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Sample records for aphorisms and proverbs

  1. 世俗人生经验的智性表达——《圣经·箴言》与《增广贤文》之比较%The Rational Expression of Secular Life Experience——A Comparison between Proverbs in the Holly Bible and The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms

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    张登林

    2012-01-01

    The Proverbs in the Holly Bible and The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms both are secularly prominent and rational texts.As a result of different cultural backgrounds,The Proverbs can become part of the Holly Bible and pass down from one generation to another,which shows that Hebrew,even the whole western world,are quite enthusiastic about secular lives.However,The Wisdom of Ancient Aphorisms,a work of sermons,has never been accepted by the dominant Chinese culture although it focus on Confucianism and popular among the populace.By the comparison between the two works,we can get a lot of enlightenment in many respects.Especially,the sermons about the secular lives and secular life principles in the two books are worth thinking about and studying.%从现实的角度看,《圣经》中的《箴言》与我国民间流传的《增广贤文》都是世俗性因素极为显著的"智慧性"文本。由于文化背景的不同,《箴言》可以收入"旧约"《圣经》作为经典流传下来,说明希伯来民族乃至整个西方世界都有着较高的关注世俗生活的热情;而《增广贤文》这种日常生活训诫类书的主导价值取向虽是儒家思想,但却长期流传于民间而不能登大雅之堂。通过对二者的比照,我们可以得到多方面的启示,特别是两书对于世俗生活的热情关注和世俗生活原则的训诫教诲,值得我们认真思考和研究。

  2. [Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

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    Frøland, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded.

  3. Cultural Connotation and Translation of English Proverbs

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    彭姣

    2014-01-01

    There are more and more cross cultural communication nowadays. Different cultures have different features. Proverbs, as an essential part of language, reflecting the culture of a nation, have cultural connotations about geography, history, customs and religion. Therefore, in this paper I intend to analyze cultural connotations in English proverbs, and to discuss the translation strategy-Domestication and Foreignization, then to put forwards three aspects that should be paid attention to in English prov-erbs translation.

  4. UKRAINIAN HUT IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

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    LAHDAN S. P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern Ukrainian society, which is undergoing a national renaissance, greatly deepened interest in the symbols of material and spiritual culture as a form of identification and identity. Inseparable from life as language, song, were and are proverbs and sayings. As an expression of acute intelligence people, aesthetic preferences, high morality, humor, accuracy, wit and strength, wisdom and beauty of poetic language, they accompany mankind from antiquity and enrich the new generation. Valuable signs of Ukrainian culture proverbs are also the fact that generally have exemplary character, as giving advice, caution, warn, approve, condemn. Based on rich experience, proverbs reflect all sectors of the Ukrainian people, especially bright life, habits, lifestyle and mentality. The most important element of life without which you cannot imagine life before and today is the house - the personification of his native home, family, independence, well-being and hospitality. In the beginning attached great importance to the house, she was treated with great respect, ordered decorated holiday and protected. It found expression in many proverbs and sayings. These samples of folk wisdom affecting the eternal themes so do not lose their relevance today. Their research makes it possible to understand the deeper spirituality, especially the outlook of the Ukrainian people. Purpose. To find out the semantics of the component "khata" in the proverbs and sayings identify productivity in shaping Ukrainian folklore. Conclusion. Proverbs and sayings of the component "hut" reflect various spheres of life Ukrainian: the organization of life, family relationships, moral and ethical code, mentality, especially social relations. Home is inseparable from its inhabitants, becoming masters of character, its appearance characterizes the attitude of the hosts it, the house represents those relationships that have developed between family members

  5. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

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    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs, reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries. So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too. My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs, aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans, ...

  6. Somali Proverbs and Poems as Acculturation Indices

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    Doob, Leonard W.; Hurreh,Ismael M.

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that proverbs and poems among nonliterate peoples vary inversely with the user's degree of Westernization. Suggests that the oral tradition in Somalia, East Africa serves different functions for the different social groups such as nomads, semi-nomads, and students. (MB)

  7. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

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    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou

    2011-10-01

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    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.

    Mots-clés: ANALYSE FORMELLE, ANALYSE SÉMANTIQUE, CLASSIFICATION THÉMATIQUE,DIDACTIQUE, DICTIONNAIRE, GENRE PROVERBIAL, IDIOMES, LEXICOGRAPHE,LEXICOGRAPHIE, LISTE CENTRALE, LITTÉRATURE ORALE, PRÉ-TEXTES, POST-TEXTES,PROVERBES

    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  8. Proverbs in a Function and Purpose Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Otto Jespersen' s book the Philosophy of Grammar ( 1951 ),the definition of formulas is mentioned: "a formula may be a whole sentence or a group of words, or it may be one word, or it may be only part of a word,--that is not improtant, but it must always be something which to the actual speech- instinct is a unit which cannot be further analyzed or decomposed in the way a free combination can"(1951:24) .Thus proverbs belong to formulas, as the example "Handsome is that handsome does" given by Jespersen. This paper focuses on those proverbs, such as ‘Speech is silver, silence is golden', ‘ Empty vessels make the most sound', ‘ Still waters nm deep',which are all about speech and silence. Moreover,this paper aims to answer two questions:

  9. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts

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    Mutonyi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  10. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 雷丽娟

    2007-01-01

    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs,reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries.So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too.My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs,aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans,and hope that this study also can be regarded as a data to give referential meaning to the further research on cross-culture and language comparison.

  11. Linguistic Sexism Phenomenon in English and Chinese Proverbs

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    牛双

    2015-01-01

    The study of language and gender is a big issue that the linguists always pay attention to. Especially, more attention should be given to the gender difference and gender discrimination in some special language. Proverbs are the fixed sentences which are transmitted by mouths. They can reflect the true life and profound principles by simple words. The very wide origin of proverbs makes them have the strong representativeness and be easy to pronounce. Linguistic sexism phenomena in proverbs can raise people's consciousness of gender difference and discrimination so as to reduce and even eliminate the phenomenon of gender discrimination in our speech and daily life and regulate the language.

  12. Psalm 26 and Proverbs: Tracing wisdom themes

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    Annette Potgieter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discernment of Psalm 26 as a cultic psalm has prevented noticing vital connections with wisdom literature. These connections with Proverbs and other known wisdom psalms provide clues for the composition of Psalm 26 to be set in the post-exilic period. The way in which wisdom literature is used conveys the religious ethos and daily life of a community. The fact that the wisdom character of Psalm 26 has been overlooked can be viewed as one of the main reasons why Psalm 26 has been interpreted solely in a cultic setting. The sapiential influence of this psalm has been confused to only reflect the cultic aspects. The psalmist wants to live a life according to wisdom as he seeks the rewards of being close to Yahweh.

  13. A Comparison of English and Japanese Proverbs Using Natural Semantic Metalanguage

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    Miles Neale

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the meaning of semantically similar English and Japanese proverbs. It uses textual data sourced from online corpora to highlight and compare the different cultural and conceptual elements embedded within these proverbs. The findings of this investigation demonstrate that matching proverbs from different languages is a potentially problematic exercise, both in dictionaries and in the second-language classroom.

  14. The testimony of the time: Aphorism

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Short literary form known as aphorism in the beginning of its development relied on saying. Aphorism concisely expresses general experience, life philosophy, situation and position of a man in this world, socio-political and historical paradoxes etc. Although it is often taken as a criticism of society, it can also be understood as a testimony of time. This paper reveals one aspect of this phenomenon that was neglected by literary theory - aphorism as a form of expressing author’s attitude towards society and its reality.

  15. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

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    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  16. Japanese; Japanese Proverbs.

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    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The proverbs and expressions listed in this supplementary Japanese language text are grouped as follows: (1) 161 general proverbs and expressions; (2) 42 slang expressions; and (3) 73 expressions concerning the body. Each entry appears in transliteration as well as in Japanese orthography, with its English gloss. (AMM)

  17. The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge

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    Eija Stark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.

  18. An FP7 "Space" project: Aphorism "Advanced PRocedures for volcanic and Seismic Monitoring"

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    Di Iorio, A., Sr.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.

    2014-12-01

    APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved GMES products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach is only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shake maps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterize the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.The project is funded under the European Union FP7

  19. Translation difficulties in the Romanian version of Arthur Schopenhauer’s Aphorisms. A contrastive and diachronic analysis (I

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    Cecilia-Iuliana Vârlan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on a late work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life, and on its only Romanian version, delivered at the end of the 19th century by Titu Maiorescu. The existence of five editions of this Romanian version, that have been published by the translator himself during a period of 40 years, represents a clear proof of the fact that transposing a German philosophical text into Romanian involved a series of translating difficulties. Observing the way Titu Maiorescu tried to overcome these difficulties by adopting specific translation solutions produced an analysis which was conducted from the linguistic perspective and which followed two directions: the contrastive one (as a result of direct comparison between source-text and target-text and the diachronic one (which considered the interventions made by the same translator on his own text at different points in time. The linguistic analysis of a philosophical text was considered to be the most appropriate and useful approach not only for the present research, but also for future translators of the Aphorisms, who would aim at adapting the discourse of Titu Maiorescu’s version to the contemporary Romanian language, by taking into consideration its obvious evolution, especially in terms of its philosophical vocabulary.

  20. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

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    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  1. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

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    Uzeneva Elena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  2. TERM 2005 SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM PROVERBS AND IDIOMS FOR EDUCATIONAL AREAS

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    Fatma ÜNAL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is the basic of culture. It is a bridge that helps us to carry cultural values which belong to past, to now and from now to the future. At this aspect, language appears with features of carrying culture in the continuing time line. This feature of it gives both itself and the community that speak the language to be alive. Vocabulary is the component that brings forth the language. All words which are used in one language are the basis of vocabulary. Proverbs and idoms are the most important resource. Richness of a language can not be measured by how many words a language has but new meanings of the words of the language that gain in time. The words can not have new meaning differences by themselves. Events that community experiences and how people name them are predicated on words and these words develop with new meaning differences. That means language gets rich. The importance of proverbs and idioms in vocabulary belonging to a language is undoubtedly very great. Proverbs are the hortative words which were attributed to public and told on the grounds of long lasting experiences and observations. On the other hand, idioms are the stereotyped phrases which are somewhat different from their real meanings and have an intriguing meaning. Our proverbs and idioms are the converted verbal forms of our view of life, values, traditions and beliefs. In fact, every proverb, every idiom is our cultural value. Turkish language is very rich in terms of proverbs and idioms. This shows that how various ways of life perception and view of the world Turkish nation has. Proverbs and idioms which are the intangible particles of culture of the society are important in terms of both enriching the narration and carrying the cultural elements from past to present as the words of wisdom reflecting the philosophy of the society. Because of it, it is necessary to let adolescent genarations aware of this heritage and protect it. Just as one of general purposes of

  3. Proverbs as a Communication Strategy: (Decodification of Meaning and Pragmatic-Discursive Function

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    Xavier Pascual López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, theoretical overview of how proverbs are used as a communicative and discursive strategy, taking into account the speaker’s communicative intention. I will pay attention both to the benefits of the use of this type of formulaic sequence in the construction of the speech, and to the illocutionary force and pragmatic implications entailed by these utterances. In order to do so, some considerations will be required – the encoding of the meaning of the proverbs, the decoding process by the addressee, and the way proverbs are inserted in the discourse. This paper inspects the importance of such factors as the need for articulation of fluent speech, the assumption of cultural patterns, the appeal to proverbiality that aligns the speaker with power structures of the community, or the masking of the speaker’s voice behind a collective entity in order to socialize and release tensions related to interpersonal contact.

  4. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

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    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  5. Idioms and Proverbs in Official Documents of the Slovene School System

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    Brigita Kacjan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an interesting and important, but hitherto neglected phenomenon, the presence of idioms and proverbs in the Slovenian curricula and/or knowledge catalogues. These are official national documents and at the macro level they set out a framework for language teaching and idioms and proverbs are constituent parts of them, as they are natural, multiword, frequent, stable linguistic units with idiomatic characteristics. They represent a significant part of everyday language and it would be expected that they will be accordingly represented in curriculum/knowledge catalogues for the language subjects in the entire vertical of the Slovenian school system. In the empirical part, where excerpts from a total of 11 curriculum/knowledge catalogs are cited, it is shown that idioms and proverbs occur in only a very modest size, unsystematically and sporadically, that the related terminology is not uniform and that the methodological guidelines are often only indicated. This presentation is rounded up in the conclusion, where possibilities to improve the unsatisfying state concerning idioms and proverbs are presented.

  6. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  7. "Eat, shut up and stand in the sun”. From the popular proverbs to the knowledge of vitamin D

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    Rafael Crovetto-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish language is rich in proverbs, many of which are related with food and health. The purpose in this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of some of those popular proverbs linking health and disease with the sun exposure. We describe the current knowledge about vitamin D, synthesis and mechanisms of action. The nurse should identify subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D, and prevent nutrient solutions, since sun exposure is not an appropriate measure because of the side effects of ultraviolet radiation, which contradicts the knowledge derived from some classic Spanish proverbs and sayings.

