on Ageless Principles for the Practice of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates' first aphorism presents a structurally simple but conceptually complex series of observations on the art and science of medicine. Its principles are timeless, relevant to physicians in antiquity as well as in the current era. This article analyzes Hippocrates' aphorism in light of Galen's and others' commentaries on it and interprets the principles espoused by Hippocrates in light of the perennial challenges of the practice of medicine.

  8. Jeffrey Burns: The music of psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew bible : A revised theory of musical accents in the Hebrew bible ; general analysis, bibliography, table of contents CD with complete text and audio files of musically reconstructed psalms, proverbs and Job, sung by computer speech synthesis \\ [rezensiert von] Zsolt Balla

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    rezensiertes Werk: Jeffrey Burns: The music of psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew bible : A revised theory of musical accents in the Hebrew bible ; general analysis, bibliography, table of contents CD with complete text and audio files of musically reconstructed psalms, proverbs and Job, sung by computer speech synthesis. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag, 2011. 169 S. ISBN 978-3-447-06191-9

  9. Proverbs and taboos for a sustainable value: moral ideas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethos of the Igbo has been threatened with the infiltration of the western culture. Modernization has legitimatized the marginalization of the Igbo standard etiquette and morals. This calls for re-orientation of the people. This paper has presented optional instruments of communication for the transmission of culture, social ...

  10. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Bohrn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  11. The Ethnosemantics and Proverbs of ohia, ''poverty'' in Akan1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “When poverty sends you on an errand, how can you refuse?” (8) (Sɛ) ohia ka wo a, na woayɛ mmɔbɔ. ... and decides even his/her movements. Wherever poverty sends you, you cannot refuse; poverty causes ... It makes one eat unwholesome food, and deprives one of one's favourite dish. It drives away one's friends and ...

  12. The Ethnosemantics and Proverbs of ohia, ''poverty'' in Akan1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the concept of ohia, 'poverty' in the Akan sociocultural worldview. These include factors that cause it, the people who suffer from poverty and the implications of their condition. It identifies social, cultural, individualistic and fatalistic sources of poverty. The paper is discussed employing the theoretical ...

  13. Local Imagery, Proverbs and Metaphors in Chinua Achebe's Anthills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is discovered that while handling contemporary issues of political corruption and dictatorship, Achebe blends expressions with local colour with the ones associated with ... Findings from the analysis reveal that certain lexical items only make meaning within the context of the author's native cultural values and environment.

  14. Context of Usage and Aesthetics of Selected Proverbs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OSAKUE S. OMOERA

    goals); key; .... imagination or invention, meaning that if men were birds, they should allow one another perch or lose wings. That is, get punished, if they refuse to tolerate other .... without caring that cars and other road users ply the highway.

  15. The interpretation of proverbs by elderly with high, medium and low educational level: Abstract reasoning as an aspect of executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Bianchi de Oliveira Wachholz

    Full Text Available Abstract It is now known that cognitive functions tend to decline with age. Executive functions (EF are among the first abilities to decline with aging. A subcomponent of the EF is abstract reasoning. The Test of Proverbs is an instrument that can be used to evaluate the capacity of abstract reasoning. Objective: To examine the association of performance in interpretation of proverbs, with education and with episodic memory and EF tasks. Methods: A total of 67 individuals aged between 60 and 75 years were evaluated, and divided into three categories of education: 1-4 years, 5-8 years, and 9 or more years of schooling. The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire (gender, age, marital status, education, income, previous occupation, current occupation and health perception, the Mini Mental State Examination, Brief Cognitive Screening Battery; Geriatric Depression Scale; Forward and Backward Digit Span (WAIS-III, and the Test of Proverbs. Results: A high impact of education was seen on the interpretation of proverbs, with lower performance among the elderly with less education. A significant association between performance on the Test of Proverbs and scores on the MMSE, GDS, and verbal fluency tests was found. There was a modest association with incidental memory. Conclusions: The capacity to interpret proverbs is strongly associated with education and with performance on other EF tasks.

  16. Collective Schema, As a New Concept Suggesting and a View to Proverbs from Cognitive Behavioral Point of View

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    Esat SANLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Behavioral Tharapy doctrine and clinical accumulation have shown that there is a causal link between moods, paradigms, and assessments. These cognitive contents are named as automatic thoughts and schemas. Rational- adaptive automatic thoughts and schemas while bring to person good mood, irrational-maladaptive automatic thoughts and schemas bring to patology. On the other hand this cognitive structures have fed by accepted culture by society and components of this culture such as songs and proverbs which possess necessity and rules. The basic aim of this study is put forth concept of “collective schema” which will be assessable content in Cognitive Behavioral Approach , and clarifying bases of this concept deal with proverbs. In this sense, adaptive and maladaptive aspects of collective shema concept, have been commented, cognitive disortions which fed by maladaptive schemas deal with collective aspect, have been categorised and illustrated with proverbs. With this study we aimed create a groundwork for previous studies. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 85-93

  17. Lope de Vega, in the short story crossroad: maxims and aphorisms in Novelas a Marcia Leonarda (1621 y 1624

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    Emilio Blanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explain the different political conception that emerges from the paratexts that precede the Novels to Marcia Leonarda. The references to “scientific men” and “aphorisms” in 1621 means that Lope first decided to follow tacitist ideas as a personal strategy to grow in the Court of the new King. The only mention of “maxims” in 1624, as well as in other preliminary Lope’s texts, indicates that he soon rejected the political and tacitist authors in order to return to traditional political theory.

  18. WISDOM VALUESIN THE BANJARESE PROVERBS

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    Rezqan Noor Farid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to reveal parts of Banjarese proverbs which contain wisdom values, to find kinds of wisdom values represented through the Banjarese proverbs, and to reveal social contexts influencing the producing and interpreting process of the proverbs. The data of this study are gathered and selected from several literatures of Banjarese which are then analyzed using critical linguistics.  The results of this study show that the parts which contain the wisdom values of the Banjarese people are the clues of interpretation. The wisdom values are also related to the good and the bad behaviours of Banjarese people. It is also found that Islam, as the religion followed by the majority of the Banjarese people, influences the Banjarese culture and Banjarese proverbs. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mencari tahu bagian mana saja dari peribahasa bahasa Banjar yang mengandung nilai kerarifan, menemukan bentuk nilai kearifan didalamnya, dan mengetahui apakah terdapat suatu konteks social yang mempengaruhi proses pembentukan dan penginterpetasian peribahasa itu sendiri. Data dalam studi ini dirangkum dari beberapa literatur yang ditulis oleh orang Banjar sendiri yang dipilih dengan alasan hanya literatur tersebut lah yang tersedia pada waktu studi ini dibuat. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisa dengan metode linguistic kritis. Studi ini menunjukkan bagian dari peribahasa Banjar yang cenderung mengandung nilai kearifan adalah penanda interpretasi. Hasil studi ini juga menunjukkan nilai kearifan dalam peribahasa Banjar terkait dengan sikap yang tidak patut ditiru dan sikap yang pantas untuk diikuti. Dan diasumsikan juga bahwa agama islam, yang terhitung sebagai agama yang dipeluk mayoritas penduduk Banjar, ternyata memiliki pengaruh terhadap kebudayaan dan peribahasa Banjar.

  19. The relevance of Ghanaian Akan proverbs to explanations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address this gap, this paper: identifies some Ghanaian Akan proverbs and categorizes them into major themes; draws-out explanations from these proverbs and demonstrate their explanatory power for some key human resource (HR) principles and corporate values such as team work, training and development, ...

  20. Implications of the Portrayal of Women in Shona Proverbs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... proverbs about women in order to find out the kind of ideas they express about women at both the philosophical and literal meanings of the proverbs. It also explores the proverbial thinking about the status, and attitudes about women and how this may impact on the education of both boys and girls in terms of gender.

  1. African philosophy of development as expressed in Shona proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The researchers argued that the aspects of Ubuntu and communalism that are emphasised in most of the proverbs to be analysed contribute a lot to development and we consequently argued that there is a lot to be drawn from Shona proverbs and that can be used to solve Africa's numerous problems, the socio- economic ...

  2. a study of parallel proverbs in akan (twi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Akan and Kiswahili, there are several proverbs that express the same underlying idea, oftentimes in the exact same or similar ways. There are several possible reasons why these parallel proverbs exist. In one line of thinking, the similarities may be due to contact phenomena facilitating shared cultural and/or historical ...

  3. The Relevance of Proverbs in African Epistemology | Etta | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, this work argues as its thesis, that African proverbs is necessarily essential in the understanding and in transmitting African epistemology. This is because, knowledge has been acknowledged to be indispensable for human existence, as well as the core of epistemology. Proverbs, of the African type, is the ...

  4. Utility of proverb interpretation measures with cardiac transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T

    1998-12-01

    To assess metaphorical understanding and proverb interpretation in cardiac transplant candidates, the neuropsychological assessment records of 22 adults with end-stage cardiac disease under consideration for transplantation were analyzed. Neuropsychological tests consisted of the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Halstead Category Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Copy), Trial Making Test, and summed scores for the proverb items of the WAIS-R Comprehension subtest. Analysis showed that the group tended to interpret proverbs literally. Proverb scores were significantly associated with scores on the Similarities and Picture Arrangement subtests of the WAIS-R. There was a moderate negative association between number of reported heart attacks and Proverb scores. The need for brief yet robust assessments including measures of inferential thinking and conceptualization in transplant candidates are highlighted.

  5. Using Proverb in Toghrai Isfahani\\'s Divan

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    Mohammad Reza Ibnorrasool

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Proverb in Toghrai Isfahani's DivanMohammad Reza Ibnorrasool *Roghayyeh Ahmadi **AbstractUsing proverb is the time that the poet brings a famous saying or song in his poetryaccepted and popular among people. There is no doubt that every poet wants hispoetry to be everlasting. Therefore, he attempts to show his poetry wisely and himselfwise. The proverb gives the poetry universality and causes it to remain in minds andused in proper situations. From among the poets who lived in Abbasid era,Abootammam and Motanabbi are known in using proverbs.Toghrai is one of the greatest masters in Arabic literature and poetry and he madean interpretation of Mootanabbi's divan. His divan was pressed at first in Matbaato,gavaeb in Estanbol. Ode "Lamiyyatu,L_Ajam '' is one of his poetical masterpieces thatis universally celebrated and the literates explained it separately. In his divan, there areother songs with various purposes such as praise (madh and description.In this article, the compilers extracted proverbs or those used as proverb by readinghis divan and attempted to find sources in Koran and Arabic prose and poetry as wellas Persian literature for some of them.Key words: Using proverb, Toghrai, Arabic poetry, Arabic literature in Iran.

  6. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life and death ... behavior of his gods, the facts of life, and death, the ethics of his society, the way to success and happiness, the ..... It is the tortoise one finds around that one puts fire under its bottom. The above proverb talks ...

  7. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  8. Proverb Interpretation Changes in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three…

  9. Utility of Hippocrates' prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-12-15

    To determine if one of Hippocrates' aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Time to death. We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. © St John et al 2014.

  10. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. Methods We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. Results The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. Conclusion An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. PMID:25512328

  11. Enhancing Ecoliteracy through Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GoWoon Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs can be regarded as pithy axioms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, which can be useful for sustainability education. By using an exploratory sequential mixed method, we analyzed TEK and ecoliteracy components embedded in rain- and tree-related Korean traditional proverbs, and further conducted a survey of university students to gauge their knowledge of the proverbs and draw correlations with their ecoliteracy. We classified 173 rain- and 117 tree-related traditional Korean proverbs and found that most of these were related to factual observations, such as ecological characteristics of tree species and the prediction of rainfall, which indicated people’s understanding of ecological processes and patterns. We also found that students tended to provide correct answers for questions related to TEK-based worldviews, ethics and values, which are important components of ecoliteracy, thereby indicating the usefulness of proverbs in delivering TEK-based worldviews, ethics, and values. Overall, our study reasons that the learning of TEK-related traditional proverbs can be meaningful for enhancing ecoliteracy among urban youth, particularly when this learning is complemented with field-based observational learning within integrated approaches for sustainability education.

  12. Obstacles Faced by the Jordanian Novice Translators in Translating Arabic Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Bader Saeed Dweik; Mohammed Basam Thalji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the obstacles that Jordanian novice translators encountered when translating proverbs. To achieve this goal, a purposive sample of 20 Jordanian novice translators (males and females) was selected. A translation test, consisting of 10 Arabic proverbs based on Speake's (2008) categorization of proverbs, was used in addition to carrying out informal interviews with four university translation Professors. The study revealed that the obstacles which Jordanian novice tra...

  13. Culture as a Problem in the Translation of Jordanian Proverbs into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Hussein Suleiman Al-Azzam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying the cultural problems, encountered in the translation of Jordanian proverbs into English. The significance of the study stems from the fact that it stresses on the social, colloquial, and folkloric use of proverbs that adds to the various implications of them. It relies on the selection of proverbs that are used and understood in different regions of Jordan. They address different social and cultural issues, and this makes indispensible the relationship between Jordanians and their cultural and social values. The conventions of the proverbs reflect their historical background, and the actual incidents or events that have led to their formation, utterance, currency, and frequency. The whole proverbial context has been pivotally and elementally noticed in proverbs' construction, and this fact enhances both the utterer and the audience in the comprehension of the proverb. Translating the selected proverbs into English collides with many challenges, of which the cultural ones are observed as the most manifest. What adds to the translation challenges is the colloquialism of the proverbs, which gives them enough semantic, social, and cultural values that cannot be stripped or ignored in the literal translation of the proverbs.

  14. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility.

  15. Telling the African side of the Story: Proverb as a Crucial Element in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proverb is one of the elements of folklore. Like some other elements of folklore, proverb plays several significant and important roles in the literary works of writers who chose to blend their works with the touch of African oral tradition and also to give their creative works a stamp of uniqueness, authenticity, and identity as they ...

  16. The euphemistic role of the Ibibiod proverb-riddle | Akpan | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She describes the components of a Proverb-riddle as a Question (Q), Answer (A), Tone (T), and Rhythm (R). She goes further to justify the riddle component since it poses a question, and the proverb component since it provides the answer. She further explains that the same rising and falling pitch recurrence pattern is used ...

  17. The Palm-oil with which Good Stories are told: Proverb as Plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinua Achebe defined proverb simply as the palm-oil with which words are eaten. Proverb has become an essential part of any viable and homogeneous society which accounts for their outlook, approach and perception to life because it is believed to be the wisdom and philosophy of their fore-fathers who existed in the ...

  18. Telling the African side of the Story: Proverb as a Crucial Element in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    society Achebe is portraying. By studying the proverbs in a novel, we gain insight into the moral issues with which the actions of characters can be measured and evaluated. Proverbs help us to understand and interpret. Achebe's novels. It is this last talent that enables him to convince his readers “that. African people did not ...

  19. A Speech-Act Analysis of Selected Yoruba Proverbs | Dairo | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proverbs are a rhetorical strategy employed by various communities to express their experiences in a more condensed and effective manner. Among the Yoruba, it is believed to be an exclusive preserve of elders who are regarded as repositories of wisdom and propriety. Whenever proverbs are used, they are expected to ...

  20. PROVERBS LXX ASA TEXTFOR DIDACTICAL PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VEVYURKO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hellenistic Judaism has worked out its own educational system (or paideia. In that system parable preserved a traditonally important role, just as in the ancient oriental education in general. This may be concluded from such a documents as 3 Ezra, Letter of Aristeas and, particularely, Proverbs of Septuagint. The article deels with educational practices imprinted in the last book by means of variative translations of the same verses and by others more complicated methods of reading and interpretation of the hebrew parables

  1. In a manner of speaking phrases, expressions, and proverbs and how we use and misuse them

    CERN Document Server

    McNairn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    What do “the whole kit and caboodle," “the whole shebang," “the whole megillah," “the whole enchilada," “the whole nine yards," “the whole box and dice," and “the full Monty" have in common? They're all expressions that mean “the entire quantity," and they're all examples of the breadth and depth of the English-speaking world's vocabulary. From the multitude of words and phrases in daily use, the author of this delightful exploration into what we say and why we say it zeroes in on those expressions and sayings and their variations that are funny, quirky, just plain folksy, or playfully dressed up in rhyme or alliteration. Some may have become clichés that, as it's said with “tongue in cheek," should be “avoided like the plague." Others have been distorted, deemed politically incorrect, or shrouded in mystery and must bear some explanation. Among the topics the author delves into are expressions that shouldn't be taken literally (“dressed to kill" and “kick the bucket"), foreign expressions that c...

  2. Attitudes of Acehnese People towards Acehnese Proverbs in Relation to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairina Nasir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at describing proverbs from the Acehnese society and explaining the attitudes of people towards those proverbs in relation to education. The methodology applied was ethnographic using a questionnaire to obtain data. A number of 14 respondents who varied across ages, educational background and occupations participated in this study. These respondents included three housewives, two university students, one fresh graduate, one junior high school and two senior high school students, one trader, two senior citizens, one teacher and one civil servant. Based on the findings, the attitude nowadays of the Acehnese has changed radically. Out of eight adults, only three were actively using proverbs in their daily lives and teaching their children those proverbs. All of the young people, who ranged from fourteen to twenty three years old, did not use proverbs. In relation to education, proverbs are used to teach the society about courtesy, advices (e.g. for choosing companions and friends in life, child rearing, socializing/conversing, and not to mind other people’s business, and shyness as part of faith. Furthermore, a significant language shift has occurred in Aceh which has impacted Acehnese oral literature whereby more parents today prefer Indonesian to be taught as their children’s first language (Alamsyah, et al., 2011. Consequently this has put the Acehnese proverbs under the threat of becoming extinct in their own society.

  3. Learning about "Family Relations" in Turkey through Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2015-01-01

    In Turkey, the family unit is regarded as the cornerstone of a healthy and balanced society. Family relations exhibited in Turkish proverbs deal with several aspects of married life and the persons making part of it. These include the functions of Husband and Wife, Mother, Father, Grandparents, Children, Grandchildren, and even In-laws and their…

  4. An Inferential Model Analysis of Yoruba Proverbs with Leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to illustrate what the traditional lore, otherwise known as proverbs, can achieve in the management and maintenance of leadership position or status in the society. The description of leadership roles, its positions, responsibilities, qualities, hazards and benefits, among other relevant issues, are extracted ...

  5. The Power of Proverbs: Dissonance Reduction through Common Sayings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    After reading a detailed account of a serious mistake in which a similar-age other went against personal values or a prior commitment, undergraduates rated their feelings of dissonance (regret, hypocrisy, and stupidity) had they been in the actor's place. Relative to a control condition, reading relevant proverbs such as "everybody makes mistakes"…

  6. Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality Michael Olutayo Olatunji1 Abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    realms). Music is also used extensively in worship and as therapy for the drudgery of routines or to identify the members of a particular occupation or association. Also, like most ethnic groups in Nigeria, the two media through which the sound of music is performed among the Yorùbá people are the musical instruments and ...

  7. A Pragma-Stylo-Semantic Analysis of Proverbs 26, Verses 4 and 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the instructions in the two verses by a single agent. The paper proposes a schematic diagram supportive of the concept of "appropriateness”. The various levels of linguistic, situational, psychological, sociological and cosmological contexts of the text have been examined with the illocutionary forces of the text investigated.

  8. Linguoculturological Analysis of Woman's Image in the Proverbs and Sayings of the Dagestan Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanova, Marina; Magomedova, Patimat; Gasanova, Salminat

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to linguoculturological description of woman's image in the proverbial worldview of the Dagestan languages. The analysis of proverbial expressions revealed androcentric bias of the Dagestan paroemiological worldview where woman, as a rule, appears for an object: mainly for mother, daughter, bride, and wife/mistress. The…

  9. Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality Michael Olutayo Olatunji1 Abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a young person – even if comparable to that of an elderly person – his ... elderly person,. The number of his “rags” will not be the same as that which pertains to the elderly man. Here, the use of both clothes and rags is symbolic: while the former .... But should a dog get immersed in its pursuit of game when a signal is.

  10. Obstacles Faced by the Jordanian Novice Translators in Translating Arabic Proverbs

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    Bader Saeed Dweik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the obstacles that Jordanian novice translators encountered when translating proverbs. To achieve this goal, a purposive sample of 20 Jordanian novice translators (males and females was selected. A translation test, consisting of 10 Arabic proverbs based on Speake's (2008 categorization of proverbs, was used in addition to carrying out informal interviews with four university translation Professors. The study revealed that the obstacles which Jordanian novice translators faced when translating proverbs from source language (SL i.e. Arabic into target language (TL i.e. English were: inability to translate culturally-bound words/expressions properly; using literal translation and misuse of the appropriate lexical words; committing linguistic, stylistic, and grammatical mistakes; and unfamiliarity with translation strategies and techniques.

  11. Did Ms Wisdom of Proverbs 8 become a mystery in 4QInstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hebrew Bible is quoted and alluded to in 4QInstruction. There is an obvious similarity between the way the raz nihyeh of 4QInstruction and Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 8 function. This intertextual study investigates this phenomenon by comparing 4Q416 2 III 8–21 and 4Q417 1 I with Proverbs 8:12–21 and 8:22–31.

  12. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

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    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  13. A STUDY ON PROVERBS REBTED TO HORSE IN KYRGYZ, UIGUR, MACEDONIA-KOSOVA TURKISH LANGUAGES AND IN TURKISH LEGADERY STORIES / TÜRK DESTANLARINDA, HIKÂYELERINDE VE KIRGIZ, UYGUR, MAKEDONYA –KOSOVA TÜRKÇESINDE, AT ILE ILGILI ATASÖZLERI ÜZERINE BIR ARASTIRMA

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    Gökmen MOR (M.A.H.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The life power of a nation is only possible if it has asound base. Turkish culture is the richest one in the worldwith its literature, history custom. Turkish nation which hasgot a history full of bravery has reflected its achievements intoits epics throughout its long history. When we examine theTurkish history; we find a deep culture and precious sayingsenabling people to take lesson from life. Turkish nationbrought an extraordinary bright culture into the places where it went what distinguishes the nations from one another isespecially the oral culture. Our proverb is one of the mostimportant elements of this oral culture. Our proverbs havegrace impacts which affect people deeply. Turkish proverbsarise from Turkish thought and are a mirror which reflects itsphilosophy, Bravery, and culture. In the ancient Turkishsocieties the horse has been an indispensable element forTurkish people and mentioned in the Turkish proverbs.

  14. The Effect of Culture Type on the Length of Persian Proverbs Compared to their English Equivalents

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    Amir Mohammadian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interrelation of culture and language is to the extent that many classifications of culture are based on linguistic factors. In this article, high and low context cultures division is assessed on English and Persian as they belong to different cultural types. Forty Persian proverbs are contrasted with their equivalents in English to investigate whether there is a difference in the number of word forms used in each. In order to avoid linguistic differences which are effective in enumerating word forms, the second lines in linguistic glosses provided for Persian proverbs including a one to one correspondence of each word in English are used to count word forms. Results show that 70 percent of the Persian proverbs in the data are longer than their English counterparts. This shows that relative length of proverbs can be a distinguishing factor reflecting cultural types. The results not only confirm the applicability of this cultural division in the field of proverbs, but also a matter of tendency rather than a dichotomy in belonging to a high or low context culture is proposed. At the end, there are suggestions for further relevant investigations.

  15. Le détournement de proverbes en FLE, transgression ou création ?

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    Syrine Diaz-Daoussi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Notre article portera sur la didactique d’unités phraséologiques, plus précisément les proverbes et leur détournement en Français Langue Étrangère (FLE dans un contexte d’enseignement/apprentissage à partir d’un niveau B1-B2. Il s’agira de familiariser les apprenants à la structure du proverbe puis de s’approprier ces structures afin de pouvoir les manipuler en transgressant la norme établie par le figement. Twisting proverbs in FLE, transgression or creation? Abstract: This article will focus on the teaching of phraseological units, specifically proverbs and the way to twist them through French Foreign Language (FLE in a context of teaching / learning from a B1 -B2 level. This will familiarize learners with the proverb structure and help them appropriating these structures in order to manipulate by transgressing the norm established by the frozenness.

  16. Can Arabic Proverbs Enhance Arabic-Speaking Students' Comprehension of Financial Concepts?: An Empirical Study in Randomly Selected Business Schools in Dubai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Mohammed H.; Ireri, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of Arabic proverbs and quotes for teaching finance courses to Arabic-speaking students who are nonnative speakers of English. The study found that the use of Arabic proverbs and quotes greatly enhances the students' comprehension of the finance topics covered. Similarly, the study revealed that the use of…

  17. Proverbes et contes populaires : le sexe de l’hyperénonciateur

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    Dominique Maingueneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The « hyperenunciator » (Maingueneau 2004 is an abstract being, the source of a viewpoint that guarantees the validity of a Thesaurus of utterances shared by the members of a community. This article aims to enrich this concept from an ethnolinguistic perspective. It compares the hyperenunciators of two distinct kinds of Thesaurus, proverbs and folk tales, via a reflection on their gender identity. Drawing on old Spanish proverbs about women, the « Tales of Mother Goose » by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers’ Fairy Tales, I will underline that domestic space plays a key role in this subject, that an « eco-nomy of speech » places gossip, on one hand, and proverbs and folk tales, on the other, in opposition and that there is the desire to distinguish in women’s speech between what is considered to be positive and what is considered dangerous for the house.

  18. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

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    J.H. Potgieter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  19. Did Ms Wisdom of Proverbs 8 become a mystery in 4QInstruction?

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    Pieter M. Venter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible is quoted and alluded to in 4QInstruction. There is an obvious similarity between the way the raz nihyeh of 4QInstruction and Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 8 function. This intertextual study investigates this phenomenon by comparing 4Q416 2 III 8–21 and 4Q417 1 I with Proverbs 8:12–21 and 8:22–31. It is concluded that apocalyptic influence changed the character of Lady Wisdom but not her essential function.

  20. The structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic employed in a reading of Proverbs 14:2

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ricoeurian hermeneutic affords readers of the Old Testament an opportunity to access the biblical text anew as a source and norm for faith. Reese gave a convenient summarising description of Ricoeur’s hermeneutical approach. Ricoeur organised his considerations around four poles, namely distanciation, objectification, projecting of a world, and appropriation. These operate as the structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic and were illustrated with a sample proverb (i.e. Pr 14:2 from the collection Proverbs 10:1–15:33.

  1. Proverbe et expression figée

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    Laura Cîţu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

  2. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  3. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words…

  4. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet : Women in Proverbs from Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Mineke

    2006-01-01

    Winner of the Dutch 2005 Eureka! prize for best non-fiction title The jury about the book: "A revealing and at the same time extraordinarily funny book" In cultures all over the globe, sex and gender issues have been expressed in proverbs, the world's smallest literary genre. This irresistible book

  5. Proverb as a Crucial Element in Uchenna Nwosu's The Rejected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    community that conditioned them even though they communicate in a language alien to them. These proverbs used in literary works, from study do not occur simply by accident, rather were incorporated for the significant role which they play in literary works. This paper studies the use of proverbs in Uchenna Nwosu's The ...

  6. The Decline of Proverbs as a Creative Oral Expression: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It cannot be disputed that proverbs occupy a very central position in creative art. It is deployed in many societies to bring peace where there is hatred, particularly during the settlement of conflicts, disputes and misunderstandings; to facilitate pardon where there is injury, to engender faith where there is doubt, to bring hope ...

  7. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    "ils jaillisent de la verve populaire". C'est cette même "verve" qui est le dénomi- nateur commun entre les usagers et le dictionnaire. Ces derniers entendent et parlent le langage que le lexicographe est chargé de rendre dans le dictionnaire, parfois en rejetant, ou en approuvant l'usage. Et ce, de la manière la plus acces-.

  8. Proverbes Ngbaka | Henrix | Annales Aequatoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bomingenge, Gbosasa and Takaya, east of the city of Gemena, as well as in some ... which cover a variety of domains of Ngbaka life, such as vigilance, solidarity, work, social and family relations, respect for the elderly, marriage, education, etc.

  9. Teaching Sentential Intonation through Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2012-01-01

    Suprasegmental elements such as "stress," "pitch," "juncture" and "linkers" are language universals that are uttered naturally in the mother tongue without prior training but need to be learned systematically in the target language. Among other techniques of "sentential pronunciation teaching" to…

  10. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS IN THE CONTEXT OF GENDER IN TURKISH TOPLUMSAL CİNSİYET BAĞLAMINDA TÜRKÇEDE ATASÖZLERİ VE DEYİMLER

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    Bülent ÖZKAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture, includes all the abstract and concrete structures institutions in a society. In this sense, „culture‟ can be defined as a social knowledge that is containing both nationality and universality. When considering about the culture, it can be seen some mutual determinations in a terms of gender mainstreaming roles. The gender stereotype creates the culture; and also the culture allows the transfer of interpersonal and intergenerational structures. In this context, an imminent structure of language descriptively has a translative role in all the cultural features as identifier. While doing this, it uses some forms of expression of the verbal culture traditions. These expression forms are proverbs and idioms. In cultural transmission, these are important as reflecting the point of view of society and perspectives of them.The purpose of this study, to present the role of man and woman in Turkish society by the direction of proverbs and idioms, and also the expectations of society from these roles. In this study, the proverbs and idioms are including notions of “girl, boy; woman, man” will be evaluated and these notions will be examined in the context of gender mainstreaming. Kültür, bir toplumda soyut ve somut bütün kurumları yapısında barındıran, hem ulusallığı hem evrenselliği içeren toplumsal birikim olarak tanımlanabilir. Kültür kavramı, toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri açısından ele alındığında, birtakım karşılıklı belirlemeler söz konusudur. Toplumsal cinsiyet kalıpları kültürü oluştururken kültür de söz konusu kalıpların bireylerarası ve kuşaklararası taşınmasını sağlar. Bu bağlamda dil kültürün tanımlayıcısı olarak içkin yapısında o toplumun kültürel tüm özelliklerinin taşıyıcısıdır. Bunu yaparken de sözlü kültür geleneği olan birtakım anlatım biçimlerini kullanmaktadır. Söz konusu anlatım biçimleri atasözleri ve deyimlerdir. Bu formlar kültürü ta

  11. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer's disease with proverbs (STADP for the elderly Validade e confiabilidade do teste de rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com provérbios (TRDAP para idosos

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    Mauricéa Tabosa Ferreira Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence Alzheimer's disease with age compromises memory, language, executive functions, constructive praxis and abstraction, requiring early evaluation with standardized tests. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP, elaborated using pieces from the proverb memory game. METHOD: The test contains three stages (A: short-term memory, B: executive functions and language and C: episodic memory. The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals with minimum age of 60 years and one year of schooling, CDR of one or zero, cared for at specialized services of UFPE, HGA and private institutions. Sociodemographic data, habits and health perception were assessed. Among the tests used were MMSE (convergent validity and GDS (discriminating. RESULTS: A good correlation with standardized test was found, acceptable internal consistency (0.71, cutoff point for schooling of 6.49 (low (80% and 77.8% and 8.66 (high (84.6% and 86.1%; Kappa coefficient of 1 (p=0.000 inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: STADP is a valid test for screening Alzheimer's disease.A prevalência da doença de Alzheimer com o envelhecimento, que compromete memória, linguagem, funções executivas, praxia construtiva e abstração, necessita avaliação precoce com testes padronizados. OBJETIVO: Validação do Teste de Rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com Provérbios (TRDAP, elaborado com pedras do jogo de memória de provérbios. MÉTODO: O teste contém três etapas (A: memória curto-prazo, B: funções executivas e linguagem e C: memória episódica. A amostra tinha 91 idosos com mínimos de 60 anos e de um ano de escolaridade, CDR (um ou zero, de serviços especializados da UFPE, HGA e particular. Avaliaram-se dados sociodemográficos, hábitos e percepção de saúde. Dentre os testes utilizados - MEEM (validade convergente, EDG (discriminante. RESULTADOS: Apontaram para boa correlação com testes padronizados, consistência interna

  12. Un recueil de proverbes nsong (R.D. Congo, Bantu B85d) | Muluwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots-clés: Nsong; Bantu; proverbes; littérature orale; R.D. Congo. This paper presents 218 proverbs collected among the Nsong, a Bantu-speaking people from the Bandundu Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Each proverb is given in the original language, Nsong, followed by a literary translation which is ...

  13. Un recueil de proverbes mbuun d'Imbongo (RD Congo, bantu B87 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bantu (B87), proverbes, littérature orale, RD Congo. This paper presents 125 proverbs collected among the Mbuun of Imbongo, a Bantu-speaking people from the Bandundu Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Each proverb is given in the original language, Mbuun, followed by a literary translation which is ...

  14. Lemmatisation of fixed expressions: The case of proverbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dictionary user might find it challenging to look up a desired proverb, especially if the individual words have a very low general frequency or are even obsolete in modern life. In that case, an electronic format of a dic-tionary would be most enabling, allowing for an electronic search. Special purpose dictionaries dedicated ...

  15. Preliminary data on a mnemonic instrument with proverbs for tracking Alzheimer's disease

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    Mauricéa Tabósa Ferreira Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract In the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD and normal aging, tests evaluating memory and executive functions are frequently used. The addition of abstraction tests may enhance the effectiveness of screening tests for AD. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare initial data of a new instrument - The Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP - against other screening tests used in AD diagnosis. Methods: Sixty elderly individuals (46 controls and 14 AD subjects with CDR=1, aged ³60 years, with at least one year of schooling, were evaluated using the STADP at outpatient clinic. The STADP assesses short-term memory, episodic memory, executive functions and language, in addition to proverb recognition. The performance of the participants on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, semantic Verbal Fluency (VF and Clock Drawing Test (CDT were evaluated and the habit of reading, writing and sociodemographic data were also taken into account. Results: There were significant correlations between STADP and the performance on the MMSE (r=0.64, CDT (r=0.50 and VF (r=0.56. Age influenced all sub-items of the STADP, specifically episodic memory (r= -0.54, whereas schooling mainly influenced executive functions and language (r=0.46. The total score, stages A and C and the "proverb recognition" of STADP (p<0.001, as well as the MMSE (p<0.001, CDT (p=0.016, VF (p<0.001 were significantly different in AD versus control groups. Conclusions: The findings point to the potential use of the STADP in AD, warranting the conducting of further studies.

  16. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

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    Böck, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  17. THE ROLE OF PROVERBS ON UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENT CULTURES AND LANGUAGES ATASÖZLERİNİN DEĞİŞİK KÜLTÜR VE DİLLERİ ANLAMADAKİ ROLÜ

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    Gülden TÜM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature, philosophy, art, culture, thoughts, traditions, and values are important components taking part in any language and are hardly separated from the language. Besides, language is one of the important devices to transfer all these values from generation to generation and from culture to culture. Especially, when any language is learnt as a foreign language, it plays an important role to strengthen or to establish cultural awareness. Erasmus students, speaking different languages continue their education for one term or academic year in Turkiye. During their education, they also take Turkish lessons to learn culture and language. While learning Turkish, they have difficulties to produce Turkish structure as it has linguistic differences. Thus, the main question of this study is that if their difficulty with learning Turkish comes from the differences in the language families or the lack of cultural components in curriculum for language courses. In this study, it is aimed at a sorting out how Erasmus students become aware of cultural values; how they perceive the linguistic differences; if they could make comparisons with their native language and Turkish language; and b preparing a new curriculum to integrate proverbs, sayings and cultural values in the Turkish course books. Toplumun edebiyatı, felsefesi, sana¬tı, kültürü, düşünceleri, âdet ve gelenekleri dil ile bir bağ¬lılık içinde olduğundan dil toplumdan ve kültürden ayrı tutulamaz. Bu değerlerin başka kültürler tarafından öğrenilmesi ya da gelecek nesillere aktarılması bir bil¬dirmeyle gerçekleşir ki bunu da ancak dil başarır. Kültürler arası bilinçlenmenin de oluşmasına yardımcı olan dil, yabancı dil olarak öğrenildiği zaman da büyük önem taşır çünkü dil toplumu oluşturan değerlerin taşıyıcısıdır. Farklı dilleri konuşan yabancı Erasmus öğrencileri eğitim almak üzere eğitimlerinin bir bölümünü Türk

  18. Proverbial Space and the Dialectics of Place and Displacement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literary scholarship on proverb usage in Nigerian literary discourse had focused mostly on canonized writers and the nature, structure, form and context of proverbs in literature. Little work has been done on Sade Adeniran, her novel and the effect of place and displacement on proverb usage. This study is concerned with ...

  19. 275 Proverbial Space and the Dialectics of Place and Displacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Literary scholarship on proverb usage in Nigerian literary discourse had focused mostly on canonized .... proverbs in Nigeria but have not examined proverb usage in fictional, isolated and dialogic ... as crucial features of postcolonial discourse and site for ―crisis of identity‖ (Empire,9) on the one hand ...

  20. Proverb at English lesson as a basis for creating a model of the personal compromise of non-linguistic students

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    Golubeva M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article discovers the features of the method of proverbs at English lessons of the students of nonlinguistic specialties. The authors outline the aspects of psychological effect of proverbs being the basis for creating a model of the personal compromise. What is more, the results of this research might well be applied at interactive English lessons.

  1. “Dying is dying, that's all”: Structural violence and cultural projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Dying is dying, that's all”: Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs. Nicole C Hayes. Abstract. This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: “AIDS came for people”, “Dying is dying, that's all” and “It's in the flour”. Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS ...

  2. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  3. Feyerabend e a máxima do "Tudo Vale": A necessidade de se adotar múltiplas possibilidades de metodologia na construção de teorias científicas Feyerabend and the Aphorism "anything goes", the need to adopt multiple possibilities of the methodology in the construction of scientific theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Flávio Couto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é apresentar uma visão geral da crítica de Paul Feyerabend da metodologia científica e, mais precisamente, sobre a exigência da adoção de uma postura flexível frente à construção e à afirmação de veracidade de hipóteses científicas. A máxima que deve regê-las deve ser "tudo vale". O ensaio aponta as razões históricas que justificam, em certa medida e tomando-se cuidado frente a tal voluntarismo teórico, a adoção dessa abertura a novos pressupostos em ciência. No ensaio, defende-se o pressuposto de que não existem condições que limitem indefinidamente a pesquisa. Afirma-se também que não há uma única teoria capaz de apreender o objeto em seu todo, da mesma forma como o próprio processo de investigação é inesgotável.The objective of this essay is to give an overview of Paul Feyerabend’s review of scientific methodology, and more precisely, the requiriment of the adoption of a more flexible attitude towards the construction and the statement of the veracity of scientific hypotheses. The ruling principle is "anything goes". This essay points to the historical reasons that left, to an extent and taking the due care with such theoretical voluntarism, the adoption of this opening to new presuppositions in science. It is proposed that there are not conditions which limit research indefinitely. There is not a single theory able to capture the object in its entirety in the same way that the investigation process itself is inexhaustible.

  4. أسلوب ضرب الأمثال عند الرسول (صلى الله عليه واله وأئمة أهل البيت(عليهم السلام Proverbs Narrated style at the Prophet (may Allah bless him and his family and the imams of AhlulBayt (peace be upon them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentzer Mjbas Hawwan Shukri. منتظر مجباس حوان الشكري

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The learning methods are concerned with the improvement and development of the education process, which receives rights in different educational institutions, and the Islamic approach accommodates both educational way found or there will be, as long as it facilitates the learning process, and is working to implement the curriculum. The process of creating a bridge between the world of ideas meanings theory and the world of perceptions is essential in teaching and learning, and the methodology of the use of teaching methods Old, and man knows what around the senses, the mind outlets, as does the mind to translate what really senses to be his perception own reality, and besides sensory perception in humans, has the mental perception, which allows him to recognize and know beyond a sense of the ordinary, and we need the Holy Quran using hearing and sight and mind, and what we presented in this paper is only peeve of Faz of educational methods that countless and whose goal is the basic provisions connected religion for all people and religions with different minds and the degree of understanding, blessed verses from the Book of Allah, the Mighty and conversations blessed the Prophet Mustafa Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his family and the imams of AhlulBayt (peace be upon them, which is not any writer for diving in the seas of knowledge and innermost their families, but we cite in this humble effort on a very simple methods and accessible to all educators in order to benefit from them, the Department of current research into four topics, eat first section proverbs / Overview style the second topic dealt proverbs in the Koran while devoted the third section of the proverbs when the Apostle Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his family the fourth topic dealt proverbs when Ahlulbait (peace be upon them, asking God Almighty to guide us to follow the natural extension of the Koran and of interviews Mustafa Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his family

  5. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  6. Des problèmes dans la traduction des proverbes français en roumain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela IVAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le domaine de la Parémiologie contrastive, un des principaux obstacles à surmonter est d’obtenir une équivalence parémiologique en vue d’analyser les parémies dans différentes langues de travail, dans notre cas le français et le roumain. Nous cherchons à proposer une simple mise en rapport entre des parémies françaises et leurs équivalents en roumain, en essayant de limiter le champ exploré tout en centrant notre attention sur quelques uns des plus problématiques du point de vue traductologique, à savoir les proverbes et les phrases proverbiales. La recherche des équivalences parémiologiques a mis en évidence un certain nombre d’aspects et de problèmes : la sélection des proverbes de la langue de départ, leur typologie, leur compréhension et leur expression dans la langue d’arrivée.

  7. Context of Usage and Aesthetics of Selected Proverbs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OSAKUE S. OMOERA

    skills of the listener (audience), among other linguistic tropes which embody its aesthetics. ... G – Genre – The type of speech that is being given. This model has several ..... of music. (xi) Benin: Ayon ne o ma se Edo da ne o gbe Uselu. English: It is the wine which to Benin is inadequate for consumption that intoxicates Uselu.

  8. Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on ...

  9. What an Indian Proverb Can Teach Us About Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Research in the Media: International Workshop for Scientific Journalism (CRiM), held last month in India - a partnership of the NCI Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL) and NCI Center for Global Health (CGH).

  10. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical Living | Akinmade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye and alert the unheeding ear to the marvels of everyday realities, this paper conceptualizes philosophy and African philosophy, bringing to the fore how in Ondo society man abstracts on events, make generalizations, understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life ...

  11. A PRAGMA-STYLO-SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF PROVERBS 26 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bible scholars and users need not be in a dilemma on what meaning to ... The Bible, because of its spiritual, moral and socio-cultural relevance, ..... communication. At the grammatical level, our text is made up of two sentences with each performing an imperative function. The Negation phrase of the first part of Verse 4,.

  12. A Socio-Cultural Study Of Negative Portrayals Of Masculinity In The Yorùbá Oral Literature: Yorùbá Proverbs As A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bode Agbaje

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The negative portrayal of masculinity has been thoroughly attempted in this paper. The Yoruba proverbs were selected for analysis because it cuts across the length and breadth of the Yorubaland. The genre is rendered by both men and women in the society. It is established in this paper that men are not left out of various social misconducts which are capable of disorganizing the love, peace and unity that are expected of normal socio-cultural setting, not only in the Yorubaland but also in the world at large. Therefore, this paper concludes that men are liable to social ills in the society like their female counterparts.

  13. Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explains the need for such a publication, gives the construction pattern of idioms and phrases and their limits, explains various types of idioms and phrases, explains the relationship between proverbs and idioms and phrases, and how some proverbs became idioms and phrases, gives the relationship between the ...

  14. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper explores proverb as an embodiment of the socio-cultural values of the Ibibio people. This is done through the analysiGs of some Ibibio proverbs which reflect the ethical values and philosophy of ...

  15. An exploration of the symbolic world of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to ‘the fear of the Lord’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to text interpretation have introduced an opportunity to understand the biblical text afresh. One such an alternative approach is a Ricoeurian hermeneutic. Ricoeur’s understanding of the referential intention of poetic texts will be drawn on to explore its interpretive contribution to a reading of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to the phrase ‘the fear of the Lord’. It is suggested that the proposed reading strategy is a most productive effort.

  16. Application of Saying, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Indonesian Dictionary Using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Budi Setyawan; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKom, MMSI

    2005-01-01

    This writing describes the application of the proverb, synonym, antonym, and dictionaries Indonesian. Basically, this application to find out about the meaning of the proverb, synonym, antonym and meaning of the word in Indonesian. For that the author wanted to show them in computerized form using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. by presenting it in the form of computerized data that the authors hope that we get a more accurate or the possibility of error becomes smaller. Also expected this appli...

  17. The Case of NTC's Dictionary of Proverbs and Clichés

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, lexicography might also benefit from other fields such as lin- guistics, or more specifically discourse or corpus ..... piano anymore. I always make so many mistakes. JANE: Don't give up. Practice makes perfect. In order to support the findings of the present study, we further attempted to investigate other dictionaries.

  18. Conceptualization of Optimistic Models for the World in Paremic Picture of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya N. Semenenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The description of language expression of an ethno cultural stereotype in assessment of optimistic approach to judgment of a role of trials destiny provides in human life is offered. The optimistic outlook model is considered as integrative linguo-cognitive area which valuable dominants are directly connected with points, key for national sphere of concepts. The algorithm of a descriptive technique is presented on the example of cognitive and pragmatical modeling of semantics in the Russian proverbs of theme groups "Destiny - Patience - Hope" and "Patience - Hope" from the collection "Proverbs of the Russian People" of V. I. Dahl. The area of paremic verbalization of cognitive category "Optimism" is considered taking into account polyconceptuality of national aphorisms maintenance and ambivalence of the ethno culture major stereotypes assessment concluded in them. Linguo-cognitive potential of paremias in representation of optimistic outlook model is defined with aphoristic value of paremias, pragmatical recommendation expressed in them and a valuable semantic core.

  19. Did Ms Wisdom of Proverbs 8 become a mystery in 4QInstruction?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-29

    aesthetical production) or by alluding to them, using .... creation … the natural order of things … the mysteries of the divine role in the historical processes' ... main subjects here are 'money and possessions, social relations, and family ...

  20. Proverbs as illustrative examples in a Tshiven.a bilingual dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illustrative examples are defining devices that illustrate the use of a word. They serve to illustrate thegrammatical behaviour and semantic usage of the lexical item. In a bilingual dictionary, illustrativeexamples show the words in a live context, thereby enhancing the user's understanding of the meaningof the lexical item in ...

  1. Tahsin Ömer’in “Darb-I Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” Adlı Atasözleri Seçkisi A Selection of Proverbs from Tahsin Ömer’s “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip İPEK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms include very different matters ranging from the life styles of the societies they belong to to their frames of mind, from standards of judgements to moral insights due to the fact that they are based on lasting observations, experiences and lives of those societies. As a result, they are stereotyped words which are on the position of the soul of all the culture and value world of the nation they belong to. Proverbs, which make a short-cut and efficient expression possible, also reflect the philosophy of a nation. From this point of view, the realization and preservation of these verbal entities are of vital importance. From the time of Diwanu Lugat et-Turk, the oldest known dictionary of Turkish language, to our day, important dictionaries have been authored to preserve and record these verbal entities. Each of these dictionaries are very important resources as regards with Turkish language and culture. This manuscript will mention about an anthology of proverbs. According to the searches and surveys the anthology has been mentioned only in a few articles until today. The booklet “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” was written by Tahsin Ömer and was printed in Evkaf Printing House in Şehzadebaşı, İstanbul between 1337 and 1340. The printed copy of the booklet in the library of the University of Toronto with the recording number of PN 6505 T8 035, is translated into Modern Turkish from Ottoman Turkish with an additional short review. As the result of a revisal of about 5000 proverbs used in our country, nearly 200 proverbs were sorted out according to their meanings and Tahsin Ömer says in the two and a half pages of foreword that this 16 pages booklet was written to make people learn and draw some lessons. The most exciting parts of this booklet are that the writer examines the proverbs in moral aspects and presents a sorting method. Another important part is the presented analytical assasments in the

  2. "Women fly with their husbands": Palestinian diaspora and gender relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fagundes Jardim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about gender relations and the forms of organization of contemporary Palestinian immigrants' experience. According to an Arabian proverb, collected during fieldwork, "the women fly with their husbands". The explanation refers to a kinship structure through which daughters-in-law come to live in the husband's father's domestic unit. This proverb reveals some aspects about the "coming and going" of Palestinian wives who reside or come from other localities to settle in Chui city. In the post-colonial era, women were converted in powerful identity symbols. Islamic women, specially Palestinians women, are part of a ideological debate about cultural integrity and authenticity. That proverb gives us access to different viewpoints on the cultural devices subjacent to those streams and, therefore, demands a reflection on gender relations and ways of analyzing the agency of Moslem.

  3. What is the value of official statistics and how do we communicate that value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel ANDREI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s aphorism mentioned above wasn’t meant to colour the text, but we particularly believe it corresponds, in a way, to the topic we plan to introduce during the seminar. Consequently, paraphrasing it, the aphorism suggests a derived one which could read: “Not any statistics is official statistics and not any official statement that contains a numerical expression is statistics”. As to the above statements, the following question normally arises: “if not any statistics is official statistics, than what does official statistics mean and where does this brand, that represents a special value of statistics, come from?” On the other hand, if not any official statement, that contains a numerical expression on a certain economic or social phenomenon, is statistics, then what kind of meaning does it have?

  4. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field.

  5. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  6. Universities and National Laboratories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A French proverb says, "Forty is the old age of youth, fifty is the youth of old age". According to this, you ... leaders of parties present to the youth have reflected adversely on the quality of thinking in our youth and the .... observe strict economy in the expenditure of public monies and that continuance of financial privileges is ...

  7. Strengths and weaStrengths and Weaknesses of Ola Rotim's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Besides using the play to address Nigeria's numerous problems at independence, Rotimi also brings in a lot of changes in the original Greek play. He dispenses with the chorus, in their place; he relies on the narrator and chiefs of Kutuje. He replaces Greek chants with African songs; he employs proverbs, riddles and other ...

  8. Cross -Currents and Transmigration of Motifs of Yoruba Art | Kalilu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yoruba of South-western Nigeria are endowed with a deeply cultural and religious environment. The people.s culture and worldview are expressed through legends, folklore, time tested proverbs , wise sayings and a keen observation of their environment This is expressed in their various art forms, and no art work is ...

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Collectivism and Individualism on Argumentative Writing by Chinese and North American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Yueh; Rubin, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes writing features conceptually linked to collectivist or individualist orientations among students from Taiwan and the United States. Notes that theses features were indirectness, personal disclosure, use of proverbs and other canonical expressions, collective self, and assertiveness. Makes comparisons across languages and nationalities…

  10. Language and Theme Symbiosis: A Stylistic Analysis of use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parallelism, balanced construction, figures of speech, idioms, and proverbs to reinforce the themes. The enormous use of titles and aliases and the undue emphasis on their use before people's name not only speak volumes about vainglory but also give the work a touch of humour. The language is etched with meticulous ...

  11. Trafficking In Women And Children In Yorubaland: A Pre And Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To them, there is a proverb that says that ati kekere laa ti pe kan iroko, to ba dagba tan apa ko nii kaa mo (children are better caught young, or else it would be difficult to mould them when they grow up). This informs the training of children at tender age in the business of trading and engagement in other forms of work.

  12. Scrivere la vita di una donna nel XVII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chava Turniansky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I wish to highlight some of the main characteristics of the autobiographic writing by Glikl Hamel (1645-1724, a German Jewess who wrote her memories. She knows she is doing something that no woman has done before in Yiddish literature. She carefully mingles several literary genres, mixing stories with practical suggestions, proverbs, aphorism, parables, and elements of the so called Muser-literatur, books of moral behavior and instructions on how to be an observant Jew. The author was forty-five years old when she began to write, and her maturity is clearly present in the text, where she presents herself as well aware of what she wants to write, why and how. Glikl often relates about historical events. In particular here two examples are given, one about the relation with some Christian merchants, and the second about the impact of the news on Shabbetay Zevi, the false messiah, on her community.

  13. Etymological aspects of idiomatic and proverbial expressions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This will create a better understanding of the relationship between the literal meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative) meanings. Keywords: diachronic analysis, etymology, figurative expression, idiom, lemmatization, lexicology, metaphor, metaphoric expression, proverb, synchronic analysis, terminography ...

  14. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    this co-existence over the years forms the tradition of the people culminating in the culture which ultimately becomes the heritage. ... communication, which could be called oral media, include: “Mythology, oral literature,. (poetry, storytelling and proverbs) ..... believed to be the king of birds. They symbolized the Ata's kingship.

  15. Delayed Justice - Macedonian Experience With Guilty Plea And Sentence Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misoski Boban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing on mind the idea of the proverb “Justice Delayed is Justice Denied” Macedonian Legislator within the new Code of Criminal Procedure (CPC has introduced several legal mechanisms for accelerating the criminal procedure. The most important instruments among them, by all means, are the Guilty Plea and Sentence Bargaining.

  16. Goals of Education in Asian and American Cultures. Reflective Essay #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this…

  17. A Survey of Distributed Capability File Systems and Their Application to Cloud Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Acknowledgments First and foremost, I would like to thank my amazing, always supportive, selfless, Proverbs 31 Wife, without whom, without a doubt, I... legal right to do his or her self. In the same way ambient authority, as in Linux or another ACL system, allows a process to act with the rights of the

  18. Journal of Religion and Human Relations - Vol 8, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the role of Igbo proverbs in conflict resolution and reconciliation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Martha Chidimma Egenti, Adaobi Ngozi Okoye, 55-68. The impact of philosophy in the interpretation of African values with particular reference to Igbo ...

  19. Educational Policy Borrowing in China: Looking West or Looking East? Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, Mainland China has been embarking on an ambitious nation-wide education reform ("New Curriculum Reform") for its basic education. The reform reflects China's propensity to borrow selected educational policies from elsewhere, particularly North America and Europe. Chinese scholars have used a local proverb "the…

  20. When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

  1. Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fournet-Perot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le « langage stéréotypique » représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, « une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre ». Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grâce à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’œuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès.El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.

  2. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  3. Art and Religion in Schopenhauer: From Metaphysical Necessity to the Aesthetic Justification of Existence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Callejón, Encarnación; Universidad de Granada. España.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I...

  4. General And Specific Features In Realizing An Essay In English Language – A Case Study Of Essay On Economic Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliana Ecaterina TASCOVICI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wants to be a systematic and not only a theoretical approach on essays. This type of writing knows several points of view connecting its form, content, specific features and types, rules to be observed in its writing, structures or styles. As we know, it implies freedom of composition, originality, associations of surprising images and propensity for aphorism. We try to frame all its specifications within the economic essay, as economics is a field of exact utterance, where the speaker cannot play with the words and their meaning.

  5. The Justice of Proverbs in the Writings of A. Kourouma and A. Ryckmans. Towards a Deconstructive Reading of Bambara and Négropolitain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Under henvisning til antropologers studie af juridisk praksis i fransk-sprogede kolonier i Afrika og i de efterfølgende uafhængige stater, foretages der en kritisk analyse af anvendelse af ordsprog i retspraksis og i den populære formidling af denne. Som eksempelmateriale tages der udgangspunkt i...

  6. On the efficient determination of most near neighbors horseshoes, hand grenades, web search and other situations when close is close enough

    CERN Document Server

    Manasse, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The time-worn aphorism ""close only counts in horseshoes and hand-grenades"" is clearly inadequate. Close also counts in golf, shuffleboard, archery, darts, curling, and other games of accuracy in which hitting the precise center of the target isn't to be expected every time, or in which we can expect to be driven from the target by skilled opponents. This lecture is not devoted to sports discussions, but to efficient algorithms for determining pairs of closely related web pages -- and a few other situations in which we have found that inexact matching is good enough; where proximity suffices.

  7. The Politics of Civil Society and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2015-01-01

    , we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting...... the essence of culture but also everything about the Somalis. For instance the nation’s short histories and proverbs contain not only description and analysis of the society, but also solutions to the numerous challenges facing the country (Kapchitz, 2010). Somalis themselves, as well as the rest of the world......, underestimate the Somali’s ability to interpret and develop their political culture and society through language and literature. The political and economic elite have for decades ignored or oppressed people’s attempt to build their society with linguistic and communicative public engagement based on mutual...

  8. Language and Gender: Sexism in Kurdish Language (Mukriani Dialect)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmokri, Manijeh; Ahmadian, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Language is a social phenomenon and reflectsthe existing beliefs in a community. It is possible to discover theinstitutionalized beliefs, orientations and ideologies through study oflanguage even in case of male and female relationships. This research attemptsto discuss the sexism or non-sexism of "Mukriani Kurdish" throughcompilation of male and female adjectives as well as terms of address. To thisend, a number of widely used idioms, proverbs and terminologies were analyzedfrom am...

  9. Postnatal infant crying and maternal tiredness : examining their evolution and interaction in the first 12 weeks postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing for her family” is an old Swiss proverb. Maternal rest and recuperation after birth was a common concern in the past and was frequently supported by the extended family. However, mothers today barely enjoy restful days after birth; instead they enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and selfcare. They often struggle to soothe a crying baby, while coping with their own exhaustion, which can adversely affect family healt...

  10. Corporal punishment of children in England and the United States: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Proverbs has eight sets of instructions on beating children, but that book does not contain the often cited proverbial "spare the rod and spoil the child." This form of discipline, which is thousands of years old, has only recently been abandoned and forbidden in many states in the US, and in much of Europe. It is still legal in Britain and some US states, and remains a controversial issue.

  11. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  12. Operational Arctic: The Potential for Crisis or Conflict in the Arctic Region and Application of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    truly know who is your friend and who is your enemy.1 Inuit proverb The littoral nations of the Arctic region face potential challenges and...the interests of a globalizing world. This growing world interest, and the lack of political and legal regulation, may lead to an increase in...Arctic Operating Concept,” Canadian Military 26 legal scholar, and expert on international law, Michael Byers, seeks approaches for Canada to

  13. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone? Exploring (Dis) continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women

    OpenAIRE

    Dzokoto, Vivian A. A.; Darkwah, Akosua K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally) through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey f...

  14. Latin Proverbs in the Teaching of Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Medija

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregovori so del našega vsakdana in del nas samih, naše kulture, našega jezika; prav vsi se jih poslužujemo, bolj ali manj pogosto in bolj ali manj zavedno, včasih jih, kot pravimo, kar »Stresemo iz rokava« - četudi se zdi, da jim današnji čas nekako ni naklonjen. Poznamo jih od malega, ko smo bili otroci (Kar se Janezek nauči, to Janez zna. Zdi se nam, kot da so pregovori nekaj »samo po sebi umevnega«, zato se običajno ne sprašujemo, kako stari so, od kod so in čigava last oz. stvaritev so, kaj šele, da bi se poglabljali v njihov prvotni pomen, v situacijo, v kateri so nastali, ter druge njihove komponente, zlasti oblikovne.

  15. The case of proverbs in Northern Sotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    see Table 2). For better clarity, the collocational network in Fig. 3 was gener- ated only for strong collocations by removing the collocations with logDice lower than 5. collocate\\adjective artificial fake false synthetic. 1 intelligence. 97. 0. 0. 0. 2.

  16. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  17. ‘Farm’ Animal Metaphors in Malay and Arabic Figurative Expressions: Implications for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabariah MD Rashid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used in figurative expressions, such as proverbs and idioms. Their features, characteristics, and/or behaviours are employed as metaphors to convey certain meanings. This study sought to examine animal metaphors of Malay and Arabic figurative expressions.  Data examined comprised Malay figurative expressions such as simpulan bahasa (two-word idioms and peribahasa (proverbs, as well as Arabic figurative expressions such as istiarah (proverbs containing ‘farm’ animals, such as cow, donkey, horse and goat. The analysis focused on the description of animal images used in the expressions and their connotations. Findings of the study revealed some similarities and differences, in terms of the images and connotations used in the expressions of the two languages, which may be attributed to cultural differences. The differences reflected in the Malay and Arabic figurative expressions may contribute to the difficulty in grasping the meanings of the expressions amongst learners of these languages.Thus, it is essential that learners of each language be exposed to the elements related to the cultural differences of the two languages to help them understand the expressions better and become effective language learners.

  18. South African Female Presidential Leadership and the inevitability of a donga as final destination? Reading the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 104 years of the existence of the African National Congress, many a black person in Sout Africa has been exclusively led by men. Also, 24 years into a democracy, patriarchy continues to raise its ugly head in our parliament, among other institutions. Disturbingly, against the call for a female presidential leadership Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the National Union of Mineworkers, together with the ANC leadership in the Gauteng province, are lobbying for a male presidential candidate namely, Cyril Ramaphosa. In order to engage the issue of patriarchy in the South African politics, the Sepedi/Northern Sotho proverb tsa etwa ke ye tshadi pele, di wela ka leope [once they are led by a female one, that is, a cow, they will fall into a donga] will be employed as a hermeneutical tool to re-read the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way. the interest of the preceding way lies at seeking justice for the transformation of many an African women's life in present day South Africa. Inthe end, this article will investigate whether the tenor of the Northern Sotho/Sepedi proverb that once they (cattle [read: South Africans] are led by a female one, they are sure to fall into a donga.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, gender and social sciences studies as well as Indigenous Knowledge Systems (with particular focus on an African proverb, this article addresses the topic of the South African Female Presidential Leadership and the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way.Keywords: Deuteronomistic Athaliah; Patriarchy; Woman president; South Africa; Sepedi proverb; bosadi

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL, SYNTACTIC, AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF THE VERB IN THE ROMANIAN TRANSLATIONS FROM ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER’S THE WISDOM OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia-Iuliana VÂRLAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the difficulties in translating philosophical texts in general, with a special interest in Romania n translations of German philosophical writings. The focus was set on one of the late works of Arthur Schopenhauer, [ Aphorisms on ] The Wisdom of Life , and on its Romanian translation, with the purpose of contrastively and diachronically analysing the vario us existent versions of the translation and their influence on the development of the target - language (Romanian. The types of analysis which have been used in our research are description and contrastive typology. Various versions of the Romanian transl ation of the Aphorisms have been compared with the original text and with one another, in order to diachronically analyse the translation methods and strategies that were used in the process of transposing the German original text into an adequate Romanian one. The analysis in the present study concentrated on the word class of verbs and had the purpose of understanding the way various elements of this word class correspond with their Romanian equivalents and of drawing conclusions regarding a possible typo logy of translation strategies used for them.

  20. AFRREV LALIGENS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    proverbs, the factors accounting for the decline of proverbs (if any) and what can be done to popularise their use. .... profession) to encourage the younger generations to transmit and sustain the culture of the community, use ... information communication technology, school and societal based competitions on proverbs as ...

  1. Comparison versus reminding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Goldstone, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Comparison and reminding have both been shown to support learning and transfer. Comparison is thought to support transfer because it allows learners to disregard non-matching features of superficially different episodes in order to abstract the essential structure of concepts. Remindings promote memory for the individual episodes and generalization because they prompt learners to retrieve earlier episodes during the encoding of later related episodes and to compare across episodes. Across three experiments, we compared the consequences of comparison and reminding on memory and transfer. Participants studied a sequence of related, but superficially different, proverb pairs. In the comparison condition, participants saw proverb pairs presented together and compared their meaning. In the reminding condition, participants viewed proverbs one at a time and retrieved any prior studied proverb that shared the same deep meaning as the current proverb. Experiment 1 revealed that participants in the reminding condition recalled more proverbs than those in the comparison condition. Experiment 2 showed that the mnemonic benefits of reminding persisted over a one-week retention interval. Finally, in Experiment 3, we examined the ability of participants to generalize their remembered information to new items in a task that required participants to identify unstudied proverbs that shared the same meaning as studied proverbs. Comparison led to worse discrimination between proverbs related to studied proverbs and proverbs unrelated to studied proverbs than reminding. Reminding supported better memory for individual instances and transfer to new situations than comparison.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 629 ... ... The Septuagint of Proverbs: Jewish and / or Hellenistic Proverbs?: concerning the Hellenistic colouring of LXX Proverbs, Johann Cook: book review, Details. SJPK Riekert. Vol 34, No 2 (2014), The Seventh Ecumenical Council and the veneration of icons in Orthodoxy, Abstract PDF. A Nicolaides.

  3. Teachers' Perception On The Effectiveness Of Physical Punishment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the Qualitative analysis showed the influence of religion on teachers' perception, (King Solomon, in the Book of Proverbs [13:24]), (Proverbs 22:15, KJV) and (Proverbs 23:13, 15, KJV). In conclusion, physical punishment was perceived as an effective disciplinary measure for correcting and maintaining discipline ...

  4. Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Azerbaycan Türkçesinde “Su” Unsurlu Atasözlerinin Gramer Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÖKSÜZ

    2014-11-01

    , history and culture of a nation are all reflected in the language. Proverbs are the aphorisms transferred to us from our ancestors and reflect their opinions giving counsels and advices gathered with their observation for a long time. Proverbs are expressed with different terms in different languages; Kashkarli Mahmud expressed as "sav" in Turkish, but later in Ottoman Turkish it is expressed as "darb-ı mesel" or "durûb-i emsal". While it is denoted as "atasözü" in today's Turkish language, it is told as “atalar sözü” in Azerbaijani. Proverbs tell us the lessons to be drawn from the events happened in the community in terms of an advice or a counsel briefly. Therefore the most important aspect of the proverbs that distinguishes them from other expressions is that a judgment is mentioned in a proverb. On the other hand, various Turkish communities have gathered their own proverbs and have several works done on them. In this regard, investigation of proverbs and idioms are of special importance. Turkey and Azerbaijan are the states that have provided the coexistence of both culture and language from history up to this time. Although we speak the same language, there are slight differences in both culture and language depending on having different neighborly relations and influence from the different cultures and languages. These differences are also seen in proverbs. In this study, we will try to put forward different and similar aspects emphasizing the grammatical features of proverbs contain the word water in both languages. Keywords: Proverbs, Turkish, Azerbaijani Turkish, Turkish grammar, Turkish culture, Turkish language.

  5. Refráns meteorolóxicos e atlas románicos, paremioloxía e territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Gargallo Gil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing the database of calendar and weather proverbs in Romance-speaking areas (BADARE and listing items culled from several Romance atlases, I present three samples of regional variation in this kind of proverbs in Ibero-Romance referring to (1 the meaning of the rainbow and (2 of a red sky, and (3 images associated with a cumulus sky. The material of great interest contained in Romance atlases is complemented by other works related to languages and linguistic geography: proverb collections, dialect monographs and various other studies. Although the project of putting together a large Romance atlas of proverbs does not seem feasible even if conceived of as a second generation atlas, due to the fact that weather proverbs (or other types of proverbs are a rare treat in the first generation atlases, it is suggested that the material in the BADARE database can be used to good advantage to facilitate the study of Romance proverb geography.

  6. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  7. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and walk...do not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth.

  8. Mongolians’ Devotion to Gurus /Traditional and Contemporary/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnee Dorjsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, Mongolians traditionally devoted themselves to their teachers. Could Mongolians still keep this tradition until today? Do they devote themselves to their teachers? If not, what are the causes and factors? This article aims to respond to these questions within the frame of sutras and books. This article is divided into two parts: the first part tells in detail about the guru devotion using the proverbs on guru devotion, one Mongolian folk oral monument, and other written monuments whereas the other one narrates how the process of today’s globalization affects the tradition of Mongolians’ devotion to gurus.

  9. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  10. Archeology in Medicine: Digging up into the tophi of Popes, Dukes and Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ceccarelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available According to an Anglo-Saxon pun, “gout is the king of diseases and the disease of Kings”. In fact, it is well-known that in past times a quantity of famous persons, including Kings and Popes, were affected with this rheumatic disorder. In this paper biographical anecdotes on several Popes (Pius III, Julius II, Julius III, Clement VIII, Innocent XI, Clement XII and Pius VIII, King George IV and Queen Anne of England, as well as on some members of the Lorraine lineage, all suffering from gout, are sketched out. These historical data are briefly discussed in relation to the celebrated Hippocrates’s aphorisms on gout.

  11. The learned physician as a charismatic healer: Urso of Salerno (flourished end of twelfth century) on incantations in medicine, magic, and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lugt, Maaike

    2013-01-01

    Urso, the last of the great Salernitan physicians, was both an ardent defender of a theoretical, scientific medicine and the first in the medieval West to propose, in his aphorisms, a rational and naturalistic explanation of the healing power of incantations. The article explores this paradox and provides an in-depth analysis of Urso's highly original and hitherto ignored argument, as well as its intellectual and social background. According to Urso, the efficacy of incantations relies not on the power of words, but on the charismatic physician's "aura"-spirits emanating from his body-and the patient's confidence in and conformity with the physician. Urso compares medical incantations to teaching, fascination, demonic magic, sacraments, and prayer. It is argued that Urso's incursions into theology are both a tactic to defend his bold naturalism against accusations of unorthodoxy and a reflection of his ambition to create a comprehensive "science of everything." Urso's text and an English translation are provided in an appendix.

  12. There is no such thing as Society. Ferdydurke in neoliberalism, postmodernism and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Majewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Ferdydurke is discussed as a forerunner of the logic of late capitalism with all its repercussions, as identified by Frederick Jameson. Gombrowicz’s novel is seen as an early prognosis of neoliberal ideology, with its demands for effectivity and productivity as well as negation of social and affective bonds. Margaret Thatcher’s aphorism: “there is no such thing as society” is a pretext for a critical analysis of Ferdydurke, including the feminist critics of the European vision of the subject built on fear of the Other. This feminist analysis of Ferdydurke reveals several problems with the notion of body – theories of Julia Kristeva (on abjection and Lynda Nead (on the female nude are employed to demonstrate this argument. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis is that queer disruptions of the binary logic of gender oppositions do not necessarily produce anti-patriarchal results.

  13. Environmental and cultural reflections in Kanuri hunters' songs

    OpenAIRE

    Geider, Thomas; Vogels, Raimund

    2006-01-01

    Our dichotomy of ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ is expressed in the Kanuri language with the terms al@ga for ‘creation’ and ‘creature’ which embraces trees, mammals, birds, insects, humans, in short the whole of the natural environment, and ada for ‘custom, habit, way of behaviour, family tradition’ for culture as a whole. There is no genre of oral literature, which would describe al@ga as such, but aspects of it can always be expressed in proverbs, riddles, toponymic praise phrases and songs, of whi...

  14. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative meanings.

    Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY.

    Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en

  16. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz D. Calibayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  17. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops".

  18. Ethiopian Wisdom Literature: Oromo Proverbs, is now in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    directly to the meat of tbe upper part of the arm. However, the general, meaning is one of ..... house, thrust his arm into a vessel of grain, but·could not pull it out again. The woman, wh0 had been to the spring to ..... would be the equivalent of reducing man to the state of a robot, unable to freely situate himself in the universe.

  19. ON THE ROLE OF IGBO PROVERBS IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relevant to day to day life has to be committed to memory. The speech Act theory developed from Austin's .... smell. 7. Onyech? аyas?`ya иbiri. 'Tolerance is a necessity for communal living' т wиre zщo тkи. 'Foolishness complements wisdom'. 'Let us bury the hatchet'. 'A brother's provocation does not cut deep into the heart'.

  20. Ethiopian Wisdom Literature: Oromo Proverbs, is now in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It would be possible to make an anthology within the anthology only with the dramatic character as a standard of literary beauty: "Great lord!' From the bottom of my heart: '1"'12 One can easily imagine the scene: someone hears himself being called: "Great lord;..." As a matter of fact the Oromo expression: is.

  1. A theology of the Greek version of Proverbs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-17

    Jul 17, 2015 ... problems, a prominent one being that the Old Greek has not yet been determined systematically.4 ... Thematic issues. One of the definite advantages of an exegetical commentary is that one can analyse passages contextually.5 This ensures that researchers do ...... clothes or armour that fit well (Pi P 4.80).