  8. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

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    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  9. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

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    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  10. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

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    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  11. Irony and proverb comprehension in schizophrenia: do female patients "dislike" ironic remarks?

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    Rapp, Alexander M; Langohr, Karin; Mutschler, Dorothee E; Wild, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r = -0.51) and proverb (r = 0.56) comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  12. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

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    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  13. The Validation Activities of the APhoRISM EC 7FP Project, Aimed at Post Seismic Damage Mapping, Through a Combined Use of EOS and Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthery, N.; Luzi, G.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Pierdicca, N.; Wegmuller, U.; Romaniello, V.; Anniballe, R.; Piscini, A.; Albano, M.; Moro, M.; Crosetto, M.

    2016-08-01

    The estimate of damage after an earthquake using spaceborne remote sensing data is one of the main application of the change detection methodologies widely discussed in literature. APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedures for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring is a collaborative European Commission project (FP7-SP ACE- 2013-1) addressing the development of innovative methods, using space and ground sensors to support the management and mitigation of the seismic and the volcanic risk. In this paper a novel approach aimed at damage assessment based on the use of a priori information derived by different sources in a preparedness phase is described and a preliminary validation is shown.

  14. Discussion on Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper has penetrated into the sexism in English proverbs from different aspects to illustrate the sex discrimination in society. Now the phenomenon of sexism has got improved, but the work needs efforts and cooperation for long. Therefore we must adequately know the sexism in English proverbs especially in society and see it comprehensively.

  15. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Bohrn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Common Features of Japanese and Mongolian Proverbs%日语蒙古语谚语的共性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马福山; 陈亚军

    2015-01-01

    A proverb is a short and pithy folk literature form. It reflects life, custom, culture and ethnic awareness of nationality. At the same time, a proverb is a crystalization of production experience and wisdom of laboring people. Both Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs reflect the development of their respective nation's life courses. The author finds that there are some common characteristics when comparing Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs. This paper studies the common characteristics of Japanese proverbs and Mongolian proverbs from the perspective of cultural anthropology. The purpose is to provide a reference for better understanding and communication between Japanese culture and Mongolian culture.%谚语来源于民族的生活,是文化、民族意识的集中反映,是一种短小精悍的民间文学形式.谚语也是劳动人民长期生产实践活动的经验和智慧的结晶,是语言的精华.不论是日本民族的谚语,还是蒙古民族的谚语,都集中包含并反映着自己民族走过的生活历程.本文将日语谚语与蒙语谚语进行比较考察后发现其中有一些共性特征.并以文化人类学的视野考察分析日、蒙谚语的共性特征,为日、蒙两个民族在不同文化平台之间相互理解、交流提供参考.

  17. The interpretation of proverbs by elderly with high, medium and low educational level: Abstract reasoning as an aspect of executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Bianchi de Oliveira Wachholz

    Full Text Available Abstract It is now known that cognitive functions tend to decline with age. Executive functions (EF are among the first abilities to decline with aging. A subcomponent of the EF is abstract reasoning. The Test of Proverbs is an instrument that can be used to evaluate the capacity of abstract reasoning. Objective: To examine the association of performance in interpretation of proverbs, with education and with episodic memory and EF tasks. Methods: A total of 67 individuals aged between 60 and 75 years were evaluated, and divided into three categories of education: 1-4 years, 5-8 years, and 9 or more years of schooling. The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire (gender, age, marital status, education, income, previous occupation, current occupation and health perception, the Mini Mental State Examination, Brief Cognitive Screening Battery; Geriatric Depression Scale; Forward and Backward Digit Span (WAIS-III, and the Test of Proverbs. Results: A high impact of education was seen on the interpretation of proverbs, with lower performance among the elderly with less education. A significant association between performance on the Test of Proverbs and scores on the MMSE, GDS, and verbal fluency tests was found. There was a modest association with incidental memory. Conclusions: The capacity to interpret proverbs is strongly associated with education and with performance on other EF tasks.

  18. The Use of Proverbs in the Poems of Persian Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zolfaghari

    2012-09-01

    Not only the poets have benefited from the great treasure of proverbial literature, but also they have added to its wealth. This interaction has not been considered quantitatively and qualitatively up to now. In this article, a definition of the proverb and also its importance and background are presented. Then the usage manner of proverb in poets' poetry and Persian poetical proverbs and its position through paroemia are indicated. In addition, the difference between paroemia and comprehensive word, allusion, methods of equation and allegory are presented. With a quantitative and qualitative method, this article indicates the reflection of proverbs in poets' poetry of different centuries and analyzes the proverbs in poetry of the thirteen famous poets. In this way, we understand practically and theoretically the ways that poets have used the proverb and also its reflection in their poetry.

  19. Grammatical Form, Sematic Relation and Cognitive Understanding of Proverbs%谚语的语法形式、语义关系和认知理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝晖

    2011-01-01

    文章探讨谚语的语法表现形式和语义关系,从认知语言学、现代隐喻理论、概念合成理论的新角度总结谚语的形成过程和理解方式,对如何使用谚语及更全面地研究谚语提供参考依据。%By probing into grammatical forms and semantic relations of proverbs,especially by using modern metaphor theories and conceptual combination theory,the writer analyzed the formation and understanding of proverbs so as to provide basis for a comprehensire research of proverbs..

  20. Connotation of Animal Words in Chinese and English Proverbs%英汉谚语种动物词汇的内涵阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志新

    2015-01-01

    Animals never fail to keep a close relation with human beings, and thus leads to many animal vocabularies. So this thesis aims to arouse the intercultural awareness, to improve the cultural understanding competence, to achieve a satisfactory effect through presenting the connotations of animal words in Chinese and English proverbs.

  1. 中日谚语的源起发展之异同%On Similarities and Dissimilarities between the Origin of Chinese and Japanese Proverb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚蕾

    2011-01-01

    Proverb is the fruit of a nation's collective wisdom, and it is also the pick of a language as well as the result of a nation's historical and cultural accumulation, so it is honored as the "living fossil" of national culture. Proverb is a carrier of abundant cultural connotation.China and Japan are neighbors separated only by a strip of water, and they have a long history of language and culture communications. However, due to the dissimilarities of environment,historical background,cultural background,religions,living habits and mode of thinking between the two countries, proverbs of the two countries respectively possess their own national characteristics. This paper attempts to compare proverbs of the two countries from the perspective of meaning, structure and function, so as to further learn the development of cultures of China and Japan.%谚语是一个民族集体智慧的结晶,是语言的精华,是一个国家历史文化沉淀的结果,有民族文化的"活化石"之称。它负载了丰富的文化内涵,中日一衣带水,语言文化交流有着悠久的历史。但是由于所处环境、历史背景、文化背景、宗教信仰、生活习惯以及思维方式的不同,两国谚语具有浓厚的民族特色。本文试图通过对中日谚语的含义、结构和作用等多方面进行比较,从而对中日文化的发展有更进一步的了解。

  2. The Expressions of Animal Words in Western Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志新

    2015-01-01

    In the long course of the development of human history, animals usually keep a close relation with human beings. But the same animal may have different figurative meanings in proverbs of both nations. If we don't know the cultural information and only understand the proverbs according to our own cultural background, we would cause the deviation from information understanding and misunderstanding in intercultural communication.

  3. Proverb comprehension in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmel, Jamie L; Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K

    2016-09-01

    Comprehension of non-literal language involves multiple neural systems likely involving callosal connections. We describe proverb comprehension impairments in individuals with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and normal-range general intelligence. Experiment 1 compared Gorham Proverb Test (Gorham, 1956) performance in 19 adults with AgCC and 33 neurotypical control participants of similar age, sex, and intelligence. Experiment 2 used the Proverbs subtest of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, 2001) to compare 19 adults with AgCC and 17 control participants with similar age, sex, and intelligence. Gorham Proverbs performance was impaired in the AgCC group for both the free-response and multiple-choice tasks. On the D-KEFS proverbs test, the AgCC group performed significantly worse on the free-response task (and all derivative scores) despite normal levels of performance on the multiple-choice task. Covarying verbal intelligence did not alter these outcomes. However, covarying a measure of non-literal language comprehension considerably reduced group differences in proverb comprehension on the Gorham test, but had little effect on the D-KEFS group differences. The difference between groups seemed to be greatest when participants had to generate their own interpretation (free response), or in the multiple choice format when the test included many proverbs that were likely to be less familiar. Taken together, the results of this study clearly show that proverb comprehension is diminished in individuals with AgCC compared to their peers.

  4. 谚语与日本商业文化的特性%Proverbs and Fundamental Features of Japanese Business Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    日语谚语是承载日本文化涵的一个重载体,同时也是反映日本文化特征的具体表现形式。本文从消费观、经商观、风险观等方面对日语谚语进行了归纳整理、试译与分析,并从中抽取出了日本传统商业意识与商业规范的特质。采用将语言、文化、经济、商业等多元因素相结合的手法,对日本谚语中所蕴涵和折射出的商业文化特征加以系统性论述。%Japanese proverbs are expressions of basic values created and passed down as wise or practical advice for living, and also specific forms presenting and revealing the essential characteristics of Japanese culture. This dissertation, from consumption attitudes, business view and risk view, sumarrizes and translates proverbs, from which Japan' s features of business consciousness and business norms are drawn. By integrating multiple aspects, such as linguistic, culture, economic and business factors, this dissertation mainly elaborates on the fundamental features of Japanese business culture contained and reflected in proverbs.

  5. Research on Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs%浅谈汉英谚语中的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2014-01-01

    谚语是语言的特殊形式,是熟语的一种。古往今来,人们对谚语的评价向来很高。有人曾言:谚语乃语言中的盐,一束智慧的花。作为现实世界的一面镜子,语言真实地反映了各种社会习俗和价值观念。谚语作为语言的精华,浓缩了文化的内涵,涉及到社会生活的方方面面,从侧面反映了各民族的思维方式和价值观念。因而中西方文化中对女性带有贬义的看法和评价在汉英谚语中就会有所反映。笔者将以女性主义为视角分别探讨性别歧视在汉英谚语中的体现、性别歧视的根源及其发展趋势。%Proverbs are the special form of language and a type of idioms. All along people speak highly of proverbs. They are said to be the salt of language and a bunch of flowers of wisdom. Language,a mirror of the real world,,can truly reflect different kinds of social conventions and values. As the essence of language,proverbs enrich the cultural connotation,involve the social life and reflect a nation’s way of thinking,values and psychological characteristics from one side. Therefore many social views of women containing derogatory sense and evaluation are reflected in the proverbs. In this paper,the author will explore respectively the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs,the deep-rooted causes of gender discrimination and its developing trend in the perspective of feminism.

  6. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility.

  7. Styles and Aesthetic Cultural Characteristics of Changzhi Dialect Proverbs%山西长治方言谚语的类型及其审美文化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 史素芬

    2011-01-01

    文章通过实地调查,共收集到150余条长治方言中的谚语,其内容丰富,意蕴深刻。文章主要从其类型和审美文化特征的角度进行了分析。从类型上看,主要有事理谚、社交谚、生活谚、气象谚等四种类型;从审美文化的角度看,主要有韵律美、对称美、联系美等审美文化特征。%Based on the field investigation, a total of more than 150 Changzhi dialect proverbs have been collected. The contents are rich and the meaning is deep. This article mainly analyzed the types and aesthetic culture characteristics. There are four types:thing proverbs, life proverbs, social proverbs and climate proverbs. From the perspective of aesthetic culture, there are mainly style beauty, music beauty, symmetrical beauty, the rhetoric beauty aesthetic culture characteristics.

  8. Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty%两汉谣谚理论考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶

    2014-01-01

    The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .%汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。

  9. 英谚探究%The Study of English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程庆方; 孟秋菊

    2015-01-01

    English proverbs are meaningful words circulated in English-speaking countries. They are concise and a valuable asset in British and American culture. It is of great significance to study the definition and characteristics of English proverbs and ana-lyzing English proverb translation skills from the perspective of linguistics and translatology.%英语谚语是流传于英语国家言简意赅而又意味深长的话语,是英美文化宝库中的一笔可贵的财富.研究英语谚语的界定和特征,从语言学和翻译学的角度剖析英语谚语的翻译技巧对学好英语谚语有着重大的意义.

  10. Comparison Between English and Chinese Proverbs in Cross-cultural Communication%跨文化交际中英汉谚语之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文颖

    2012-01-01

    谚语是语言的一个重要组成部分,是各国语言艺术的精华。语言与文化之间的关系是密不可分的。语言是文化的一部分,但是它又是一种比较特殊的文化,且对文化有着很重要的作用。语言与文化互相影响,互相作用。一般来说,语言能够更好的反映一个地区的民族特征,这其中既包含该地区的历史渊源、文化背景,也包括地区民族的生产生活方式、人生态度等。这点在英汉谚语也有体现。由于各国的历史文化背景、地理环境、人文环境等因素的不同,所以英汉谚语又存在着差异。本文首先分析英汉谚语的起源,其都来自民间生活,神话传说,文学作品和宗教文献;然后主要从生活实践经验、价值观、道德观念以及宗教思想的四方面,对英汉谚语的相同点与不同点进行对比分析,并提出英汉谚语在跨文化交际中的渗透与融合。最后指出随着世界文化的交流,谚语逐渐打破国家和民族的界限,英汉谚语在互相渗透与融合。%Proverb is an important part of language. Language and culture is closely related. Language is a part of culture, and is a specialized one. They are influenced by each other. As for the thinking patterns and sociological activities of human being have a lot in common,proverbs in Chinese and English have many similarities. There are also differences in it for distinct history,geography and lifestyle. In the paper,the origin of the proverbs in English and Chinese is analyzed at first. Secondly,the similarities and differences of proverbs are compared in terms of lifestyle, values, morality and religion. Lastly, it states that proverbs in English and Chinese will be integrated with the globalization.