  2. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  3. Governance Practices in Africa | Coetzee | Contemporary Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates observed encodings of gender stereotypes in Igbo proverbs, the obvious pigeonhole effects of these stereotypes on male-female operational spaces, and how the fixed formats of these proverbs present them as taken-for-granted, impermeable for deconstruction and recontextualization. Drawing ...

  4. Proverbial Oppression of Women in Yoruba African Culture: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper posits that there are elements of oppression in some of the Yoruba proverbs that relate to women. It argues that these proverbs violate the rights and dignity of women, and that they are indicators of discrimination against women in Yoruba culture. The paper further argues that the most fundamental but neglected ...

  5. D'un complex d'inferioritat proverbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is is a paper about the history of Catalan proverbs borrowed by Spanish tradition and lost in modern Catalan. The authors give the real origin of such proverbs and stress the sociolinguistic relevance of this «oblivion», as a kind of inferiority complex, to the present-day consciousness of the Catalan speech community.

  6. 2018-02-26T22:11:33Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/87359 2018-02-26T22:11:33Z ljh:ART Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality Olatunji, MO This paper attempted to establish some links between traditional Yorùbá instrumental music and instrumentation or performance with proverbs. Eleven ...

  7. Proverbial Dirges: The Urhobo Example | Ohwovoriole | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proverb is a literary expression of wisdom which offer the speaker a medium for the projection and fulfilment of a variety of socially desired goals. The proverb is an instrument of cultural transmission and its study can give a penetrating picture of the people's way of life, their philosophy, their criticism of life, moral truths ...

  8. SEMANGAT PROFESIONALISME DALAM PERIBAHASA MINANGKABAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavianus Oktavianus

    2013-10-01

    Abstract The spirit of professionalism in Minangkabau Proverbs. The spirit of professionalism is very essential in human life. The spirit of professionalism then can be transferred into someone’s attitude, behavior, action and habit in doing something  It is assumed that the values triggering the spirit of professionalism in the form of professional attitude, behavior, and action can be found in the proverbs of every ethnics in Indonesia including Minangkabau proverbs.  Thus, this writing is an attempt to observe and discuss the spirit of professionalism in Minangkabau proverbs. The study is done from the perspective of how language reflects the attitude and behavior of its speakers. The data for this study is collected from written documents of Minangkabau proverbs and the proverbs used in daily communication. The result of the study indicates that Minangkabau proverbs contains the values that can trigger Minangkabau people to keep their professional attitude, behavior, habit, and action in their daily life. Keywords : Professionalism, professional, values, and proverbs.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enty-nine items. There is a big jump to Gwengwe 's Chinyanja China (1964) with one hundred and three proverbs. ... After a big jump the northern languages were only represented again by Mphande's. Tonga proverbs (1997). There were ..... made the legs of a hyena part widely". The reviewer is still wrestling with the ...

  10. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  11. Kenntnis und Gebrauch von Sprichwörtern bei zwei Gruppen österreichischer Jugendlicher

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    Lipavic-Oštir, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results and findings of the study on the levels of knowledge and use of proverbs among students from two secondary education institutions in Austria (a comprehensive school in a small town in Styria and a general upper secondary school in Vienna based on a relevant survey. The students taking part in the study very surveyed on their knowledge of various proverbs (the proverb database in the questionnaire included 76 entries and on the meaning of the respective proverbs. Furthermore, the students were encouraged to estimate the frequency of their use of proverbs in speaking and writing. The results show that the "rural environment" factor is not statistically significant with reference to proverb preservation (both as part of the passive as well as the active vocabulary. The male and female students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria know less proverbs compared to their peers, enrolled in the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. What is more, the students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria also know the meaning and use proverbs in speaking and/or writing less frequently than their peers from the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. Rather than the aspect of "rural environment", the results hint at the aspect of "type of school" to be the determining factor (comprehensive school vs. general upper secondary school. Further analyses, including additional test subjects, would provide more insight on whether the relations between proverbs and the linguistic as well as intellectual education are prominent to such an extent that a distinct degree of reception and production of proverbs could be linked to a particular type of school. The study also features an analysis of the difference between the students with reference to gender (male vs. female, with the results showing a relatively consistent distribution.

  12. The Politics of Civil Society and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2015-01-01

    Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other hand......, we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting......, underestimate the Somali’s ability to interpret and develop their political culture and society through language and literature. The political and economic elite have for decades ignored or oppressed people’s attempt to build their society with linguistic and communicative public engagement based on mutual...

  13. Structural and aesthetic analysis of Nafast-ol-Masdoor

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    Fereshteh Mahjoub

    2016-12-01

    The other conclusion is that the book is more the arena of the struggle of the editor and protagonist of this historical and social story. The struggles of the story are more physical ones; however, in most of the cases mental-physical struggles are seen simultaneously. Nafasat-Ol-Masdoor is worth thinking in two traditional (such as music and modern aesthetics (such as using Persian and Arabic proverbs, words dance, goodness of the beginning, twist, and developing vocabulary and describing which itself includes situation description, characters, accidents and events description and has many instances and the author’s insistence regarding being synthetic and stilted work, has itself caused creation of music types in his book and made his work rhythmic and full of melodious and exhilarating beauties.

  14. EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ VE SÖZ VARLIĞI ÜZERİNE THE EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ AND ITS VOCABULARY

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proverbs that connected to lots of fields such as history,folklore, sociology, psychology, philosophy and morality are veryimportant language characteristics in terms of expression beauty,eloquence and conceptual richness. The proverbs which usually consistof one sentence with a brief language have the power of expressing thewide range of meanings. When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thought and we can see that they are made use of the music of language. All kinds of events about the life with every aspects and colorfulness are present in proverbs, the products of oral literature. So we can see the religious, moral, understanding, common values, mental state, imagination and intelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Also it is seen that sayings in the proverbs have become stereotyped with the blend of national language and thought in the process of history.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì in Meraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in 1910. In the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì, there are proverbs ordered according to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet. In this manuscript it is important that the proverbs were written by saving the dialect characteristics.In this study, vocabulary of proverbs in the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. Thus, some words in the work have been compared with historical and modern Turkish dialects. Tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe, ahlak gibi birçok alanıilgilendiren atasözleri; deyiş güzelliği, anlatım gücü ve kavram zenginliğibakımından çok önemli dil unsularındandır. Kısa ve özlü bir dil ilegenellikle tek cümleden oluşan atasözleri, çok geniş manaları ifade etmekudretine sahiptir. Yerinde söylendiği zaman düşünceye kuvvet katanbu sözlerde, dilin bütün inceliklerinden ve musikisinden istifade edildiğigörülür. Sözlü edebiyat ürünlerinin başında gelen atasözlerinde hayatadair

  15. The teacher-disciple tradition and secret teaching in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin

    2014-01-01

    The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing.

  16. Falling giants and the rise of gene editing: ethics, private interests and the public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin; Chadwick, Ruth; Joly, Yann; Mulvihill, John J; Lysaght, Tamra; Zwart, Hub

    2017-08-29

    This paper considers the tensions created in genomic research by public and private for-profit ideals. Our intent is to strengthen the public good at a time when doing science is strongly motivated by market possibilities and opportunities. Focusing on the emergence of gene editing, and in particular CRISPR, we consider how commercialisation encourages hype and hope-a sense that only promise and idealism can achieve progress. At this rate, genomic research reinforces structures that promote, above all else, private interests, but that may attenuate conditions for the public good of science. In the first part, we situate genomics using the aphorism that 'on the shoulders of giants we see farther'; these giants are infrastructures and research cultures rather than individual 'heroes' of science. In this respect, private initiatives are not the only pivot for successful discovery, and indeed, fascination in those could impinge upon the fundamental role of public-supported discovery. To redress these circumstances, we define the extent to which progress presupposes research strategies that are for the public good. In the second part, we use a 'falling giant' narrative to illustrate the risks of over-indulging for-profit initiatives. We therefore offer a counterpoint to commercialised science, using three identifiable 'giants'-scientists, publics and cultures-to illustrate how the public good contributes to genomic discovery.

  17. Aristotle, the jewish sages and Solomon in an unpublished collection of sayings, Palabras breves: dichos de sabios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Haro Cortés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edition of an unpublished collection of sayings, of Jewish origin, to be found in Manuscript 5644 of the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, on folios 78V (lxxxv to 84V (lxxxviv. The contents are to be found in the Libro de los buenos proverbios (translated from Arabic into Spanish and Hebrew in the 13th century; in the Pirqué Abot, the only wisdom tractate in the Mishnah; and in the Proverbs of Solomon, part of the Tanakh, i.e. the Hebrew bible. The compilation of the work involved selecting and reorganising materials from various sources, following the editor’s tastes and interests, and giving rise to a new literary product which is a perfect example of the process and techniques involved in the assimilation and transmission of the Jewish wisdom legacy to the Castilian Middle Ages.

  18. [William Osler (1849-1919): the man and his descriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Emery, John D C; Buzzi, Alfredo

    2012-09-01

    William Osler was generally regarded as the greatest and most respected physician of his time. This paper describes Osler's life, his philosophy and views. He was an outstanding clinician who emphasized bedside teaching and observation. He possessed an extraordinary charm that inspired many others. As Professor of Medicine at four institutions in three countries, he was a great influence on medical education. He was a prolific writer, and his textbook became the most popular and widely read treatise on medicine in the world. He also was a medical historian, a classical scholar, and an avid bibliophile. He emphasized the value of hard work and ongoing education. His compassion and concern for patients and colleagues reflected his personality. We summarize Osler's descriptions, and some of his aphorisms. His wisdom is as relevant now, as it was in his time. Osler blended the art and science of Medicine perhaps better than anyone else, and remains a valuable role model for students and physicians more than ninety two years after his death.

  19. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone? Exploring (Dis) continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzokoto, Vivian A A; Darkwah, Akosua K

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally) through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life- education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships-in six hundred (600) adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, there have only been modest disruptions in the lives of Ghanaian women as far as issues of autonomy and decision-making in are concerned.

  20. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone?Exploring (Dis continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosua K Darkwah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life– education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships - in six hundred (600 adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, Ghanaian women who live in a culture that values an interdependent way of being have not changed statistically significantly so far as issues of autonomy and decision-making are concerned.

  1. Orofacial pain onset predicts transition to head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAM, D.K.; SCHMIDT, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to a clinical aphorism that early head and neck cancer is painless, we show that patients who develop head and neck cancer experience significant pain at the time of initial diagnosis. We compared orofacial pain sensitivity in groups of patients with normal oral mucosa, oral precancer and newly diagnosed oral cancer. The UCSF Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire was administered to these patients at their initial visit, before being prescribed analgesics for pain and before any treatment. In contrast to those with biopsy-proven normal oral mucosa and oral precancer, only oral cancer patients reported significant levels of spontaneous pain and functional restriction from pain. Moreover, oral cancer patients experienced significantly higher function-related, rather than spontaneous pain qualities. These findings suggest an important predictor for the transition from oral precancer to cancer may be the onset of orofacial pain that is exacerbated during function. Screening patients who have new-onset orofacial pain may lead to a diagnosis of early, resectable head and neck cancer and may improve quality of life and survival for head and neck cancer patients. PMID:21388740

  2. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  3. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Ama Fening

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  4. An integrated multi-sensors approach for volcanic cloud retrievals and source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are one the most important sources of natural pollution. In particular the volcanic clouds represent a severe threat for aviation safety. Worldwide the volcanic activity is monitored by using satellite and ground-based instruments working at different spectral ranges, with different spatial resolutions and sensitivities. Here the complementarity between geostationary and polar satellites and ground based measurements is exploited, in order to significantly improve the volcanic cloud detection and retrievals and to fully characterize the eruption source. The integration procedure named MACE (Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation), has been developed during the EU-FP7 APhoRISM project aimed to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. The proposed method integrates in a novel manner the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. On MACE the typical volcanic cloud retrievals in the thermal infrared are integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. Moreover the volcanic cloud detection is extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. As example, the integrated approach is tested on different recent eruptions, occurred on Etna (Italy) in 2013 and 2015 and on Calbuco (Chile) in 2015.

  5. Do not call anything, anything' by Bahinabai Choudhari, translated (from Ahirani and introduced by Rohini Shukla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahinabai Choudhari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bahinabai Choudhari (1880-1951 was born in an agrarian village called Asoda in northern Maharashtra. She was a devotee of Vitthal – beloved God of the Varkari tradition, initiated by Saint Dnyaneshwar in the thirteenth century. To the present day, a special practice of the Varkari tradition is the vaari – devotees from across Maharashtra walk together for days, from their native villages to Pandharpur, Vitthal’s spiritual abode. They sing and dance to songs in praise of Vitthal, engendering a rich oral and performative tradition. Bound by her family and farms, Bahinabai did not partake in the vaaris. Instead, she composed and sang couplets called ovyaa, as she toiled in the fields and the kitchen along with fellow women. To be sure, there is hardly a kitchen in Maharashtra, not enriched by her ovyaa; they are known for their simplicity, light-hearted humour, aphorisms about nature, rhythm and, of course, their magical ability to comfort endlessly labouring farmers and home makers. This ovi is translated from an exhaustive collection of Bahinabai’s ovyaa, titled Bahinayichi Gaani, published by Suchitra Prakaashan in 2012. We are indebted to Sopandev, Bahinabai’s son, who scripted her ovyaa and published them posthumously; and also the many women who have kept this oral tradition alive.

  6. NILAI SOSIAL BUDAYA JEPANG DALAM PERIBAHASA JEPANG YANG MENGGUNAKAN KONSEP BINATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwahyu Istana Trahutami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs conveying animal concepts can be found in almost languages. They are used to express indirectly the spesker’s meaning. The data of the research are taken from Japanese Proverb Dictionary. This study used referential and inferential methods.The methods were used to determine life values in Japanese society or Japanese culture. This analysis reveals that in Japanese proverbs the animal like dog, cat, frog, snake, raccoon, tanuki, fish etc is often mapped on to human beings to expressing human relationship and to show characteristic of the Japanese people and culture.

  7. THINKING IN PAREMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia DURNEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has the purpose of highlighting possible interrelationships between proverbs and thinking, both connected through education. Thinking, a complex mental process, is materialized in various forms, being influenced by the individual’s personalities, trends and personal interests. For this reason, we consider that proverbs, reaching so extensive areas, can satisfy different tastes, sometimes even contradictory. It seeks to highlight the form in which thinking can be contrived, guided and even provoked by proverbs - short, popular phrases with fixed forms that convey the millennial wisdom of our ancestors. Assigning multiple roles, the paremiology conceals thinking with the help of educators through education.

  8. Is our language sexist or not ? An a pproach of the issue from Latin American popular sayings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Pacheco Carpio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Popular proverbs are an expression of ancestor‟s wisdom emerging from daily life. Under the vision of the didactics they empower different attitudes, values and behaviors settled in the consciousness and social representation of the “ideal being”. Together with it, an important number of Latino American proverbs that transmit stereotypes associated with the traditional role of the gender expressing a discriminatory vision against women appeared in the daily language. The objective of this article is to analyze and systematize the proverbs used in Latino America which express a sexist vision against women.

  9. Skin pathology and medical prognosis in medieval Europe: the secrets of Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Smoller, L

    2000-12-01

    This article analyzes a medieval text known as The Secrets of Hippocrates. Neither secret (because of its wide circulation in manuscript and print) nor by Hippocrates, the work offered readers a means of offering a prognosis of impending death based on observable signs on the skin. Although the aphorisms that make up the text make little sense in a modern medical understanding, the Secrets of Hippocrates fits well within three medieval traditions: the tradition of secrets literature, the medieval medical tradition, and the tradition of medieval Christian views about the body. First, like other books of secrets, a genre to whose conventions the text closely adheres, the Secrets of Hippocrates offered a shortcut to socially useful knowledge: the ability to offer an accurate medical prognosis. Second, the treatise corresponded to the medieval physician's concern for the so-called nonnaturals, such as diet and exercise. Third, it fit with a medieval Christian notion that sickness and sin were related, as were sin and ugliness. Just as a leper's deformities were a window to his sinful soul, so skin pathologies could clue a medieval physician to the lethal disease hidden inside the body.

  10. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief characteristics of the aphoristic style is the reduction of a set of ideas to an essential minimum. When the practitioner of the aphorism, a fragment, or a maxim, is successful, it takes, however, not only skills to produce elegant bottom-lines, but also a sense of how far...... that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  11. Heidegger Teaching: An Analysis and Interpretation of Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    German philosopher Martin Heidegger stirred educators when in 1951 he claimed teaching is more difficult than learning because teachers must "learn to let learn". However in the main he left the aphorism unexplained as part of a brief four-paragraph, less than two-page set of observations concerning the relationship of teaching to learning; and…

  12. ETHNOPEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF THE COMICAL OF THE MORDOVIAN PEOPLE

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    Anastasiya A. Osmushina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article explores the folklore’s educational potential and the comical of the Mordovian people in the context of reflection of socio-philosophical categories in it. It also reveals the basis and content of the comical and specifics of the laughing matter for Moksha and Erzya people and their effect on the formation of personality. This kind of research is noval and paper has an interdisciplina ry character. Materials and Methods: the analysed materials included Mordovian myths, aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, fairytales, and ritual songs. We used quantitative-qualitative analysis, generalisations and s ynthesis. Results: a detailed comparison of Moksha and Erzya folklore revealed a significant degree of similarities. Both sub-ethnic groups share the same comical view of social vices (injustice, drunkenness, gambling, etc. and individual vices (the manifestation of a lack of vital energy and information: laziness, slovenliness, poverty, and other forms of the wrong use of vital energy: hypocrisy, lying, stupidity, cursing, etc.. In terms of differences, Moksha people are more inclined to support common effectiveness and common justice whereas Erzya people are inclined to maintain individual justice and individual effectiveness. Consequently, the education of Moksha and Erzya in general is similar. The upbringing is directed to creating a model of behaviour that reflects sufficient and excessive vital energy, justice, hard work, tidiness, common sense, and cunning. Ridiculing of the vices, however, is sanctioned. We brought to light the object of the Moksha comical (insufficient vital energy, deviation from justice and genuineness and its subject (deviation from human destiny, from natural creativity. We found that the tropes contain an illocutionary power. The perlocutionary effect is disapproval of the vices and admiration of the virtues which form the desiderative norms – the norms reaching the aim of education and upbringing

  13. Riglyne vir die prediking oor wysheidsliteratuur, toegespits op die boek Spreuke

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    H. F. van Rooy

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give guidelines for preaching on the wisdom literature of the Old Testament, concentrating on the book of Proverbs. As background for the guidelines, wisdom and wisdom literature are defined and attention is given to the forms of wisdom literature, problems regarding the preaching on wisdom literature and relevant information on the book of Proverbs. In many circles Proverbs is largely ignored in preaching to the detriment of the church's preaching. Preaching on wisdom forces the preacher to apply the guidelines practically and to touch on the daily life of the members of his congregation. Twelve guidelines are given and they are applied to three examples from Proverbs.

  14. Ethnolinguistic Study of Local Wisdom in Ex-Residency of Surakarta

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    Wakit Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses “the local wisdom summarized in the proverbs of the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta”. The purposes of this study are to describe (1 the background of the local wisdom as summarize in the proverbs of the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta, (2 to elaborate further reasons and specific times the people in Ex-residency of Surakarta employ the Javanese proverbs that summarize the local wisdom, and (3 explain the cultural meanings resided in the Javanese proverbs. This study employed ethnographic methods framed by the ethnolinguistic study to find the cultural meanings. Data and the data sources are categorized into primary and secondary data; the data collection method is done through the observation-participation and in-depth interview techniques; data analysis employed the ethnoscience model which underwent 12-phases of advanced research stages (of taxonomic, componential and domain analyses to find the cultural themes; validity of the data is attested with the triangulation techniques (the triangulation of data, methods, researcher, and theory. The results encompassed (1 background of the local wisdom summarized in the Javanese proverbs  expressed by the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta influenced by the cultural factors, the Javanese language, aesthetical, ethical, social, economical, political, and geographical factors; (2 the community in Ex-Surakarta expressed the Javanese proverb that summarizes local wisdom, the demands of fidelity to the culture is inevitable, media that facilitates the growth of the Javanese language, aesthetical and ethical motivations, social conditions, economical motivation, political media which show the geographical background; and (3 the cultural meaning of the Javanese proverbs which summarize the local wisdom of the community in Ex-residency of Surakarta, all of which are to show the courtesy, avoid direct confrontation, the proverbs also

  15. Cosmic Pessimism

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    Eugene Thacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of After Life (University of Chicago Press presents a series of aphorisms exploring pessimism's motility and its sessility. "A long, low funereal sigh" opens the reader onto an abrupt anatomical study of pessimism, its moral and metaphysical considerations and music. Songs of spite, of futility, of sleep, of doom and further mournful voices resound.

  16. The evolution of gout (an old lifestyle disease) | Omole | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Gout has been recognized as a clinical entity before 2000BC with Hippocrates describing the five aphorism of gout. Between the 1st and the 6th century AD, the role of genetics and the association of gout with an indulgent lifestyle and tophi were described. Hemodactyl (a source of colchicines) was also first ...

  17. Defining ubuntu for business ethics – a deontological approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term 'ubuntu' defines how people and communities should interact, based on the aphorism that 'a person is a person through other people'. Adopting a deontological perspective the paper reviews the work of many writers on ubuntu, and examines three possible interpretations of the ubuntu principle before deriving the ...

  18. Neonatal Malaria in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, is usually credited with the first clear description among occidental writers. 1. In his aphorisms, he described the regular paroxysms of fever now known to be associated with clinical malaria. In. Europe seasonal periodic fevers were particularly common in marshy areas and Italian ...

  19. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-11

    Jan 11, 2015 ... type differences on variously supplemented media, bringing to mind Marshall McLuhan's famous aphorism. (coined in another context), 'the medium is the message'. ERG24 was cloned by Leo Parks and colleagues. First, they selected a fenpropimorph-resistant ( fenr) mutant on YPD (yeast extract + ...

  20. TwiSwahili Or KiswaTwili: A Study of Parallel Proverbs in Akan (Twi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  2. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  3. Conceptual associations of [time] as a dictionary entry. Spanish and German phraseological occurrences and their usage

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    Rosa Piñel López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All humans experience time as a subjective experience, socially and culturally mediated. From birth we inherit a conception of the perception of time that has been transmitted by popular culture and is manifested mainly through oral tradition as phrasal expressions, proverbs and proverbial phrases. The differences in the perception of reality between different communities are expressed in their languages. They ultimately result in distinct symbols and conceptual associations, even if there is a common cultural tradition, as in the case of German and Spanish. These symbols and conceptualizations are realized in phraseology which refers, sometimes in a metaphorical way, to some aspects of reality. Phraseological creation is determined by universal conceptualizations, based on biological and psychological factors, and particular conceptualizations rooted in specific cultural variables associated with a social community of group. This paper is a revision of the concept of ‘time’ as reflected in German and Spanish phraseology. ‘Time’ is associated, among other notions, with concepts of destruction, medicine, opportunity, patience, change, justice, truth and advice. The phrasal idioms that illustrate the above concepts in both languages show that, despite the cultural differences, the perception of time, its conceptualization and its influence in the lives and behaviour of people.

  4. Gossip as a Channel for Circulating Subversive Truth: In Heym's The King David Report, the GDR and the Jardin du Luxembourg

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    David Fishelov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans la Chronique du roi David (1991 , Stefan Heym (1913-2001 propose une perspective favorable sur le potin, nonobstant la censure biblique de cette activité (ex : Proverbe 11:13. La réécriture satirique de Heym de l'histoire biblique se concentre sur le personnage d’Ethan, un écrivain-historien nommé par le roi Salomon pour composer un rapport officiel sur la vie et l’arrivée au pouvoir du roi David. À un moment donné les deux fils d’Ethan, Sem et Sheleph, reviennent du marché et racontent à Ethan certaines rumeurs «savoureuses» qu'ils y ont entendues. Ces rumeurs, tandis qu’elles sont un peu exagérées et embellies, fournissent toutefois des aperçus de la situation politique qui sont beaucoup plus fidèles à la vérité que les inventions des porte-parole officiels. Pour justifier le portrait littéraire de Heym du potin comme une voie pour communiquer la vérité subversive dans les régimes autoritaires, je cite la recherche historique systématique de Robert Darnton au sujet des voies diverses pour communiquer les nouvelles de Paris au dix-huitième siècle (Darnton, 2000. In The King David Report (1972, Stefan Heym (1913-2001 offers a favorable view of gossip, notwithstanding biblical censuring of that activity (e.g. Proverb 11:13. Heym's satirical re-telling of the biblical story focuses on the character of Ethan, a writer-historian appointed by King Solomon to compose an official report on the life and rise to power of King David. At one point Ethan's two sons, Shem and Sheleph, come back from the market, telling Ethan of some "juicy" rumors they heard there. These rumors, while using some exaggerations and added embellishments, nevertheless provide insights into the political situation much more faithful to the truth than the fabrications of official spokespersons. To substantiate Heym's literary portrayal of gossip as a channel for communicating subversive truth in authoritarian regimes, I cite Robert Darnton

  5. KEYNOTE: Simulation, computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Victor Reis delivered the keynote talk at the closing session of the conference. The talk was forward looking and focused on the importance of advanced computing for large-scale nuclear energy goals such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Dr. Reis discussed the important connections of GNEP to the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the SciDAC research portfolio. In the context of GNEP, Dr. Reis talked about possible fuel leasing configurations, strategies for their implementation, and typical fuel cycle flow sheets. A major portion of the talk addressed lessons learnt from ‘Science Based Stockpile Stewardship’ and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) initiative and how they can provide guidance for advancing GNEP and SciDAC goals. Dr. Reis’s colorful and informative presentation included international proverbs, quotes and comments, in tune with the international flavor that is part of the GNEP philosophy and plan. He concluded with a positive and motivating outlook for peaceful nuclear energy and its potential to solve global problems. An interview with Dr. Reis, addressing some of the above issues, is the cover story of Issue 2 of the SciDAC Review and available at http://www.scidacreview.org This summary of Dr. Reis’s PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Institute of Physics Publishing, the complete PowerPoint version of Dr. Reis’s talk at SciDAC 2006 is given as a multimedia attachment to this summary.

  6. The adornment of evil. Narrativity, evil and reconciliation

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    Theo W.A. De Wit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Are we at all able to recognise for what it is, that phenomenon which in contemporary political opinion, in our philosophical and theological traditions, but also in prayers such as the Lord’s Prayer, is designated ‘evil’? And here I mean: are we able to think it without betraying it, without ‘changing the subject’, without reducing it to something more reassuring, not reconciling it prematurely, but at the same time without being seduced by it, by positing it as omnipotentor imbued with an implacable necessity? This seems to be no easy task, for as the proverb goes, ‘the devil is the master of disguise”. He tricks us, and seduces us to self-deception. Evil goes incognito, and, in a society such as ours, where power – according to Michel Foucault’s well-known statement – is no longer primarily aimed at repressing or prohibiting something, but rather at promoting usefulness, productivity and health, it not infrequently assumes the form of the forces of humanity and the humanitarian, as the implementation of good within a recalcitrant world.

  7. Metaphors in the Wisdom Literature of the Hebrew Bible and Contemporary Art

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    Bálint Károly Zabán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biblical wisdom literature is a treasure-trove of powerful metaphors. This article presents a sample of these metaphors and their significant impact on contemporary artwork. The impact is characterized by both appropriation and adaptation, similitude and analogy, respectively. The highlighted metaphors are not merely catalogued but, more or less, analyzed with regard to relevant contemporary artwork. This augments the importance of contemporary biblical literacy analysis and uses it as one of the tools by which it is possible to gauge the impact and interaction, in this case, of the metaphor-world of the wisdom tradition on contemporary art. More importantly, however, this study underscores the relevance of these metaphors for biblical exegesis, hermeneutics, and theology. The analysis of the reception of these metaphors in contemporary artworks undergirds and informs the process of interpretation. The reception of these metaphors in their contemporary art contexts is best understood within the framework of imagery and imagistic language. Metaphor, as a subset of imagery and imagistic language, is foundational for the examined wisdom books, Proverbs, Job, and Qoheleth, and for the relevant contemporary artwork, alike. Moreover, metaphor also constitutes a bridge between the ancient and contemporary context. With this backdrop in mind, this article argues for the necessity of exploring the connections between these wisdom books, metaphor studies, and contemporary artwork.

  8. Cultural borrowing - Serbian jogurt between the east and the west

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    Petrović Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analysis of the cultural borrowing process of the Turkish word yoğurt ‘yogurt’ in Serbian. The study begins with the analysis of the Serbian lexical material from the 19th century, when the word jogurt was marked as an exclusively foreign word. The comparison with the present status of the meaning and usage of the word jogurt in contemporary Serbian, in which the word is part of the standard language, shows two different layers of the borrowing process: the Ottoman Turkish period and the Non-Turkish one. The most recent, Post-Ottoman borrowing layer is illustrated by the usage of jogurt as an element of a proverb that is a calque from the Turk. Sutten ağzı yanan yoğurdu (veya ayranı ufleyerek yer (veya icer “who gets burned by milk, blows into yogurt as well”. Aiming to present a complex process of this cultural borrowing, the data from Serbian is compared to the relevant data from other Balkan and European languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika i br. 178009: Lingvistička istraživanja savremenog srpskog književnog jezika i izrada Rečnika srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika SANU

  9. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

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    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  10. Confusing redaction and corruption: A house going to hell

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    James Alfred Loader

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two dimensions to the argument offered in this article, both of them pertaining to methodological issues. The first is that of distinguishing textual criticism from redactional criticism, especially with recourse to the critical apparatus of the Stuttgart Hebrew Bibles. Secondly, the danger of over-emphasising the sound distinction between so-called �literary� and �historical� exegetical modes into an unsound separation between them. Proposals for the emendation of the text in Proverbs 2:18 are used as an example of both issues at once. It is advanced that a historical enquiry into the origin of the text can shed light on an analysis of the text �as it stands�, which undermines the reading of the �final text� as an exercise that can, and may, have nothing to do with enquiry into the growth of that text. This article endeavours to advance its argument by means of a practical contribution to solving the perceived textual problems of the crux interpretum, rather than indulging in the kind of theoretical skirmishes that characterised South African debates at the end of the previous century.

  11. Ertel's vorticity theorem and new flux surfaces in multi-fluid plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to Professor Harold Weitzner on the occasion of his retirement“Say to wisdom ‘you are my sister,’ and to insight ‘you are my relative.’”—Proverbs 7:4Based on an extension to plasmas of Ertel's classical vorticity theorem in fluid dynamics, it is shown that for each species in a multi-fluid plasma there can be constructed a set of nested surfaces that have this species' fluid particles confined within them. Variational formulations for the plasma evolution and its equilibrium states are developed, based on the new surfaces and all of the dynamical conservation laws associated with them. It is shown that in the general equilibrium case, the energy principle lacks a minimum and cannot be used as a stability criterion. A limit of the variational integral yields the two-fluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A further special limit yields MHD equilibria and can be used to approximate the equilibrium state of a Hall-MHD plasma in a perturbative way

  12. “Traduttore-traditore”: #justnot! The intersemiosis as educational challenge of arts

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    Biagio D'Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the clichés of literary and cultural theory is the aphorism “traduttore-traditore”. Although who translates is always a traitor, it is also true that the role of the translator and translation are necessary operations. In this text we will discuss intersemiotic translation as an educational challenge of the arts. Translation theory, comparative literature and semiotics are the foundations of an axiom we consider ontological: I translate, therefore I am.

  13. Oltre l'Aforisma 125. Religione e religiosità nella formazione dell'uomo

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    Mario Gennari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay, from Nietzsche’s Aphorism 125, analyse the dialectic between the “objective” of religion and the “subjective” of religious. The “death of God” (or otherwise his impotence in face of Auschwitz and of Market assigns to man the responsibility of the world: the same religious education must aspire to make men free and to respect their religious feelings.

  14. Oltre l'Aforisma 125. Religione e religiosità nella formazione dell'uomo

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Gennari

    2012-01-01

    The essay, from Nietzsche’s Aphorism 125, analyse the dialectic between the “objective” of religion and the “subjective” of religious. The “death of God” (or otherwise his impotence) in face of Auschwitz and of Market assigns to man the responsibility of the world: the same religious education must aspire to make men free and to respect their religious feelings.

  15. Saving the “Undoomed Man” In Beowulf (572b-573

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    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxim Wyrd oft nereð // unfӕgne eorl, / þonne his ellen deah “Fate often spares an undoomed man when his courage avails” (Beowulf 572b-573 has been likened to “Fortune favors the brave,” with little attention to the word unfӕgne, which is often translated “undoomed”. This comparison between proverbs emphasizes personal agency and suggests a contrast between the proverb in 572b-573 and the maxim Gӕð a wyrd swa hio scel “Goes always fate as it must” (Beowulf 455b, which depicts an inexorable wyrd. This paper presents the history of this view and argues that linguistic analysis and further attention to Germanic cognates of (unfӕge reveal a proverb that harmonizes with 455b. (Unfӕge and its cognates have meanings related to being brave or cowardly, blessed or accursed, and doomed or undoomed. A similar Old Norse proverb also speaks to the significance of the status of unfӕge men. Furthermore, the prenominal position of unfӕgne is argued to represent a characterizing property of the man. The word unfӕgne is essential to the meaning of this proverb as it indicates not the simple absence of being doomed but the presence of a more complex quality. This interpretive point is significant in that it provides more information about the portrayal of wyrd in Beowulf by clarifying a well-known proverb in the text; it also has implications for future translations of these verses.

  16. Schrijven na Auschwitz, na apartheid, na de digital turn | T'Sjoen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I discuss the concept of “engaged poetry” and the position of poetry with a so-called ethic dimension in the digital era. Taking the famous aphorism by Theodor W. Adorno as a starting point—“Nach Auschwitz ein Gedicht zu schreiben, ist barbarisch” (“After Auschwitz writing poetry is barbaric”)—and the two ...

  17. Popular sayings that address time and PLE/PL2 teaching/learning

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    Danúsia Torres-dos-Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of fixed expressions contributes to a significant demand of L2/SL teaching, the lexicon acquisition. The binomial language/culture gained a clear shape in the context of L2/SL teaching, so as to require the teacher to reflect constantly on the topics that outline the linguistic and cultural identity of the target language. Based on the assumption that time and culture are inseparable, the PFL/PL2 (Portuguese as a Foreign/ Second Language teacher has to be prepared to address the Brazilian concept of time. Relying on the notion of time language (HALL, 1996, this study seeks to identify aspects of the Brazilian temporal language. As fixed expressions have different types, it is often difficult to maintain theoretical boundaries among them. Considering Silva's definition of proverb (1999:14-15, some Brazilian popular sayings concerning time were selected. It was found that popular wisdom has at least two types of expressions that refer to time: those related to the concepts of clock time and the ones linked to the concepts of event time (LEVINE, 1997. It is intended therefore that this study may assist the PFL/PL2 teacher in addressing this issue.

  18. Semiotics of Power and Dictatorship in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Later Novels

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    Yémalo, C. AMOUSSOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the different uses of symbols to express power and interpersonal relationship in Ngũgĩ’s bulkiest novel Wizard of the Crow (2006, with a few illustrations from Matigari (1987. It draws on the semiotic approach and identifies about a hundred discourse strings in which signs are used to express tenor between characters. In the main, supernatural, faunal and floral symbols are found to be main vehicles of power, though many other such avenues as ‘vocations’, ‘social and gender-related symbols’ and ‘biblical characterisation and numerology’, etc are unexplored here for space constraints. Before the analysis, it is deemed necessary to overview the theoretical background to the study in which relevant concepts have been clarified. It has been concluded that there is no other work in which power is so much expressed through the explored devices as in Wizard of the Crow. Keywords: tenor, symbol, index, proverb, modality metaphor, modaliser/ weakener, modulator/strengthener

  19. CONCEPTS AND CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES USED IN CHILDREN’S SHORT STORIES - ÇOCUKLAR İÇİN HAZIRLANAN ÖYKÜ KİTAPLARINDAKİ KAVRAMLAR VE KAVRAM ALANLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tayyibe EKEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Words and concepts are inseperable components of language education. Examining words and concepts gives information about language development and education. Lexical development in mother tongue occurs by means of spoken and written texts children are exposed to. Types of these texts can be diversified. This study is aimed to categorize concepts in children’s stories and to reach principle findings about lexical hierarchy and education. It’s mainly based on indirect observation, content analysis, category analysis and frequency analysis so as to determine conceptual and sub-conceptual categories in children’s stories. Data of the study consist of 20 stories for 5;0+ year-old-children. Lexical data were analysed/categorised according to Clark (2003. Major findings of the study: There are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, set phrases, exclamations, echo-words and specific names in the stories. Specific names, idioms and proverbs are out of the limitations. In this way, there are 4606 words in database, 1629 of which are nouns, the most used category. There are totally 1306 verbs. So the category of verbs is the second most used category. Studies determining the concepts and vocabulary in written texts for children is important in terms of children's literature and corpus studies. It’s expected to contribute to literature.

  20. The Historical Development of the Written Discourses on Ubuntu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2011-01-01

    that ubuntu is always defined as a human quality. At different stages during the second half of the 1900s, some authors began to define ubuntu more broadly: definitions included ubuntu as African humanism, a philosophy, an ethic, and as a worldview. Furthermore, my findings indicate that it was during...... the period from 1993 to 1995 that the Nguni proverb ‘umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu’ (often translated as ‘a person is a person through other persons’) was used for the first time to describe what ubuntu is. Most authors today refer to the proverb when describing ubuntu, irrespective of whether they consider...

  1. The Revolutionary Poems of Tayo Olafioye

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    Clement Eloghosa Odia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye in order to demonstrate how his radical thought is depicted in his poems. To achieve this purpose, a study of one of his collections of poems, entitled A carnival of looters,is undertaken. In the study, we discover that proverbs are the central technique used in depicting critical ideas in the poems. The paper concludes that proverbs are used for expressing reformative messages as means of mobilisation and conscientisation of the masses in order to achieve social change.

  2. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  3. Amsal al-Qur’an: Sebuah Kajian Dalam Psikologi Pendidikan Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriah M. Suud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Al-Qur’an memiliki cabang ilmu yang beraneka ragam di dalamnya, salah satunya adalah amsal al-Qur’an, ilmu ini memuat perumpamaan-perumpamaan tentang berbagai hal yang sarat dengan makna dan hikmah yang besar. Amsal al-Qur’an merupakan penyampaian gagasan-gagasan dengan bahasa yang padat dan  indah, menghadirkan sesuatu yang abstrak seolah-olah dapat diindrakan oleh manusia, yang sulit difahami dan dibayangkan menjadi hal yang mudah dicerna dan menjadi kongkrit. Hal ini kemudian menjadi pelajaran besar bagi orang yang mau mengkajinya. Para pendidik di kalangan Islam bisa menjadikan amsal al-Qur’an sebagai contoh yang sangat berharga dalam dunia pendidikan baik dari segi tujuan, materi, metode maupun media yang digunakan. Secara garis besar, amtsal al-Qur’an terbagi menjadi tiga, yaitu amsal Musharrah, amsal Kaminah, dan amsal Mursalah. Dalam perkembangan ilmu tafsir, amsal memberikan kontribusi yang cukup besar terhadap perkembangan berfikir umat Islam dalam mendalami dan memahami Al Qur’an. Ayat - ayat Al-Qur’an yang mengandung amsal, mengandung manfaat dalam pendidikan dan juga kejiwaan. Selain itu amsal al-Qur-an juga tidak sepi dari nilai-nilai psikologi baik psikologi umum maupun psikologi pendidikan Islam. Makalah ini akan menyampaikan amsal al-Qur’an dalam kaitannya dengan psikologi dan nilai-nilai pendidikan yang terkandung di dalamnya. Kata Kunci : Amsal  al-Qur’an, Psikologi, Pendidikan.  Al-Quran has many diverse branches of science within, one of them is the proverb of al-Quran. This science contains parables a lot of things that are fully loaded with meaning and great wisdom. The proverbs of the Qur'an are the transmissions of ideas in a dense and beautiful language, presenting something abstract as if it could be induced by human beings, the difficult to understand and to imagine easily becomes digested and concrete. This case then becomes a big lesson for people who want to study it. Educators in Islamic

  4. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  5. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are agents capable of helping others, learning new behaviours and forgetting old ones. The evolutionary approach to archaeological systems has therefore been hampered by the 'modern synthesis' - a gene-centred model of evolution as a process that eliminates those that cannot handle stress. The result has been a form of environmental determinism that explains human evolution in terms of heroic struggles and selective winnowing. Biologists committed to the modern synthesis have either dismissed agency as a delusion wrought in our bodies by natural selection, or imposed a sharp, Cartesian split between 'natural' and 'artificial' ecologies. We revisit the seminal literature of evolutionary biology and show that the paradigmatic fault lines of 21st century anthropology can be traced back to the 19th century and beyond. Lamarck had developed a two-factor evolutionary theory - one factor an endogenous tendency to become more advanced and complex, the other an exogenous constraint that drove organisms into conformity with environment. Darwin tried to eliminate the progressive tendency and imposed linearity constraints on evolution that Thomas Henry Huxley rejected. When experimental evidence falsified Darwin's linear hypothesis, the race began to develop a new, gene-centred model of evolution. This became the modern synthesis. The modern synthesis is now under pressure from the evidence of anthropology, sociology, palaeontology, ecology and genetics. An 'extended synthesis' is emerging. If evolution is adequately summarised by the aphorism survival of the fittest, then 'fitness' cannot always be defined in the heroic sense of 'better able to compete and reproduce'. The fittest organisms are often those that evade selective winnowing, even when their ability to compete and reproduce has been compromised by their genes. Characteristically human traits like language, abstraction, compassion and altruism may have arisen as coping strategies that

  6. DIGITAL NARRATIVES IN FUTURE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHERS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Semenoh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of analyzing theoretical sources and practical experience some scientists’ works are disclosed, which deal with using and designing digital narratives in future Ukrainian language and literature teachers’ training, to develop a personality’s information and digital competence. It is reported that the themes, which are focused on postgraduate students’ acquainting with digital technologies of studying linguistic subjects at university, in specialized classes in secondary school, and a new type of educational institutions, should be introduced into language and methodological training. The author emphasizes on the relevance and importance of using digital narratives for democratization and humanization, the inspiration of the educational process. Narratives (stories in literary works, letters, confessions, biographies, diaries, comments, portrait sketches, pedagogical aphorisms, scripts, summaries of lessons with notes in the margins and others, biographical and pedagogical narratives provide information about the events, situations, taking into account individual reflexed experience of outstanding teachers. If students have an opportunity to develop skills of making narratives, they will gradually get communicative competences and feeling of confidence in their own ability that are necessary in the life. The works by M. Leshchenko and L. Tymchuk that are devoted to studying biography narratives are overviewed. The author suggests her own works of studying biography narratives of outstanding personalities (O. Zakharenko, I. Ziaziun, N. Voloshyna, L. Matsko and others. Digital narrative is characterized as a dynamic means of sending information messages in which a word, an image and sound are expressed in a joint digital code; as multimedia project that combines text, a picture, audio and video files in a short video clip. It is spoken in detail that digital narratives that are used or made together with students

  7. Into the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities designed for specific curriculum units. Curriculum areas represented include reading and language arts (proverbs and fables, letters of the alphabet, and biographies); science (the study of Gregor Mendel and genetics, oil resources); and social studies (global awareness). (LRW)

  8. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  9. De Achikar-traditie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The tradition of Ahiqar, the wise scribe and counsellor at the court of the Assyrian kings Sennaherib and Esarhaddon, is known from many versions, older and more recent ones, which together embrace a narrative tradition of more than 2500 years. The story and the proverbs are attested in Aramaic,

  10. Birds as subjects in Setswana folklore: Depiction of their relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setswana folktales and proverbs about birds demonstrate the deep-rooted understanding of natural history by Africans in general and the Batswana people in particular. Traditionally, birds played a central role in the life of the Batswana, because birds share their physical space, resources and food, and in so doing impact ...

  11. "Philosophy for Children" in Africa: Developing a Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddy, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Building on Ndofirepi's plea for an approach to teaching philosophy to high-school learners in Africa that is a hybrid of western and African thought, I argue that a critical touchstone is needed if the traditional wisdom is to be sifted, and that this can be found in the idea of the questioning and responsible subject. Traditional proverbs and…

  12. the conservation of nature: more than just human survival to the zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beautifully formulated by their ancestors through their profound observation and experience of natural resources. I have listed here some of these proverbs with their meanings. • ugwayi nehlaba = They are great friends. (Lit. it is tobacco and the aloe}. Said because snuff is rede of ground tobacco leaves and cold ash of dry.

  13. JRHR Vol 8 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    relevance to modern man. Akporobaro (2006) says that; “it remains a most powerful and effective instrument for the transmission of culture, social morality, manner and ideas of a people from one generation to another. (p.69). Many authors share the opinion that in both the traditional and the modern context, the proverb ...

  14. Ola Rotimi, Hopes Of The Living Dead A Drama Of Struggle Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it is he is primarily a dramatist and a producer; and his penchant is for ambitious, large-scale melodramas. Those who come to his relatively new play, HOPES OF THE. LIVING DEAD, familiar with his earlier work will find several characteristic features: the concern with leadership, the delight in proverbs and bold effects of ...

  15. Educacion al Aire Libre: Libro de Actividades II = Outdoor Education: Student Activity Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Alma Flor, Comp.; And Others

    Divided into four sections, the book includes activities for students to do before camp, on the way to camp, at camp, and after camp. Activities to do before camp include writing proverbs, tongue twisters, riddles, poems, and stories. Activities to do on the way to camp include singing songs and reading a map. The words to the following songs are…

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 140 ... Vol 6, No 1 (2004), Images of Women in Classical and African Proverbs and Popular Sayings, Abstract. Folake Onayemi. Vol 8, No 3 (2010), Images of Women in ... Vol 8, No 2 (2010), Joseph Kamaru's Music:Cutting with "Words, Not Swords", Abstract. M wa Mutonya. Vol 3, No 1 (2001), Language and ...

  17. Speaking of Satan in Zambia : The persuasiveness of contemporary narratives about Satanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Johanneke

    2018-01-01

    According to an old English proverb, ‘Speak of the devil, and he appears.’ In contemporary Zambia, many people are speaking about Satan and Satanists. Satanism refers in Zambia to a supposed organization, headed by Satan, dedicated to bring evil and harm, especially to Christians. Ex-Satanists claim

  18. Ola Rotimi, Hopes Of The Living Dead A Drama Of Struggle Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristic features: the concern with leadership, the delight in proverbs and bold effects of language, ... enlightened and selfless leader: perceptive, alert, resourceful, incorruptible, determined, aware that the ability ... himself: you volunteer your person, I insist on your soul, till the production is over'. Clearly he demands ...

  19. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor ...

  20. I ANIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAYMOND, JOSEPH

    A COLLECTION OF MATERIALS IS PRESENTED TO AID STUDENTS IN LEARNING SPANISH. SPANISH IS PRESENTED IN UNITS RANGING FROM PROVERBS, RIDDLES, SONGS, ANECDOTES, SHORT-SHORT STORIES, TO SKITS FOR QUICK ASSIMILATION, EASY RETENTION, AND NORMAL UNCOMPLICATED CONVERSATION. SKILLS SOUGHT FOR ARE ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND, SPEAK, AND WRITE SPANISH. THE…

  1. Die vrou wysheid, God, en ekobillikheid: Liggaamsideologie in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within a God construct could contribute to a value system that incorporates compassion, interrelatedness and mutual care. In Proverbs 8:1–9:18, however, the woman Wisdom does not represent an ecofriendly construct, but simply enhances and supports the patriarchal, masculine values incorporated in the God Yahweh.

  2. Inculcating entrepreneurial spirit through indigenous language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the above observations, this paper advocates the use and teaching of indigenous languages (Igbo) not only from primary and post-primary level but more importantly at the tertiary level- where there are untold number of undergraduates preparing to face the reality of life. The work collected five Igbo proverbs, ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 106 of 106 ... Vol 23 (2012), Vowel raising in Akan reduplication, Abstract PDF. K Adomako. Vol 23 (2012), War and Absurdity: Reading the Manifestations of Trauma in Uwem Akpan's “Luxurious Hearses”, Abstract PDF. HO Okolocha. Vol 23 (2012), Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality, Abstract PDF. MO Olatunji.

  4. 306-- 14 Dec 2009 [ Final version].indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Des 2009 ... ABSTRACT. The woman Wisdom, God, and ecojustice: Ideology of the body in Proverbs 8:1–9:18. This article examines the ideology of the body, specifically in terms of the gender of Wisdom and. God, from an ecojustice perspective. Femininity within a God construct could contribute to a value system that ...

  5. Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Parktown, Johannesburg ... A famous ancient proverb states: eat breakfast like a king, lunch like ..... associations between body mass index, chronic illness, and the physical and mental components.

  6. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (1) Feb., 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    some Igbo proverbs relating to the musical art in one or more ways has been undertaken in ... glimpse into the mental categories that are implicated in Igbo thought and culture. Being fluid, their application is not limited to musical realities or experiences. ... As major instruments, the drummers communicate to and with the.

  7. Sharing best practice in stoma care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willams, Julia

    A problem shared is a problem halved; a very poignant proverb that forms the essence of this year's World Council of Enterostomal Therapists (WCET) UK conference in Coventry. Sharing experiences from practice is invalid if clinical practice is to grow and develop. It raises awareness, offering the opportunity to question and review practice. Sharing practice offers opportunities to enquiring minds.

  8. A common humanity in cultural diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Having written and compiled, from memory, over 700 Setswana proverbs when he was resident in London during the second decade of 1900, Sol T. ... particularly Diane and Reader, from memory while he was in London around 1915. .... mebala.)8 (Only by their colours will you know that they are zebras.

  9. THE AFRICAN COMPOSER AS A SOCIAL CRITIC Abstract Criticism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    Criticism is an assessment of value for the maintenance of standards. It sorts out, defines, ... ideal and also to assess the values meant to maintain standards. A proverb in Akan says ... relating to their practice or profession while journalist critics and professional critics according to Udechukwu “do not have any specialist ...

  10. Stylistic Devices in Ben Okri's The Famished Road | Ikechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses stylistic devices in Ben Okri's The Famished Road. In the presentation of his story, the novelist makes use of literary devices which enrich readers' understanding and enjoyment of his subject matter. Satire, register, cliché, pidgin and proverbs are some of the devices. Others include: figurative language ...

  11. Wat doen die wysheid in Spreuke 8:30 en 31? | Venter | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wisdom plays a very important role in the relationship between God and man. Evaluating this role, as it is expressed in Proverbs 8:30 -31, attention is paid to the poetical structure in which these verses are found, the possible link with Ancient Near Eastern wisdom literature, and the place of wisdom literature within a ...

  12. Put Power into Your Presentations: Using Presentation Software Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.; Burmeister, Marsha L.

    2009-01-01

    Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and OpenOffice Impress are relatively common tools in the classroom and in the boardroom these days. What makes presentation software so popular? As the Chinese proverb declares, a picture is worth a thousand words. People like visual presentations. Presentation software can make even a dull subject come to…

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 241 ... Vol 26, No 3 (2014), Implications of the Portrayal of Women in Shona Proverbs for Gender Sensitive Teaching and Learning of ChiShona, Abstract. B. Taringa. Vol 16, No 2 (2004), In Search of a New Paradigm for Educational Theory and Practice in Zimbabwe, Abstract. Kimberly AM Richards, Ephraim ...

  14. Company Slogan and a Vivid Image of a Trademark - as Main Components of a Strong Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BELOSTECINIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among other methods, good brand managers always affect clients and strengthen their fidelity to the brand by means of company advertising slogans and vivid images associated with this brand. Slogans may function as useful “levers” or “hooks” helping clients to understand the essence of a trademark and its peculiarity, as well as to nail in clients' minds the established image of a strong brand. One of the “hooks” attracting attention to brand and helping to nail it in a common man's mind – is a company (advertising slogan - short message or motto, which actively presents the key theme of the brand in general or of a certain advertising campaign, and contains substantial information, reflecting the essence of campaign's or product's marketing offer. One must admit that it is nice to recall favorite philosopher's aphorisms or sayings while getting up in the morning, and to whistle an aria from a renowned opera on your way to work. However, more often people sing unsophisticated verses about the “sign of a good taste” and get annoyed by a trivial call to “have a break” going round in their heads. This means that the advertisement of popular chocolate bars and drinks has hit its target. The main lever for success in generation of a positive and recognizable brand image - is the slogan and its graphic image in consumer's mind. Together with other brand components (logo, corporate colors, sound or music image a slogan generates the system of constant elements which ensure the brand's internal unity and are aimed at creation of exposure effect. To some extent, we all are “ad eaters” and are always capable of estimating an ad, even if it is at the level of feelings: whether we like it or not. So why a certain advertisement can make us smile, elicit good feelings and cause an urge to buy product/service that is being advertised, and another one - evokes disappointment and annoyance? The answer is obvious: the first one was

  15. 76-------------------------------~----------------RE-SO--NANCEIApr-il-19-9-6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not for nothing that the Bible says. Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise. (Proverbs 6,6.) Long live the members of Formicidae. Suggested Reading. R P Feynman. Surely you are joking Mr Feynman. Bantam Books 1985. A Bruckstein. The Mathematicallntelligencer Vo1.l5,. No.2, pp 59.1993.

  16. The significance of Basotho philosophy of development as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Basotho indigenous knowledge systems particularly in the way that they are embedded in proverbs, as containing a philosophy of their development. It seeks to analyse the pre-colonial Basotho's perspective with regard to the question of development as expressed in their arts and beliefs. There has ...

  17. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  18. AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-05-06

    May 6, 2013 ... with a prolific intangible artistic traditions such as proverbs, time honoured .... souvenirs with wedding, chieftaincy, birthday, and send forth congratulatory ... Plate 4: Carved door panel with. Christian contemporary photograph by Gbemi Areo, 2009. Plate 3: Carved Door with traditional motifs. Oyelola P.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Issue, Title. Vol 3, No 1 (2006), A Retrospect Towards Change: Proverbs In Gynocentric Yoruba Written Plays, Abstract. O Adagbada. Vol 1, No 2 (2004), Body-mind-self-world: ecology and Buddhist philosophy, Abstract PDF. David Jones. Vol 3, No 2 (2006), Book Review: The mind- body problem, Abstract ...

  20. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... Eagles are really impressive birds. We often call them the 'king of the air' and, indeed, the Yoruba in Nigeria have a proverb which says: 'the eagle is the father of birds of prey' (Mieder 1986:131). In the Reichstag – the German parliamentary building – an image of an eagle fills one wall. We call.

  1. Anthropocentric or Ecocentric Environmentalism? Views of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Bulent; Akman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    An Indian proverb says that "the man's heart toughen as he drifts apart from nature." Living in harmony with nature is only possible by abandoning of mankind from its idea of dominance on nature. Deep ecology refuses the superiority of human against nature with a radical attitude within ecological philosophy, and it wants the individuals…

  2. Nurturing Ethical Values in the 21st Century Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Joanne Fitzmaurice

    2009-01-01

    There is a wise proverb that insists it takes a whole village to raise a child to adulthood. In light of the expanding convolution of contemporary values, it is especially important to attentively nurture the inherent desire in each developing human person to seek good and avoid evil, especially during the critical years of adolescent formation.…

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cook, Johann. Vol 71, No 1 (2015) - Articles A theology of the Greek version of Proverbs Abstract PDF · Vol 72, No 4 (2016) - Articles The text-critical and exegetical value of the Dead Sea Scrolls Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2072-8050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. Legon Journal of the Humanities - Vol 23 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MO Olatunji, 125-140. The Concept of African Pianism · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E Boamah, 141-154 ...

  5. Corpus-based lexicography for lesser-resourced languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    On the microstructural level the evaluation focused on the value of information drawn from limited corpora in terms of meaning, sense distinction, examples of usage, collocations and proverbs/idioms. Consider as a first example the randomly selected adjective great in Sketch. Engine in figure 3. Figure 3: Collocations: great ...

  6. Historical texts from the Swahili coast (part 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Historical texts from the Swahili coast (Swahili-English): Upper Pokomo Elwana, Mwiini Bajuni Pate Amu, She la Matondoni, Mwani Asili ya Mphokomu Fumo Liongo A story. Proverbs and riddles Mashairi Saidi Haji talking about poetry. Kiteko, a story Verse by MA Abdulkadir, Women`s political songs. An old woman reminisces, Mbaraka Msuri, a hadithi. Ngano A story.

  7. Security Cooperation Missions in Africa: Is the United States Conducting the Correct Types of Security Cooperation Missions in the African Continent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    able to plan years in advance without having to worry about starting over with planning and legal parameters that are required to coordinate...whether you are a lion or a gazelle: when the sun comes up, you’d better be running. — African Proverb Introduction This chapter will present

  8. Retention Effects of Immediate Graduate Education in the Nuclear Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Proverbs 3: 5–6. Through this season, the greatest thing I have had to learn is to trust God with all my heart, and for that I must thank my family...DC: Wolfowitz, P. 61 Under Secretary of Defense (P&R). (2007b, April 23). Funded legal education (DoD Directive 1322.12). Washington, DC: Wolfowitz

  9. The Eye of the Earth: Niyi Osundare as a Poet of Nature | Doki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be said with considerable justification that Niyi Osundare is one of the most fecund poets writing in Africa today. A Nigerian of Yoruba extraction, his poetry is richly coloured by common expressions of traditional life (like proverbs and songs) which reflects the world view of his people. Besides, his poetry is accessible ...

  10. Critical thinking in healthcare: Reflections on Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    A Vietnamese proverb states, ―The mouse does not know life until it has been into the mouth of the cat‖. The. Vietnamese practice the Buddhist religion and firmly believe in incarnation or rebirth after death. The. Southern Sudanese healthcare system has already been 'into the mouth of the cat' during the liberation war.

  11. Traditsioonilise kujundkõne nüüdisaegsest uurimisest / Anneli Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Anneli, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Phraseologie und Parömiologie (sari ilmub aastast 1999; http://www.phraseologie.net ) ; Claudia Aurich. Proverb Structure in the History of English: Stability and Change. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, 2012 ; Urška Valenčič Arh. "Ein Prinz auf der Erbse". Phraseologie und Übersetzung. Schneider Verlag GmbH, 2014

  12. Holisme en totaliteit | Venter | HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a contribution to the debate on postmodernism and holism, the viewpoint of J C Smuts is firstly summarised in this paper. Next, this summary is used to define on a comparative basis the viewpoint on totality found in the didactic poems of Proverbs 1-9. In conclusion an intertextual reading programme is proposed which ...

  13. Benedito Nunes and the Modern Brazilian Literary Criticism (1946-1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the literary criticism of Benedito Nunes and is divided in two parts. It is based on a variety of textual genres (attempts to write novels, poems, aphorisms, chronicles on science, poetry and philosophy, interviews, criticism on poetry and novels. In other words, on the first texts of Nunes, published in the newspaper “Folha do Norte” (1946-1951, where he started the career as literary critic, in the magazines “Encontro” (1948 and “Norte” (1952, and in other Brazilian newspapers, such as “Jornal do Brasil”, “O Estado de São Paulo” and “O Estado de Minas Gerais”. Nunes’ first books are also analyzed, “O mundo de Clarice Lispector” (1966 and “O dorso do tigre” (1969, for which he was acclaimed one of the exponents of literary criticism in the second half of the 20th century in Brazil, mainly of authors that published from the decade of 1940 on, namely, Clarice Lispector, Guimarães Rosa and João Cabral de Melo Neto. The compilation of texts published in newspapers enables the identification of the main readings of Benedito Nunes, which were incorporated to his work, such as the Christian philosophers, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Pascal and Søren Kierkegaard, who will be constant in the writings of Nunes. The compilation also makes possible to trace the intellectual trajectory of Nunes, especially as literary critic. He after added to his work the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger. Regarding Heidegger, who Nunes studied throughout his life, it is possible to consider the ontological conception of artistic creation by verbal language, which, according to the German philosopher, corresponds to the foundation of the self by the word. The first part of this research analyzes the intellectual trajectory of Benedito Nunes as well as the material compiled in newspapers and in his first books. The second part presents a sample of the compiled material.

  14. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  15. "I want to be a pop idol". Oscar Wilde between parody and glam re-invention in Todd Haynes' Velvet Goldmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Martino

    2017-01-01

    masculinity of many 1960s musicians. Employing a methodological approach in which cultural studies, literary studies and neo-musicology  speak to each other, the present analysis establishes a strong connection between Oscar Wilde and glam culture – a relationship established by Haynes himself in the very first scenes of the film – which nevertheless the present essay defines in a more specific way, considering the film as a whole in terms of a glam parody and refashioning of Wilde's epopee, one in which Wilde's images and aphorisms seem to question with their complexity and their desecrating potential the present age.

  16. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Hubert, V; Landeau, B; Abbas, A; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-02-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresponds to general knowledge about concepts, again without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning. Our aim was to compare the neural substrates of musical and verbal semantic memory by administering the same type of task in each modality. We used high-resolution PET H(2)O(15) to observe 11 young subjects performing two main tasks: (1) a musical semantic memory task, where the subjects heard the first part of familiar melodies and had to decide whether the second part they heard matched the first, and (2) a verbal semantic memory task with the same design, but where the material consisted of well-known expressions or proverbs. The musical semantic memory condition activated the superior temporal area and inferior and middle frontal areas in the left hemisphere and the inferior frontal area in the right hemisphere. The verbal semantic memory condition activated the middle temporal region in the left hemisphere and the cerebellum in the right hemisphere. We found that the verbal and musical semantic processes activated a common network extending throughout the left temporal neocortex. In addition, there was a material-dependent topographical preference within this network, with predominantly anterior activation during musical tasks and predominantly posterior activation during semantic verbal tasks. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Longevity in gerontology and in Judaism--quantity years or quality years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2003-12-01

    In this day and age, we have been granted longevity--both a blessing and a curse. Longevity has resulted in new diseases, illnesses and long-term disabilities due to the shift from death caused by acute infectious diseases and by chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiac and vascular diseases, to morbidity caused by chronic cases of arthritis, Alzheimer's and sensory disabilities--auditory and visual. Chronic diseases are characterized by long-term illness and result in escalating reduction in functioning, with an increase in the elderly person's dependence on his family or society. What do we mean when we say 'longevity'? Do we add days to our lives or perhaps life to our days? What can we expect? How do we achieve longevity? I have looked into the Torah, into the words of the Sages and into the findings of geriatric research. I have found that, both in gerontology, and in the words of the Sages, longevity is accompanied by quality of life. In gerontology, 'quality of life' is measured as being active and independent, including the ability to carry out routine daily activities (ADL). Katz and his colleagues have used the terms 'active life expectancy' and 'dependent life expectancy'. The ability to predict active life expectancy is no less important than predicting mortality, and particularly how to achieve active life expectancy. The Sages praise longevity, accompanied by wisdom: "In the elderly, wisdom, and in wisdom, long life' (Job). In addition, they say: 'For longevity and years of life and peace shall be granted to you' (Proverbs), to teach the blessing of longevity accompanied by wisdom. To achieve longevity, one should maintain regular habits that reduce the risk of illness such as physical exercise, a balanced diet, no smoking, and have a relaxed attitude to self-importance and to financial matters, while emphasizing the routine and stable elements of one's daily life.

  18. INVENTORY FOR ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-PERCEPTUAL ATTITUDE: PSYCHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Dubovitskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-perceptual attitude is defined as a predisposition of the subjects of communication to perceive, assess, and act in relation to each other in a certain way. The functions of social-perceptual attitudes are social adaptation (utilitarian function, cognitive function, expression and evaluation, and psychological protection. Author’s technique of diagnostics of social-perceptual attitude of a person in relation to other people is presented in the article. The inventory uses the proverbs of the peoples of the world as test material. The results of psychometric testing indicate the reliability and validity of the technique.High scores on the technique results indicate the individual’s characteristics such as willingness to trust, to help, and to notice positive experiences; the ability to see the positive potential; faith in people’s ability to develop and achieve better results; emotional acceptance, benevolence, and empathy.The average scores indicate the subject’s desire for close and trusting relationships, cooperation, sincerity; willingness to understand another person; desire to take into account individual psychological features of other people; contradictions with others are either absent or are resolved constructively.Low scores indicate that, in relation to others, the subject is characterized by the following: suspicion, anticipation of negative attitude to themselves, willingness to see the negative manifestations in the behavior of others, ignoring of their successes and achievements; emotional rejection, criticism, irony, malice; accusations against the others used to justify their own negative actions (aggression against said others.The author’s technique can be used in solution of the problem of psycho-diagnostics and therapy in order to optimize communication and interpersonal relations: achieve mutual understanding and cooperation, develop a constructive mutually beneficial solution, overcome the desire to criticize

  19. Tempos históricos, tempos físicos, tempos epidemiológicos: prováveis contribuições de Fernand Braudel e Ilya Prigogine ao pensamento epidemiológico Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto é uma abordagem acerca do tempo enquanto categoria científica para a epidemiologia. A partir do aforismo tempo-lugar-pessoa, o tempo é apontado como elemento pouco pensado pela epidemiologia, embora esteja presente em vários dos seus conceitos. No entanto, o tema tem sido objeto de reflexão importante na movimentação recente de várias disciplinas, tais como a história, a geografia, a biologia e a física, e deve por isto representar para a epidemiologia um ponto de vista interessante, tanto no que concerne ao diálogo interdisciplinar quanto ao estabelecimento de um olhar crítico voltado para a própria disciplina. Com o objetivo de argumentar a respeito destes aspectos, apresenta-se o tempo histórico de Fernand Braudel e o tempo físico de Ilya Prigogine, construções teóricas que serão comparadas com um provável tempo epidemiológico. Ao final, usando a questão das infecções emergentes como exemplo, faz-se considerações sobre a aparente inadequação epistemológica do tempo epidemiológico para reconhecer e lidar com os aspectos sociais e históricos envolvidos na complexidade do adoecer humano coletivo.The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent

  20. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative” language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.

  1. Veel kord regilaulu parallelismist, poeetilisest sünonüümiast ja analoogiast/ Once more on the parallelism of runosong, on the poetical synonymy and analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Sarv

    2016-01-01

    Relying on her own previous research on runosongs and proverbs demonstrating the mutual dependency of alliteration and parallelism typical to runosong (Sarv 1999, 2000, 2003, the results of syntactic analysis of runosong texts in H. Metslang’s dissertation (1978, Juhan Peegel’s definition of poetical synonyms in runosong (Peegel 2004, and Ewald Lang’s concept of quasisynonymy (Lang 1987, the author proposes the definition of the canonical parallelism of runosong as follows: it is a grammatical verse parallelism where all or some of the syntactic elements of the main verse have corresponding parallels in the successive lines representing the same general notion, and interpreted in the context of the parallelism as semantically equivalent, irrespective of their semantic relations in the colloquial language (equivalence, synonymy, metonymy, metaphor, analogy, antonymy, hyponymy etc.. Because of this semantical equivalence, the parallel words can be selected and combined into the parallel verses according to their formal features enabling the metrical alignment and alliteration. The article also points to the problems with the classification of runosong parallelism to the analogous and synonymous by Wolfgang Steinitz (1934, widely used in the runosong discourse: although analogy and synonymy probably represent the most remarkable semantic relations between the parallel lines, it is not easy to make clear distinction between synonymous and analogous lines (or concepts—even in the colloquial non-poetic language the synonyms are usually not equivalent in all aspects of meaning; the regular use of poetical synonyms in runosongs makes it impossible at all—the geese, ducks, and grouses as different birds are analogous in the colloquial language, but synonymous in the runosong all denoting the group of maidens.

  2. Protein-Level Integration Strategy of Multiengine MS Spectra Search Results for Higher Confidence and Sequence Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhong, Jiayong; Liu, Wanting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Gong

    2017-12-01

    Multiple search engines based on various models have been developed to search MS/MS spectra against a reference database, providing different results for the same data set. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard. We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing (RNC-seq) result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. We used seven mainstream search engines (Andromeda, Mascot, OMSSA, X!Tandem, pFind, InsPecT, and ProVerB) to search the same label-free MS data sets of human cell lines Hep3B, MHCCLM3, and MHCC97H from the Chinese C-HPP Consortium for Chromosomes 1, 8, and 20. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. We found that identifications of at least two out of seven engines resulted in maximizing the protein identification power while minimizing the ratio of suspicious/translation-supported identifications (STR), as monitored by our STR index, based on RNC-Seq. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence. In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein-level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work.

  3. Anything new under the sun of African Biblical Hermeneutics in South African Old Testament Scholarship?: Incarnation, death and resurrection of the Word in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madipoane Masenya (Ngwan'a Mphahlele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In this article, two lenses are used to engage the task of African Biblical Hermeneutics. The one lens is derived from African wisdom, i shavha i sia muinga i ya fhi?, in which there is a need for people to affirm their own roots. Drawing from the wisdom of the preceding proverb, we argue that, in their scholarship, African biblical scholars have to take seriously their own African heritage and thus do justice to their contexts rather than rely heavily on Western paradigms if their scholarship is to impact communities and also contribute towards shaping the face of biblical hermeneutics as a whole. The other lens is an analogy derived from the following events in Jesus� life: incarnation, death and resurrection. The task of African Biblical Hermeneutics has to be a three-fold process for the Bible to be �gospel� in Africa: Firstly, the incarnation of the Word � the Bible as the Other has to incarnate into African contexts for it to become an African Word. Secondly, the death of the Word � this entails a critical engagement with the Word from multiple perspectives for it to be relevant to the struggles of African people. Thirdly, the resurrection of the Word � the biblical text has to be allowed to address and transform an African person in new creative ways. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Rechtstheorie als Medientheorie (Supplement I: Überlegungen zur Notwendigkeit der Verknüpfung von Sprachtheorie und Medientheorie / Legal theory as media theory (Supplement I: Reflections on the Necessity of Linking Theory of Language and Media Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vesting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Es gibt einen intrinsischen Zusammenhang zwischen Medien und Recht: Ein Medium wie Schrift ist nicht einfach ein Kanal, in dem Recht und rechtliches Wissen kommuniziert werden, vielmehr hat Schrift selbst rechtsbildende Konsequenzen. Me-dien formatieren den Raum, in dem sich kognitives und praktisches Wissen – formative und normative Texte – und damit auch Recht als Teil derartiger Wissensbestände ausbilden. Ohne Lautsprache keine Rechtsformeln und Rechtssprichwörter, ohne Schrift keine Rechtssätze und kein Konditionalprogramm, ohne Buchdruck keine nationalstaatlichen Rechtsbücher und Rechtssysteme – und ohne Computertechnologie kein fragmentiertes Recht innerhalb und jenseits des Nationalstaates. Das sind, schlagwortartig, die Zusammenhänge, denen das Forschungsprojekt Die Medien des Rechts nachgeht. There is a close relationship between media and law: a medium such as writing is not simply a channel through which law and legal knowledge are communicated; rather, writing itself plays a role in the processes of law-making. Media format the space in which both cognitive and practical knowledge – formative and normative texts – develop, and thus also law as a part of such bodies of knowledge. Without speech there can be no legal formulas and legal proverbs, without writing there can be no legal rules or propositions, without the printing press no nation-state centred books of law or legal systems could emerge – and without computer technology there can be no fragmented law within and beyond the nation state. This, in key terms, is the general perspective that The Media of Law project is researching.

  5. “La fotografía es la misma muerte”: Ruina, espectro y testimonio de Antonio Machado en Guerra en España de Juan Ramón Jiménez

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Oteiza, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    From 1936 to 1954 poet, editor, translator, critic, and Nobel laureate Juan Ramón Jiménez (Spain, 1881 – Puerto Rico, 1958) assembled an archive of heterogeneous texts and documents produced by him and others: photographs, journal entries, newspaper clippings, letters, poems, lectures, interviews, and aphorisms. Published in Spain in 1985 as Guerra en España, this corpus was Jiménez’s transatlantic testimony of his pro-Republican activities during the Spanish Civil War and his long exile in ...