  11. Attitudes of Acehnese People towards Acehnese Proverbs in Relation to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairina Nasir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at describing proverbs from the Acehnese society and explaining the attitudes of people towards those proverbs in relation to education. The methodology applied was ethnographic using a questionnaire to obtain data. A number of 14 respondents who varied across ages, educational background and occupations participated in this study. These respondents included three housewives, two university students, one fresh graduate, one junior high school and two senior high school students, one trader, two senior citizens, one teacher and one civil servant. Based on the findings, the attitude nowadays of the Acehnese has changed radically. Out of eight adults, only three were actively using proverbs in their daily lives and teaching their children those proverbs. All of the young people, who ranged from fourteen to twenty three years old, did not use proverbs. In relation to education, proverbs are used to teach the society about courtesy, advices (e.g. for choosing companions and friends in life, child rearing, socializing/conversing, and not to mind other people’s business, and shyness as part of faith. Furthermore, a significant language shift has occurred in Aceh which has impacted Acehnese oral literature whereby more parents today prefer Indonesian to be taught as their children’s first language (Alamsyah, et al., 2011. Consequently this has put the Acehnese proverbs under the threat of becoming extinct in their own society. 

  12. On the Use of the Ballad and the Proverb in Zhanguoce%试论《战国策》中歌谣谚语的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏程; 刘生良

    2014-01-01

    歌谣与谚语是先秦社会两种重要的言语形态。《战国策》中歌谣、谚语运用的状况反映了战国时代歌谣与谚语的传播与接受。相对于春秋时期歌谣以集体演唱为主,战国时期的歌谣以个体吟唱、抒发个体情感、展现个体内心世界为主。因此,《战国策》中的歌谣具有重要的艺术功能,它是展现人物冲突、展示人物个性的重要手段,有的歌谣以丰厚的意蕴扩展了作品的艺术表现力。相对于春秋时人的谚语,《战国策》中的谚语俚俗化色彩增强,说理效能得到了强化。%Ballads and proverbs are the two important verbal forms in the pre-Qin society. The ballads and proverbs in Zhanguoce reflects the dissemination and acceptance of them in the Warring States Period. The ballads which express personal feelings and show the inner-world of the individual are sung individually in the Warring States Period.However,the ballads are sung collectively in the Spring and Autumn Period.The ballad has a great influence on the artistic expression of the works in Zhanguoce. It is an important means which shows the confliction between the characters and the personalities of theirs. Some ballads expand the artistic expression of the works with the rich connotation. Compared with the proverb in the Spring and Au-tumn Period,the proverb’s popularity and reasoning function are strengthened in Zhanguoce.

  13. Linguoculturological Analysis of Woman's Image in the Proverbs and Sayings of the Dagestan Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanova, Marina; Magomedova, Patimat; Gasanova, Salminat

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to linguoculturological description of woman's image in the proverbial worldview of the Dagestan languages. The analysis of proverbial expressions revealed androcentric bias of the Dagestan paroemiological worldview where woman, as a rule, appears for an object: mainly for mother, daughter, bride, and wife/mistress. The…

  14. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  15. Proverbes et contes populaires : le sexe de l’hyperénonciateur

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Maingueneau

    2016-01-01

    The « hyperenunciator » (Maingueneau 2004) is an abstract being, the source of a viewpoint that guarantees the validity of a Thesaurus of utterances shared by the members of a community. This article aims to enrich this concept from an ethnolinguistic perspective. It compares the hyperenunciators of two distinct kinds of Thesaurus, proverbs and folk tales, via a reflection on their gender identity. Drawing on old Spanish proverbs about women, the « Tales of Mother Goose » by Charles Perrault ...

  16. The teaching of Russian proverbs and sayings in cross-cultural communication%俄罗斯谚语和俗语在跨文化交际中的教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶珍珍

    2013-01-01

    Proverbs and sayings is the carrier of culture, is a national language of the essence, also reflects a nation's world outlook and values. From the Russian proverbs and sayings to understand the Russian nationality diet culture, animal imagery, religious ideas, but also reflects the strong national characteristic. In this paper, through the comparative analysis of cultural differences in cross-cultural communication in Russian and Chinese proverbs and sayings, Summing up the advantages and disadvantages of curriculum design, to improve future teaching practice.%  谚语和俗语是文化的载体,是一个民族语言的精髓,更体现了一个民族的世界观与价值观。从俄语谚语俗语中可以了解到俄罗斯民族的饮食文化、动物意象、宗教思想观念,同时还体现出了浓厚的民族特点。本文通过对比分析跨文化交际中的俄汉语谚语和俗语的民族文化差异,总结课程设计的优缺点,以完善今后的教学实践。

  17. ‘Wealthy women’ in Antiquity: The ‘capable woman’ of Proverbs 31:10–31 and Mibtahiah from Elephantine

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    Antje Labahn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the anonymous ‘capable woman’ of Proverbs 31 with Mibtahiah of Elephantine. Both women are presented as wealthy occupiers of estates with economic success and influence in society. Both literary portraits unfold positive attitudes towards female characters, but present two divergent gender conceptions. The construction of Proverbs 31 depicts the ‘capable woman’ as an ideal character who amalgamates various social female roles and benefits from acting according to the wisdom teachings. The ‘capable woman’ provides a literary model of identification and imitation with an offer to share one’s identity with her. The Elephantine papyri reveal a divergent conception of another wealthy woman with influence insociety. Mibtahiah inherits an estate and enlarges her domain through additional economical purchase. She also takes a leading role in her family. The social role of Mibtahiah seems to be comparatively progressive, since the documents clearly indicate a juridical equalisation of men and women. The two conceptions of influential female characters present wealthy woman with potential in society. Thus, the positive attitude towards the two women is based on their wealth. ‘Welvarende vroue’ in antieke tye: Die ‘knap vrou’ van Spreuke 31:10−31 en Mibtahiahvan Elephantine. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die anonieme ‘knap vrou’ van Spreuke 31 met Mibtahiah van Elephantine. Albei vroue word voorgehou as die welvarende, invloedryke en ekonomies suksesvolle eienaars van landgoedere. Albei letterkundige weergawes openbaar ’n positiewe ingesteldheid teenoor vroulike karakters, maar verteenwoordig twee uiteenlopende geslagskonsepte. Spreuke 31 beeld die ‘knap vrou’ uit as die ideale karakter wat die verskeie rolle van die vrou met gemak hanteer en voordeel uit wysheidsonderrig trek. Die ‘knap vrou’ is ’n navolgenswaardige model met wie iemand sou wou identifiseer. Die Elephantine papyri openbaar

  18. A Comparative Study on the Cultural Connotation of Ko-rean and Chinese Proverbs%韩中俗语文化内涵的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李游

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture are complementary to each other. The research of the inner link between language and culture plays an important role in learning language and understanding the culture. This thesis analyzed and compared the similarities and differences of proverbs between Korean and Chinese which are put as the object of this study. The purpose is to promote the learners' deep understanding of Korean and Chinese, and the cultural differences between Korea and China.%语言与文化是相辅相成的,研究语言与文化的内在联系对语言学习和文化理解起到极其重要的作用。本文以韩中俗语为研究对象,剖析对比了它们文化内涵的异同点,以此促进学习者对韩语、汉语和对韩中文化差异的深刻理解。

  19. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

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    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  20. Setswana proverbs within the institution of lenyalo [marriage]: A critical engagement with the bosadi [womanhood] approach

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    Itumeleng D. Mothoagae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Setswana proverbs point to the rich oral history of the Batswana people, their cosmology, morality, indigenous knowledge system, rituals, drama, sayings and memo scripts which are deeply embedded in memory. They emerged from reflections on existential experiences and animal behaviour. In her analysis of Proverbs 31:10�31 found in the Hebrew text, Masenya rereads this text in conjugation with her Northern Sotho proverbs regarding women from a bosadi [womanhood] approach. It is in this approach that she attempts to engage structures of �patriarchy� and the marginalisation of women�s identities. In so doing, the approach grapples with issues such as the mythological thinking of male dominance, cultural subjugation, gender equality, political marginalisation and economic transaction. The decolonial turn as a theoretical framework acknowledges the particularity and universality of cultures and knowledge. Whilst there is particularity among African cultures, there is also universality. In this article I will refer to Setswana proverbs in the context of marriage to engage the bosadi approach. It is the intention of this article to argue that proverbs such as lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi need to be contextualised within their historical location as well as within the context of the institution of lenyalo that is anchored in the practice of bogadi. Furthermore, there is a need to critically engage with terms such as patriarchy, oppression, structure and hierarchy. The paper will use the decolonial turn as a theoretical framework. A conclusion will be drawn from the discussion above.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has an interdisciplinary approach, it touches on Historical analysis of Setswana Proverbs, the missionary era and the transition between �Setswana traditional� worldview and �Euro-Christian� worldview. Furthermore, it pertains to the understanding of the Proverbs within the custom of Lenyalo

  1. A STUDY ON PROVERBS REBTED TO HORSE IN KYRGYZ, UIGUR, MACEDONIA-KOSOVA TURKISH LANGUAGES AND IN TURKISH LEGADERY STORIES / TÜRK DESTANLARINDA, HIKÂYELERINDE VE KIRGIZ, UYGUR, MAKEDONYA –KOSOVA TÜRKÇESINDE, AT ILE ILGILI ATASÖZLERI ÜZERINE BIR ARASTIRMA

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    Gökmen MOR (M.A.H.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The life power of a nation is only possible if it has asound base. Turkish culture is the richest one in the worldwith its literature, history custom. Turkish nation which hasgot a history full of bravery has reflected its achievements intoits epics throughout its long history. When we examine theTurkish history; we find a deep culture and precious sayingsenabling people to take lesson from life. Turkish nationbrought an extraordinary bright culture into the places where it went what distinguishes the nations from one another isespecially the oral culture. Our proverb is one of the mostimportant elements of this oral culture. Our proverbs havegrace impacts which affect people deeply. Turkish proverbsarise from Turkish thought and are a mirror which reflects itsphilosophy, Bravery, and culture. In the ancient Turkishsocieties the horse has been an indispensable element forTurkish people and mentioned in the Turkish proverbs.

  2. On the Types and Dissemination Characteristics of English Proverbs in Advertisements from the Perspective of Memetics%模因论视域下英语广告中谚语的传播类型和特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华威; 靳婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of Memetics and with the method of literature review and qualitative analy-sis,this study introduces characteristics of memes proverbs,analyzes its formation and transmission in English advertisements and points out that the proverbs memes can be divided into genetic transmission and expressive transmission according to the way of transmission,which provides some helpful ideas for advertising creators to use proverb strong meme to reinforce advertising effects.%长久以来,研究者多从翻译、文化价值或英汉谚语差异等角度对谚语进行研究,但是对谚语的传播途径、谚语的选择以及使用策略方面的研究却很少。针对这样的问题,以模因论为理论基础,采取文献综述法和定性研究的方法,对谚语模因的形成及其在广告中的传播方式进行分析,指出广告谚语模因可以分为模因基因型传播和模因表现型传播两种途径,前者又可以进一步分为原型传递和异形传递;后者则分为同音异义传播、同形异义传播和同构异义传播。

  3. Concepções sobre relações amorosas / conjugais e sobre seus protagonistas: um estudo com provérbios Conceptions about conjugal/romantic relationships and about their protagonists: a study with proverbs

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    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os provérbios contêm informações culturalmente importantes sobre temas como casamento e relações de gênero, uma vez que constituem discurso autoritário e estereotipado aceito e memorizado pelas pessoas desde a infância. O presente estudo envolveu seleção e categorização de provérbios sobre relações amorosas, casamento, descasamento, bem como sobre as condições socioculturais que caracterizam a vida masculina e feminina com o objetivo de analisar singularidades e regularidades reveladoras das concepções presentes em tal modalidade de produção cultural. A seleção dos 569 provérbios examinados foi feita a partir de fontes documentais. Os provérbios foram classificados em 4 grandes temas (Amor, Casamento e Relações Conjugais, Homem, Mulher que comportaram 104 subcategorias de análise. Os resultados revelaram um universo cultural construído a partir da perspectiva masculina, no qual estão presentes concepções sobre a natureza feminina e sobre as relações amorosas que justificam o desequilíbrio de poder nas relações conjugais que se constata ainda hoje.Proverbs contain culturally important information about themes such as marriage and gender relations, since they constitute an authoritarian and stereotyped discourse which is accepted and memorized by people from early ages. The present study involved selection and categorization of proverbs about romantic relationships, marriage, separation, as well as about the socio-cultural conditions that characterize masculine and feminine life, with the objective of analyzing revealing singularities and regularities of the conceptions present in such modality of cultural production. The selection of the 569 examined proverbs was made from documental sources. The proverbs were classified in 4 broader themes (Love, Marriage and Conjugal Relations, Man, Woman which spanned 104 analysis sub-categories. The results revealed a cultural universe constructed upon the male

  4. APHORISMS IN THE NOVELS OF HAKAN GÜNDAY HAKAN GÜNDAY ROMANLARINDA AFORİZMALAR

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    Caner KERİMOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, aphorisms in the novels of Hakan Günday are studied. Initially, in introduction some information about the etymology of the word “aphorism”, the place of aphorisms in Turkish literature, Hakan Günday and Günday’s novels is given, and then aphorisms in the novels are listed. Aphorisms are listed according to thematic titles. 8 titles are identified as human, time, place, business, religion-nation, organization, communication and other concepts. Distribution of aphorisms is as follows : Human 55, time 30, place 5, business 24, organization 15, religion-nation 12, communication 9, other concepts 23. This article includes 173 aphorisms in Günday’s novels. Bu makalede Hakan Günday’ın romanlarındaki aforizmalar incelenmiştir. İlk olarak giriş bölümünde aforizma kelimesinin kökeni, Türk edebiyatında aforizma türünün yeri, Hakan Günday ve Günday’ın romanları hakkında kısa bilgiler verilmiştir. Ardından inceleme bölümünde romanlardaki aforizmalar sınıflandırılmıştır. Aforizmalar tematik başlıklara göre sıralanmıştır. İnsan, zaman, mekân, iş, örgütlenme, din-ulus, iletişim ve diğer kavramlar olmak üzere 8 başlık belirlenmiş ve aforizmalar bu 8 başlığa göre listelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda aforizmaların bu başlıklara dağılımı şu şekilde olmuştur: İnsan başlığı altında 55, zaman başlığı altında 30, mekân başlığı altında 5, iş başlığı altında 24, örgütlenme başlığı altında 15, din-ulus başlığı altında 12, iletişim başlığı altında 9, diğer kavramlar başlığı altında 23. Çalışmada Hakan Günday’ın romanlarında geçen toplam 173 aforizmaya yer verilmiştir

  5. Proverbes et contes populaires : le sexe de l’hyperénonciateur

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    Dominique Maingueneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The « hyperenunciator » (Maingueneau 2004 is an abstract being, the source of a viewpoint that guarantees the validity of a Thesaurus of utterances shared by the members of a community. This article aims to enrich this concept from an ethnolinguistic perspective. It compares the hyperenunciators of two distinct kinds of Thesaurus, proverbs and folk tales, via a reflection on their gender identity. Drawing on old Spanish proverbs about women, the « Tales of Mother Goose » by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers’ Fairy Tales, I will underline that domestic space plays a key role in this subject, that an « eco-nomy of speech » places gossip, on one hand, and proverbs and folk tales, on the other, in opposition and that there is the desire to distinguish in women’s speech between what is considered to be positive and what is considered dangerous for the house.

  6. The Integration of Proverbs from Thai Didactic Literary Works for Secondary Students

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    Suphapanyawut Kannika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The integration of proverbs from Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students has been prepared for building the body of knowledge. The process of managing human thoughts in behaving and doing well can increase quality and efficiency to students in terms of mind, conscience and correct actions. (1 This article aimed to examine histories of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs (2 conditions of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs at present. (3 The integration of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students is a qualitative research study Approach: The research data documents and fieldwork, were collected in Roi-Et, Mahasarakham and Kalasin. Province by using a basic surveying, observations interviews and focused group dissension. The samples were 150 people. Results: The research findings were presented in from of descriptive analysis. For histories of the uses of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works, the proverbs aimed to teach people involving honesty, discipline; love of the country, religion and the king; grateful to people to whom you are obligated and attention to learning. The proverbs teach us to live sufficiently, to intend to study, to love Thainess and to have public awareness. The proverbs teach us to have good behaviors, to talk politely, to speak straightforward the purpose needed, to teach about beliefs, merits, deeds, black magic and magic, to teach about association with other people, to keep cool, not to be frightened easily and not to believe rumor and bad news. The proverbs teach about forgiveness perseverance, cultures, traditions which are good to everyone in the society so that they will live happily together to have love and unity. For the current conditions of the uses of Thai didactic literary works, they are used for teaching at schools only. After graduation from their schools, these people seldom study further to increase knowledge of proverbs. The teachings

  7. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

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    J.H. Potgieter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  8. A Simple Analysis of English Proverb Translation under Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    English proverbs are fixed oral sayings widespread in English-speaking countries,expressing profound meanings in simple words.The content of English proverbs involves every aspect of social life of English-speaking countries,and the form presents the unique linguistic characteristics of English language. This paper explores the translation of English proverbs in the view of functional equivalence theory.%英语谚语是流传于英语国家的口头固定用语,用简单通俗的话来反映深刻的道理,内容涉及社会生活的各方面,富有独特的英语语言特点。本文将从功能对等理论视角浅析英语谚语的翻译。

  9. 英语谚语中的性别歧视%Sexism in English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许之所; 李丽芳; 李丽敏

    2000-01-01

    As is known to all that language & culture are closely related, culture influences and shapes language and language reflects culture. English proverbs, as an essential part of the vocabulary and as the sinew of the language, they can more or less reflect geography, history, views, behavior and system of the society and of course provide a little glimpse or clues to the sex discrimination. The author in this essay focuses on the study of sexism in English proverbs.%就英语谚语中存在的一些性别歧视问题进行了分析和探讨。

  10. Did Ms Wisdom of Proverbs 8 become a mystery in 4QInstruction?

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    Pieter M. Venter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible is quoted and alluded to in 4QInstruction. There is an obvious similarity between the way the raz nihyeh of 4QInstruction and Lady Wisdom in Proverbs 8 function. This intertextual study investigates this phenomenon by comparing 4Q416 2 III 8–21 and 4Q417 1 I with Proverbs 8:12–21 and 8:22–31. It is concluded that apocalyptic influence changed the character of Lady Wisdom but not her essential function.

  11. World Vision in Language of Russian and Chinese Proverbs and Sayings of Law%俄汉法律谚语与俗语的语言世界图景--仅以涉及法庭、法官的谚语为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦可昀

    2016-01-01

    Proverbs and sayings are widely spread in the community but understandable given the philoso-phy of life statement.Research on a national proverbs and sayings from one side to show the national world vision in language,so as to further recognize the nation's national psychology and personality and the common national perception of the world vision in language.Cultural Psychology of different ethnic pro-verbs reflected in its mapping world vision in language have similarities and differences.In this paper,in a LWV theory as the basis,proverbs and sayings related to test Russia and Chinese court judges comparative analysis aims to summarize the Russian and Chinese proverbs and sayings law as reflected in the language picture of the world,as well as Russian and Chinese the most simple concept of justice and the legal and cultural traditions.%谚语和俗语是广泛流传于民间的通俗易懂而又赋予生活哲理的语句。研究一个民族的谚语和俗语可以从一个侧面展现出该民族语言丰富的世界图景。不同民族的谚语在其映射的语言世界图景中体现的文化心态各有异同。俄汉两民族有关法庭、法官的谚语和俗语是俄汉两民族最朴素的法制观和法律文化传统的反映。

  12. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words…

  13. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

  14. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet : Women in Proverbs from Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Mineke

    2006-01-01

    Winner of the Dutch 2005 Eureka! prize for best non-fiction title The jury about the book: "A revealing and at the same time extraordinarily funny book" In cultures all over the globe, sex and gender issues have been expressed in proverbs, the world's smallest literary genre. This irresistible book

  15. Nationality of Japanese Proverbs%日语谚语的民族性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖

    2009-01-01

    日语谚语是日本民族语言宝库中极富表现力的一种表现形式.日语谚语在语音形式、表现风格等方面都具有鲜明的民族个性.民族历史自不必说,从语音形式的"五·七"韵律到日本民族的自然观、女性观以及独特的猫情结,在日语谚语中都可以找到具体的表现.通过日语谚语分析,可以揭示日本民族的历史和文化背景在语言中的存在方式,这正是语言哲学的目的所在.%Japanese proverbs are strong representations of the expressions in the Japanese language. Japanese proverbs have very vivid nationalistic characteristics in the form of sound and the manner of expression. Aside from national history, nationalistic unique-ness can be found in Japanese proverbs such as the "Five-Seven" rhythm, nature and feminine views, as well as the Cat Com-plex. Through the study of Japanese proverbs, we can better understand and grasp the influence of history and culture on the Jap-anese language, therefore gaining future understanding of the Japanese society and way of thinking.

  16. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  17. APhoRISM FP7 project: the A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore; Pierdicca, Nazzareno

    2014-05-01

    The APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedure for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring - project is an FP7 funded project, which aims at developing and testing two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data for seismic and volcanic risk management. The objective is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. One of the two methods deals with earthquakes, and it concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The method is named APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. Indeed, a wide literature and projects have addressed and focused such issue, but usually the proposed approaches are only based on change detection techniques and/or classifications algorithms. The novelty of APhoRISM-APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by: - InSAR time series to measure surface movements - shakemaps obtained from seismological data - vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map from earth observation satellite sensors (either Optical or Synthetic Aperture Radar) to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms.

  18. "COME ON, BUDDHIST NUN"--ON A CHINESE TRANSLATION CONTROVERSY INSPIRED BY NIETZSCHE APHORISMS IN 1925-26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raoul David Findeisen

    2002-01-01

    This study takes as a point of departure a Chinese translation from one single chapter of Nietzsche's work Beyond Good and Evil (1886) prepared in 1925.It focuses on the controversy that soon broke out and resulted in not less than four different versions of one single Nietzsche aphorism published within one year.Closer scrutiny reveals that the yet unnoticed controversy may be seen as an indicator of a sociological shift in translation work, marked by the move to a paradigm of first-hand mediation. Briefly tracing the channel via Japanese and/or English intermediary sources, then well-established for some three decades, it concludes that despite contrary claim in contemporary discussions, conceptual and thus misreadings presented transcultural obstacles rather than linguistic obstacles. It therefore opts for reading translations as sources for the intellectual landscape in the target audience in a given historical moment, hitherto considered deficient.

  19. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour illustrer une situation, donner une leçon ou encore appuyer un discours, les proverbes sont un canevas linguistique dont on ne peut se passer dans les joutes oratoires. Pour ce qui concerne est des proverbes alimentaires, on peut se rendre compte qu’ils permettent d’observer comment les Bulu appréhendent le monde et montrent de ce fait la société dans sa dimension holistique. Cet article s’attèle à une analyse anthropologique de quelques proverbes alimentaires de la socioculture bulu. Ces parémies font intervenir la vision bulu de l’organisation politique, de l’économie, des relations de parenté, de la diplomatie, de l’education, de la mort, de la justice, de la construction de la personnalité,etc. Feeding in negro-cultures generally and particularly on Bulu’s people have an importance which goes beyond the biological needs. In fact, it intervenes in this society as a social total fact and permits to apprhehend it on political, economical, medical, religious, artistic, juridical, linguistic angle. From the linguistic point of view, proverbs constitute a favorable space to the demonstration of representations on food. Used to illustrate a situation, to give a learning or to support a speech, proverbs are a linguistic framework which is not possible to avoid during verbal sparrings. Concerning food proverbs, it can be realized that, they permit to observe how Bulu’s people apprehend world and show society in this

  20. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer's disease with proverbs (STADP for the elderly Validade e confiabilidade do teste de rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com provérbios (TRDAP para idosos

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    Mauricéa Tabosa Ferreira Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence Alzheimer's disease with age compromises memory, language, executive functions, constructive praxis and abstraction, requiring early evaluation with standardized tests. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP, elaborated using pieces from the proverb memory game. METHOD: The test contains three stages (A: short-term memory, B: executive functions and language and C: episodic memory. The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals with minimum age of 60 years and one year of schooling, CDR of one or zero, cared for at specialized services of UFPE, HGA and private institutions. Sociodemographic data, habits and health perception were assessed. Among the tests used were MMSE (convergent validity and GDS (discriminating. RESULTS: A good correlation with standardized test was found, acceptable internal consistency (0.71, cutoff point for schooling of 6.49 (low (80% and 77.8% and 8.66 (high (84.6% and 86.1%; Kappa coefficient of 1 (p=0.000 inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: STADP is a valid test for screening Alzheimer's disease.A prevalência da doença de Alzheimer com o envelhecimento, que compromete memória, linguagem, funções executivas, praxia construtiva e abstração, necessita avaliação precoce com testes padronizados. OBJETIVO: Validação do Teste de Rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com Provérbios (TRDAP, elaborado com pedras do jogo de memória de provérbios. MÉTODO: O teste contém três etapas (A: memória curto-prazo, B: funções executivas e linguagem e C: memória episódica. A amostra tinha 91 idosos com mínimos de 60 anos e de um ano de escolaridade, CDR (um ou zero, de serviços especializados da UFPE, HGA e particular. Avaliaram-se dados sociodemográficos, hábitos e percepção de saúde. Dentre os testes utilizados - MEEM (validade convergente, EDG (discriminante. RESULTADOS: Apontaram para boa correlação com testes padronizados, consistência interna

  1. 以谚语为载体的中西方婚姻观念比较研究%The Exploration of Chinese and Western Views on Marriage through the Medium of Chinese and English Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季萍

    2016-01-01

    本文旨在探讨以汉英谚语为载体的中西方婚姻观念的相同点和不同之处。通过对比研究,得出结论:中西方在汉英谚语中所反映的婚姻观念有同有异,但主要体现为差异,而这些差异源于中西方婚姻观念不同的历史渊源和文化背景。%The article is intended to explore the similarities and differences between Chinese and western views on marriage re-flected in Chinese and English proverbs.Through comparison and research,a conclusion can be drawn that there are some sim-ilarities,but mainly differences between Chinese and western views on marriage.These differences derive from different histori-cal sources and different cultural backgrounds.