  6. “Traduttore-traditore”: #justnot! The intersemiosis as educational challenge of arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio D'Angelo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p158 One of the clichés of literary and cultural theory is the aphorism “traduttore-traditore”. Although who translates is always a traitor, it is also true that the role of the translator and translation are necessary operations. In this text we will discuss intersemiotic translation as an educational challenge of the arts. Translation theory, comparative literature and semiotics are the foundations of an axiom we consider ontological: I translate, therefore I am.

  7. Pensamentos, sentimentos, vontades e afetos: a fisio-psicologia de Nietzsche a partir do aforismo 19 de Para Além de Bem e Mal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martins Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to present how the notion of fisio-psychology proposal by Nietzsche is structured on the body and it demands a particular alteration in the determination in the notion of the will. To carry through such enterprise, we work mainly the aphorism 19 from Beyond God and Evil. In this text, Nietzsche presents an interpretation of the notion of will constructed on the analysis of the structure of the affection, the thoughts and the feelings. The importance of this enterprise justifies to open a space for a psychological proposal based in the dynamism that is beyond the conscientious processes.

  8. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  9. Ahmet Efe’nin Çocuk Hikâyelerinde Değer Eğitimi ve Hikâyelerin Türkçe Eğitimine Katkısı Value Educatıon In Ahmet Efe’s Children Stories And Contrıbutıons Of These Stories To Turkısh Educatıon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekerya BATUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ahmet Efe’s children stories works are examinedfrom the aspect of value education and Turkish education. Efe’schildren stories are taken as examples. It is used the method of storymap for analizing those stories. Those stories are given value educationpart. Those stories contributed development of Turkish education.Ahmet Efe’s stories are analized and those values are found: dearment,God dearment, motherland dearment, family dearment, frienddearment, nature dearment, animal dearment, honesty, sincerity,goodness, helpful, the valve of work and production, the valve of mercy,the valve of pity, the valve of school life, life happiness in the thosestories. In those stories being critizing behaviors are: lie and cheat, notobeying advice, jealousy and anger, betroying trust, theft and greedy arefound and examined in the those stories. Consequently, with regard tovalue education it is seen that they have a rich content.Ahmet Efe’s works are examined in terms of their contributionstoTurkish education, and usage of proverb, idiom, reduplication,routines and echoic words. In these works intensive usage of proverbs,idioms, duplications, routins and echoic words is seen. Examinedstudied used effectively proverbs, idioms and sayings mold.In the light of this data it is deduced that Ahmet Efe’s works areresources which are to be benefited in the process of value educationand Turkish education. Bu çalışmada, Ahmet Efe’nin çocuk hikâyelerinde değer eğitimi ve hikâyelerin Türkçe eğitimine katkısı bakımından incelenmiştir. Örneklem olarak Ahmet Efe’nin yazdığı çocuk hikâyeleri alınmıştır. Bu hikâyelerin çözümlenmesinde ise hikâye haritası yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Hikâyelerin çocuk edebiyatı açısından taşıdığı özellikler “Değer Eğitimi” olarak belirlenmiş, sözcük çeşitliliği açısından ise Türkçenin gücüne katkısı ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ahmet Efe

  10. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  11. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  12. Destination memory in traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wili Wilu, Amina; Coello, Yann; El Haj, Mohamad

    2018-03-17

    Destination memory, which is socially driven, refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. Our study investigated destination memory in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Patients and control participants were invited to tell proverbs (e.g., "the pen is mightier than the sword") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Barack Obama). Then they were asked to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Besides the assessment of destination memory, participants performed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding location. Analysis demonstrated less destination memory and binding in patients with TBIs than in controls. In both populations, significant correlations were observed between destination memory and performances on the binding task. These findings demonstrate difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in TBI patients, perhaps owing to difficulties in binding separate information together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory.

  13. Jacob Jordaens en Een Nieu Liedeken van Callo. Een onverwacht dubbelzinnig gebruik van een zeventiende-eeuws Zuid-Nederlands zegelied

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    Michel Ceuterick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordaens's aim in inscribing three differing compositions of the proverb As the old sang, so pipe the young with the title of a victory song from the Southern Netherlands, Een Nieu Liedeken van Callo (1638, can only be understood in conjunction with a rejoinder ballad from the North (1644, thus forming a terminus post quem for these paintings. The converse use of a song underscores the topsy-turvy world which Jordaens emulates in this proverb which is intent on facilitating a predestination interpretation. Erasmus and his contemporaries exploited exempla contraria to great success but the ability of the public to correctly interpret this dangerously confusing teaching method waned irrevocably during the seventeenth century. This protected Jacob Jordaens from persecution in his day but also impairs our ability to appreciate him as a sharp-witted artist with an edge, exploiting confessional equivocal themes on personal and/or commercial grounds.

  14. ‘I am like a green olive tree’: The Wisdom context of Psalm 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the thesis of Walter Beyerlin from 1980 that Psalm 52 is a paraenetic- didactic Wisdom poem from the late Persian period. Beyerlin reached his conclusion from a comparison of Psalm 52 with post-exilic Wisdom psalms such as Psalms 37, 49, and 73. The direct literary influence that Psalm 52 received from the book of Proverbs and the motifs it shares with Jeremiah 9 are investigated here, since the author contends that the Wisdom influence on the Psalm was even greater than Beyerlin had envisaged. The article comes to the conclusion that the author(s of the Psalm attempted to compose a psalm by establishing a network of allusions to a corpus of authoritative texts, inter alia, the Wisdom psalms. The end product is a brilliant composition which interprets the teaching of Proverbs for the needs of a group of Jewish believers who probably lived at the end of the Persian period.

  15. ‘I am like a green olive tree’: The Wisdom context of Psalm 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the thesis of Walter Beyerlin from 1980 that Psalm 52 is a paraenetic- didactic Wisdom poem from the late Persian period. Beyerlin reached his conclusion from a comparison of Psalm 52 with post-exilic Wisdom psalms such as Psalms 37, 49, and 73. The direct literary influence that Psalm 52 received from the book of Proverbs and the motifs it shares with Jeremiah 9 are investigated here, since the author contends that the Wisdom influence on the Psalm was even greater than Beyerlin had envisaged. The article comes to the conclusion that the author(s of the Psalm attempted to compose a psalm by establishing a network of allusions to a corpus of authoritative texts, inter alia, the Wisdom psalms. The end product is a brilliant composition which interprets the teaching of Proverbs for the needs of a group of Jewish believers who probably lived at the end of the Persian period.

  16. Die vrou Wysheid, God, en ekobillikheid: Liggaamsideologie in Spreuke 8:1–9:18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Venter

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the ideology of the body, specifically in terms of the gender of Wisdom and God, from an ecojustice perspective. Femininity within a God construct could contribute to a value system that incorporates compassion, interrelatedness and mutual care. In Proverbs 8:1–9:18, however, the woman Wisdom does not represent an ecofriendly construct, but simply enhances and supports the patriarchal, masculine values incorporated in the God Yahweh.

  17. tamsa Volume 15.qxd:Layout 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philemon Kaganda

    Aloe in China notes Aloe's value as a sinus treatment and treatment of fever and convulsions in children. Also re-confirmed use as a treatment for skin diseases. The Bible has references of aloe use, e.g. in Numbers. 24:6, Psalms 45:8, Proverbs 7:17 and John 19:39. Aloe Contents. Aloe contains at least 6 antiseptic agents:.

  18. Wat doen die wysheid in Spreuke 8:30 en 31?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Venter

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Wisdom plays a very important role in the relationship between God and man. Evaluating this role, as it is expressed in Proverbs 8:30–31, attention is paid to the poetical structure in which these verses are found, the possible link with Ancient Near Eastern wisdom literature, and the place of wisdom literature within a theology of the Old Testament and Biblical theology.

  19. Unique Problems in Prosecuting Child Abuse Cases Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    important moral tenets of Confucian ideology is the concept of filial piety . 74 One cannot understand Chinese child-rearing (and in turn Korean child-rearing...without first understanding the historical, cultural, political, and psychological background of filial piety . 75 Filial piety is essentially a...children’s obedience through harsh discipline. 76 Through the use of childhood stories and proverbs, children are taught the concept of filial piety a very

  20. Learning Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Multiple Strategies for Training Empathy-Related Abilities Using Body Ownership Illusions in Embodied Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Bertrand; Philippe Bertrand; Philippe Bertrand; Jérôme Guegan; Léonore Robieux; Cade Andrew McCall; Franck Zenasni

    2018-01-01

    Several disciplines have investigated the interconnected empathic abilities behind the proverb “to walk a mile in someone else’s shoes” to determine how the presence, and absence, of empathy-related phenomena affect prosocial behavior and intergroup relations. Empathy enables us to learn from others’ pain and to know when to offer support. Similarly, virtual reality (VR) appears to allow individuals to step into someone else’s shoes, through a perceptual illusion called embodiment, or the bod...

  1. The wisdom of Ben Sira in MENA cultural context: A cultural topical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pilch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The biblical Books of Proverbs and Ben Sira (Sirach; Ecclesiasticus yield no narrative continuity or logical outline. They are simply collections. The best way to interpret these books is with the aid of a topical index. Most topical indexes are based on English (or another language translation. This article proposes a tentative topical index reflecting Middle East North African culture and its values. It will serve as the outline for a full length commentary already in process.

  2. Librarians in the Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Catherine Fraser; Witt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is an old proverb, "If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, then Mohammed must go to the mountain." Without a university mandate for information literacy instruction, it is a challenge to engage our incoming undergraduate freshmen who are often overwhelmed by the higher expectations of scholarship at the college level and the complexities of the information environment. Unique and creative approaches are needed to reach millennial learners where they are, both physically in terms of ...

  3. Proceedings of the 2nd Interservice/Industry Training Equipment Conference Held in Salt Lake City, Utah, November 18 through November 20, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    file and Kirtland (New Mexico ) Air Force Bases. The to describe the topography of the terrain, but for latter two data bases will contain the... Mexico ; Ph.D., Univer- sity of Wisconsin. 70 -- NtA TRAINING TECHNIQUES USING COMPUTER GENERATED IMAGERY (CGI)* David B. Coblitz Staff Engineer...encounter is excessive machismo , brought about by peer group pressuri. This br-ings to mind a famous Royal Air Force proverb: "There Figure 4

  4. AWKA JOURNAL 2012 PRINT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKENNA

    fact in most law court, justice are delayed and denied. This is against God's injunction in Exodus 23:6 where Leaders are warned not to deny justice in law court, that, “By justice a king gives country stability but one who is greedy for bribes tears it down” (Proverbs 29:4). Incidentally, Psalm 106:3 places blessings to those ...

  5. Traditional lore in population communication: the case of the Akan in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankah, K

    1992-01-01

    Traditional modes of communication, including songs, riddles, appelations, and proverbs, remain predominant in small African communities and should be given greater attention as a means of disseminating government policy on family planning. An examination of the folklore of the Akan, an ethnic group in Ghana, demonstrates both the power of traditional communication and its intrinsic stability and tendency to resist messages of change. The persuasive power of art forms such as songs, proverbs, and stories derives from their link to ancestry and their representation of collective ideals. A review of Akan folklore reveals themes of communality and the creation of numerical strength through large family size. Qualification as an ancestor requires proven fertility, and fruitfulness of the womb receives special mention in dirges. At the same time, proverbs and songs emphasize quality child care and the importance of being able to support one's children adequately. The realities of economic hardships have found their way into Akan folklore, and the message that small numbers of adequately cared for children can provide the community with greater quality than large numbers of children who cannot be nurtured is emerging. Although this sentiment is consistent with government goals, it derives from a drive to preserve the traditional community. The government should seek to avoid any element of coercion in the dissemination of population control messages to this population given resistance to change, yet be alert to the tendency for traditional forms of communication to adapt themselves to changed social situations.

  6. A nonmusician with severe Alzheimer's dementia learns a new song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Umbach, Heidi; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-02-01

    The hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) is impaired memory, but memory for familiar music can be preserved. We explored whether a non-musician with severe AD could learn a new song. A 91 year old woman (NC) with severe AD was taught an unfamiliar song. We assessed her delayed song recall (24 hours and 2 weeks), music cognition, two word recall (presented within a familiar song lyric, a famous proverb, or as a word stem completion task), and lyrics and proverb completion. NC's music cognition (pitch and rhythm perception, recognition of familiar music, completion of lyrics) was relatively preserved. She recalled 0/2 words presented in song lyrics or proverbs, but 2/2 word stems, suggesting intact implicit memory function. She could sing along to the newly learnt song on immediate and delayed recall (24 hours and 2 weeks later), and with intermittent prompting could sing it alone. This is the first detailed study of preserved ability to learn a new song in a non-musician with severe AD, and contributes to observations of relatively preserved musical abilities in people with dementia.

  7. Musical Expertise Increases Top–Down Modulation Over Hippocampal Activation during Familiarity Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gagnepain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top–down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items. Analyses of behavioral data confirmed that musical experts more efficiently access familiar melodies than non-musicians although such increased ability did not transfer to verbal semantic memory. At the brain level, musical expertise specifically enhanced the recruitment of the hippocampus during semantic access to melodies, but not proverbs. Additionally, hippocampal activation contributed to speed of access to familiar melodies, but only in musicians. Critically, causal modeling of neural dynamics between LIFG and the hippocampus further showed that top–down excitatory regulation over the hippocampus during familiarity decision specifically increases with musical expertise – an effect that generalized across melodies and proverbs. At the local level, our data show that musical expertise modulates the online recruitment of hippocampal response to serve semantic memory retrieval of familiar melodies. The reconfiguration of memory network dynamics following musical training could constitute a promising framework to understand its ability to preserve brain functions.

  8. Musical Expertise Increases Top–Down Modulation Over Hippocampal Activation during Familiarity Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnepain, Pierre; Fauvel, Baptiste; Desgranges, Béatrice; Gaubert, Malo; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Groussard, Mathilde; Platel, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top–down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items. Analyses of behavioral data confirmed that musical experts more efficiently access familiar melodies than non-musicians although such increased ability did not transfer to verbal semantic memory. At the brain level, musical expertise specifically enhanced the recruitment of the hippocampus during semantic access to melodies, but not proverbs. Additionally, hippocampal activation contributed to speed of access to familiar melodies, but only in musicians. Critically, causal modeling of neural dynamics between LIFG and the hippocampus further showed that top–down excitatory regulation over the hippocampus during familiarity decision specifically increases with musical expertise – an effect that generalized across melodies and proverbs. At the local level, our data show that musical expertise modulates the online recruitment of hippocampal response to serve semantic memory retrieval of familiar melodies. The reconfiguration of memory network dynamics following musical training could constitute a promising framework to understand its ability to preserve brain functions. PMID:29033805

  9. Thanks to literature and fellow scientists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal training has the disadvantage that trainees may simply accept what they are taught without questioning it, unlike the autodidact who can only learn by asking questions all the time. Sometimes, he will not get an answer and that need not be because the question is stupid, but may be because his peers are used to there being no satisfactory answer and have simply accepted the conventional mythology without further question. So it is about time to ask some assorted questions and where possible, suggest how to find an answer: 1 Why does the composition of the solvent used to extract oil from oilseeds affect the amount of oil being extracted and its phosphatide content? 2 Why does a heat treatment (Alcon, Exergy, expander increase the phosphatide content of the crude oil and decrease its non-hydratable phosphatide (NHP content? 3 Why does water degumming of crude oil remove relatively more magnesium than calcium? 4 What is the mechanism of phosphatide removal by silica hydrogel and why is it enhanced by simultaneous soap removal? 5 What is the mechanism of NHP-removal during alkali neutralisation? 6 Could it be that the Long Mix neutralisation process as used in the US leads to insufficient removal of the pro-oxidants copper and iron and that this explains why oil tends to less stable in the US than in Europe, especially when it contains linolenic acid? 7 Could different deodorisation conditions explain this geographically determined anomaly? 8 What happens during flavour reversion? 9 Why is walnut oil more stable in the nut than in the bottle? 10 How much oil is lost by saponification or hydrolysis during refining? 11 What is the mechanism of colour fixation? 12 Does the activity of interesterification catalysts depend on their counter cation? 13 What is the chemical nature of the colour formed on interesterification catalyst activation? 14 What is crystal memory? Does it exist? However, we should not forget the Dutch proverb that:

  10. Virgin Mary’s Importance in Islam and its Reflection on Classical Turkish Literature and Turkish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhekim Koçin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The language used by a poet or an author in a literary work in verse or prose, and the way he uses idioms, proverbs and literary arts in that language indicate the success of his art. The achievement of author in this matter makes him well known in the country where he lives. However, the topic choice is as important as an artist’s language skills. That’s why poets and authors prefer universal subjects such as love, death, religion, religious personalities (like prophets, saints, etc. and humanity (man's way of living and right to live in their works. If artists produce universal subjects with a clear language, a fluent wording and a strong story line, this achievement makes them famous both nationally and internationally. This fact can also be applied to the literature of any nation. Literary works containing local subjects cannot take their place in the world’s literary history. Classical Turkish literature (Ottoman Period Turkish Literature is extremely rich in subject matter. The period in which Classical Turkish Literature continued its existence was the period when the Ottoman state dominated large geographical regions in Asia, Europe and Africa. Accordingly, the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions and customs of people from different religions, races and cultures living in these geographies; in other words, the issues that are important to these people were also reflected in the literature produced in this period. The subject of this article Virgin Mary is an important religious and a historical personality primarily for the Ottoman state’s Christians and Muslim subjects as well as those who weren’t the subjects of Ottoman Empire. In this article, first how Virgin Mary took part in the two most important sources of Classical Turkish literature, Koran and the hadiths will be summarized. Secondly, Virgin Mary’s place in Classical Turkish literature and the vocabulary and concepts that Turkish language gained through Virgin Mary will

  11. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  12. Telemedicina y Cirugía Plástica Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cabrera Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La Telemedicina es aplicable a todos los campos médicos, incluyendo la Cirugía. Poca atención se ha prestado a sus aplicaciones diagnósticas, de las que sin embargo, nuestra especialidad, en la que es perfectamente aplicable el antiguo proverbio chino "una imagen vale mil palabras", podría salir muy beneficiada. Esto permitiría una mayor reducción de costes con contundentes mejoras en eficiencia y calidad. Presentamos un modelo de Telemedicina tipo envío y almacenaje (store and forward desarrollado y aplicado en un hospital británico del sureste de Inglaterra desde hace 7 años. Comentamos las ventajas e inconvenientes del sistema y sus posibles aplicaciones en nuestro medio. Es un hecho claro que estas tecnologías van a producir un gran cambio en la sociedad y en el quehacer diario del médico durante la próxima década. Lo que hoy conocemos como Telemedicina, en breve perderá el prefijo "tele" porque la población entenderá este tipo de Medicina y de aplicaciones telemáticas como algo habitual. Sin duda, nuestra especialidad será una de las grandes beneficiadas de la aplicación de estas tecnologías.Telemedicine is available in any medical fields, including Surgery. Poor attention has been showed to diagnosis application. Nevertheless, Plastic Surgery, is a practice in which the application of the old chinese proverb: "A picture is better than thousand words", would be very benefited, reducing costs and improving efficiency and quality. We present a Telemedicine store and forward model developed and worked in a Plastic Surgery Unit of southern England for 7 years. We show system advantages and disvantages and its potential applications in our country. It's clear that this technology will be able to produce a great change in our society and in our daily medical activity in the next years. What today we knows as Telemedicine, in a few time will lose "tele" prefix, because people will understand as usual this kind of Medicine and

  13. Metaphor, language, and culture Metáfora, linguagem e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kövecses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and language are connected in a myriad ways. Proverbs, rules of turn-taking in conversations, pronouns of power and solidarity, background knowledge to the understanding of conversations, politeness, linguistic relativity, the principle of cooperation, metaphor, metonymy, context, semantic change, discourse, ideology, print culture, oral culture, literacy, sociolinguistics, speech acts, and so forth, are just some of the concepts in which we find obvious connections between culture and language. Several disciplines within the language sciences attempt to analyze, describe, and explain the complex interrelations between the two broad areas. (For a brief and clear survey, see Kramsch 1998. Can we approach this vast variety of topics from a more unified perspective than it is traditionally done and currently available? The present paper focus on such possibilities.A cultura e a língua estão conectadas numa miríade de formas. Provérbios, regras de tomada de turnos na conversação, pronomes indicativos de poder e solidariedade, conhecimento prévio para o entendimento de conversas, polidez, relativismo linguístico, o princípio a cooperação, metáforas, metonímias, contexto, mudança semântica, discurso, ideologia, cultura impressa, cultura oral, letramento, sociolinguística, atos de fala, além de outros, são apenas alguns dos conceitos nos quais encontramos conexões óbvias entre cultura e língua. Várias disciplinas das ciências linguísticas tentam analisar, descrever e explicar as interrelações complexas entre estas duas grandes áreas. (Para uma revisão breve e clara, consultar Kramsch 1998. Será que podemos abordar esta vasta variedade de tópicos de uma perspectiva mais unificada do que tem sido tradicionalmente feito e está geralmente disponível? O presente artigo enfoca tais possibilidades.

  14. The theory of «basic myth» as a structural method in the study of ancient pagan and Slavic mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Usenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of structural analysis of the Soviet Union was first used philologists, linguists V.V. Ivanov and V.N. Toporov for the study of ancient Russian mythology. It was developed by them in 60-70 years. Then it was tested in the study of Slavic mythology and the ancient Russian paganism. The name of this scientific approach it is the Theory of «basic myth. It has become something of a free zone from Marxist methodology. It was dominated in France. French structural anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss created this method. In Russian historiography there was the influence of the old «mythological» school (A.N Afanas’ev etc.. Thus, the authors of this theory draw huge source material – folklore (fairy tales, myths, legends, proverbs, signs, epic, Vedic hymns etc. «Basic myth» proposed by scientists, was the reconstruction that based on mythological reconstructions. The basis of the reconstruction was the story about struggle between snake and Peru. With this opposition correlate all others: light-dark, top-bottom and others. This «basic myth» has been designed by researchers based on a comparison of the Vedic myth of the fight of Indra with Vritroyu, Baltic mythology and stories about Perkunas and Velnyase. Authors identified the snake-demon Vrytra with Valo and then with Veles (Volos. It was antagonist of Thunder (Perun. The authors of this theory considered that «basic myth» was the basis for the mythology of Indo-European population. The «basic myth» was reflected in East tales of struggle heroes of the dragon – the authors conducted a parallel between Ilya Muromets, Ilya the Prophet and between Perun and Veles and Gorynych-Snake. The author of the article presents the situation historiographical discourse emerged against the background of the existence of the theory of «basic myth», presented by followers’ motivations of and its opponents. The main feature of representatives of structural school is the concentration

  15. Early Birds in Korea: Exporting Defense AT and L Has Far Reaching Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    51 Defense AT&L: November–December 2015 Early Birds in Korea ”Exporting” Defense AT&L Has Far-Reaching Impact DT Tripp n Hwa Yu Tripp is...Defense Acquisition Program Administration. “The early bird catches the worm.” Who doesn’t know this proverb? A study club in the Republic of Korea (ROK...name originated from that tenet as the “Early Birds Study”—or the EBS, for short. This year, the EBS will celebrate the 10th anniversary of its

  16. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq. "till eye can see

  17. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    نداسادات IRAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq

  18. CHILDREN'S EDUCATION AND CHILDREN'S WORLD IN DİVANU LUGAT'İT TÜRK DİVANU LUGAT’İT TÜRK’TE ÇOCUK DÜNYASI VE ÇOCUK EĞİTİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekerya BATUR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as a survey method based on the review of the document. In this study Divanu Lugati't Türk was examined in terms of the concept of “child”, children's education and children's world. As a result of the study, it was determined that the child has own language, game world and view of education. In the book effectively used proverbs actions of the child's daily life. Mother dealt with the general education of the child, father dealt with vocational training. In addition, in the education of children mother played on important role in child’s education.In the book calls attention to the importance of child education, the environment. Children are growing games and toys concepts. The children are used the wrong superstitious beliefs from time to time Bu çalışma tarama modelinde olup doküman incelemesine dayalı olarak yapılmıştır. Çalışmada Divanu Lugati’t Türk, “çocuk” kavramı, çocuk eğitimi ve çocuk dünyası bağlamında incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda çocuğun kendine özgü bir dili, oyun dünyası ve eğitim anlayışının olduğu belirlenmiştir. Eserde, çocuğun günlük yaşamdaki eylemleri atasözlerinde de etkili bir şekilde kullanılmıştır. Çocuğun genel eğitimiyle anne ilgilenirken, meslek eğitimiyle baba ilgilenmiştir. Bunun yanında çocuk eğitiminde annenin birinci derecede görevli, sorumlu olduğu görülmüştür.Eserde, çocuk eğitiminde çevrenin önemine dikkat çekilmiştir. Çocuğun oyun ve oyuncak kavramlarıyla büyüdüğü belirtilmiştir. Zaman zaman da çocuklarla ilgili yanlış batıl inançların kullanıldığı belirlenmiştir.

  19. Il metodo della fisica e le problematiche della biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the ancient Hermetic aphorism solve et coagula, we investigate the nature of the interface between physics and biology by moving up and down the different temporal and spatial scales which enter the description of natural phenomena. Various indications seem to support both the existence of such an interface and the possibility of finding methods, languages, and targets shared by such two disciplines. However, this possibility becomes remote if one moves further and further from the microscopic level of atoms and molecules (and, correspondingly, of molecular biology. We conclude that the biologically founded epistemology proposed by Maturana and Varela as well as cultural anthropology and sociology cannot yet be treated with the methodology of physics.

  20. The problem of the Grand Unification Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, H.-J.

    The evolution and fundamental questions of physical theories unifying the gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum-mechanical interactions are explored, taking Pauli's aphorism as a motto: 'Let no man join what God has cast asunder.' The contributions of Faraday and Riemann, Lorentz, Einstein, and others are discussed, and the criterion of Pauli is applied to Grand Unification Theories (GUT) in general and to those seeking to link gravitation and electromagnetism in particular. Formal mathematical symmetry principles must be shown to have real physical relevance by predicting measurable phenomena not explainable without a GUT; these phenomena must be macroscopic because gravitational effects are to weak to be measured on the microscopic level. It is shown that empirical and theoretical studies of 'gravomagnetism', 'gravoelectricity', or possible links between gravoelectrity and the cosmic baryon assymmetry eventually lead back to basic questions which appear philosophical or purely mathematical but actually challenge physics to seek verifiable answers.

  1. Arte y religión en Schopenhauer: de la necesidad metafísica a la justificación estética de la existencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ruiz Callejón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I analyze the concept of «need for metaphysics» and its relationship to art and to the author’s project of philosophy.

  2. A linguistic analysis of sexist statements by Janusz Korwin-Mikke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kuros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the author has performed a linguistic analysis of several chosen sexist remarks by Janusz Korwin-Mikke in order to prove how stereotypically women are regarded by the famous politician. This conservative man treats stereotypes as a proof of good order and fights to prevent women from trying to change what for thousands of years has given the general order and happiness for male sex and, in his opinion, for female sex. Significant for the author’s paper has been the importance of antifeminist’s texts within pragmatic and semantic aspect. The paper has concentrated on solely the linguistic aspect - in detail there have been discussed among other things: aphorisms and neologisms which are used by the controversial politician. In the paper the author has tried to prove that J. Korwin- Mikke’s language provokes and insults the opposite sex.

  3. Il De uno alla luce dell’Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris di Francis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Bassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [Reading “De uno” in light of Francis Bacon’s “Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris”]. Although Vico was admittedly disappointed by Bacon’s Exemplum tractatus, a parallel reading of this text and De uno can provide insights as to how Vico ended up having to confront a series of issues: how does the universal law project itself into history? Where does the law stem from? Is there a link between law, occasion, and utility? What are the sources and the scope of authority? How does violence affect the law? What role for religion and piety? How to devise a philology for the laws and ancient fables? Bacon’s scattered aphorisms offer glimpses into problems which find a solution in the all-encompassing order of De uno.

  4. Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ni

    2014-01-01

    This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...

  5. Le lion, l’étoile y l’hélice: estudio descriptivo de la metáfora en textos técnicos franceses del ámbito de la automoción y de su traducción al español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez Gutiérrez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical texts are usually character- ized by the use of terminology, and they are said to be clear, concise, precise and objec- tive. It is terminology which is normally considered one of the most important diffi- culties to understand specialized concepts because they are expressed by means of this terminology. Nevertheless, there are other linguistic and cognitive elements which are frequently used to express specialized con- cepts, for instance, metaphors. In this paper we aim to analyze the use of cognitive met- aphors in a corpus of French semi- specialized technical texts and to consider whether the use of these metaphors could be a problem should these metaphors have to be translated into Spanish.

  6. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  7. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  8. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  9. "They're gonna explain to us what makes a cube a cube?" Geometrical properties as contingent achievement of sequentially ordered child-centered mathematics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Gardener, Rod

    2012-09-01

    In mathematics education, there is a continuing debate about the nature of mathematics, which some claim to be an objective science, whereas others note its socially and individually constructed nature. From a strict cultural-historical perspective, the objective and subjective sides of mathematics are but manifestations of a higher-order phenomenon that may be summarized by the aphorism that mind is in society to the extent that society is in the mind. In this study, we show, drawing on exemplifying materials from a second-grade unit on three-dimensional geometry, how mathematics manifests itself both as objective science all the while being subjectively produced. A particular three-turn interactional sequence comes to play a central role. We conclude by re-assigning a positive role to a much-maligned sequentially ordered conversational routine.

  10. Team networking in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Spruyt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  11. Learning from errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique

    2006-01-01

    “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discov...

  12. Winning the Strategic Narrative in the Israeli-Palestinian Protracted Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    give him water to drink; For so you will heap coals of fire on his head, and the Lord will reward you.308 — Proverbs 25:21–22 And (remember...as the Catholic lay organization Sant’Egidio, which mediated the remarkable 1992 peace agreement in Mozambique . After sixteen years of civil war and...Sant’Egidio was successful because over the years it had formed a network of friendships in Mozambique , putting its “faith into practice by gathering

  13. “EM MESES DE INVERNEIRA, HISTÓRIAS À LAREIRA”: Provérbios e dizeres enquanto transmissores de valores culturais e de identidade

    OpenAIRE

    Sol, Hermínia

    2010-01-01

    Oral tradition is still looked down upon by academia as it is not yet considered fit to be either object or subject of scientific scrutiny. In an attempt to change this state of affairs, this article aims to reflect upon the role of proverbs and sayings as keepers of cultural and national values. As such, it will look into the didactic nature of these two communicational phenomena as a commitment to the cultures that have produced them. Borrowing from Durkheim and Vasina, it will explore the ...

  14. The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The Assurance of CHRIST to His followers. Assurance: grk. Hupostasis meaning: full and sustained confidence and trust; unwavering conviction. There is a favourite Ghanaian proverb which says "if a naked man says he will clothe you, listen to him quietly". Before someone could assure you of something, he must be self-reliant or independent. Christ Jesus has assured His followers because He is capable, has done it before, continues to do it and will do it. Isaiah 50:4-9a; talks about the qualif...

  15. Time for nuclear to hold its nerve at this pivotal time for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Recent weeks have been tough for the world's nuclear energy industry. The nuclear industry has seen setbacks before. And it is the nature of this inter-connected global industry to find itself in the international media spotlight when ''bad news'' strikes. The task for the industry now is to pick itself up and face the economic challenges head-on. As one English proverb notes, ''fortune favours the brave''.

  16. ВЕСЕЛКОВИЙ ХРАМ ДИТИНСТВА: ЖИТТЯ ТА ТВОРЧІСТЬ ЗІРКИ МЕНЗАТЮК / THE MERRY TEMPLE OF CHILDHOOD: THE LIFE AND THE WORKS OF ZIRKA MENZATIUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya VYLKA

    2017-09-01

    the mightiness of yet unaccomplished plans, to examine the life of the author, to seize the theme of her works and the impact of folklore on them. Taking into consideration the author’s style, content and target audience, we can say with confidence that the original creative mission of Z. Menzatiuk is not only to submerge her reader into the imaginary kingdom of unordinary images of childhood, but to bring in a light, interactive writing style, a mountain of knowledge, historic facts and life lessons. The main task of her work is didactic learning, which according to the author is fulfilled through a good book that develops the child. The article examines the writer’s biography, her best-known books, their main ideas, characters and images. A lot is said about the didactic character of Z. Menzatiuk’s writings, her aspirations for making the little ones and the youth more opened to learning, to interest them into learning the many facts of history and the presentday Ukraine. We diachronicly considered the most important life and crea- tive events of the writer-fairy-tales, whose roots and amazing color in the images, flooded with proverbs and proverbs, language, stretched out their solid creative veins from our Bukovina, rich in talents of the earth. Key words: children’s literature, adventure story, fairy tales, legends, the history of Ukraine in fairy tales, the development of the child.

  17. On the different meanings of the term law (zakon in Saint Sabba's Life of Saint Simon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarkić Srđan N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In mediaeval Serbian law the central legal term zakon (law indicated a generally obligatory rule (regula iuris which was usually not a result of the activity of a monarch as ultimate holder of state power. Even where a law was made by state authority such a legal rule had primarily the appearence of a customary legal provision, regulating the conditions within one particular manor (vlastelinstvo rather than within the whole national territory. Otherwise such laws prescibed the legal position of different categories of inhabitants and identified particular rules of status. Sometimes a law would be introduced to regulate one paricular problem. The concept of law in this period also includes a legal rule derived from custom or from a private contract. Each of these uses can be illustrated from many hundreds of cases from several sources. The use of the term zakon (law was present in the literary sources as well, such is The Life of Saint Simon (biography of Stefan Nemanja, founder of Serbian mediaeval dynasty Nemanjić, written by his youngest son Rastko, bether known under his monastic name Sabba (Sava. In Sabba's hagiography of his father we found the term zakon six times. Discribing the State Council (Državni sabor that had to decide who will be Nemanja's successor on the throne, Sabba writes that his father pronounced, among other, the following words: 'My sons, do not forget the orthodox law that I established.' The term orthodox law means here orthodox faith, that was established in Serbia after persecutions of Bogomilian heresy. For the second time, term zakon was used in the meaning of monarch's order. Nemanja says to his sons not to forget his laws. Further, giving the instructions to his sons, Nemanja use the citation from the Bible (The Book of Proverbs or Proverbs of Solomon 3, 1-18, where the term zakon corresponds to the latin ius, not lex. Hereinafter the word zakon means Torah or Pentateuch, the first five books of Bible (citation

  18. Diagnosis of mild Alzheimer disease through the analysis of eye movements during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Castro, Liliana R; Schumacher, Marcela; Agamennoni, Osvaldo E

    2015-03-01

    Reading requires the integration of several central cognitive subsystems, ranging from attention and oculomotor control to word identification and language comprehension. Reading saccades and fixations contain information that can be correlated with word properties. When reading a sentence, the brain must decide where to direct the next saccade according to what has been read up to the actual fixation. In this process, the retrieval memory brings information about the current word features and attributes into working memory. According to this information, the prefrontal cortex predicts and triggers the next saccade. The frequency and cloze predictability of the fixated word, the preceding words and the upcoming ones affect when and where the eyes will move next. In this paper we present a diagnostic technique for early stage cognitive impairment detection by analyzing eye movements during reading proverbs. We performed a case-control study involving 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 40 age-matched, healthy control patients. The measurements were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, revealing that eye movement behavior while reading can provide valuable information about whether a person is cognitively impaired. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using word-based properties, proverbs and linear mixed-effect models for identifying cognitive abnormalities.