  2. On the Translation of Japanese Animal Proverbs%日语动物相关谚语汉译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Most of sport tourism products in Hainan are experienced, introduce of wearable technology would enhance the experience and help improve the image recognition of Hainan tourism.The development of Hainan tourism should pay more attention to the need of experiential and combining with history, natural and cultural and sports culture in Hainan to achieve the goal of tourism destiny.The proverb is the expression of the cultural wisdom and bridge between different cultures .The translation of proverbs is one of ways for ex-change of different cultures.To improve further cultural exchange between China and Japan, the paper take the most closely related things with people, the animal-related proverbs as an example, to study the influen-cing factor of Japanese animals proverb translation from the perspective of sentence components, as well as o-mitted and emotional color differences.explore variety of proverb translation methods.%谚语是民族智慧的结晶,更是传承民族文化的桥梁。翻译谚语则是构筑不同民族文化交流的桥梁之一。为进一步增进中日文化交流,以与人类关系最为密切的动物相关谚语为例,从句子成分省略、感情色彩差异方面来考虑日语动物谚语汉译时影响因素,探寻顺译、意译的汉译方法。

  3. 论汉乐府对箴铭、格言、谣谚的继承和发展——以乐府古辞为例%On the inheritance and development of admonition,maxims and proverbs by Yuefu poetry——A Case study of folk songs and ballads in the Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华

    2011-01-01

    The generation of Yuefu poetry was influenced by the Book of Poetry,the age and the previous admonition,maxims and proverbs,Meanwhile,it inherited and developed them in the function,content and form.%汉乐府的生成除受诗骚及两汉时代因素的影响外,还受到汉及其以前箴铭、格言、谣谚的影响,主要表现在汉乐府对箴铭、格言、谣谚的作用、内容和形式有一定继承和发展。

  4. Locuciones, dichos y refranes sobre el lenguaje: unidades fraseológicas fijas e interacción verbal Idioms, sayings and proverbs on language: determined phrasal units and verbal interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ZULUAGA GÓMEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Las locuciones y refranes sobre el lenguaje se pueden considerar como fórmulas metalingüísticas en lenguaje corriente (fomelcos que para el hablante funcionan como instrucciones pragmáticas de la lengua. Según la función específica que desempeñan en la práctica discursiva y en la interacción, se pueden clasificar en tres categorías: descriptivas, instructivas y regulativas. Para ilustrar este planteamiento, se analizarán algunas muestras siguiendo un modelo de entrada lexical en el que se explica la estructura semántica y la función pragmática de las expresiones. Se concluye que las fomelcos son un registro del conocimiento que tiene el hablante de la racionalidad que rige las relaciones de uso del lenguaje.Idioms and proverbs on language can be considered as metalinguistical formulas in current language (‘fomelcos’ which are used by the speaker in the function of pragmatic instructions of the language. Depending on their specific function they act out in discourse and interaction, they may be classified in three categories: descriptive, instructive and regulatory. To give support to this statement, some specimens are analyzed applying a lexical entry model in which the semantic structure and the pragmatic function of the expressions are explained. The author concludes that the ‘fomelcos’ are a register of the knowledge the speaker has on the rationality which rules the speech correlations.

  5. Cautionary aphorisms for customer-oriented system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    Of the three substantive two-word clusters in the title of this note the least important is system development. Although people who attend conferences like this may be interested in system development, few other people are. Customers, in particular, are much more interested in system use, system availability, and system effectiveness, than in system development. Because it is the customers who keep one in business, it therefore behooves one to develop some techniques to keep use, availability, and effectiveness in mind--in other words, to develop a customer orientation. This note illustrates one such technique: the distillation of applicable wisdom concerning people, systems, and the relationships between them into statements made memorable by their wit, brevity, and pungency. In this session the author hopes to start one on the way to one`s own collection of useful thoughts. It should be noted that the preparation of such a collection serves as a working demonstration of the value of re-use as a productivity principle: few of these statements are original with him, and many had origins in other applications. He considers in turn methodology and procedure, design, schedules, measurement, documentation, and quality.

  6. Preliminary data on a mnemonic instrument with proverbs for tracking Alzheimer's disease

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    Mauricéa Tabósa Ferreira Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract In the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD and normal aging, tests evaluating memory and executive functions are frequently used. The addition of abstraction tests may enhance the effectiveness of screening tests for AD. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare initial data of a new instrument - The Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP - against other screening tests used in AD diagnosis. Methods: Sixty elderly individuals (46 controls and 14 AD subjects with CDR=1, aged ³60 years, with at least one year of schooling, were evaluated using the STADP at outpatient clinic. The STADP assesses short-term memory, episodic memory, executive functions and language, in addition to proverb recognition. The performance of the participants on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, semantic Verbal Fluency (VF and Clock Drawing Test (CDT were evaluated and the habit of reading, writing and sociodemographic data were also taken into account. Results: There were significant correlations between STADP and the performance on the MMSE (r=0.64, CDT (r=0.50 and VF (r=0.56. Age influenced all sub-items of the STADP, specifically episodic memory (r= -0.54, whereas schooling mainly influenced executive functions and language (r=0.46. The total score, stages A and C and the "proverb recognition" of STADP (p<0.001, as well as the MMSE (p<0.001, CDT (p=0.016, VF (p<0.001 were significantly different in AD versus control groups. Conclusions: The findings point to the potential use of the STADP in AD, warranting the conducting of further studies.

  7. Review of James Alfred Loader ‘Proverbs 1–9’ (Historical Commentary on the Old Testament, Peeters Leuven, 2014

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    Pieter Venter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Loader’s commentary on Proverbs 1–9 belongs to the category of technical commentaries. It is evaluated in terms of similar commentaries written by scholars who focus on interpreting the original Hebrew text. The design of the commentary, the four essays included in the commentary, and the approach to the text is discussed. A final section deals with Loader’s exposition of Proverbs 8. This section focuses on the problematic Hebrew terms qnh in 8:22 and ‘amon in 8:30 and compares his interpretation with the opinions raised by other scholars in this regard.

  8. Proverbs 31:10−31: A passage containing wisdom principles for a successful marriage

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    Robin Gallaher Branch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most commentators see Proverbs 31:10−31 as an acrostic poem about an ideal wife. True, the passage presents an exemplary woman, a paragon of industry and excellence. However, this article looks at this passage in a new way: it assert that the poem depicts an excellent, successful, working marriage. The passage contains principles contained in Wisdom Literature that apply to success in any relationship − especially the most intimate one of all. A careful reading of Proverbs’ concluding poem provides a glimpse, via the specific details it shares, of a healthy, happy, ongoing, stable marriage as observed over a span of time.

  9. Japanese Proverb Metaphor Rhetorical Translation%日语谚语中比喻修辞的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小艳

    2012-01-01

    In this article, it is pointed out that analogy rhetorical methods are frequently used in Japanese proverbs. Japanese proverbs have strong national, regional, historic and cultural features. In the process of translation into Chinese, it is necessary to pay attention to or to reproduce the cultural implication and particularity of the rhetoric in the proverbs. Factors like cultural background and language habbits should be analysed and processed in comprehensive ways in the translation to Chinese.%指出日语谚语中,比喻修辞方法使用的频率很高,日语谚语带有浓厚的民族、区域、历史、文化色彩,在汉译的过程中,要兼顾或再现谚语本身的文化寓意和比喻修辞的特殊性。对使用比喻修辞的日本谚语汉译,应把文化背景、语言习惯等因素进行综合分析和处理。

  10. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

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    Böck, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  11. A Comparison of Anthropomorphism in Vietnamese and Chinese Proverbs%汉越动物俗语的文化异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴阮瑞微; 彭爽

    2012-01-01

    汉越动物俗语的文化内涵充分体现了中越两个民族的思维方式、心理特征、价值取向与社会风格的不同,体现了各自民族的文化形态。由于两国受不同的地理环境、文化背景、风俗习惯等因素的影响,对动物赋予了既相似又相异的感受和联想。本文重点探讨了汉越动物俗语反映的社会背景和汉越俗语中动物形象反映出人的情感态度两方面内容。%The cultural connotation of Chinese and Vietnamese idioms about animals fully embodies the ways of thinking,cultural psychology,values and social styles and reflcets the national respective cultural morphology of the two countries.Owing to the different geographical environment,cultural background,customs and other factors,animals are given both similar and different feelings,association and cultural connotation.This comparison highlights two aspects,namely social context reflceted from idioms about animals in Chinese and Vietnamese and emotional attitude that is shown in animals' image in Chinese.

  12. Discussion on the Relationships between the Proverb of Good Doctor to Cure Fur and the Preventive or Therapeutic Strategies with Chronic Kidney Disease%试论“善治者治皮毛”与慢性肾脏病防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬云; 毕礼明; 陈英兰

    2013-01-01

    “善治者治皮毛”是医家治疗疾病的最重要原则之一.慢性肾脏病(CKD)极为常见,其治疗目的包括延缓进展、需要评估心血管危险因素、鉴别和治疗相关的并发症,或者行肾脏替代治疗.综合的多重干预可延缓甚至阻断CKD进展,减少CKD死亡的首位原因心血管并发症的发生.本文试着讨论“善治者治皮毛”与CKD防治策略的关系.%The proverb of good doctor to cure fur was from "Internal Classic of Huang Di". It had been widely guided by the medical scientist as one of the most important therapeutic principles. And CKD ( chronic kidney disease )was very common. The objectives were to slow the progression of CKD to take all the cardiovascular risk factors into account,to screen for and treat specific complications and to prepare,if necessary,for renal replacement treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management could slow or even stop the progression of CKD and reduce its cardiovascular complications,which was the leading cause of death in these patients. In this paper,we tried to discuss on the relationship between the proverb of good doctor to cure fur and the preventive or therapeutic strategies of chronic kidney disease.

  13. The impact of an indigenous proverb on women’s mental health: A phenomenological approach

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    Seepaneng S. Phiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proverbs and idioms represent cultural and societal beliefs and values inherited from the forefathers. An example is lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi. Over many decades African people have used such ancient instructions to counsel women to be resilient in their marriages thus impacting on their mental health.Objective: The purpose of this article was to explore and describe that proverb and its impact on women’s mental health.Method: Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore and describe the prover band its impact on indigenous women’s mental health. The population included married, divorced, widowed and single women who were attending social clubs or networks in the cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg. Snowball and purposive sampling was used to select 57 participants. Five face-to-face interviews and eight focus groups interviews were conducted. Colaizzi’s data analysis method was used to analyse data.Results: Oppression and stigmatisation of women and their families and harmful effects that may result in death were identified as having an impact on women’s mental health. Some women shared that they were oppressed in many ways. In addition, they feared stigmatisation should they wish to divorce. They constantly lived in fear of being harmed or killed by their spouses.Conclusion: There was a need for nurses to develop awareness regarding cultural issues so that women are better served in primary healthcare settings. Women who are suspected of experiencing abuse, should be screened for abuse so that they can be assisted accordingly.