  19. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The dynamic and ever-changing volcanic nature of Iceland -An outdoor laboratory for education on natural processes and the human impacts on them-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    "Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand" (Chinese Proverb). Throughout the global history fundamental knowledge on utilizing natural resources, nowadays known as ecoliteracy, was passed on to next generations by our ancestors. Nevertheless, their practices were often unsustainable and lead directly or indirectly to severe ecosystem degradation. Nowadays, overexploitation of natural resources is still a global main driver for ecological degradation, water quality decrease and climate change. While ecoliteracy is still an essential knowledge, the societal structures required to maintain the knowledge have diminished. Today, about 80% of the population in Western countries lives in urban areas dominated by concrete structures with frequently only isolated green spaces. Environmental education is dominated by theoretical concepts taught using a wide range of multimedia technologies to simulate direct experiences of natural processes. Nevertheless, these technologies can only provide a superficial insight into the functioning of natural processes. Only direct on-sight investigations can provide a thorough experience of the dynamic, ever-changing environmental processes. Iceland is a 103,000 km2 large island, located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge just south of the Arctic Circle. In that area the earth crust is only a few km thick, leading to frequent volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. Due to the long winter and the wet climate glaciers formed on all major peaks and cover 11% of the island. Most riverbeds are in their pristine state and water quality is in general excellent. The Icelandic nature may look pristine but is indeed severely degraded. Unsustainable landuse, namely deforestation and overgrazing, in an environment characterized by harsh winters and volcanic activities had devastating effects on the nature. Since settlement 1100 years ago 40% of its vegetation and soil have been lost. Soil conservation and

  1. Distinguishing age-related cognitive decline from dementias: A study based on machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Füsun; Iscen, Pınar; Sahin, Sevki; Çinar, Nilgun; Karsidag, Sibel; Goularas, Dionysis

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to examine the distinguishability of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) from dementias based on some neurocognitive tests using machine learning. 106 subjects were divided into four groups: ARCD (n=30), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=20), vascular dementia (VD) (n=21) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=35). The following tests were applied to all subjects: The Wechsler memory scale-revised, a clock-drawing, the dual similarities, interpretation of proverbs, word fluency, the Stroop, the Boston naming (BNT), the Benton face recognition, a copying-drawings and Öktem verbal memory processes (Ö-VMPT) tests. A multilayer perceptron, a support vector machine and a classification via regression with M5-model trees were employed for classification. The pairwise classification results show that ARCD is completely separable from AD with a success rate of 100% and highly separable from MCI and VD with success rates of 95.4% and 86.30%, respectively. The neurocognitive tests with the higher merit values were Ö-VMPT recognition (ARCD vs. AD), Ö-VMPT total learning (ARCD vs. MCI) and semantic fluency, proverbs, Stroop interference and naming BNT (ARCD vs. VD). The findings show that machine learning can be successfully utilized for distinguishing ARCD from dementias based on neurocognitive tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metaphor-related figurative language comprehension in clinical populations: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review current studies with respect to definitions,methods, and results on the comprehension of metaphor, metonymy,idioms, and proverbs under the following clinical conditions: aphasia,Alzheimer’s disease, autism, brain injuries, specific language impairment,and Williams Syndrome. A comprehensive search of experimentalpsycholinguistic research was conducted using EBSCOhost, PsychInfo,PUBMED, and Web of Science databases. Thirty-eight studies met thereview inclusion criteria. Results point to deficits in figurative languagecomprehension in all conditions considered, lack of clear definitions ofthe phenomena investigated, and varied methods throughout the sample.Patients’ difficulties are attributed to multiple factors, such as a lack ofTheory of Mind, executive dysfunctions, and poor semantic knowledge.The study of nonliteral aspects of language comprehension in clinicalpopulations reveals a range of disparate impairments. There was no specificfeature about metaphor-related phenomena identified that could, on its own,account for the difficulty some populations have to understand figurativelanguage. Rather, metaphor-related language comprehension difficultiesare often part of pragmatic, linguistic, and/or cognitive impairments.Keywords: Figurative language. Metaphor. Metonymy. Proverb. Clinicalpopulations

  3. Animals′ Role in Proper Behaviour: Cheŵa Women′s Instructions in South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F Zubieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common role of animals in the Cheŵa culture of south-central Africa is twofold: they are regarded as an important source of food, and they also provide raw materials for the creation of traditional medicines. Animals, however, also have a nuanced symbolic role that impacts the way people behave with each other by embodying cultural protocols of proper — and not so proper — behaviour. They appear repeatedly in storytelling and proverbs to reference qualities that people need to avoid or pursue and learn from the moral of the story in which animals interplay with each other, just as humans do. For example, someone who wants to prevent the consequences of greed is often advised to heed hyena stories and proverbs. My contribution elaborates on Brian Morris's instrumental work in south-central Africa, which has permitted us to elucidate the symbolism of certain animals and the perception of landscape for Indigenous populations in this region. I discuss some of the ways in which animals have been employed to teach and learn proper behaviour in a particular sacred ceremony of the Cheŵa people which takes place in celebration of womanhood: Chinamwali.

  4. Erste Annäherung einer Hermeneutik des משׁﬥ in alttestamentlichen Schriften mit Überlegungen zur Rezeption dieses Begriffes in den neutestamentlichen Evangelien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    respectively. Etymologically משל I has several meanings: "proverb", "byword", "reproach" and "parable". Despite these different meanings coherence can still be found within the hermeneutical setting of the word, where it seems to signify either a positive or negative relationship between Yahweh and Israel....... In the negative sense of the word it appears as "proverb", "byword" or "reproach" indicating a broken relationship between Yahweh and Israel caused by disobedience to the Word of the Covenant. In the positive sense of the word it indicates a manifest and unique relationship between Yahweh and the one speaking...... of John, where the divine λόγος is not transformed into משל/παραβολή through the flesh of Jesus or by his act of speaking, but remains λόγος, ρήμα and related to the positive sense of משל as παροιμία. Thus, Jesus not only gains a higher status as a prophet, but the words he speaks are more than...

  5. The Challenges of Translating Idioms from Arabic into English A Closer look at Al Imam AL Mahdi University – Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ali Al Mubarak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This particular study explores and identifies the obstacles faced in the process of translating idioms from the Arabic  into the English. In fact, one of the most challenging issues in the field of translation is the process of translating idioms from the source language into the target language with maximum success in conveying similar connotation, conceptualization, as well as shades of meaning. Therefore, in meeting the objectives outlined in this study, a purposive sample that consisted of forty students pursuing B.A. in English at the Arts College of Al Imam AL Mahdi – Sudan had been selected. Other than that, the researcher employed the descriptive approach in the study to identify and to list down the problems faced by students in applying certain strategies to translate idioms from Arabic into English. As such, a translation test was carried out as an instrument for data collection. The test was comprised of twelve Arabic proverbs based on Speake (2008 classification of Proverbs, i.e. everyday experience, traditional wisdom, and folklore, to name a few. As a result, the outcomes of the study revealed several issues that must be ironed out in order to translate idiomatic expressions appropriately and accurately. Some significant factors that had been included are cultural aspects, sociolinguistic elements, linguistic and stylistic considerations and some particular meta-lingual factors.

  6. BENTUK FUNGSI, DAN MAKNA KIAS DALAM JUDUL BERITA MAJALAH GATRA DAN PEMANFAATANNYA PADA PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA DI PGMI STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuentie Sova Puspidalia

    2016-04-01

      Based on the research result, it revealed figurative language in the news titles ofGatra magazine in 2013 to 2015. The figurative language used was (1 a simile used as many as 5 times, (2 metaphor 23 times, (3 metonymy 25 times, (4 anthropomorphisms 25 times, (5 Symbolic 17 times, (6 hyperbole 21 times, (7 allegory 92 times, (8 periphrasis 25 times, (9 personification 22 times, (10 Innuendo, (11 sarcasm first time, (12 synecdoche 16 times, (13 synesthesia 9 times, and (14 proverb 2 times. Thus, the total of figurative words used in the headlines inGatra magazineon 2013 to 2015 are as many as 267 times consisting of 14 types of figurative language form. If it was ranged, the use of figurative language wasdominated with the allegory type that was 86 times. Next, it is followed with metaphor and metonymy, which appeared 23 times of use respectively. The third rank was the use ofperiphrasis that was about 22 times, personification 20 times, followedwith the forth rank that was synecdoche as many as 15 times. Then, the sequential low uses of figurative language were Innuendo and sarcasm only once, proverb 4 times, simile 5 times, and synesthesia 8 times. Meanwhile, the function varied from one type of figurative language to others. The use of figurative language was revealed to function variously, i.e.,to awaken, shorten, beautify, explain, illustrate, visualize,enliven and stressed.

  7. CONCEPTE ŞI INTERPRETĂRI PRIVIND IZVOARELE ŞI ÎNCEPUTURILE GÂNDIRII FILOSOFICE ROMÂNEŞTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru CĂLDARE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available În articol sunt examinate unele concepte şi interpretări în ceea ce priveşte sursele şi începuturile reale ale gândirii filosofice româneşti: particularităţile ideologiei filosofice româneşti, unele aspecte ale gândirii filosofice „daco-getice”, elemente de mentalitate mitologică, idei filosofice în gândirea populară (noţiuni de folclor, etnografie, etno-psihologie, legende, proverbe, cultura tradiţională, în general. THE CONCEPTS AND INTERPRETATIONS ON THE SOURCES AND ORIGINS OF THE ROMANIAN PHYLOSOPHICAL THINKINGIn the article there are examined some concepts and interpretations concerning the sources and the real beginnings of the Romanian philosophical thinking: the peculiarities of the Romanian philosophical ideology, some aspects of the “daco-getian” philosophical thinking, elements of mythological mentality, philosophic ideas in popular thinking (notions from folklore, ethnography, ethno-psychology, legends, proverbs, traditional culture in general.

  8. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author’s aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrence in the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text. Keywords: Old Testament; Proverbs; Hermeneutics; The fear of the Lord/Yahweh;  Walter Brueggemann; Paul Ricoeur;  Ignatius of Loyola; Imaginal engagement

  9. Los animales y el cuerpo en el refranero: un análisis semántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Pérez Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste trabajo muestra un análisis de las paremias en español conformadas por sustantivos anatómicos y faunísticos cuya interpretación es metafórica. La propuesta consiste en explicar el sentido de estas expresiones a partir de los marcos semánticos de los sustantivos de ambos dominios, ya que, aunque se ha señalado que este tipo de construcciones no son susceptibles de un análisis componencial, consideramos que, recurriendo a la semántica de marcos, es posible encontrar su motivación semántica. AbstractThis work presents an analysis of some proverbs in Spanish that are built upon anatomic and faunistic nouns, and that have a metaphoric interpretation. The approach consists in explaining these expressions’ meanings using noun semantic frames in both domains. Although there has been pointed out that these constructions can’t be analyzed componentially, we consider that using frame semantics it is possible to find their semantic motivation.Key words: proverb – metaphor – anatomic domain – faunistic domain

  10. “Better To Die Than...”. Аbout Paradoxes of Preference in Paremiological Pictures of the World

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    Елена Владимировна Ничипорчик

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article raises the problem of the search for proof of the existence of unity in the value consciousness of the representatives of different ethnoses. Proverbs, the particular features of which are to reflect the value positions of their producers and to be a distinctive instrument in forming the value consciousness of members of society, can act as factual basis for solving the problem. The analysis of proverbs in different languages with the notion of the inverted preference reveals the identity of producers’ valuable positions of the given proverbial expressions. This identity is established on the basis of coincidence of the categories acting as provokants of inverted preference as well as on the ground of concurrence of axiological meaningfulness of these categories in the proverbial spaces and “zones” of the conflicts of evaluative meanings. The conflict of assessment connected with comprehension of one or another category being observed in each of the proverbial funds is defined as the sign of invariant essence of values.

  11. Destination memory in social interaction: better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2017-10-12

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i.e., coloured faces). On a later recognition test, participants had to decide whether they had previously told some proverb to an older/younger destination or not. Prior to this task, participants reported their frequency of contact with other-age groups. The results showed lower destination memory in older adults than in younger adults. Interestingly, older adults displayed better memory for older than for younger destinations. The opposite pattern was seen in younger adults. The low memory for younger destinations, as observed in older adults, was significantly correlated with limited exposure to younger individuals. These findings suggest that for older adults, the social experience can play a crucial role in the destination memory, at least as far as exposure to other-age groups is concerned.

  12. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

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    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  13. "As mulheres voam com seus maridos": a experiência da diáspora palestina e as relações de gênero

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    Denise Fagundes Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, proponho uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e as formas de organização da experiência imigratória contemporânea no bojo da experiência diaspórica dos palestinos. Segundo um provérbio árabe, coletado em trabalho de campo, "as mulheres voam com seus maridos". A explicação se refere a um funcionamento peculiar da vida da família árabe que recebe as noras na unidade doméstica do marido, e, por conseguinte, essa unidade é também a do pai do marido. Foi através desse provérbio que tive acesso a um comentário nativo sobre o "ir e vir" de esposas da Palestina ou de outras cidades para residir na cidade do Chuí (RS e de lá para outras localidades. No mundo pós-colonial, as mulheres se converteram em potentes símbolos de identidade de sociedades e nações. As mulheres islâmicas e, em especial, as palestinas se encontram dentro desse debate ideológico sobre a integridade e autenticidade cultural. Essa fala proverbial nos dá acesso a diferentes pontos de vista sobre os dispositivos culturais que presidem esses fluxos e nos exige uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e o modo como analisamos o protagonismo das mulheres muçulmanas.This article proposes a reflection about gender relations and the forms of organization of contemporary Palestinian immigrants' experience. According to an Arabian proverb, collected during fieldwork, "the women fly with their husbands". The explanation refers to a kinship structure through which daughters-in-law come to live in the husband's father's domestic unit. This proverb reveals some aspects about the "coming and going" of Palestinian wives who reside or come from other localities to settle in Chui city. In the post-colonial era, women were converted in powerful identity symbols. Islamic women, specially Palestinians women, are part of a ideological debate about cultural integrity and authenticity. That proverb gives us access to different viewpoints on the cultural

  14. "Philosophy for Children" in Africa: developing a framework

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    Patrick Giddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on Ndofirepi's plea for an approach to teaching philosophy to high-school learners in Africa that is a hybrid of western and African thought, I argue that a critical touchstone is needed if the traditional wisdom is to be sifted, and that this can be found in the idea of the questioning and responsible subject. Traditional proverbs and myths, whether African or not, reveal a growing sense of responsibility but philosophy, I argue, can contribute the principle of non-contradiction and the foundational norm of responsibility. The principle and the norm can be found to be at the heart of the modern scientific enterprise and can in principle ground a dialogue between African traditional and modern European value-systems.

  15. Women in Achebe’s Novel “Things Fall Apart”

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    Mundi Rahayu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the image of women in Chinua Achebe novel’s Things Fall Apart. As the prominent postcolonial writer, Achebe has a vivid expression describing the social cultural values of the Ibo community in Nigeria, Africa. Analysis of the novel is done through the perspective of postcolonial feminism. Postcolonial feminism finds the relation and intersection between Postcolonialism and feminism. This interplay is interesting to observe. The findings show that in traditional patriarchal culture as in the novel, women are portrayed happy, harmonious members of the community, even when they are repeatedly beaten and barren from any say in the communal decision-making process and constantly reviled in sayings and proverbs. However some other interesting findings are that the women also have big role in the belief system of the community, and in Achebe’s novel he made it an amusement, for example by punishing Okonkwo because of his beating to his wife in the sacred time.

  16. Watching the dark: New surveillance cameras are changing bat research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2014-01-01

    It is, according to an old proverb, “better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” And those of us trying to discover new insights into the mysterious lives of bats often do a lot of cursing in the darkness. Bats do most things under cover of night, and often in places where humans and most other animals can’t go. This dark inaccessibility is great for bats, but not so great for those of us trying to study them. Successful conservation hinges on understanding bat behaviors and needs, as well as identifying and addressing the things that threaten them in the darkness. But how do we light a candle without scaring the bats away or altering their behavior?

  17. Sustainable supply of fuel-wood for the rural areas of Pakistan: farm-forestry s a renewable-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    It costs as much to heat the pot as to fill it. This old African proverb illustrates the energy-problems faced by majority of the world, who live in the villages and urban slums of developing countries, such as Pakistan. For a majority of them, the real energy-crisis is a daily scramble to find wood to cook meals and nearly 90% of their domestic energy demands are derived from wood. This essential resource, however, is threatened. The developing world is facing crisis of a critical shortage of firewood as serious as the petroleum-crisis. The shortage of firewood is resulting its soaring prices; a growing economic burden on rural poor; the wasteful burning of animal dung; and an ecologically disastrous and potentially irreversible spread of treeless landscapes. (author)

  18. Własności psychometryczne Testu Przysłowie-Metafora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szajer, Katarzyna; Karakula, Hanna; Grzywa, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract thinking belongs to intellectual abilities of the highest level of the evolutionary development, thanks to which operations such a classification, systematisation and comparison are possible.AIM: An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Proverb-Metaphor Test (TPM) which has been...... used in the German speaking countries since 2001. The TPM was subject to the process of translation--retranslation--travesty in order to be adapted to clinical conditions in Poland. MATERIAL: 60 patients of the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Lublin with diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia...... (according to ICD-10 criteria). METHODS: PANSS and TPM was carried out amongst 15 patients at the beginning of the hospitalisation (the first stage of the research) and among all persons during the remission of syndromes (the second stage). The WAIS-R (PL) was used in the second stage. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  19. Vo�ls van eenderse vere? Oor die Israelitiese en Egiptiese wysbeid en voelsimhole

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    I.J.J. Spangenberg

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Birds of a feather? Ancient Israelite and Egyptian wisdom and bird symbols Ordinary Bible readers are not always aware that sections of the Old Testament contain material that agrees (almost verbally with other documents of the ancient Near East. One of these sections is Proverbs 22: 17-24:22. The publication of papyri containing the Egyptian wisdom book "Wisdom of Amen-em-ope" in 1923 made this evident. This article takes a brief look at the history of wisdom research since 1923, and gives a positive reply to the question whether ancient Israelite wisdom and Egyptian wisdom are similar. This answer, however, impinges on the reformed doctrine of Scripture. Georg Fohrer has emphasized this almost three decades ago but in South Africa we are still struggling to come to terms with this.

  20. O papel da imagem na tradição Árabe

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    Aida R. Hanania

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the role of the image in the Arabic tradition, since the “word” has a fundamental importance in its cultural field (which, as time goes on, has revealed itself through both the sentential tale and the koranic word as well as the calligraphic art, and the proverb. For this, it has become an instigative action to analyze its opposite “the image” (even doing it in a straight way of analysis, due to the fact it is not a limitless paper, being as inciting as to investigate its values not only in the religious dimension but also in its communicative, anthropological and cultural dimensions, and by this means organizing a close observational way not only to look at the Arabic reality, under the Islamic protection, but also to include the prior Islamic reality of the Arabic peninsula, where the last huge monotheistic religious was born.

  1. Palatalization in English: An Articulation Problem for Turkish Teacher Trainees

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    Prof. Dr. Mehmet Demirezen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of teacher training, there is a scarcity of teaching pronunciation teachingmethodology to cure the fossilized mistakes of teacher trainees and foreign language teacherson-the-job. A case study pertaining to this situation is handled for the first time in this articleunder the title of “Audio-articulation Method” (Demirezen, 2003; Hişmanoğlu, 2004. Thismethod takes up a fossilized mistake of teacher trainees or teachers on-the-job in fifty minutesand brings in pronunciation correction by using tongue-twisters, idioms, proverbs, and thelike. Thus, it cures the fossilized mistake to a grater extent by creating a higher awareness andimproving communicative fluency. This method through task-based point of view removesthe related fossilized mistake and brings in pronunciation betterment to the teacher traineesand the teachers on-the-job.

  2. THE WINDOW TO THE WORLD OF THE GOSPEL TRUTH: THE POWER OF RUSSIAN FOLK SPEECH IN NIKOLAI GOGOL'S NOVEL "DEAD SOULS"

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    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imaginative pictures and traits of characters. The more generalized form they take, the more they resemble the traditional folk and poetic formulas. The article also reveals the hidden message of a Russian proverb Russians are good at thinking in hindsight (“Russkiy chelovek zadnim umom krepok”. This characteristic of the Russian mind is the one with which Gogol connects the great destiny of Russia. At the end of his first volume the author resorts to the allegorical form of a parable that plays a key role in the perception of the novel. Transforming into the generalized symbol, its characters accumulate the most significant generic features and qualities of Dead Souls’ characters. The grotesque images of Kifa Mokiyevich and Mokiy Kifovich help to look at the characters of the novel from every possible side, not from one side only that shows them as small-minded and worthles people. Gogol’s characters do not possess definitely disgusting and ugly qualities, which should be eliminated for the sake of people's improvement. Sobakevich's powerful physique and pragmatism, Plushkin's thrift, Manilov's meditativeness and cordiality, as well as Nozdryov's valor and energy are not bad qualities at all and do not deserve condemnation. However, all of them as Gogol used to say are carried to extremes and take perverse and exaggerated forms.

  3. Los Refranes o Proverbios en Romance (1555, de Hernán Núñez, Pinciano

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    Madroñal, Abraham

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The work tries to consider «Refranes o proverbios en romance» by Hernán Núñez, the Greek Commander, a peculiar work that appears in an important moment of the Spanish history and literature. It is also remarkable for being a posthumuous work because his author did not want to publish it in life or to leave it unknown. The study focus on the peculiarities of all type, from the purely linguistic ones to those which have to do with the literature, without forgetting the circunstances of the author and the relationships that this collection of proverbs has with other previous and later ones (Valles, Mal Lara, Correas, Spanish and foreigners. The work genesis, its originalilty and repercussion..., and the editions from the first to the last one (2001 are also studied. Hernán Núñez, Professor at Salamanca University, prestigious philologist at his time, publisher and translator of classical editions, decides to make a collection of proverbs at the end of his life, the most plentiful ever known. So that he does not mind using any procedure to get the proverbs: from buying them to his students to going to other compilations, hand-written or in progress. His relationship with the Erasmism and humanists of the age are shown in these pages which include clearly irreverent, anticlerical and scatological proverbs that shocked later writers.El trabajo pretende considerar la obra Refranes o proverbios en romance (1555 de Hernán Núñez, Comendador Griego, una obra curiosa que aparece en un momento crucial de la historia y de la literatura españolas. Se da la particularidad además de que es obra póstuma porque su autor no quiso que se publicara en vida, pero tampoco que quedara inédita. El estudio se centra en las peculiaridades de todo tipo, desde las puramente lingüísticas a las que tienen que ver con lo literario, sin dejar de considerar las circunstancias personales del autor y las relaciones que este refranero tiene con otros anteriores y

  4. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

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    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  5. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

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    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  6. Interpreting ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 in the light of Psalm 119

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    Philippus J. Botha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that Psalm 37 and Proverbs 1–4 served as sources for the composition of Psalm 1. The emphasis in both donor texts on the righteous people’s inheriting the Promised Land seems to have imprinted also on Psalm 1, a factor that could change our understanding of it. All three contexts in turn played a role in the composition of Psalm 119, but whilst the author of this long psalm also understood the ‘Torah’ of Yahweh as the incarnation of true wisdom, it seems that ‘Torah’ also subsumed the Promised Land for him. The investigation showed that ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 should be understood as an arch-lexeme for all the religious texts its author used to compose, similar to what was the understanding of the author of Psalm 119 a little later.

  7. The Beowulf manuscript reconsidered: Reading Beowulf in late Anglo-Saxon England

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    L. Viljoen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a hypothetical late Anglo-Saxon audience: a multi-layered Christian community with competing ideologies, dialects and mythologies. It discusses how that audience might have received the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. The immediate textual context of the poem constitutes an intertextual microcosm for Beowulf. The five texts in the codex provide interesting clues to the common concerns, conflicts and interests of its audience. The organizing principle for the grouping of this disparate mixture of Christian and secular texts with Beowulf was not a sense of canonicity or the collating of monuments with an aesthetic autonomy from cultural conditions or social production. They were part of the so-called “popular culture” and provide one key to the “meanings” that interested the late Anglo-Saxon audience, who would delight in the poet=s alliteration, rhythms, word-play, irony and understatement, descriptions, aphorisms and evocation of loss and transience. The poem provided cultural, historical and spiritual data and evoked a debate about pertinent moral issues. The monsters, for instance, are symbolic of problems of identity construction and establish a polarity between “us” and the “Other”, but at the same time question such binary thinking. Finally, the poem works towards an audience identity whose values emerge from the struggle within the poem and therefore also encompass the monstrous, the potentially disruptive, the darkness within B that which the poem attempts to repress.

  8. Parental explicit heuristics in decision-making for children with life-threatening illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjilian, Chris B; Womer, James W; Carroll, Karen W; Kang, Tammy I; Feudtner, Chris

    2013-02-01

    To identify and illustrate common explicit heuristics (decision-making aids or shortcuts expressed verbally as terse rules of thumb, aphorisms, maxims, or mantras and intended to convey a compelling truth or guiding principle) used by parents of children with life-threatening illnesses when confronting and making medical decisions. Prospective cross-sectional observational study of 69 parents of 46 children who participated in the Decision-making in Pediatric Palliative Care Study between 2006 and 2008 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Parents were guided individually through a semistructured in-depth interview about their experiences and thoughts regarding making medical decisions on behalf of their ill children, and the transcribed interviews were qualitatively analyzed. All parents in our study employed explicit heuristics in interviews about decision-making for their children, with the number of identified explicit heuristics used by an individual parent ranging from tens to hundreds. The heuristics served 5 general functions: (1) to depict or facilitate understanding of a complex situation; (2) to clarify, organize, and focus pertinent information and values; (3) to serve as a decision-making compass; (4) to communicate with others about a complex topic; and (5) to justify a choice. Explicit heuristics played an important role in decision-making and communication about decision-making in our population of parents. Recognizing explicit heuristics in parent interactions and understanding their content and functions can aid clinicians in their efforts to partner with parents in the decision-making process.

  9. Review Essay: Constructivism is the Invention of a Critic

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    Ralf Ottermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The world, as we perceive it, is our own invention, so we always invent and never discover realities. This main thesis is grounded on neurophysiological research. But how radical then is FOERSTER's constructivism "really"? Is it not also an empirical as well as a social constructivism plus some realism in it, too? And what shall we do with such academic questions if "the way in which a question is asked determines the way in which an answer may be found"? The physicist and philosopher Heinz von FOERSTER and the journalist and communication scientist Bernhard PÖRKSEN talk about the sensual perception of human beings and the borders of our capacity for knowledge, communication and understanding. They debate about truth, objectivity and responsibility and discuss the connections between knowledge, ethics and practice. I have been enriched of some of the aphorisms, anecdotes and aporias, still, I am not able to answer the questions asked above conclusively. The book is interesting for people who love sophistic conversations, but it is not very helpful for qualitative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs050330

  10. ’n (Outobiografiese Twitter-teologie

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    Jan-Albert van den Berg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An (autobiographical Twitter-theology. Due to the increasing challenges created by an evolving digital world, traditional expressions of the Christian faith could become irrelevant for a fast-paced world. Through an autobiographical orientation, a search for meaningful personal expressions of the Christian faith on Twitter is traced and mapped down. Facilitated through a practical-theological inquiry and employing a qualitative empirical research methodology, personal aphorisms of the Christian faith on Twitter are traced down and presented as possible examples of a relevant digital autobiographical theology. Through the contribution of these empirical realities, new hermeneutical outcomes and a strategic involvement are facilitated. The creation, development and meaning of new theological formulations and articulations are explored and described through these expressions. In the tracing of and in the mapping down of these new expressions of faith, demarcations of a possible lived spirituality in the digital sphere are sounded out and verbalised. Through the documentation of these new and relevant articulations of the language of faith, a contribution is made to a meaningful digital autobiographical theology.

  11. Право в пословицах и поговорках

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzhakova, O. V.; Южакова, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article covers the correlation of language and law, legal institutions fixed in proverbs and sayings, as well as methodological ways of teaching with the help of proverbs and sayings, based on the author's use of this form of folklore in the process of education Статья посвящена взаимосвязи языка и права, правовым институтам, закрепленным в пословицах и поговорках, а также методическим приемам обучения с помощью пословиц и поговорок на основе авторского использования данной формы народ...

  12. Telltale signs of patient-centered diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenson, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    A best-selling book from the mid-1980s was entitled, All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten. Some doctors may similarly feel that well-worn epigrams from Hippocrates, Osler and others have told them all they really need to know about patient-centered care. The problem is that aphorisms and action are not one and the same. The workup for patient-centered diagnosis takes work, and there are telltale signs along the way. Effective patient engagement requires training and practice. It means incorporating patient-generated data into the diagnostic process. And it means being sensitive to new economic constraints on patients. Ensuring that diagnostic processes and decisions meet the test of patient-centeredness poses a challenge. The new criteria do not replace the professional obligation of beneficence; rather they add an additional obligation of power sharing. While that is neither simple nor easy, it promises better care for patients, a more satisfying clinical encounter and a better health care system for all.

  13. Outlook for mineral raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhoff, H.A.

    1979-04-01

    No better summary of the outlook for the mineral raw materials industry during the next two decades can be offered than the oft-repeated aphorism, The more things change, the more they remain the same. Each mineral commodity will pursue its own individual course, but overall, the growth and increasing sophistication of the world population will double consumption and narrow such gaps as exist between supply and demand. Sources of supply will be found over a widening geographic range and will cross an increasing number of political boundaries. Although the need for an international mineral policy is obvious, confrontation between the industrial nations of the West and the anti-colonialism and nationalism of Third World countries offers little hope of anything better than ad hoc solutions in the form of bilateral agreements or cartelization of specific commodities involving several producing nations with common interests. Japan has shown the efficacy of bilateral agreements; the International Tin Council and OPEC are examples of cartelization. Although its mineral resources make the USSR all but self-sufficient, analysis of its military and maritime programmes indicates that one of its aims is to fill the vacuum created by the lack of an international mineral policy. It is following closely a modernized formula for world domination set forth by Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904. Success would enable it to impose a mineral policy on the rest of the world, which will be well advised to ponder this possibility.

  14. History of rheumatology

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    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  15. Is there treatment for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David M; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2015-11-01

    Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of an acute optic neuropathy over the age 50 with an annual incidence of 2-10/100 000. Most patients are left with a permanent decrease in visual acuity and visual field loss. No approved treatment has conclusively reversed the process or prevented a second event that typically involves the previously unaffected eye. Many medical and surgical treatments have been proposed with conflicting results. The goal of this review is to present current data in order to permit clinicians and patients to make an educated decision about treatment. Recently, there has been a flurry of case reports, small clinical trials and testing in animal models of NAION for various treatments for NAION and this review attempts to present the data concisely with the authors' opinions about the reliability of the data. To date, there is no class I evidence of benefit for the treatment of NAION; however, the aphorism attributed to Carl Sagan, PhD aptly applies: 'Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence'.

  16. Słownictwo kulinarne w chorwackich przysłowiach, porzekadłach, frazeologizmach, przyśpiewkach, formach żargonalnych i ludowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Słabińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Culinary lexis in Croatian proverbs, sayings, idioms, songs, and jargon and dialectal forms Dishes and food products – the way they are made, their complexity, taste and appearance – are all part of culture and tradition that are created by people feasting at the table. While discussing various everyday issues, they also talk about food – they praise it, complain about it and criticize it. Eating meals with friends and family both in everyday situations and on special occasions creates a special mood. It creates an occasion for confessions, advice, jokes, memories and reflections about life. Various sayings and proverbs, which enrich the culture of a given country or region are brought to life on these occasions. Croatia is not an exception in this regard. Many proverbs and sayings connected with local culinary traditions exist in Croatian. Some of them are known widely throughout the country, others only in certain territories. Numerous proverbs are known throughout Croatia, albeit with a slightly changed imagery. The proverbs presented in my article are found in a dictionary by Josip Kekez, a renowned Croatian paremiologist. It is worth noting that they comprise selected material, which does not cover information present in internet dictionaries. Further in the paper I describe regional proverbs and songs, which are an important element presenting the diversity of Croatian dialects. Each Croatian phrase is accompanied by my Polish translation, which clarifies its meaning. Additionally, I quote other language variants like jargonisms and foreign lexis in culinary vocabulary with a view to present the extraordinary abundance and diversity of Croatian culinary lexis.   Słownictwo kulinarne w chorwackich przysłowiach, porzekadłach, frazeologizmach, przyśpiewkach, formach żargonalnych i ludowych Potrawy i artykuły spożywcze, sposób ich sporządzania, złożoność, smak i wygląd są częścią kultury i tradycji, którą tworz

  17. Próba kognitywnego ujęcia mądrości (na materiale przysłów polskich i litewskich

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    Monika Bogdzevič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of wisdom in Polish and Lithuanian paremiology In this paper, an attempt has been made to present the semantic and axiological substance of wisdom hidden in the consciousnesses of two different, namely Polish and Lithuanian, linguistic-cultural communities. The analysis belongs to a branch of linguistics, interpreting language in terms of concepts, viewing it as a source of knowledge about people themselves, different communities, their mentality, ways of perception and interpretations of the way the world is. As a model to present the most thorough understanding of wisdom, the method of cognitive definition proposed by Jerzy Bartmiński is applied. Linguistic-cultural images of wise [person], understood as the concretizations of wisdom have to reveal him/her in opposition to stupid. The cognitive picture of wise is for the most part based on the analysis of features of character and appearance, portrayed behavior, interpersonal relations and the way others have as a perception of wise. Many cognitive parameters of wisdom are revealed while exploring the interactions between people and that of nature (plants, animals which surrounds them and investigating deeper interpersonal relations with other people. The material for research was taken from Polish and Lithuanian proverbs. The latter occur as a result of world perception, everyday life observation, confrontations with its phenomenon. The proverbs are taken from compendiums of Polish and Lithuanian proverbs: Nowa księga przysłów i wyrażeń przysłowiowych (The New Book of Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases by Julian Krzyżanowski and Lietuvių patarlės (Lithuanian Proverbs, Patarlių paralelės (Parallels of Proverbs by Kazys Grigas. Given as cognitive definitions the cultural visions of wise, despite all the emphasized differences, enable us to perceive many evaluations of wise similar or even common to Polish and Lithuanian cultures.   Próba kognitywnego ujęcia m

  18. Autistic autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Ian

    2009-05-27

    Autism narratives are not just stories or histories, describing a given reality. They are creating the language in which to describe the experience of autism, and hence helping to forge the concepts in which to think autism. This paper focuses on a series of autobiographies that began with Grandin's Emergence. These are often said to show us autism from the 'inside'. The paper proposes that instead they are developing ways to describe experience for which there is little pre-existing language. Wittgenstein has many well-known aphorisms about how we understand other people directly, without inference. They condense what he had found in Wolfgang Köhler's Gestalt Psychology. These phenomena of direct understanding what other people are doing are, Köhler wrote, 'the common property and practice of mankind'. They are not the common property and practice of people with autism. Ordinary language is rich in age-old ways to describe what others are thinking, feeling and so forth. Köhler's phenomena are the bedrock on which such language rests. There is no such discourse for autism, because Köhler's phenomena are absent. But a new discourse is being made up right now, i.e. ways of talking for which the autobiographies serve as working prototypes.