  14. THE ROLE OF PROVERBS ON UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENT CULTURES AND LANGUAGES ATASÖZLERİNİN DEĞİŞİK KÜLTÜR VE DİLLERİ ANLAMADAKİ ROLÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden TÜM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature, philosophy, art, culture, thoughts, traditions, and values are important components taking part in any language and are hardly separated from the language. Besides, language is one of the important devices to transfer all these values from generation to generation and from culture to culture. Especially, when any language is learnt as a foreign language, it plays an important role to strengthen or to establish cultural awareness. Erasmus students, speaking different languages continue their education for one term or academic year in Turkiye. During their education, they also take Turkish lessons to learn culture and language. While learning Turkish, they have difficulties to produce Turkish structure as it has linguistic differences. Thus, the main question of this study is that if their difficulty with learning Turkish comes from the differences in the language families or the lack of cultural components in curriculum for language courses. In this study, it is aimed at a sorting out how Erasmus students become aware of cultural values; how they perceive the linguistic differences; if they could make comparisons with their native language and Turkish language; and b preparing a new curriculum to integrate proverbs, sayings and cultural values in the Turkish course books. Toplumun edebiyatı, felsefesi, sana¬tı, kültürü, düşünceleri, âdet ve gelenekleri dil ile bir bağ¬lılık içinde olduğundan dil toplumdan ve kültürden ayrı tutulamaz. Bu değerlerin başka kültürler tarafından öğrenilmesi ya da gelecek nesillere aktarılması bir bil¬dirmeyle gerçekleşir ki bunu da ancak dil başarır. Kültürler arası bilinçlenmenin de oluşmasına yardımcı olan dil, yabancı dil olarak öğrenildiği zaman da büyük önem taşır çünkü dil toplumu oluşturan değerlerin taşıyıcısıdır. Farklı dilleri konuşan yabancı Erasmus öğrencileri eğitim almak üzere eğitimlerinin bir bölümünü Türk

  15. 概念整合理论视阈中的英语谚语%On English Proverbs From the Perspective of Conceptual Integration Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董璞玉; 董阜平

    2011-01-01

    通过运用Fauconnier和Turner等人提出的概念整合理论从认知的角度对英语谚语的意义构建进行分析,旨在说明概念的合成是一种具有普遍性的认知活动,具有极强的认知解释力。以此,为英语谚语的研究提供一种新的研究视角和方法。%Using Conceptual Integration Theory proposed by Fauconnier and Turner, this paper analyzes the meaning construction of English proverbs from the perspective of cognition. It aims to explain that conceptual integration is a universal cognitive activity with mighty explanatory power. On this account, this paper can provide a new perspective and method for the study of English proverbs.

  16. 论永兴赣方言谚语的声调艺术%The Art of Tones in Yongxing ’s Gan Dialect Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红华

    2014-01-01

    谚语是方言的重要组成部分,也是传统文化的深层积淀。永兴赣方言谚语声调平仄相谐、尾字前后照应,形成了抑扬顿挫、流转回环的音乐之美。通过探讨永兴方言谚语的声调艺术,可为赣方言的深入研究提供一些材料。%Proverbs are an important part of a dialect and a deep accumulation of the traditional culture . Yongxing Gan dialect proverbs have level and oblique tones and the last words are in agreement with the first .The measured tones and circulation loop form the beauty of music .A probe into the art of tones of Yongxing ’s Gan di-alect proverbs can provide some materials for the deep research of the dialect .

  17. 隐喻认知理论对英汉“道德”谚语的解释%A Study on“Moral”Proverbs Based on the Cognitive Metaphor Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红玲; 段钨金

    2014-01-01

    Proverbs are a common form of language in human language use,and are widely used in all kinds of styles,so it can reflect the most richness of human language. In English there are extremely rich resources of pro-verbs. In English proverbs,there exist a large number of metaphors,and this just provides widespread presence of metaphor in language. Based on different standards,proverbs have different classification. We can divided them into love,friendship,meteorological,healthy,moral and other categories. Scholars at home and abroad have done lots of researches on proverbs,but the researches on the moral proverbs are far from enough. So this article will analyze“moral”proverbs based on the cognitive metaphor theory.%谚语是人类各种语言中共有的一种语言形式,而且被广泛地应用于各类文体中,因此它最能体现人类语言的丰富性。英语语言中也有极其丰富的谚语资源。英语谚语中大量运用了隐喻,这恰恰为隐喻在语言中的广泛存在提供了佐证。从认知的角度探讨隐喻在英语谚语中的作用。基于不同的标准,谚语有不同的分类。谚语包括爱情的,友情的,气象的,养生的和道德的等。国内外学者对谚语也进行了深入的研究,但是就道德方面的谚语研究甚少。因此本文基于隐喻认知角度对“道德”谚语进行解析。

  18. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  19. A STUDY ON ANTONYMOUS RELATIONS IN TURKEY TURKISH PROVERBS AND IDIOMS TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİ ATASÖZÜ VE DEYİMLERİNDE KARŞIT ANLAMLILIK İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship established by and between antonymous words is defined as antonymy. Such relationships are founded on the same logic; however, the building blocks and links between them are different. The present study on Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms aims to handle antonymous relations under five headings, namely structural, substitutional, reversive, converse (relational, and complementary. The headings were identified as: Structural antonymy, under which nouns and verbs are treated based on their affirmative and negative senses. Substitutional antonymy refers to replacement of a component in a sentence. Reversives means a relationship established between a verb/noun and its reverse counterpart. Converse antonymy is built upon the position of similar and different elements. Complementary antonymy rests on the elimination of deficiencies. Accordingly, Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms have been examined and detailed under the corresponding headings. It can be concluded that antonymy fulfils such functions as organizing comparative narration at sentence level, structures of change, generalisation, and imperatives, agreement and links between constituents; as well as determining and ordering negated meaning, direction, communication, description, and preference. Anlamı birbirine karşıt olan sözcüklerin kurduğu ilişkiye, karşıt anlamlılık denir. Bu ilişkiler, aynı temel mantıkla kurulur. Ancak kurucu unsurlar ve bunların ilişkileri, farklıdır. Türkiye Türkçesi atasözü ve deyimleri üzerine yapılmış bu çalışma, karşıtlık ilişkilerini yapısal, değişimsel, çevriksel, konumsal ve bütüncül olmak üzere beş başlıkta incelemiştir. Bu beş başlık, şu şekilde belirlenmiştir: İsim ve fiillerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönleriyle ele alındığı yapısal karşıtlık. Başka bir unsurla yer değiştirme şeklindeki değişim tarzı karşıtlık. Bir isim veya fiille, onların tersinin kurduğu kar

  20. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  1. Dietary variation and overlap in Central and Northwest European Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) influenced by habitat diversity. "You'll have to take pot luck!" (proverb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    To trace the dietary evolution of the two abundant Middle to Late Pleistocene rhinoceros species Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in Europe over several climatic cycles, we examined comprehensive material of stratigraphically well-defined palaeopopulations from different regions and interglacials. Using morphometrics and mesowear analysis, these reconstructions of Stephanorhinus diets indicate that habitat diversity and interspecific competition with closely related rhinoceros species induced variation in feeding behaviour. Although anatomical features of both species suggest significantly higher dietary specializations compared to the Early to early Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, their mesowear signals are characteristic of a mixed feeder diet, similar to that of extant mammal species in relatively open habitats. Both species retained a degree of dietary flexibility, enabling them to survive in a range of environments. Although each of these rhinoceroses preferred different habitats, species identity alone is not sufficient to establish the real dietary traits of a Stephanorhinus palaeopopulation. As a consequence, their occurrence in a faunal assemblage alone cannot be taken to indicate a specific habitat. S. kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus were embedded in a dynamic process of temporo-spatial replacements and interspecific differentiation of rhinoceroses in the western Palaearctic. However, dietary specialization in these Middle to Late Pleistocene European rhinoceroses was not the result of a directed time-transgressive evolution. Rather, within the range of each species' ecological tolerance, it was controlled by environmental parameters, with habitat variability as the main factor.

  2. On Japanese Wine Culture Reflected by its Proverbs%从日本谚语看日本酒文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    Proverbs come from life and are the creation of life. They are the essence of a nation language and wisdom. It is like a mirror, reflecting a nation's cultural characteristics. Japan's wine culture has a long history. Japanese people, not only create the sake which is of a delicate and pure taste, but also generate a lot of popular, content-rich wine proverbs and sayings. These wines sayings in part come from Chinese ancient classics, with an obvious impact from Chinese culture. At the same time, these sayings also reflect the Japanese understanding of the wine, their drinking etiquette and other unique characteristics of their wine culture. It can be concluded that Japanese and Chinese wine culture are largely identical with slight differences, which have both merits and weak points respectively.%谚语是一个民族语言和智慧的结晶。它就像一面镜子,折射出不同民族的文化特点。日本酒文化源远流长,日本人不仅制造了口感细腻纯正的清酒,还产生了许多脍炙人口、内涵丰富的酒谚俗语。这些酒谚,一部分出自中国的古代典籍,明显带有中国文化思想的痕迹。其中特别是儒家伦理道德型的酒文化精神对日本的酒德、酒礼等影响深远。同时,日本民族独特的酒文化特征也在谚语中得到了完美体现。比较而言,日本和中国酒文化大同小异,各有所长,各有所短。

  3. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  4. What an Indian Proverb Can Teach Us About Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Research in the Media: International Workshop for Scientific Journalism (CRiM), held last month in India - a partnership of the NCI Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL) and NCI Center for Global Health (CGH).

  5. The Metaphor Research of Cangzhou Martial Arts Proverbs%隐喻学视阈下的沧州武术谚语探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范铮

    2012-01-01

    Cangzhou is one of origin places of Chinese martial arts and the national famous martial arts' home.The martial arts is the region culture which Cangzhou is characteristic,is the miniature of Chinese martial arts which takes root in the folk.As the martial arts culture's important carrier, the Cangzhou martial arts proverbs with the concise vivid languages elaborate profound martial arts thought,describe the complex martial arts movements,induce the penetrating martial arts main points,which is the result of practicers' long-term experience.This paper is to explore Cangzhou martial arts proverbs from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.The purpose of the study is to reveal the implied metaphor thought that thus deepens to the Cangzhou martial arts research.%沧州是中华武术的发源地之一,是全国著名的武术之乡.武术文化是沧州独具特色的地域文化,是植根于民间的中华武术的缩影.沧州武术谚语作为武术文化的重要载体,用简练生动的语言阐述深奥的武术思想,描述复杂的武术动作,归纳精辟的武术要领,是习武者长期实践经验的结晶.试从认知语言学视角,对沧州武术谚语进行探究,揭示蕴含其中的隐喻思维,从而加深对沧州武术的研究.

  6. The Base Text and Its Commentaries: Problems of Representing and Understanding the Cārvāka/Lokāyata

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    Ramkrishna Bhattacharya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The base texts of most of the philosophical systems of ancient India are in the form of a collection of aphorisms (sūtra-s. The aphorisms are so brief and tersely worded that their significance can seldom be understood without the help of a commentary or commentaries. Sometimes, the literal meaning of an aphorism needs to be qualified or modified by an explanation found in the commentary. If a reader relies exclusively on the literal meaning of the aphorisms in the base text without having recourse to any commentary or disregards all commentaries, he or she may miss the point. Contrariwise, if a reader relies exclusively on a commentary and disregards the literal meaning of an aphorism, he or she will commit another kind of blunder. Ideally, equal attention should be paid to the base text as well as the commentary or commentaries. Even then, all problems are not automatically solved, for it is an uphill task to decide when to go by the literal meaning of the aphorisms and when to follow the commentary. In their polemics against the Cārvāka/Lokāyata, Jayantabhaṭṭa (c. ninth century C.E. and Hemacandra (eleventh century C.E. erred because they did not follow the golden rule stated above and consequently misunderstood and misrepresented their opponents’ contentions.

  7. 跨文化交际背景下对外汉语教学中民间谚语问题%The Problem of Folk proverbs in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language under the Background of Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍

    2012-01-01

    民间谚语超越了一般意义上的“语言”范畴而深入到一个民族的历史与文化层面,它凝结着丰富的民族历史、生活经验、文化理念、审美情趣、集体无意识等等形而上的内涵。民间谚语在对外汉语教学中,与其说是语言问题,不如说是如何理解一个民族特定的历史与文化的问题。把民间谚语分为不同的层次,由易而难“透过字面,体会文化;通过形而下,到达形而上”,应当是对外民间谚语教学的基本途径。%Folk proverbs have transeent the general sense of "languages', category and gone down to the arrangement of a national history and culture, which contain the rich meaning of ethnic history, life experience, cultural philosophy, aesthetic appeal and the collective unconscious etc. Therefore, during the course of Chinese teaching ,folk proverbs as a second language, is not so much a language problem, rather a question of how to understand the specific history and culture of a nation. No matter of what it is easy or di~cult,we should divide folk proverbs into different levels,by the way of "from easiness to difficulty, through the literal understanding culture and so on", and this is the basic approaches in the teaching of folk proverbs.

  8. The Cat Culture in Japanese Life:Proverbs about the Cat ;in Japanese%日本人生活中的猫文化--日语中关于猫的谚语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池卓蓓

    2013-01-01

      As we all know, Japanese love cats and have a special complex for the cat. The cat occupies an important position in Japanese life, and it has become a unique cultural phenomenon in Japanese life, so proverbs about the cat are inevitable. In Japanese teaching, proper use of Japanese proverbs can not only cultivate students' learning interest, but cultivate their ability of language appreciation and expression.%  众所周知,日本人爱猫,对猫有一种特殊的情结。猫在日本人的生活中占据着重要的位置,可以说它在日本人的生活中已经成为一种独特的文化现象。关于猫的谚语也是无处不在。在日语教学中,教师如果能够恰到好处地运用日语谚语,不仅能够培养学生的学习兴趣,提高学生的语言素养,还有利于培养学生的语言欣赏能力和表达能力。

  9. Wisdom's Gift: Generation X and the Problem of Print-Oriented Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Proverbs as an approach to teaching, learning, speaking, and listening. Argues that using Proverbs is a means to meet the conventions of the Generation X community and to learn about the ambiguity and paradoxes of God. Suggests that how and when a teacher speaks can be formative and potentially transformative. (CAJ)

  10. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  11. Kırgız Atasözlerinin Cümle Yapısı Üzerinde Bazı Gözlemler Some Observations On The Sentence Structures of The Kirghiz Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirghiz Turks have a rich treasure of folklore. Their proverbs, the numbers of which are given in some litery works over ten thousands, build an essential part of this treasure. We explore 97 Kirghiz proverbs,most of them chosen from Bir Miñ Kırgız Eliniñ Makal-Lakaptarı (BM,published in Kirghizstan and Kırgız Atasözleri (KA, published inTurkey, regarding their sentence structure in our article. Kirghizproverbs are classified according to their sentence structure: 1. simple,2. complex: a. coordinated, b. proverbs presenting a subordinatedsentence structure having infinitive verb forms such as infinitives,participials or gerundial forms, c. conditional, d. proverbs presentingcomplex sentence structures with a direct quote and 3. proverbs havinga mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-10 are classifiedaccording to their meaning as: declarative sentences and imperativesentences. Coordinated sentences (11-25 are also studied according totheir word order as sentences presenting regular turkic word order withpredicates placed at the end of the sentence in question and sentenceswith diversed word order. Conditional clauses (26-44 are examinedaccording to their functions as adverbials, subject clauses, concessiveclauses etc. Direct quote (45-55 embedded in main sentences arestudied regarding their functions as object clauses or relative clausesbuilded by degen. We study subordinated clauses formed by infinitiveverb forms such as infinitives, participials or gerundials (56-78 and tryto determine their functions in the main sentences they take part in.Sentences comprising two or more independent clauses, at least one ofwhich has one conditional clause or a clause builded by infinitive verbforms mentioned above are definited as mixed sentences (79-97. Kırgız Türkleri zengin bir folklor hazinesine sahiptir. Bu hazinenin önemli bir bölümünü de bazı çalışmalarda sayısı on bini aşan atasözleri oluşturmaktadır. Biz bu

  12. An exploration of the symbolic world of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to ‘the fear of the Lord’

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    Anneke Viljoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to text interpretation have introduced an opportunity to understand the biblical text afresh. One such an alternative approach is a Ricoeurian hermeneutic. Ricoeur’s understanding of the referential intention of poetic texts will be drawn on to explore its interpretive contribution to a reading of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to the phrase ‘the fear of the Lord’. It is suggested that the proposed reading strategy is a most productive effort.

  13. 谚语“谣言止于智者”的定量模型研究%Study on Quantitative Model for Proverb of “ Rumor is Stopped by the Intellect”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍良安; 黄培清

    2012-01-01

    The proverb of " rumor is stopped by the intellect" is the sum in rumor controlling practice, and the qualitative analysis is the mainstream. The paper proposes the quantitative analysis with the support of the dynamic mathematics model . It analyzes the status and stability of the rumor spreading by the theory of differential dynamical system. The paper also discusses the propagation regularity of rumors and obtained the thresholds, the control policies for rumor spreading by adjusting the parameters. The results of the thesis will provide the theoretical support to rumor control and can give reference to the public opinions management of decision maker.%谚语“谣言止于智者”是在实践中谣言控制的经验总结,侧重定性概括.论文结合定量动力学模型进一步阐述谚语的理论意义,利用微分动力系统理论研究了谣言的传播规律,探讨谣言传播的最终稳定性状态,得到了谣言是否蔓延的阈值.通过对参数的控制,可以调整谣言控制策略,为管理者在舆论控制决策中提供理论支持和决策依据.

  14. Proverbs which cultivate one's morality and enlighten intelligence%修心开智格言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仁慧特

    2005-01-01

    一、如何快乐做富人?做精神的富翁,不做心录的乞丐 做生命的主人,不做财富的奴隶(一)为什么要做富人?邓小平:贫穷不是社会主义孔子:富有谓之大业.日新谓之盛德 国情:农富+企富+国富+家富=心富使命:有爱心必须要有爱的能力。

  15. Chesterton on Higher Education and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlquist, Dale

    2005-01-01

    English writer G. K. Chesterton (1874-1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, and literary and social critic who was well known for his aphorisms, paradoxes, and Christian apologetics. Though his work was highly regarded in his lifetime, he went into a period of eclipse in the second half of the 20th century. Now he is being rediscovered by a new…

  16. "We Share the Same Biology..." Cultivating Cross-Cultural Empathy and Global Ethics through Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della

    2010-01-01

    The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…

  17. Peaceful Lifestyle or Innocuous Image: Islamic Branding Using Kazakh Proverbs on Youtube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Aasland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The government of Kazakhstan places a high value on Kazakh oral tradition as a resource for societal restoration. At the same time, there has been a resurgence of Islam in the country and the on-going process of defining a form of Islam that is Kazakh. Asıl Arna, the state approved Islamic governing body’s media company, posted a video on YouTube that affirms Kazakh oral tradition as part of a message of living from a pure heart. Such an affirmation of a local wisdom tradition is unusual for an organisation that stresses the universal, revelatory significance of Islam for right living. Hence, the author’s question: Is the video designed to instruct Kazakh-speaking Muslims or is there an agenda to change societal perceptions of Islam?

  18. Assessing concrete and abstract thinking with the Draw-a-Person technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, J L; Waehler, C A

    1992-12-01

    In this study, we examined the Draw-a-Person (DAP) technique as an indicator of concrete/literal and abstract thinking, Subjects (N = 50) included schizophrenic inpatients (n = 25) and college students (n = 25). Fourteen possible indicators of concrete/literal or abstract thinking on the DAP were generated based on theoretical considerations and prior research. Five indicators were eliminated because of their low interrater reliability. The Proverbs Test (Gotham, 1956) was used to establish evidence of concrete/literal and abstract thinking. Scores from the DAP and the Proverbs Test were correlated. Composite scores on the DAP were highly correlated (r = .52, p .05) with concrete/literal Proverb Test scores. Results indicate the potential for using the DAP technique to assess concrete/literal and abstract thinking when a nonverbal test is needed.

  19. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  20. What is the value of official statistics and how do we communicate that value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel ANDREI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s aphorism mentioned above wasn’t meant to colour the text, but we particularly believe it corresponds, in a way, to the topic we plan to introduce during the seminar. Consequently, paraphrasing it, the aphorism suggests a derived one which could read: “Not any statistics is official statistics and not any official statement that contains a numerical expression is statistics”. As to the above statements, the following question normally arises: “if not any statistics is official statistics, than what does official statistics mean and where does this brand, that represents a special value of statistics, come from?” On the other hand, if not any official statement, that contains a numerical expression on a certain economic or social phenomenon, is statistics, then what kind of meaning does it have?

  1. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field.

  2. Vygotsky and Bakhtin: The educational action as a dialogic project of meaning production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Flávio de Figueiredo Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a dialogue between Vygotsky and Bakhtin, using Vygotsky’s concepts associated with the zone of immediate development and Bakhtin’s concepts related to dialogism as theoretical parameters. By using these parameters, it proposes to reflect upon the educational process through the theoretical principles or aphorisms which claim the specificity of the mediation that establishes the educator/educatee relation.

  3. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Marshall Mcluhan and Quentin Fiore, The Medium Is the Message (new York: Random House, 1967). 3. Ibid.; John naisbitt, Megatrends: Ten New...Dr. Kendall K. Brown NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Brig Gen Phillip D. Caine, USAF, Retired Monument, Colorado Col Steven D. Carey USAF...servicing its own community of users. Why Cyberspace Is Relevant Marshall Mcluhan’s aphorism “the medium is the message” characterizes our expectations of

  4. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  5. State Security Policy and Proxy Wars in Africa Ultima Ratio Regum 1 : Remix or Redux?; Strategic Insights, v. 9, issue 1 (Spring-Summer 2010) ; pp. 30-64.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.9, issue 1 (Spring-Summer 2010) ; pp. 30-64. In this article, I am concerned with wartime alliances between states and armed nonstate actors, particularly in Africa. Heterogeneous military partnerships of this kind occur throughout the historical record. Louis XIV of France, whose aphorism about war and the state provides the title of this article, was an enthusiastic user of his enemies’ enemies; but so was Medieval England with its Viking ho...

  6. Metaphors and Symbols: Forays into Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Roland

    Intended to introduce students to the most dynamic aspects of language and to help them see the metaphors of poetry from a perspective beyond poetry, this book offers background information for class discussion on the pervasiveness of metaphors, giving examples of how metaphors underlie folk expressions, proverbs, riddles, cliches, and slang, and…

  7. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  8. Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi (true fungi and fungus-like organisms such as slime molds) are documented in miscellaneous folkways (such as remedies, crafts and foodstuffs) and in oral and written folk literature (such as proverbs, folktales, fairy tales, drama and fiction). The impact of fungal phytopathogens and clinical...

  9. ZOONYMS IN THE LEZGHIN AND THE ENGLISH PAREMIOLOGICAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE WOLF AND THE DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. SHIRINOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article paremiological images of a dog and wolf are considered. Relevance of research is connected with that they weren't a subject of the special linguisticcultural analysis in comparative aspect. Meanwhile research of images of animals in the paremiological units promotes reconstruction of one of important components of a national language picture of the world and definition of valuable reference points of a linguistic-cultural sphere of any language. Among proverbs and sayings with a component - the name of pets - the image of a dog along with images of a cat, donkey and horse is representative. It is connected with that these animals played large role in everyday life of people and idea of them were always present at consciousness of the person. Despite distinction genetic and cultural historical links of the Lezghin and the English languages, in them a certain quantity of the proverbs and sayings expressing similar semantics is found. Investigating the Lezghin proverbs it is possible to notice that in them other images closer and clear to these or those people are often used. Sometimes externally similar sayings bear in themselves opposite and various values, or on the contrary, express the same thought through the statement something or denial of the opposite. In the studied proverbs and sayings strikes their originality, in them the features connected with life of mountaineers and with geographical conditions of dwelling come to light.

  10. Development and Validation of an Individualism-Collectivism Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    104, 225-247. INDCOL Scale 39 Mead, M. (1967). Cooperation and compeitition among primitive peoples. Boston, MA: Beacon. Mueller, 0. P. (1980...desirable as doing the thing on one’s own. -.22 Cli. Do you agree with the proverb "Too many cooks spoils the broth "? -.36 0 INDCOL Scale 48 Table 2

  11. Forum Highlights Exchanges Between Chinese and Foreign Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DURING the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, the NGO Forum on Women made deep impressions upon Chinese women. A Chinese proverb says: "Three women make a play," you can imagine how warm, joyful and colorful the gathering of more than

  12. Scrivere la vita di una donna nel XVII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chava Turniansky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I wish to highlight some of the main characteristics of the autobiographic writing by Glikl Hamel (1645-1724, a German Jewess who wrote her memories. She knows she is doing something that no woman has done before in Yiddish literature. She carefully mingles several literary genres, mixing stories with practical suggestions, proverbs, aphorism, parables, and elements of the so called Muser-literatur, books of moral behavior and instructions on how to be an observant Jew. The author was forty-five years old when she began to write, and her maturity is clearly present in the text, where she presents herself as well aware of what she wants to write, why and how. Glikl often relates about historical events. In particular here two examples are given, one about the relation with some Christian merchants, and the second about the impact of the news on Shabbetay Zevi, the false messiah, on her community.

  13. Goals of Education in Asian and American Cultures. Reflective Essay #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this…

  14. Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fournet-Perot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le « langage stéréotypique » représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, « une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre ». Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grâce à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’œuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès.El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.

  15. When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

  16. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  17. [Medicine and humanism: insights of the Nürnberg city physician Theodericus Ulsenius regarding Morbus Gallicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, C G

    1995-01-01

    The Nuremberg physician and humanist Theodericus Ulsenius (c. 1460-1508) was the author of two works on the so-called Morbus Gallicus. In 1496 he published a Vaticinium in epidemicam scabiem, and he also wrote fifty aphorisms, entitled Cura mali francici. In this article I will characterize Ulsenius' ideas and compare these to the measures the Nuremberg town government took to diminish the dangerous effects of the epidemic. In the function of official town physician, Ulsenius was one of the chief advisers and executives of the Nuremberg health policy. As the 'Ratsverlässe' (records of the town-council meetings) give detailed information, the reactions of senate and physicians can be followed from day to day. The Vaticinium a poem of 100 hexameters was printed at the office of Hans Mair and presented as a pamphlet with a woodcut from the workshop of Albrecht Dürer. The verses refer to a dream of the poet, in which the God Apollo addresses him and talks about the terrible disease. The origin and symptoms of the illness are discussed extensively, in accordance with the prevailing medico-astrological conceptions. Nevertheless, the poem ist not a medical piece of work, but a literary-styled and humanistically appropriate description of the recent epidemic, meant for fellow members of the German respublica litteraria. Like most of Ulsenius' writings, the Cura mali francici only survived as a copy made by his colleague Hartmann Schedel. It seems that the author had different types of audience in mind. The aphorisms refer to the Aphorisms of his great example, the famous Ancient medical doctor Hippocrates of Kos. The addresses of the Cura are obviously medical professionals: the physician in the towns harassed by the Morbus Gallicus and especially the medical professors who hat to lecture on the new ailment.