  19. Autistic autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Autism narratives are not just stories or histories, describing a given reality. They are creating the language in which to describe the experience of autism, and hence helping to forge the concepts in which to think autism. This paper focuses on a series of autobiographies that began with Grandin's Emergence. These are often said to show us autism from the ‘inside’. The paper proposes that instead they are developing ways to describe experience for which there is little pre-existing language. Wittgenstein has many well-known aphorisms about how we understand other people directly, without inference. They condense what he had found in Wolfgang Köhler's Gestalt Psychology. These phenomena of direct understanding what other people are doing are, Köhler wrote, ‘the common property and practice of mankind'. They are not the common property and practice of people with autism. Ordinary language is rich in age-old ways to describe what others are thinking, feeling and so forth. Köhler's phenomena are the bedrock on which such language rests. There is no such discourse for autism, because Köhler's phenomena are absent. But a new discourse is being made up right now, i.e. ways of talking for which the autobiographies serve as working prototypes. PMID:19528032

  20. Juegos dialògicos del discurso cervantino: la palabra de los clàsicos antiguos

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    Lìa Schwartz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervantes' narrative discourse was built according to the new rhetorical practices that developed since the Renaissance. Thus, his work reads as a model of the artistic options that he appropriated in the realms of fiction, drama and satire. In the imitatio of classical genres, Cervantes practices contaminatio with other models typical of his age – from pastoral to the Greek novel, from books of chivalry to Boccaccio's novella. The same method is applied to the construction of each genre's discourse, in which he combines expressions taken from his sources with rhetorical devices of his own creation. This method was learned in school. It included the recopilation of ancient dicta, which students memorized or copied in their codices excerptorii. Future professional writers would have at hand a first repertory of topoi, sententiae, exempla, aphorisms and apothegms, which led authors in the realms of elocutio and inventio. These citations of the antiqui auctores were also important from an ideological point of view, since they transmitted their ideas about the universe, the human body, the spirit or human emotions, which were understood as universals at the time. In this paper are analyzed from this perspective several sections of the Quijote, of the Galatea, of some Exemplary Novel or the Persiles, which also confirm Cervantes's familiarity with the many classical works that he personally read.

  1. O trágico, o cômico e a "distância artística": arte e conhecimento n'A Gaia Ciência, de Nietzsche

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    Ernani Chaves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da leitura de A Gaia Ciência, pretendemos mostrar alguns elementos importantes que, nesse livro, se constituem em torno do tema da "distância". Analisando principalmente três aforismos do livro, procura-se esclarecer o deslocamento no texto e no pensamento de Nietzsche da distância como Ferne, de origem romântica, à distância como Distanz. Entretanto, procura-se ao final mostrar que Nietzsche desloca o tema romântico da Ferne, caracterizando-a como uma "distância artística", que se torna o traço distintivo entre a perspectiva da arte e a perspectiva do conhecimento.This reading of The Gay Science intends to show some important elements which, in this book, gravitate around the theme of "distance". Analysing particularly three aphorisms of the book, our goal is to clarify the movement, in the text and in Nietzsche's thought as well, from distance as Ferne, with its romantic source, to distance as Distanz. However, in the end, we intend to show that Nietzsche dislocates the romantic theme of the Ferne, taking it as an "artistic distance", which becomes the distinctive trace between the perspectives of art and knowledge.

  2. O jogo do PE: luzes examinantes para o além-mundo da Pastoral Educativa EP game: examining lights toward the beyond-world of Educative Pastoral

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    Sandra Mara Corazza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O jogo do PE (Pastoral Educativa: 1 aproveita as quatro partes que compõem Also Sprach Zarathustra, de Nietzsche, para desenhar a própria configuração; 2 utiliza a maioria dos subtítulos de Also Sprach..., sem necessariamente fazer corresponder-lhe o que ali Zaratustra falou; 3 solicita licença para propor a esta fala - pelo amor antigo que lhe tem - outros aforismos, idéias e considerações, mesmo que extemporâneos, para montar o tabuleiro onde possa jogar o PE; 4 entende "jogo" do mesmo modo que Foucault, ou seja, como um conjunto de regras de produção da verdade; 5 descreve esse jogo imediatamente, sem mais delongas.The EP (Educative Pastoral game: 1 makes good use of the four parts which constitute Also Sprach Zarathustra, by Nietzsche, to outline its own configuration; 2 uses most of the subtitles of Also Sprach…, without necessarily making it correspond with what Zarathustra spoke there; 3 asks for permission to propose this speech - due to the old love devoted to it - other aphorisms, ideas and considerations, even if extemporaneous, to build the board where EP (Educative Pastoral game can be played; 4 understands "game" the same way Foucault does, that is, as a set of rules of truth-production; 5 describes this game immediately, without any delay.

  3. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  4. Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; de Moya Anegón, F.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able "to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants," one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers

  5. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    , Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high resistance to saltwater and longer plant life (3-5 years); it's a rich source of starch in times of droughts and other natural disaster. Colocasia, on the other hand, is viewed as prestigious source of food in Palau. Whereas Cyrtosperma requires little tending once it has been planted Colocasia is more delicate for its fragility and shorter plant life (8-12 months). Therefore more efforts are spent tending Colocasia than Cyrtosperma (McKnight and Obak, 1960; Bammann and Wey, 1991). Although both are eaten quite often, Colocasia can be found in many aspects of Palauan cultural practices (funerals, first birth ceremonies, transfer of title ceremonies) and used symbolically in chants, dances, proverbs, and stories with moral lessons (Palau Society of Historians, 2008).

  6. Norma y uso: las ideas educativas en Juan de Robles / Etymology and use: The educational ideas of Juan de Robles

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    Alejandro Gómez Camacho

    2014-10-01

    El culto sevillano (1631. This paper focuses on the educational ideals in Robles´s works and the relationships between spelling and teaching of reading. By examining Robles´s pedagogical references, one prominent idea is emphasized: teaching of reading aren´t encouraged by phonetic spelling. Consequently, new letters of the Spanish alphabet and new alphabetical order have been rejected. The grammarians who defended phonetic spelling assert the new letters help Spanish children to learn to read faster and better than the traditional literacy. Letter names and alphabetical order are also changed to facilitate literacy learning. In contrast, traditional alphabet and etymological spelling are reclaimed by Juan de Robles for teaching reading and writing, because the phonetic spelling had slowed down the learning of literacy. Robles also criticizes Jesuit schools and Ratio Studiorum. The primacy of Spanish over Latin and the use of tales and proverbs for education are the major discrepancies between Robles and Jesuit pedagogy. The results of this paper show that pedagogic arguments that link Spanish grammar and spelling with teaching of reading and writing in the Spanish Golden Century are incorporated into the controversy over Spanish orthography reform also to defend traditional spelling around the first third of the seventeenth century.

  7. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  8. Genetics first or metabolism first? The formamide clue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Giorgia; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2012-08-21

    Life is made of the intimate interaction of metabolism and genetics, both built around the chemistry of the most common elements of the Universe (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). The transmissible interaction of metabolic and genetic cycles results in the hypercycles of organization and de-organization of chemical information, of living and non-living. The origin-of-life quest has long been split into several attitudes exemplified by the aphorisms "genetics-first" or "metabolism-first". Recently, the opposition between these approaches has been solved by more unitary theoretical and experimental frames taking into account energetic, evolutionary, proto-metabolic and environmental aspects. Nevertheless, a unitary and simple chemical frame is still needed that could afford both the precursors of the synthetic pathways eventually leading to RNA and to the key components of the central metabolic cycles, possibly connected with the synthesis of fatty acids. In order to approach the problem of the origin of life it is therefore reasonable to start from the assumption that both metabolism and genetics had a common origin, shared a common chemical frame, and were embedded under physical-chemical conditions favourable for the onset of both. The singleness of such a prebiotically productive chemical process would partake of Darwinian advantages over more complex fragmentary chemical systems. The prebiotic chemistry of formamide affords in a single and simple physical-chemical frame nucleic bases, acyclonucleosides, nucleotides, biogenic carboxylic acids, sugars, amino sugars, amino acids and condensing agents. Thus, we suggest the possibility that formamide could have jointly provided the main components for the onset of both (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic processes. As a note of caution, we discuss the fact that these observations only indicate possible solutions at the level of organic substrates, not at the systemic chemical level.

  9. Wood for the trees

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    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  10. A utilização dos ditos populares e da observação do tempo para a Climatologia Escolar no Ensino Fundamental II

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    Diego Corrêa Maia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A atual realidade escolar no Brasil demonstra que o ensino de Climatologia não tem sido desenvolvido no Ensino Fundamental II, ou, quando ocorre, é ministrado baseado na Climatologia tradicional e separativa, cujos fatores e elementos do clima são analisados individualmente, retratando-se a natureza de forma estática e totalmente destituída do real. Através da observação dos elementos do clima, pretende-se demonstrar que o aprendizado dos “conteúdos climatológicos” pode ser auxiliado através dos ditos populares. O que se almeja neste artigo é demonstrar que, a partir da observação espontânea (diária do tempo e do clima, com o auxílio dos ditos populares, os alunos do Ensino Fundamental II podem compreender as relações do tempo e do clima, assim como sua previsão. É necessário para esta atividade um período contínuo de observação para estabelecer a sequência habitual dos tipos de tempo de uma determinada estação do ano. O modo popular de prever o tempo foi iniciado desde que o homem se fixou em cavernas; no entanto, este hábito vem se perdendo em função da urbanização da sociedade. Para reforçar a importância dos provérbios populares para prever o tempo, realizar-se-á um pequeno histórico do nascimento da meteorologia popular, até a sua relevância destacada nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais de Geografia. Abstract THE USE OF SAYINGS AND THE WEATHER FOR THE TEACHING SCHOOL CLIMATOLOGY OF FUNDAMENTAL SCHOOL II The school reality in Brazil shows that Climatology teach has not been developed in the Fundamental School II, or, when it occurs, is done based in traditional and classic Climatology, which factors and weather elements are analyzed individually, retracting nature in a static way and totally disconnected from the reality. Through the weather elements observation, it is intended to demonstrate of learnig the “climatologic contents” which can be verified through the popular proverbs. This

  11. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

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    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  12. Relatives in end-of-life care--part 2: a theory for enabling safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlén, Joakim; Andershed, Birgitta; Berg, Christina; Frid, Ingvar; Palm, Carl-Axel; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Segesten, Kerstin

    2007-02-01

    To develop a goal-oriented praxis theory for enabling safety for relatives when an adult or older patient is close to end-of-life. This is the second part of a project focusing on the situation and needs of relatives in end-of-life care. Our interpretation of the existing corpus of knowledge pertaining to the needs of close relatives in this situation showed the significance of relatives' need for safety. The theory was developed step-by-step, through triangulation of critical review of empirical research in the field, our own clinical experiences from end-of-life care, renewed literature searches and theoretical reasoning. The foundation for the theory is taken from the ethical intention of the philosopher Paul Ricoeur. From this, the theory focuses on relatives in the context of end-of-life care with the goal of enabling safety. This is proposed by four aphorisms functioning as safety enablers and these are directed towards the professional's approach and attitude, the relative's concern for the patient, the specific situation for the relative and the patient's end-of-life period as a period in the life of the relative. Implications for end-of-life practice are considered and include aspects for promotion of just institutions in end-of-life care, the significance of negotiated partnership in end-of-life care, enabling safety for relatives living in existential and practical uncertainty in connection with end-of-life care and diversity of relatives' preferences as they live through this particular period.

  13. Rebound effect of modern drugs: serious adverse event unknown by health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2013-01-01

    Supported in the Hippocratic aphorism primum non nocere, the bioethical principle of non-maleficence pray that the medical act cause the least damage or injury to the health of the patient, leaving it to the doctor to assess the risks of a particular therapy through knowledge of possible adverse events of drugs. Among these, the rebound effect represents a common side effect to numerous classes of modern drugs, may cause serious and fatal disorders in patients. This review aims to clarify the health professionals on clinical and epidemiological aspects of rebound phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic review was held in the PubMed database using the keywords 'rebound', 'withdrawal', 'paradoxical', 'acetylsalicylic acid', 'anti-inflammatory', 'bronchodilator', 'antidepressant', 'statin', 'proton pump inhibitor' and 'bisphosphonate'. The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. Regardless of the disease, the drug and duration of treatment, the phenomenon manifests itself in a small proportion of susceptible individuals. However, it may cause serious and fatal adverse events should be considered a public health problem in view of the enormous consumption of drugs by population. Bringing together a growing and unquestionable body of evidence, the physician needs to have knowledge of the consequences of the rebound effect and how to minimize it, increasing safety in the management of modern drugs. On the other hand, this rebound can be used in a curative way, broadening the spectrum of the modern therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A tríade naturalizante na concepção educacional de Pestalozzi e Froebel: homem, Deus e natureza

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    Alessandra Arce

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O presente artigo é resultado da tese de doutoramento que versou a respeito do estudo da idéias de Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 e de Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852. Neste trabalho nosso objetivo é o de apresentar e analisar as idéias que estes autores possuíam sobre o Homem, a Natureza e Deus. Esta triade constitui-se na pedra fundamental de suas teorias educacionais. Para tanto o estudo realizado centra-se sobre duas obras fundamentais de ambos A Educação do Homem - Aforismos de Pestalozzi e A Educação do Homem, de Froebel. A conclusão a que chegamos aponta para o processo de naturalização e mistificação dos três integrantes desta tríade, o que lhe atribuiria um caráter a-histórico e reacionário.Palavras chave: Pestalozzi, Froebel, escolanovismo.   Abstract This article belongs to our doctorate thesis studies, which one analyzed Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 and Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852 educational thoughts. The aim of this article is to present and analyze the ideas of Froebel and Pestalozzi about Man, God and Nature. This triune substantiated author's educational theory. Therefore this study focuses on two fundamental books written by each authors: The Education of Man - Aphorisms from Pestalozzi and The Education of Man from Froebel. The conclusion of this work shows us a comp1etely naturalization and mystification of the triune integrants, which make it not historical and conservative for this century. Key words: Pestalozzi, Froebel, progressive education. 

  15. Book review: The Sympathizer. A Vietnamese spy novel and the attempt to de-americanize our view on the war

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    Schmitz, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1975, the Vietnam War has just ended, but the cold war and the clash of ideologies are still going on. This would of course be the perfect background for some run-of-the-mill thriller written by a white American for a Western audience. And without knowing anything further, we might first think that The Sympathizer, which was recently translated into German and marketed as a “thriller” and “spy novel”, would be just one of those. However, things and people are all too often not what they seem to be – an adage which has never been more true than in this story. Far more than simply a thriller, it is also a political novel, a satirical story, refugee literature and a critique of modern mass media, all interspersed with discursive passages and spiced with literary references and aphorisms. Furthermore, the author is not a white American. The Sympathizer is the debut novel of Vietnamese-American Viet Thanh Nguyen, which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 2016 along with a great many other awards. Nguyen was born in Vietnam and grew up in the USA from where he experienced both cultures and had insight to both perspectives on the Vietnam War. He is a Professor of English and American Studies and Ethnicity primarily focused on “Americanization”, how the American perspective continues to dominate film, literature and pop culture. His book is a critique of this prevailing view and includes the issues of acculturation and identity crisis of immigrants, along with the importance of loyalty and relationships (or the lack of those. The narrator and protagonist of the story is a man who has no name and is only referred to as “the captain” throughout the book. We encounter him fleeing Saigon, accompanying a general of the South Vietnamese army, we know already that he has a secret. In the very first lines he reveals that he is a sleeper agent and actually working for the Viet Cong and spying on the South Vietnamese military and the CIA. The captain

  16. Homeopatia: prática médica coadjuvante Homeopathy: coadjutant medical practice

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    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em vista do binômio saúde-doença da concepção homeopática abranger aspectos diversos da individualidade humana, a escolha do medicamento deve englobar as características psíquicas, emocionais, gerais e físicas do paciente. Neste processo de "individualização do medicamento", o entendimento da complexidade humana exige tempo e dedicação, encontrando a resposta satisfatória após um conjunto variável de atuações. Atuando de forma coadjuvante às demais práticas médicas, o médico homeopata deve ter consciência de que poderá suspender os medicamentos alopáticos necessários à manutenção da integridade do paciente tão somente quando tiver certeza da ação substitutiva do medicamento homeopático escolhido. Deste modo, estará cumprindo o aforismo hipocrático primo non nocere.Considering that in the homeopathic conception, the binomial health-disease encompasses several aspects of human individuality, choice of the medication should include the patient's psychic, emotional, general and physical characteristics. In this process of "individualization of medication", understanding the human complexity demands time and dedication to finding the satisfactory reply after a variable number of attempts. Acting as coadjutant to other medical practices, the homeopath should be aware that he may only interrupt administration of the allopathic drugs necessary for maintenance of the patient's integrity when he is assured of the substitutive action of the homoeopathic medication chosen. This way, the Hippocratic aphorism primo non nocere will be fulfilled.

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  18. A quadrilha e o circo: aspectos linguísticos, discursivos e intertextuais em uma análise comparativa de editoriais de jornal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Freitas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of two metropolitan newspaper editorials, published at the same day and concerning to the same subject: the dossier about the governmental expenses of former Brazilian President Cardoso. Its aim was to analyze the editorials under linguistic and discursive points of view, and to identify intertextual references. The discursive and linguistic analysis was based on the conception of discursive genre by Bakhtin (1992 rescued by Charaudeau (2006 and applied to the genre newspaper editorial, considering the conditions in which it is produced and its instance of enunciation. The analysis was also based on the ideas of Melo (1985, Fuser (2002 and Cheida (2002 to comment the neutrality searched by the editorialist when expressing the newspaper opinion. Intertextual references were identified and classified according to Maia (2006 and Walty and Cury (2005. Proverbs analysis was based on the papers of Rodrigues (2009, Vellasco (2009 and Sande (2009. The results showed linguistic similarities, intertextual references to add a literary aspect or credibility to the texts, critics to the ruling government and search for neutrality in both editorials.

  19. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  20. "Old Oxen Cannot Plow": Stereotype Themes of Older Adults in Turkish Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Justin; Sabuncu, Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    Although much research has established the nature of attitudes and stereotypes toward older adults, there are conflicting explanations for the root cause of ageism, including the sociocultural view and interpersonal views, that age bias against older adults is uniquely a product of modernity and occurs through social interactions, and the evolutionary view and intraindividual views, that age bias against older adults is rooted in our naturally occurring and individually held fear of death. We make initial investigations into resolving this conflict, by analyzing literature from a society predating the Industrial Revolution, the society of Ottoman Turks. Using Grounded Theory, we analyzed 1,555 Turkish fairy tales of the most well-known older adult in Turkish folklore, Nasreddin Hoca, for stereotype themes of older adults. Using the same method, we then analyzed 22,000+ Turkish sayings and proverbs for the same themes. Results indicated older adults to be viewed both positively and negatively. Positive stereotypes included wisdom, warmth, deserving of respect, and retirement. Negative stereotypes included incompetence, inadaptability, and frailty/nearing of death. Older females were viewed more negatively relative to older males. Results indicated views of older adults to parallel those found in contemporary research. Results have implications for the design of interventions to reduce ageism and on the cross-cultural generalizability of age-based stereotypes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Kesalahan Penerjemahan Bahasa Mandarin pada Mahasiswa Sastra China Binus University pada Mata Kuliah Terjemahan Umum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Sufianto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Translation is an activity that transforms a written or verbal language to other written or verbal language. In its process, a translator should  overcome the difficulty that caused by the cultural differences, habits, vocabularies and grammars which could help the translator  to translate precisely without changing the original meaning of  translation’s source. Through the translation lesson, the writer found some factors that caused the student’s mistake in translating Chinese into Indonesian or Indonesian into Chinese. On the other side, The writer found that the translation’s mistakes are caused by the lack of understanding Chinese and Indonesian‘s history, culture and habit. There are some factors that lead to the lack of understanding of Chinese history, culture and habit such as the inability of student  to understand the meaning of  history, culture and habit that usually are contained on the words, proverb and sentences, the environment that are not supporting students to have a deep understanding of Chinese history, culture and habit. The deeper understanding of Chinese culture, history and habits could help student to translate Chinese that influenced by history, culture and the habit of Chinese precisely. Through the observation, the writer will analyze some factors and analyze how the lecturers could overcome the difficulties of translation that are faced by students. 

  2. Ašarų konceptualizavimas lietuvių ir latvių frazeologijoje

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    Regina Kvašytė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONCEPTUALISATION OF TEARS IN LITHUANIAN AND LATVIAN PHRASEOLOGYSummaryThe analysis of the collected material shows that the conceptualisation of tears in the Lithuanian and Latvian languages varies considerably. Though the material for the present analysis was collected from Lithuanian and Latvian dictionaries and collections of proverbs which differed in their scope and thoroughness and were often based on dif­ferent principles of compilation, it provides sufficient data for grasping the main trends in the conceptualisation of tears.Lithuanians and Latvians frequently conceptualise tears in the same or a very similar way (many cases coincide with conceptualisation of tears in other languages. However, the analysis of the collected material and the contrastive studies of the Lithuanian and Latvian languages carried out to date prompt a tentative conclusion that tears take up more room in the world view of the Lithuanian language, i.e. they are more significant as a sign of a person's emotional state. A comparison of the conceptualisation of tears in folk songs of both Baltic nations as well as the analysis of the verbs verkti / raudāt, their synonyms and derivatives in the contemporary language corpora are necessary in order to draw more valid conclusions.

  3. A discourse analysis of Melengkan at a Gayonese wedding ceremony

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    Irama Jaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melengkan is a special form of the Gayonese language which is spoken in poetry, lyrics, and proverbs. This study investigated its use as poetry specifically in wedding ceremonies held in Gayo, Aceh, Indonesia. The data was collected by observations and a video-recording of a traditional Gayonese wedding ceremony, as well as from interviews with melengkan speakers. We described and analyzed the context of the use of melengkan, the form of melengkan, and the cultural values conveyed through melengkan used in the wedding ceremony. The findings showed that there were six types of melengkan: Melengkan Turun Caram, Melengkan Beguru, Melengkan Munyerah Rempele, Melengkan Munerime Rempele, Melengkan Munyerah Munenes and Melengkan Munerime Munenes. The values of melengkan are for remembrance of local knowledge, warnings from customary philosophy, warnings from religion, and also for giving advice and recall the history and beauty of melengkan speech. The context of using melengkan is to perpetuate and reflect cultural values, namely, politeness, respect, speaking softly, friendliness and resoluteness. These findings imply the importance of conserving melengkan as part of the Gayonese culture in every part of their life.

  4. [Cognitive impairments in persons exposed to radiation during the period of prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtovaya, E Yu; Kantina, T E; Belova, M V; Akleyev, A V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cognitive status in persons exposed to ionizing radiation in prenatal period. The study included in-utero exposed people (n = 77), and the comparison group (n = 73), which consisted of people who lived in the territories of the Chelyabinsk Oblast that were not radioactive. The following methods were used: clinical, clinical-psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the WAIS test, the proverb interpretation task, neurophysiological (EEG) methods, laboratory-based methods (cholesterol, high and low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, cortisol, melatonin), and methods of statistical data processing. The number of people with non-psychotic mental disorders with the prevalence of organic mental disorders (cognitive and asthenic) was significantly higher among in-utero exposed subjects. A neurophysiological study revealed more severe changes in the bioelectric brain activity with the presence of pathological and theta-rhythms in exposed persons. The clinical-psychological study revealed a significant decrease in the analytic/synthetic ability in exposed people and significantly lower level of the general and verbal IQ. These changes were accompanied by higher levels of cortisol and melatonin which led to the activation and tension of the adaptation mechanisms in in-utero exposed subjects.

  5. “Civis romana sum”. La Londra intertestuale di Bernardine Evaristo

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    Samanta Trivellini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bernardine Evaristo’s novel in verse The Emperor’s Babe (2001 features the story of Zuleika, the daughter of Nubian immigrants, who lives in Roman London at the beginning of the third century A.D.. Evaristo’s sources are both classical – Latin poetry, proverbs, mottos, myths, as well as material culture – and modern – for example, Oscar Wilde’s perspective on history informs the revisionist intent of the novel.This article aims to examine the role of quotations and intertextual echoes in the development of the storyline and in the dialectic between past and present. If apparently they contribute to the recreation of the ancient cultural background, at a deeper level, they also engender ironic tensions and parodic effects through discrepancies in tone, style and narrative situations. Moreover, in relation to the protagonist’s gendered and subaltern position, quotations and other references are a crucial aspect of Evaristo’s rewriting of history: by mapping today’s post-imperial and multicultural London on to the Roman city, The Emperor’s Babe subverts the myth of the nation at its roots.

  6. Central nervous system effects in acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Tai; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Shen, Wu-Shiun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2006-03-01

    We report the central nervous system manifestations, neuropsychological studies and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Neurologically the patients suffered from confusion, disorientation, and hallucination in the acute stage, followed by anxiety, depression, lack of attention, and memory impairment, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Neuropsychological tests revealed an impairment of memory function, including reversed digital span, memory registration, memory recall, memory recognition, similarity, proverb reasoning, and verbal fluency. High concentrations of thallium were found in the urine, blood, and drinking water of these two patients. Brain MRI showed lesions in the corpus striatum in one patient. During the follow-up periods, the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological studies showed a slowly progressive improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI 1.5 months later demonstrated a resolution of the lesions. We conclude that thallium intoxication might induce encephalopathy, and brain MRI studies demonstrated the acute-stage brain lesions in a severe intoxicated patient. In addition, neuropsychological tests also confirmed memory deficits, although the brain lesions in the corpus striatum might resolve.

  7. Education packed in technology to promote innovations: Teaching Additive Manufacturing based on a rolling Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurn Laura Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D Printing is about to revolutionize the way we design and produce future products. This causes not just immense research and development activities worldwide but requires intensive education and training efforts. As 3D Printing is an ideal tool to set up a decentralized production, it is one key to integrate even rural and under-industrialized parts of the country into high tech education and professional training needed. But how to reach the relevant groups - pupils from schools as well as professional staff of preferably companies? Remembered the old proverb: “If the mountain won’t come to the prophet, the prophet must go to the mountain” the plan of a mobile 3D printing lab was born. Based on our experiences, we designed the technical infrastructure and the educational approach to adopt Additive Manufacturing courses to a short term comprehensive teaching. To create a fully equipped workplace for every participant, we redesigned a double-decker bus. The paper addresses the strategy behind the bus, the infrastructure in detail, the developed courses taught and the resonance on this project. Looking forward, the paper gives a sneak preview on the further development in terms of specialized courses to be given in the bus as well as in the frame of accompanying activities such as engineering design of parts, application of new materials for Additive Manufacturing such as metals and follow-up production like plastic injection molding.

  8. The Effectiveness of Strategic Activities on the Conversational Skills A Case Study: Persian Language Learners Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abolhassani Chimeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of those activities which are based on all types of strategies for teaching conversational skills. These strategies are practiced in the form of 17 activities and their effectiveness on the oral language performane of Persian learners has been investigated. The second language learning strategies in this research are dependent on two Kuhn's paradigms and include "learning" and "using" second language. The former consists of recognition and acceptance of materials, distinction from other materials, categorizing them for a better learning, constant involvement with materials, using common memorization methods for rehearsal to improve natural conversation learning. The teacher's Linguistics and Iranology knowledge in choosing teaching materials, producing similarities and differences in two languages, lexical and syntactic categorizations of activities based on the first to the third strategies were implemented in the classroom. Informal gatherings, appropriate assignments of certain tasks like memorizing the dialogues or proverbs were practiced for the fourth and the fifth strategies. These strategies were applied on 19 undergaduate intermediate Persian language learners, with Slav mother tongue in 5 successive semesters from 2011 to 2013. In this research, it was affirmed that there is a positive correlation between using strategic activities with the improvement of converational skill of language learners. That is, the more learners are active in the activities related to strategies, the better they become in the conversational skill.

  9. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

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    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  10. Cost-efficient or not cost-efficient is not the relevant question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerup, B. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management

    2002-02-01

    Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised.

  11. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  12. Sinonimia, plurisemia e sinestesia nella cucina camerunense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dal Pos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition has proved to be a particularly favourable field of research as a source of anthropological data and for appreciating the richness of ethnolinguistic diversity. This article aims to present some of the linguistic phenomena observed during the field research into street food in Bonanjo, an area in the center of Douala, the economic capital of Cameroon. The Enthnolinguistic material regarding the culinary aspects has been gathered in urban context where different languages and dialects are used in the social communication. This refers primarily to Cameroonian-French, Douala, Ewondo and Eton. The first phenomenon observed is an extension of the synonymous range; in simple terms, there is a great variety of synonyms used to describe the same type of food or key ingredient. The second occurrence reported is an inclination towards the use of synesthesia, for example expressions concerning trade and business commerce. The third phenomenon is polysemy, illustrated by a small sample of linguistic expressions. A number of proverbs and idiomatic expressions in Ewondo, the context used and semantic field of reference were grammatically analyses. The final section of the article illustrates Ewondo’s terminology used in the context of taste perception and the synesthesiae which appeared in the linguistic images.

  13. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p mind ability (p mind) results in better processing of the target and consequently better destination memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  14. Gaan na die mier, kyk na sy weë en word wys: Metafoor of paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Go to the ant, consider her ways, and be wise. Metaphor or paradigm? This article takes as its point of departure two citations. The one is from Marshall and Zohar’s contention that the wave-particle dualism is more than a metaphor and the other is from Clayton claiming that indeterminacy was not merely a temporary epistemic problem, but reflected an inherent indeterminacy of the physical world itself. What does it mean if it is not a mere way of speaking? The author of this article departs from the premise that the task of systematic theology is the endeavour to understand reality and that this is a collective enterprise together with other sciences as well. A constructive empiricism could indeed lead to an understanding of reality where reality is more than merely idealistically conceived. Truth is therefore to be replaced with a pragmatic, but value-laden concept of understanding or comprehension. This has the effect that both epistemology and ontology have to be revisited and subsequently panentheism too. The argument finds its niche in Old Testament wisdom literature and Proverbs 6:6 forms the lens of reference. The late South African ethologist Eugène Marais’s epic work, The Soul of the Ant, is applied to illustrate such a proposed epistemic community.

  15. Die Didaktisierung von Phraseologismen im DaF-Unterricht anhand multimodaler Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rentel, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantically complex units cover a high percentage of the lexicon of a language, ranging from collocations or routine formula to proverbs. The difficulty for learners of a foreign language lies in the fact that in many cases the meaning of those elements of the lexicon does not result just from addition of the meaning of individual constituents. Although (active and passive knowledge about such lexical elements can be considered essential for successful communication in a foreign language, there still exists a lack (we focus on German as a foreign language, but we assume that the situation is comparable for other languages of up-to-date and authentic didactic material that takes into account the characteristics of semantically complex units and the learners' cognitive strategies to analyze their meaning. In this paper we develop a didactic model that describes the use of magazine advertisements in teaching German as a foreign language. Due to their multimodality (e.g. the combination of verbal and visual elements the texts allow the learners to better understand and actively use semantically complex units, even with a low competence level. In order to illustrate our didactic approach we present 5 advertisements that we have used with learners of German in their first and second year at a French university. It turns out that not only can phraseology be conveyed in an efficient way but that other educational objectives, such as a general increase of the learners' motivation, can be achieved.

  16. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Amélie; Bard, Céline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-10-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were tested in the repetition and recall of words and notes of familiar material. Lyrics of familiar songs, as well as words of proverbs and prayers, were not better pronounced in singing than in speaking. Notes were better produced than words. In Experiment 2, the aphasic patients repeated and recalled lyrics from novel songs. Again, they did not produce more words in singing than in speaking. In Experiment 3, when allowed to sing or speak along with an auditory model while learning novel songs, aphasics repeated and recalled more words when singing than when speaking. Reduced speed or shadowing cannot account for this advantage of singing along over speaking in unison. The results suggest that singing in synchrony with an auditory model--choral singing--is more effective than choral speech, at least in French, in improving word intelligibility because choral singing may entrain more than one auditory-vocal interface. Thus, choral singing appears to be an effective means of speech therapy.

  17. Human heart by art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2012-11-01

    Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds.

  18. A magyar lóversenyek világa az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchiában - Horse Races in the Austro–Hungarian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÓSA, Maja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the well-known proverb reads: Hungarians are born to ride horses. Our centuries-old equestrian culture had many different stages, but the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a decisive epoch when the Hungarian horse breeding could prosper. In this article I discuss this era through the efforts of Count István Széchenyi and Baron Mikós Wesselényi for horse breeding. With a detailed description of the horse races I intend to highlight the versatility of this era. People of different status could reach a consensus during the turf which became an important scene of politics, economy and community life. It was the world of wealthy stable owners where the most prominent beasts of the internationally renowned horse breeding competed, where the members of the petite bourgeoisie found amusement in their bets; it meant self-denial for jockeys and fashion for ladies. Horse races simultaneously dissolved and deepened social contradictions while they involved many political and economic opportunities.

  19. La Belle époque per le scuole ovvero il canone cucinato à la Sade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Correggi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Belle Époque per le scuole, published in the appendix of ’77 edition of Certi romanzi, for the highly irreverent tone has all the verve of a ‘modest proposal’, capable of upsetting the conduct of the Italian Literature program as an institutional canon deposit. The eshibition organized with sharp irony, with the support of the Arbasino amazing abilities nomenclatoria and of his well-oiled critical sharpness, begins with emotional blackmail by horrendous ‘Padron ‘Ntoni, drug dealer confused senseless proverbs guided by a wisdom capable of killing. It continues with a block diagram criminal pairs and ends with a lonely portrait of Gadda, full of ideas on his passions and idiosyncrasies, shared by many students. One of all , the avversion toward  Foscolo bullfighter narcissism. In the midst of changing from Edmondo (De Amicis to  Giacomo (Puccini, from Filippo Tommaso (Marinetti to Guido Gustavo (Gozzano, from Manzoni and Verdi, from Carolina Invernizio, the hen, to Garibaldi, here as the author of novels more than General.All undergo the same game in the massacre of a critical review irreverent and cheeky, but instead succumbed, leaving more alive.

  20. Learning Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Multiple Strategies for Training Empathy-Related Abilities Using Body Ownership Illusions in Embodied Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bertrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several disciplines have investigated the interconnected empathic abilities behind the proverb “to walk a mile in someone else’s shoes” to determine how the presence, and absence, of empathy-related phenomena affect prosocial behavior and intergroup relations. Empathy enables us to learn from others’ pain and to know when to offer support. Similarly, virtual reality (VR appears to allow individuals to step into someone else’s shoes, through a perceptual illusion called embodiment, or the body ownership illusion. Considering these perspectives, we propose a theoretical analysis of different mechanisms of empathic practices in order to define a possible framework for the design of empathic training in VR. This is not intended to be an extensive review of all types of practices, but an exploration of empathy and empathy-related phenomena. Empathy-related training practices are analyzed and categorized. We also identify different variables used by pioneer studies in VR to promote empathy-related responses. Finally, we propose strategies for using embodied VR technology to train specific empathy-related abilities.

  1. Democracia racial: o não-dito racista Racial democracy as unspoken racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sales Jr.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Na "democracia racial", o discurso racial entrincheirou-se no discurso "vulgar" (aforismático, passional, informal e privado, por meio da forma do não-dito racista que se consolidou, intimamente ligado às relações "cordiais", paternalistas e patrimonialistas de poder, como um pacto de silêncio entre dominados e dominadores. O não-dito é uma técnica de dizer alguma coisa sem, contudo, aceitar a responsabilidade de tê- la dito, resultando daí a utilização pelo discurso racista de uma diversidade de recursos tais como implícitos, denegações, discursos oblíquos, figuras de linguagem, trocadilhos, chistes, frases feitas, provérbios, piadas e injúria racial, configurando a não-intencionalidade da discriminação racial.In racial democracy, racial discourse entrenched itself in popular speech (aphorismatic, emotive, informal and private by means of the not-said. That discourse, closed tied to paternalist and patrimonial power relationships, is established as a silence pact between dominant and dominated. The not-said is a device to say something without acknowledging the responsibility for saying it. Racist discourse employs several devices, including hidden meanings, ambiguities, figures of speech, jokes, commonplaces, racial insults and proverbs, thus shaping the non-intentional character of racial discrimination.

  2. To the Problem of Normative Data in Pathopsychological Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanova A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question of the actuality level of normative data. This kind of data is necessary to compare the results of experimental studies with it, according to the traditions of Russian psychology. It can be assumed that the social changes that took place in the last decades should reflect on the process of forming of thinking and other mental functions. A pilot study for identifying the features of performing of classical pathopsychological techniques by healthy subjects was conducted. The study involved mentally healthy and socially adapted people of 20-39 years old, graduated or undergraduated. We used next several techniques: "Classification of objects", "Pictogram", filling in words missed in the text (Ebbinghaus test, "Interpretation of proverbs". The results of the experiment made it possible to identify two areas in which the changes were most significant. These spheres are emotional-motivational (personality and thinking. Many subjects were characterized by: a wary-anxious attitude to the experiment, increased emotional - personal attitude to the stimuli material, a decrease in criticality to the results of their activities, neurodynamic disorders, inconsistency of thinking, versatility of thinking, a tendency to resonate, self-centered thinking (according to the authors these features are manifested in the form of "pathopsychology of everyday life" in everyday lifestyle. It is necessary to conduct special large-scale scientific research devoted to this problem.

  3. Words of truth (Eecclesiastes, interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Dragomir J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecclesiastes speaks of a man and the glory of God! The thesis of the book is that there is no happiness on Earth for a man without God in heaven. This constitutes its literary basis. The story of a man who honors God! is probably the earliest instance of decadence in a man in the world of literature. Narrator of Ecclesiastes is son of David, king of Jerusalem, therefore Solomon, the king sage. Unlike his stories (Proverbs which are characterized by a bright, optimistic tone; this book of the preacher, by contrast, reflects, in Biblical terms, incredible pessimism and skepticism as well as the complete disdain for the worldly values. The preacher was suspicious of the conventional view that the righteous should be rewarded. Ecclesiastes raises the question of the meaning of human life. In all this it is a unique phenomenon in the Bible. Its author is convinced that he was a complete pessimist. However, 'he was not the most pessimistic in the world' as, stated. The aim of the book is actually the same to indicate the value of moral virtue, of radiant wisdom that justifies faith in God. Accordingly, the preacher also clearly indicates the faith in God as the only lasting value. This is particularly noticeable in the final thoughts when the author rounds out his narrative, brilliantly illuminating!.

  4. Lay writings in the debate on nuclear energy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The author proposes an analysis of the content of the letters to the editor published in the Swiss press as elements of debate on nuclear energy before voting in 1984 and 1990. He aims at describing how the person who writes this letter and is not an expert in nuclear energy, sets himself as a legitimate interlocutor. Thus he identifies various strategies used by these persons to make their statements with this non-expert posture, or, in other words how these persons proceed to an identity building. He notably identifies different types of lay-person: the self-declared one, the generic or typical one, or the self educated one or autodidact. He outlines how these people quote proverbs or common sayings, refer to a collective identity (by saying we) or to scientific or charismatic persons. He identifies various postures adopted by these persons to appear as non-expert, or as a person belonging to the general public, or how they deal with opposite opinions. In a last part, the author discusses how the acknowledged legitimacy may change from one debate to the other

  5. Los Adagia de Erasmo en español (Lorenzo Palmireno, 1560 y en portugués (Jerónimo Cardoso, 1570

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Colón Domènech

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Erasmus' Adagia, though published many times in Europe since 1500, were not printed in Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries. Yet they were known. In 1560, the Aragonese Lorenzo Palmireno, professor at the 'Estudi General' of Valencia, wrote a book for the teaching of Latin in which, to the hypothetical question by a student about the possible adaptation of Castillan proverbs to Latin, he answers that they need not be translated literadly but rather by their meaning. To illustrate his point, he produces the free translation into traditional Castillan of some 200 Latin adagia. It so happens that these adagia come from Erasmus' repertoire without acknowledging it. Then, in 1570, in Portugal, Jerónimo Cardoso published a Dictionarium latinolusitanicum in which many entries are illustrated with examples taken precisely from Erasmus' Adagia, again without mentioning the source—possibly out of dread of the Inquisition. This Portuguese adaptation is generally more literal than Palmireno's. The Romance texts of both authors provide us with a fair comparative corpus of Iberian Romance languages.

  6. Role-separating ordering in social dilemmas controlled by topological frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marco A; Perc, Matjaž; Wardil, Lucas; Szolnoki, Attila; da Silva Júnior, Elton J; da Silva, Jafferson K L

    2017-03-01

    ''Three is a crowd" is an old proverb that applies as much to social interactions as it does to frustrated configurations in statistical physics models. Accordingly, social relations within a triangle deserve special attention. With this motivation, we explore the impact of topological frustration on the evolutionary dynamics of the snowdrift game on a triangular lattice. This topology provides an irreconcilable frustration, which prevents anticoordination of competing strategies that would be needed for an optimal outcome of the game. By using different strategy updating protocols, we observe complex spatial patterns in dependence on payoff values that are reminiscent to a honeycomb-like organization, which helps to minimize the negative consequence of the topological frustration. We relate the emergence of these patterns to the microscopic dynamics of the evolutionary process, both by means of mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. For comparison, we also consider the same evolutionary dynamics on the square lattice, where of course the topological frustration is absent. However, with the deletion of diagonal links of the triangular lattice, we can gradually bridge the gap to the square lattice. Interestingly, in this case the level of cooperation in the system is a direct indicator of the level of topological frustration, thus providing a method to determine frustration levels in an arbitrary interaction network.

  7. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving

  8. Cyclic Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand with Three Different Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    This report contains the results of numerous cyclic triaxial tests performed within the framework of the project "Probabilistic Design Tools for Vertical Breakwaters (PROVERBS), MAST III". The performed tests constitute a part of an established data base to be used to estimate the undrained cycli...

  9. Mol v drahém rouše. Sbírka přísloví Jakuba Srnovce z Varvažova a její latinské prameny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculínová, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1/2 (2017), s. 19-25 ISSN 2570-6861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09064S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Jakub Srnec of Varvažov * proverbs * Adagia * commonplace books * Neo-Latin literature Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  10. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  11. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 705 ... Vol 7 (1997), Lemmatisation of adjectives in Sepedi, Abstract PDF. R.H. Gouws, D.J. Prinsloo. Vol 26 (2016), Lemmatisation of fixed expressions: The case of proverbs in northern Sotho, Abstract PDF. I.M. Kosch. Vol 2 (1992), Lemmatization of reflexives in Northern Sotho, Abstract PDF. D.J. Prinsloo.

  13. The Revolutionary Poems of Tayo Olafioye Clement Eloghosa Odia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    2016-05-30

    May 30, 2016 ... assuring the masses that the regime will definitely crumble no matter how hard the oppressors hang on to power. In effect, it foretells of the inevitable general change that will sweep through the country. This proverb demonstrates the poet's prophetic gift as well as expresses the fact that no matter how long ...

  14. The revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye | Odia | Legon Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye in order to demonstrate how his radical thought is depicted in his poems. To achieve this purpose, a study of one of his collections of poems, entitled A carnival of looters, is undertaken. In the study, we discover that proverbs are the central technique used in ...

  15. Hollow Force, Hollow Metaphor: Assessing The Current Defense Drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    always will. —President Dwight D. Eisenhower The war is over. Now the real fighting begins. —Afghan Proverb As the United States Government...6 Furthermore, Congressional infighting over the legal tenets of the BCA generate unpredictable streams of funding that wreak havoc on programing

  16. Millised piirid nähtuvad läänemeresoome vanasõnades? / Arvo Krikmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krikmann, Arvo, 1939-2017

    1997-01-01

    Soome Kirjanduse Seltsi ja Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia vahelise 1993. aasta leppega käivitatud läänemeresoome vanasõnaprojekti tulemustest. Valminud töödest, pikemalt: Arvo Krikmann. Some statistics on Balto-Finnic proverbs (1985)

  17. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  18. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Vinck. Vol 25 (2004), Un livre scolaire du Congo belge. 1932. Mambi ma botangi ndenge na ndenge.Buku ya basatu. Introduction, commentaire et traduction, Abstract. Honoré Vinck, Baudouin Bofeko Etaka. Vol 29 (2008), Un recueil de proverbes mbuun d'Imbongo (RD Congo, bantu B87), Abstract. K Bostoen, J Muluwa.

  20. Modern medicine is losing its humanistic essence: 'Patients no more, but diseases' is the new motto now.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Bulut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For medicine, which is as old as history of humanity, the virtue of helping has always been a priority. However, the way medicine see diseases and human being changed from time to time, and the treatment approaches were shaped accordingly. Ancient Greek's Knidos and Kos Schools of Medicine reflecting one of the earliest schools of systematic medical education show us two distinct perspectives. School of Kos carries the characteristics of Hippocratic medicine and reach a diagnosis not considering the disease symptoms but through the disease itself, and the prognosis of the patient is taken into consideration as well. The disease and the patient are handled with a holistic view without focusing on an organ and the treatment is planned accordingly, while the School of Knidos focuses mainly on the disease not to the patient and reach a clinical diagnosis based on the specifications presented from the symptoms. Today's modern medicine mentality has significant similarities with the School of Knidos approach. This model ignores the cases specific to the patient while diagnosing and applying treatment methods. The physicians who get more specialised every day are becoming implementers of an alienated medicine in contrast to Hippocrates's 'There is no disease, but the patient' aphorism. Nowadays, with the rapidly developing technology and ever-growing accumulation of knowledge, it is possible to say that we moved away from the 'humanistic' medicine concept. In addition, in today's medicine, embedding the business concepts into medicine and commercialization of medicine have significant effects on this phenomenon. The establishment and assessment of the relationship of patient-physician on the basis of ‘customer satisfaction' is changing physicians' opinions on their profession and patients, which leads to a worrisome transformation such as moving away from traditional medical virtues. In this process, respect and trust for the physician are shaken and

  1. An Ontology for Uncertainty in Climate Change Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Paraphrasing Albert Einstein's aphorism about scientific quantification: not all uncertainty that counts can be counted, and not all uncertainty that can be counted counts. The meaning of the term "uncertainty" in climate change science and assessment is itself uncertain. Different disciplines and perspectives bring different nuances if not meanings of the term to the conversation. For many scientists, uncertainty is somehow associated with statistical dispersion and standard error. For many users of climate change information, uncertainty is more related to their confidence, or lack thereof, in climate models. These "uncertainties" may be related, but they are not identical, and there is considerable room for confusion and misunderstanding. A knowledge framework, a system of concepts and vocabulary, for communicating uncertainty can add structure to the characterization and quantification of uncertainty and aid communication among scientists and users. I have developed an ontology for uncertainty in climate change projections derived largely from the report of the W3C Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web Incubator Group (URW3-XG) dealing with the problem of uncertainty representation and reasoning on the World Wide Web. I have adapted this ontology for uncertainty about information to uncertainty about climate change. Elements of the ontology apply with little or no translation to the information of climate change projections, with climate change almost a use case. Other elements can be translated into language used in climate-change discussions; translating aleatory uncertainty in the UncertaintyNature class as irreducible uncertainty is an example. I have added classes for source of uncertainty (UncertaintySource) (different model physics, for example) and metrics of uncertainty (UncertaintyMetric), at least, in the case of the latter, for those instances of uncertainty that can be quantified (i.e., counted). The statistical standard deviation isa member

  2. Changing theory, changing role of Coriolis effect - The East-West asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff seismic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    It is a long history the tale of the recognized asymmetries of the Earth. In 1600 William Gilbert (1544-1603) published De Magnete in which the North and South geomagnetic pole are described. In 1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1628) in the XXVIIth aphorism of the Novum Organum (second part) describes the southern tips of the continents, and many other asymmetries were later described. In 1975 Samuel Warren Carey (1911-2002) stated: Neither north and south, nor east and west are tectonically equivalent. A non exhaustive list of asymmetries of the Earth is: The magnetic polarity; The land-hemisphere and the water-hemisphere; Southern tips of the continents; Larger extension of expanding mid-oceanic ridges on the southern hemisphere; South-eastward trend of younger ages in the long Pacific seafloor volcanic chains; A larger width of the seafloor isochrones bands on the Nazca region; A pear-shaped Earth; etc. It is a few decades that the different slopes of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards the east and west has been enclosed in the list. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30 degrees, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper (Luyendyk, 1970; Isacks & Barazangi, 1977; and many others). The cause of this difference has been identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west - the so called westward drift (Bostrom, 1971; Stevenson & Turner, 1977; among others). This solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction (Jordan, 1974; Ranalli, 2000; Caputo & Caputo, 2012). Moreover, a simplistic evaluation of the regime of the convective motion in the mantle and of the order of magnitude of the involved forces (viscous, buoyancy, inertial) hastily judges as negligible the role of the Coriolis effect in producing the observed slope differences of the Wadati-Benioff regions. Instead, it is possible to show that changing

  3. Les origines antiques d’un « art de la prudence » chez Baltasar Gracián

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Alfred Blüher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article met en évidence que l’« art de la prudence » que Baltasar Gracián propose dans son Oráculo manual renoue avec les méthodes de l’ars vitæ et de la prudentia tactique que les penseurs gréco-latins de l’Antiquité avaient développées, en se servant souvent de formules frappantes, maximes et adages. Les aphorismes de Gracián puisent dans le riche trésor de cette sagesse pragmatique, empruntant tout autant les traits d’un certain stoïcisme que d’habiles conseils d’« adaptation » et de « dissimulation ». Les éléments de cet « art de la prudence » proviennent de quatre domaines différents : ouvrages philosophiques, notamment Sénèque, Épictète et Plutarque ; littérature gnomique, telles les sentences des Sept Sages de Grèce ou celles de Publilius Syrus ; écrits satiriques, surtout Martial et Perse ; et réflexions d’ordre politique et moral de Tacite.This article argues that the « art of prudence » recommended by Baltasar Gracián in his Oráculo manual revives the methods of the ancient Greeks and Romans who had been advocating an ars vitae and a tactical prudentia, which they often expressed as striking slogans, maxims and adages. Gracián’s « aphorisms » draw on the rich treasure of this pragmatic wisdom, adopting the features of a certain stoicism but also the cunning counsel praising « adaptation » and « dissimulation ». The components of this « art of prudence » belong to four different fields : philosophical works, in particular Seneca, Epictetus and Plutarch ; gnomic literature, such as the maxims of the Seven Sages or those of Publilius Syrus ; satirical writings, especially Martial and Persius ; and Tacitus’ political and moral thought.

  4. CONSTRUYENDO FORMAS DEL PENSAMIENTO / Constructing forms of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeo Ramos Carranza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La construcción exige conocimiento y ayuda a entender la lógica de la arquitectura por encima de los avances y descubrimientos producidos por ciencias, ingenierías e industrias. En cualquiera de las tendencias o movimientos que a lo largo del pasado siglo se han reconocido en arquitectura, técnica y tecnología de la construcción se han tratado como un aspecto esencial de su producción cultural y arquitectónica, y fueron usadas para indagar nuevas formas, nuevas arquitecturas, tratando de resolver una demanda social que no encontraba respuesta con los medios habituales de construir. El aforismo de Mies van der Rohe, “sólo reconozco problemas de construcción”, además de aludir a un momento en el que la industria estaba llamada a tener una participación decisiva en el futuro de la arquitectura, el sentido universal que encierra, revela que, la cuestión de la construcción en arquitectura, es una forma del pensamiento que afecta al proyecto desde sus primeros momentos. Quizá, por esta razón, muchas de las arquitecturas que visitamos o estudiamos, se preocupan profundamente por cual sería en cada momento, la mejor manera de expresar la condición constructiva de lo formado.SUMMARY: The construction requires knowledge and help to understand the logic of architecture over the progress and findings produced by science, engineering and industry. In any trends or movements throughout the last century have recognized architectural, technical and construction technology have been treated as an essential aspect of its cultural and architectural production, and were used to investigate new forms, new architectures trying to solve a social demand response was not the usual means of building. The aphorism of Mies van der Rohe, "I recognize only construction problems", and alluding to a time when the industry was destined to play a decisive role in the future of architecture, the universal sense it contains, reveals that, the issue of

  5. Ética y estética (Novenas Conferencias Aranguren, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trías, Eugenio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein's Tractatus contains a mysterious aphorism to the effect that «ethics and aesthetics are the same». The existence of an underlying connivance between ethics and aesthetics has been acknowledged ever since ancient times. Here we try to look into this hard and interesting issue from the open horizon of boundary-philosophy, as put forward in my latest publications. The task will be carried out at three stages. The first one is given over to an elucidation of one core concept of ethics, freedom, in an interactive connection with our fore-understanding of our human condition. Then we raise the (Kantian question about how the ethical «symbolically resounds» through art. The third and last stage brings up the subject of the link between ethics and aesthetics on the ground of several examples, both ancient and modern (from the great tragedies and some artistic manifestations of our modernity.

    Un misterioso aforismo del Tractatus de Wittgenstein enuncia que «ética y estética son lo mismo». Que una corriente de complicidad existe entre ética y estética es reconocido desde la antigüedad. Lo ético se argumenta en la praxis; el arte lo hace a través de la poiésis, o creación, ya definida por Platón y Aristóteles. Aquí se intenta abordar esta interesante y difícil cuestión desde el horizonte abierto, a través de mis últimas publicaciones, por la filosofía del límite, y se realizará en tres etapas. Una primera dedicada a esclarecer uno de los conceptos nucleares de la ética, la libertad, en relación de interacción con la precomprensión que podemos poseer relativa a nuestra humana conditio. Se planteará luego la cuestión (kantiana de que a través del arte «resuena simbólicamente» lo ético. En una tercera y última etapa se desarrolla el tema del nexo entre ética y estética, dándose algunos ejemplos pertinentes, antiguos y modernos (de las grandes

  6. GRIGORE VIERU ŞI LUCIAN BLAGA: PO(IETICA DORULUI, SACRULUI, ABISALULUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VEREJANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autorul realizează o paralelă între poezia şi arta poetică a lui Lucian Blaga şi cea a lui Grigore Vieru. Sunt relevate anumite similitudini tematice şi motivice, cum ar fi destinul, „veşnicia care s-a născut la sat”, iubirea ca stare complexă (dorul, dialogul cu Dumnezeu, izvorul şi fântâna, visul şi somnul, lumina şi întunericul (bezna. Influenţa lui Blaga este urmărită atât la nivel stilistic, cât şi la nivelul viziunii. Grigore Vieru coboară în zona subterană a spiritului uman, dând expresie abisalului, asupra căruia Blaga meditează în opera sa filosofică (în special în Trilogia culturii. Autorul consideră profund marcate de modelul Blaga şi aforismele lui Grigore Vieru, adunate sub genericul Mişcarea în infinit. Discursul liric şi discursul filosofic se îmbină organic, formând lirosofia. GRIGORE VIERU AND LUCIAN BLAGA: THE POETIC OF LONGING, SACRED, ABYSSALThe author achieves a comparison between the poetry and poetic art of Lucian Blaga, as well as in the case of Grigore Vieru. It is pointed out some similarities regarding the theme and motive, like destiny, „perpetuity that was born in the village”, love as complex state (longing, dialogue with God, the spring and the dwell, the dream and the sleep, the light and the dark. The influence of Blaga is analyzed at stylistic as well as at the visionary levels. Grigore Vieru descends in the underground area of the human spirit, giving an expression to the abyssal, a term on which Blaga meditates in his philosophical masterpiece (especially in The Trilogy of culture. The author sees a deep impression of the Blaga model on Grigore Vieru’s aphorisms, gathered under the title Motion in infinity. The lyrical and philosophical speech is combined in an organic way, forming the lyrosophy.

  7. El denunciador: un vecino que acata y cumple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Del Valle Mora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This document studies the configuration of the Denouncer, based on what the author calls in its work as, neighbor legislative panopticism. The Denouncer, is a control mechanism of normative fulfillment designed by the Spanish Crown and the Supreme Council of the Indians, that served as an element of coercion and intimidation within the population, with the purpose of allowing the configuration of the Ordered City in the terms of the Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias (Indies Kingdoms Compilation of Laws. In this paper the author studies the application and obeyance of this compilation, as well as the recognized aphorism “se acata, pero no se cumple” (law is accepted but not fulfilled, in order to propose that the policy of the Denouncer was a control mechanism designed by the colonial authorities. Finally, this article proves that the Denouncer was a person that accepted and fulfills the Indian legal system.//Este documento estudia la configuración del Denunciador, fundamentado en lo que el autor llamó en su trabajo "panoptismo legislativo vecinal". La política del Denunciador se presentó como un mecanismo de control de cumplimiento normativo establecido por la Corona y el Supremo Consejo de Indias, como una herramienta de coerción e intimidación de la población. En este sentido, se configuró como un instrumento que permitiera el establecimiento de la “ciudad ordenada” en la Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias. Se presenta el análisis de la aplicación y cumplimiento de esta compilación así como el estudio del reconocido aforismo “se acata, pero no se cumple”. Finalmente, se plantea la política del Denunciador como mecanismo de control diseñado por las autoridades coloniales. En este documento se encontrarán los principales postulados que llevan a concluir que el vecino denunciador fue presentado en la ley como el sujeto de derecho que acataba y cumplía lo dispuesto en el ordenamiento jur

  8. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1960-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    virgin & fallow lands. Moscow, Voyenizdat, 1960. 99p. lr5Ok. 60-06049 S0076. Ilyakhinskiy,M. Step Grandly! (Shire Shag !) Collection of military aphorisms...Zapiski Rasvedchika) Book 1. Gor’kiy, Gor’kiy Book Pub, 1960. 190p. 75000 3r. 60-06161 S1495. Defeat of German Imperialism in the Second World War...Revolution to the Period of Imperialism . Moscow, Voyenizdat, 1965. 690p. 5500 2r47k. 65-04883 S1628. ViderI. Catastrophe on the Volga. (Katastrofa na

  9. Methods of Speakers\\' Effects on the Audience

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    فریبا حسینی

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of Speakers' Effects on the Audience    Nasrollah Shameli *   Fariba Hosayni **     Abstract   This article is focused on four issues. The first issue is related to the speaker's external appearance including the beauty of face, the power of his voice, moves and signals by hand, the stick and eyebrow as well as the height. Such characteristics could have an important effect on the audience. The second issue is related to internal features of the speaker. These include the ethics of the preacher , his/her piety and intention on the speakers based on their personalities, habits and emotions, knowledge and culture, and speed of learning. The third issue is concerned with the appearance of the lecture. Words should be clear enough as well as being mixed with Quranic verses, poetry and proverbs. The final issue is related to the content. It is argued that the subject of the talk should be in accordance with the level of understanding of listeners as well as being new and interesting for them.   3 - A phenomenon rhetoric: It was noted in this section How to give words and phrases so that these words and phrases are clear, correct, mixed in parables, governance and Quranic verses, and appropriate their meaning.   4 - the content of Oratory : It was noted in this section to the topic of Oratory and say that the Oratory should be the theme commensurate with the minds of audiences and also should mean that agree with the case may be, then I say: that the rhetoric if the theme was innovative and new is affecting more and more on the audience.     Key words : Oratory , Preacher , Audience, Influence of speech     * Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan E-mail: Dr-Nasrolla Shameli@Yahoo.com   * * M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature from Isfahan University E-mail: faribahosayni@yahoo.com

  10. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  11. Verbalization the Concept of Dignity in Polish Dictionaries

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    Chaban Vasylyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The object of the study is the concept of DIGNITY. The justification of the research is predetermined by the lack of such investigation in Polish linguistics. The background for the article is also determined by the lack of similar studies in the sphere of Cognitive Linguistics. Purpose: The article aims at analysing the cultural concept of DIGNITY in the minds of the bearers of the Polish language and culture based on the data incorporated from the lexicographical sources and collection of folk sayings and proverbs. Results: The article dwells upon the most important features of this concept in the Polish language and culture. The study investigates the language conceptualization of this concept in the system of the Polish language and folk maxims and sayings. The definition of the lexeme of dignity reveals the compliance with higher moral principles and the understanding of value; good name, good character claiming attention and respect; the last name. DIGNITY is the principal regulating mechanism of behaviour and development of positive human values which become apparent in the process of human interaction. A man of worth respects himself and is as well proud to be an honourable man. DIGNITY concerns both a separate human and the society in general; it could be regarded as both individual and collective notion. Discussion: The suggested analysis revealed cultural and linguistic peculiarities of the concept of DIGNITY in the Polish language and culture. The conducted research is not exhaustive since it provides potential perspectives for further research of the Polish concept of DIGNITY, in particular, in terms of comparative studies with correlative concepts in Ukrainian and English languages and cultures with the help of the cognitive definition method.

  12. Mind the First Step: The Intrapersonal Effects of Affect on the Decision to Initiate Negotiations under Bargaining Power Asymmetry

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    Ilias Kapoutsis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook two vignette studies to examine the role of affect (trait and state and bargaining power on initiating negotiations, an often overlooked stage of the negotiation process. Using a job negotiation opportunity, we examine three distinct phases of the initiation process—engaging a counterpart, making a request, and optimizing a request. Study 1 examines the effects of two affect dispositions (happiness and sadness, under power asymmetry (low vs. high bargaining power, on the three initiation behaviors. We found that power is pivotal to the decision to engage, request, and optimize. Also, sadness reduces the likelihood of initiation when power is high but is immaterial when power is low. In contrast, individuals who tend to be happy can reverse the adverse effect of powerlessness on requesting, but not on engaging and optimizing. However, happiness does not carry over a positive effect on negotiation initiation, over and above that of power. Study 2 investigated the role of trait affect when individuals are in power asymmetry and when they are induced with sadness or happiness. We found that those with a happy disposition initiate more (engage, request, and optimize when power is high and experience incidental sadness. Overall, these findings qualify previous research on negotiation initiation and highlight the importance of trait affect and its interaction with state affect as additional driving forces and of power as a boundary condition.“for the error occurs at the beginning, and the beginning as the proverb says is half of the whole, so that even a small mistake at the beginning stands in the same ratio to mistakes at the other stages.”(trans.Aristotle, 1944, 1303b

  13. Difficulties that Students who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language Encounter During Listening Skills

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    Abdullah KALDIRIM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Listening skills play an important role in an individual’s communication with others and in their understanding of the environment. Since it provides a basis for the acquisition of language skills it is one of the most important learning tools, and because it is frequently used in everyday life and in the learning process, listening skill is the foreground of foreign language teaching. It is important for students to understand what they listen to in order that they do not encounter any difficulties in the language learning process. To ensure success in the environments where the Turkish language is taught as a foreign language, it is necessary to follow the listening processes of the students attentively and to identify the problems they face during this process. This study aims to identify the listening barriers encountered by university students learning Turkish as a foreign language at level B2, and was designed based on a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological design. Within the scope of the study, eight students studying at Dumlupınar University’s TÖMER (Turkish & Foreign Languages Research and Application Center were identified as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with students included in the sample, and descriptive analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the research data. Participants expressed views that they often encountered problems such as accented speech, frequent use of idioms and proverbs during listening, lack of vocabulary development, and lack of emphasis and voice intonation during speech. Also, factors that make listening easy to understand are identified as the other languages they speak, good vocabulary knowledge, interesting topics, listening to audiovisual elements, and the speaker’s use of gestures and mimics.

  14. Idast läände: ladina terminid kui õiguskultuuri muutuse peegeldajad / From east to west: Latin terms as a reflection of the change in legal culture

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    Merike Ristikivi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the usage of Latin terms in legal texts in the Estonian language in the transition period before and after re-establishing Estonian independence on the basis of the journals Nõukogude Õigus (Soviet Law and Eesti Jurist (Estonian Lawyer. The period under the observation (1985–1994 is characterised by conceptual changes in the Estonian legal order, by radical reforms in legislation, and the legal system in general. The results of the study reveal that socio-political developments have had an impact on terminology and the principles of language usage. In the Soviet era the cultural influences changed, and the western legal tradition was replaced by the Soviet legal system and the dominance of the Russian language. The usage of Latin terminology in the journals Nõukogude Õigus and Eesti Jurist at the end of the Soviet era and in the transition period, explored in the course of the present research, revealed that the number of Latin terms in the abovementioned two periodicals is significantly small. Besides infrequently used professional terms in juridical articles, a number of well-known Latin proverbs and expressions concerning academic affairs were employed. The analysis of the research material revealed that the terminological change and an increase in the usage of Latin terms came together with the transformation of the legal culture and policy at the end of the Soviet era. It is important to note that the quantitative and qualitative changes in language usage did not occur in 1991 – i.e., —the year when Estonia restored her independence. The most significant changes in terminology had begun already in 1989 and 1990, when the readiness to try to become again part of the European legal environment surfaced. The rearrangements in the Estonian legal system compelled the Estonian lawyers to include in their usage of legal language those Latin terms that have become rooted in the legal tradition of Europe.

  15. A selective deficit in imageable concepts: A window to the organization of the conceptual system

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    Aviah eGvion

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nissim, a 64 years old Hebrew-speaking man who sustained an ischemic infarct in the left occipital lobe, exhibited an intriguing pattern. He could hold a deep and fluent conversation about abstract and complex issues, such as the social risks in unemployment, but failed to retrieve imageable words such as ball, spoon, carrot, or giraffe. A detailed study of the words he could and could not retrieve, in tasks of picture naming, tactile naming, and naming to definition indicated that whereas he was able to retrieve abstract words, he had severe difficulties when trying to retrieve imageable words. The same dissociation also applied for proper names – he could retrieve names of people who have no visual image attached to their representation (such as the son of the biblical Abraham, but could not name people who had a visual image (such as his own son, or Barack Obama. When he tried to produce imageable words, he mainly produced perseverations and empty speech, and some semantic paraphasias. He did not produce perseverations when he tried to retrieve abstract words. This suggests that perseverations may occur when the phonological-production system produces a word without proper activation in the semantic lexicon. Nissim evinced a similar dissociation in comprehension – he could understand abstract words and sentences but failed to understand sentences with imageable words, and to match spoken imageable words to pictures or to semantically related imageable words. He was able to understand proverbs with imageable literal meaning but abstract figurative meaning. His comprehension was impaired also in tasks of semantic associations of pictures, pointing to a conceptual, rather than lexical source of the deficit. His visual perception as well as his phonological input and output lexicons and buffers (assessed by auditory lexical decision, word and sentence repetition, and writing to dictation were intact, supporting a selective conceptual system

  16. A critical analysis of domestication in Makhambeni’s translation of Chinua Achebe’s novel No longer at ease (1960

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    M.R. Masubelele

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through translation the target reader is exposed to other cultures. Translators, therefore, have to use the target language to convey the source text message to the target reader. There are various choices at their disposal as to how they wish to convey the source text message. They may choose to adopt the norms and conventions of the source text message, and therefore those of the source language and culture, or choose those of the target language. Commonly, adherence to the target language norms and conventions leads to a strategy in which the foreignness of both linguistic and cultural conventions is reduced. According to Venuti (1995 this is domestication. Since translations are rarely equivalent to the original, this article seeks to examine how Makhambeni uses Venuti‟s domestication as a translation strategy, with the purpose of rewriting the original to conform to functions instituted by the receiving system. The descriptive approach to translation, which advances the notion that translations are facts of the target culture, will be used to support the arguments presented in this article. It will be shown that, although Achebe has used a lot of Igbo expressions and cultural practices in his novel, Makhambeni has not translated any of the Igbo expressions and cultural practices into Zulu. Instead Makhambeni used Zulu linguistic and cultural expressions such as similes, metaphors, idioms, proverbs and of cultural substitutions to bring the Igbo culture closer to her audience. It will be concluded that through the use Zulu linguistic and cultural conventions Makhambeni has effectively minimised foreign culture and narrowed the gap between the foreign and target cultures. She has successfully naturalised the Igbo culture to make it conform more to what the Zulu reader is used to.

  17. Ou wyn in nuwe sakke: 'n Kritiese waardering van Bijbels lexicon

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    Anna Nel Otto

    2011-10-01

    the lexicon is structured, an exposition of different types of lexical items and motivation for the choice of lemmata and period covered, on how to look up lexical items, etc. Even non-believers could use the lexicon, as the introduction also contains background information in block format, i.e. an exposition of the content of the Bible, and information on Dutch Bible translations, proverb collections and Bible names. The benefits of this lexicon are that it includes only examples of current usage and as such accommodates neologisms and changed meanings. Although the authors sometimes divert from the terminology for different types of lexical items, as defined by themselves, the treatment of dic-tionary articles is generally very consistent and information is easily accessible. The value of the lexicon could possibly be enhanced by using more cross-references.

    Keywords: BIBLE, CITATION, CURRENT USAGE, DUTCH, FIXED EXPRESSION, LEXI-COGRAPHY, LEXICON, MEANING, NEOLOGISM, ORIGIN, PROPER NAME, PROVERB

  18. JUSTICE DRIVERS: THE SOCIO-COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS OF YORUBA INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE

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    Ezekiel Bolaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Justice is a widely attested sacrosanct lifeblood of every human society which requires fair-play and impartial judgment and is often represented by a woman holding a balanced pair of scales in one hand and bearing a sword in the other, symbolising carefully weighed evidence and protection of the innocent, as well as punishment for the guilty; at times, justice is blindfolded, indicating impartiality. Though universal, justice is driven differently in different societies, as it is a derivative of the culture and tradition of the people with, often, a blend of some foreign touch, establishing its universality – universal justice – a source of which is expected to be divine or supreme, attesting to a human inborn tendency. If justice is divine, then the source of true justice transcends humans, which translates into the fact that all human societies draw principles from this higher source and apply the principles so drawn in line with the peculiarities of their culture and tradition. Hence, the extent to which justice is manifest or practiced in any society is contingent on how close or far away the society is to applying the divine justice. Since no human society has been able to abide by these principles perfectly, humans can attain no perfect justice. A discussion of perfect justice, as exemplified by a particular society and thus expected to be imitated by another, is beyond the scope of this paper. This paper investigates what drives justice and how justice is driven among the Yoruba. This paper argues that the Yoruba exploit the socio-communicative value of taboos, proverbs and àrokò to sustain justice in the society. The paper presents the issue through the frame of the principle of shared knowledge and socio-cultural competence.

  19. [Plagiarism. A fools' errand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; De Fiore, Luca

    2017-01-01

    An old Italian proverb states that lies have short legs. In other words, in the end you get found out. This is exactly what happened to an Italian researcher who acted as a referee for a manuscript submitted in 2015 to Annals of Internal Medicine. After a negative report (which presumably led to the rejection of the submission) he submitted a manuscript which was essentially the same. But he and his accomplices got found out and paraded in front of the world in an earth-shatteringly polite "Dear Plagiarist" letter by the first robbed author: Dr Michael Dansinger. Dr Dansiger's letter is a model of polite logic and an ethical masterpiece, the fake article got retracted and the thief's institution contacted. No reply so far, a depressingly familiar theme in contemporary research. We wonder why we carry on with a system which is completely broken. Commercial interests, reporting bias, secrecy, ethically dubious studies and inertia are the ingredients of contemporary research and publication practices. Editorial peer review, a scholarly practice originating in a more genteel era, is clearly unable to do much other than lend a very thin veneer of credibility to this pandemic of junk which is threatening healthcare budgets and the ethics of the next generation of researchers. We need a complete reform of the system which could give back some credibility to the "e" of evidence-based medicine. Complete lawful transparency, public reimbursement of interventions only on the basis of independently generated evidence and research ethics as a part of an international curriculum for budding researchers are urgently needed. These should be linked to publishers' complete disclosure of their sources of income and custodial sentences for those who abuse positions of trust. Meanwhile, stay away from anything implausible and non-replicable (as they probably are).

  20. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

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    L. van Rooyen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life style evolve through a process of learning and interaction with others. It is a timeconsuming and costly process which starts at infancy and continues throughout someone's life. Instruction concerning interpersonal relations and the teaching of respect cannot be confined to individual lessons or working sessions at home or in school. Discussions and conversations concerning interpersonal relations need to form an integral and natural part of a child’s life within the home environment and throughout the pupil's school career. It is senseless if educators talk about the importance of teaching respect only to reveal disrespectful behaviour themselves, or to talk about the importance of self-esteem in the paying of respect whilst causing children to feel negative about themselves. To be able to express respect to other human beings, one needs to be respected. A child needs to experience how it feels when homage is paid. The following rule of life applies in this regard: one can never give if one has never received respect.