  18. On the efficient determination of most near neighbors horseshoes, hand grenades, web search and other situations when close is close enough

    CERN Document Server

    Manasse, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The time-worn aphorism ""close only counts in horseshoes and hand-grenades"" is clearly inadequate. Close also counts in golf, shuffleboard, archery, darts, curling, and other games of accuracy in which hitting the precise center of the target isn't to be expected every time, or in which we can expect to be driven from the target by skilled opponents. This lecture is not devoted to sports discussions, but to efficient algorithms for determining pairs of closely related web pages -- and a few other situations in which we have found that inexact matching is good enough; where proximity suffices.

  19. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  20. POMEGRANATE IN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LITERATURE / AZERBAYCAN SÖZLÜ VE YAZILI EDEBIYATINDA NAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  1. STORIES – A POWERFUL TOOL IN TRIBAL LITERATURE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOW MARTEN GOT HIS SPOTS: AND OTHER KOOTENAI INDIAN STORIES

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sripadmadevi

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial, stories hold prime place in the process of individuation. The art of story-telling is as old as human civilization. And the world of Tribe is of no exception. Many of the rural and tribal societies are oral in nature. Their history is not written but orally transmitted from one generation to another, in the form of poetry, songs, proverbs, stories, narrative dances and various rituals. Their historical and cultural information are passed on through some of these means. ...

  2. PAREMIO-IDEOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL PHENOMENON OF LIES AND DECEIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ryabinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenon of lies and deception is considered in the context of paremiological Soviet period of our country, leaving only a vast linguistic heritage. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society and meant finding them new mental attitudes. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society meant finding them new mental attitudes. "Soviet people" as a unique historical community, had an equally unique, ideologically adjusted moral reference which originally combines traditional Russian values with party views. This peculiarity is reflected in the fund of Soviet proverbs presented at many volumes known as "Proverbs of the Soviet people", an appeal to which the purpose of this study makes it possible to assess the originality of the Soviet approach to the phenomenon of lies and deceit with ideological positions to identify its characteristic features. This article analyzes the relevant thematic overview of the Soviet proverbs to assess the role of ideological beliefs in the moral education of the masses; marked features of the Soviet approach to the issues indicated; illustrative examples are given unique paremic hybrid embodying contamination "old" and "new" views on the eternal human vices; a comparison of the Soviet and pre-Soviet values approach, when we analyze the paremic card files.

  3. South African Female Presidential Leadership and the inevitability of a donga as final destination? Reading the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 104 years of the existence of the African National Congress, many a black person in Sout Africa has been exclusively led by men. Also, 24 years into a democracy, patriarchy continues to raise its ugly head in our parliament, among other institutions. Disturbingly, against the call for a female presidential leadership Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the National Union of Mineworkers, together with the ANC leadership in the Gauteng province, are lobbying for a male presidential candidate namely, Cyril Ramaphosa. In order to engage the issue of patriarchy in the South African politics, the Sepedi/Northern Sotho proverb tsa etwa ke ye tshadi pele, di wela ka leope [once they are led by a female one, that is, a cow, they will fall into a donga] will be employed as a hermeneutical tool to re-read the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way. the interest of the preceding way lies at seeking justice for the transformation of many an African women's life in present day South Africa. Inthe end, this article will investigate whether the tenor of the Northern Sotho/Sepedi proverb that once they (cattle [read: South Africans] are led by a female one, they are sure to fall into a donga.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, gender and social sciences studies as well as Indigenous Knowledge Systems (with particular focus on an African proverb, this article addresses the topic of the South African Female Presidential Leadership and the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way.Keywords: Deuteronomistic Athaliah; Patriarchy; Woman president; South Africa; Sepedi proverb; bosadi

  4. KELİME SIKLIĞI AÇISINDAN TÜRK ATASÖZLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman GÜZEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An Evaluatıon on Turkısh Proverbs in Accordance to Word Frequency. Proverbs; which are the products of the common mind of a society where they exist are among the elements of spoken culture. Societies have used conveying of meanings which they have got through experiences with proverbs as a method. Proverbs are the effective expressions where expressional arts are used. They become exist in sentences. In this respect each proverb explains one determination. When considered them one by one, it can be understood that they refer to a specific condition or an event an individual can go through. The words/concepts that build proverbs have an essential importance in exploring the common mind of a society. The studies on proverbs are very limited. Considering the vocabulary of proverbs as a whole is very important in finding out the sensitiveness of a society. The researches which will be done on quantity, frequency and parts of speech of their vocabulary can explore interesting findings. The aim of this study is to determine the word frequency of Turkish proverbs. For this reason, proverbs of Turkey Turkish have been determined and a proverb pool is formed. Vocabulary and word frequency of proverbs can be seen and the findings are evaluated according to fundamental measurements of word frequency and finally, they are compared with general word frequency lists and commented.

  5. Why "Video Killed the Radio Star": Teaching "The Medium Is the Message"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tony E.

    2010-01-01

    The title and lyrics of "Video Killed the Radio Star" (VKRS) epitomize Marshall McLuhan's intricate aphorism "The Medium is the Message." A staple of many communication courses, the aphorism not only suggests that the technology used to convey information (the form) is just as important as the information conveyed (the content), but also that…

  6. Produção e consumo social da beleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves Teixeira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a argumentação básica a respeito da subjetividade e da objetividade na percepção da beleza e tem por preocupação central compreender as motivações para a produção e consumo da beleza humana e sua operacionalização. Atenta também para generalizações sobre tais temas que, por serem comuns a todas as sociedades humanas, são percebidos como fenômenos sociais importantes. Anedotas, provérbios e aforismos são tomados como dados estratégicos para a consecução destes objetivos.This article deals with subjectivity and objectivity in the perception of beauty. The central analysis is on motivations for the production and consumption of human beauty as it is put into practice. It also considers generalizations on themes which, being common to all human societies, are perceived as important social phenomena. Anecdotes, proverbs, and aphorisms are taken as strategic data for the attainment of these objectives.

  7. Aphorisms on the Figurative Evolution of Science to a Universal Language of Mankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show by means of selected examples that the evolution of science, in a figurative sense, from the Babylonian confusion of tongues to a universal language is one of the most exciting chapters in the history of mankind.

  8. On the Characteristics and Translation of English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟蕾华

    2014-01-01

    Idiom is fixed phrases or sentences and extracted from the language which have been used for a long time. It includes proverbs, slangs, dialects, etc. It usually shares the characters of a tight, strict structure, simple form, brilliant meaning, understand⁃able image, vivid expression and so on. As the essence and treasure of ethnic language idiom shows the life, social custom, reli⁃gious belief, value, history and culture of a nation as well as the way of thinking with strong ethnic and cultural characteristics. This paper has a tentative illustration on English idioms from the viewpoint of definition, characteristics and strategies of transla⁃tion.

  9. Using Types and Inheritance in Object-Oriented Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Daniel C.; O'Brien, Patrick D.

    If the object-oriented style of programming hopes to live up to its potential as an improved methodology for software programming, a clear understanding of how to use types and inheritance is essential. Our experiences with using object-oriented languages and teaching object-oriented techniques to other programmers have shown that effective use of types and inheritance may be problematic. There are no concrete guidelines to assist programmers, and the existing aphorisms often create interpretation problems for novice object-oriented programmers. In this paper we look at how types, subtyping, and inheritance are used in object-oriented languages. We discuss the different ways that types and type hierarchies can be used to structure programs. We illustrate appropriate use of these concepts through examples and develop guidelines to assist programmers in using the object-oriented methodology effectively.

  10. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  11. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  12. 泰汉语言中关于动物成语的比较考察%A Comparative Study on the Animal Culture and its Social Environment Recorded in the Proverbs of Thai language and Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩霞

    2008-01-01

    文化是语言的土壤,语言是文化的裁体.任何语言的生存发展都离不开其赖以生存的社会文化环境,社会文化促进语言的发展与完善,影响着语言使用者的思维和表达能力.不同的语言要素反映着不同的文化属性,寓示着不同民族文化心理和不同的文化世界.语言是文化的一部分,又是文化的映像.文化背景和自然条件等的不同,各种动物在不同的语言里也褒贬不一,反映出不同的文化心态.本文从一个新的角度:成语中记载的动物文化现象为出发点,研究汉泰民族文化的异同,从而有利于了解两种民族的社会文化和心理文化,有利于跨文化的交流.

  13. The Justice of Proverbs in the Writings of A. Kourouma and A. Ryckmans. Towards a Deconstructive Reading of Bambara and Négropolitain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Under henvisning til antropologers studie af juridisk praksis i fransk-sprogede kolonier i Afrika og i de efterfølgende uafhængige stater, foretages der en kritisk analyse af anvendelse af ordsprog i retspraksis og i den populære formidling af denne. Som eksempelmateriale tages der udgangspunkt i...

  14. English to Chinese Subtitling:A Skopos based Commentary Domestication and Foreignization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高楠

    2013-01-01

      Domestication and foreignization as translation strategies are used to achieve the purpose so as to fulfil the expectations and needs of target audience in target text. The research question is‘how does skopos theory lead the text in choosing the transla⁃tion strategies as domestication and foreignization?’In this essay the movie of Mulan was chosen and analyzed in terms of movie Titles, Names and Forms of Address, Proverbs and Idioms. The analysis of the translation shows how foreignization and domestication co-exist as co-strategies in order to convey the meaning clearer for the target audience.

  15. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and walk...do not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth.

  16. Managing business model innovation risks - lessons for theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Chester Goduscheit, René; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges related to, and the risk management needed in, the process of business model innovation. Business model innovation may involve hefty investments, high levels of uncertainty, complexity and, inevitably, risk. Although many firms follow a first mover strategic...... industrial firms, we discuss the reasons that led to these failures, and outline various possible solutions for practitioners to manage business model innovation adequately....... approach, arguing from a “no risk no reward” aphorism, a sloppy implementation approach towards business model innovation may result in catastrophic, sometimes even fatal, consequences to a firm’s core business. Based on four unsuccessful business model innovation experiences, which took place in three...

  17. 普世与特殊--论希伯来智慧思想的两极结构和教育空间%Universality and Particularity:The Two-Pole Structure and Pedagogic Space of Hebrew Wisdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德平

    2015-01-01

    This article is written out of the author’s interest in the interface between educational and biblical studies. It is part of his ongoing effort to develop a canonical perspective on education. Informed by contemporary studies in wisdom literature, the paper argues for a common pattern of thought between theBook of Proverbs and theWisdom of Ben Sira (Sirach in Greek and Ecclesiasticus in Latin), despite their universalistic and nationalistic outlook demonstrated most notably inProverbs 8 andSirach 24 respectively. Against a common view that Proverbs reflects the international outlook of sages in the First Temple period and Sirach “the nationalization of Wisdom” in the Second Temple period, this paper aims to demonstrate a subtle co-existence of universal and particular horizons in both books and an ever-present tension therein. Disclosing the dual horizons of sapiential practice that includes observing, reflecting and teaching is significant for three reasons. First, the universal perspective of Hebrew sages is an Axial-age breakthrough no less signiifcant than the contribution made by the prophets. Second, such a universal horizon in the wisdom literature, which is different from that associated with organized missionary movements, provides the impetus to recover the sapiential dimension of biblical ideas of education eclipsed by the instrumental notion of education as a proselytizing strategy. Finally, the reclamation of the dual horizons in sapiential practice is pivotal in the development of a wisdom approach to religious education that will enable the community of faith to engage the world in a prudent and authentic manner.

  18. Some Considerations in Developing Effective Messaging: The SUCCESs Framework and Military Influence Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    produced Sada -e Azadi paper contains a regular feature of a parable, with a proverb as the moral. This moral is presented at the end of the story and...belief, but promote pro-social behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs in general. 19 Unattributed, “The Man and the Bug,” Sada -e Azadi, No. 191, p. 8. 6...Man and the Bug” from Sada -e Azadi discussed in the Simple section above. 44 See, for example, Unattributed, Mostovi, Stabilization Force, Bosnia

  19. Documenting Spreadsheets with Pseudo-Code: an Exercise with Cash-Flow and Loans

    CERN Document Server

    Paine, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    "Look before you leap"; "a stitch in time saves nine"; "more haste, less speed". Many proverbs declare the wisdom of planning before doing. We suggest how to apply this to Excel, by explaining and specifying spreadsheets before coding them, so there will always be documentation for auditors and maintenance programmers. The specification method uses "pseudo-code": code that, for precision and conciseness, resembles a programming language, but is not executable. It is, however, based on the notation used by our Excelsior spreadsheet generator, which is executable. This paper is structured as a tutorial, in which we develop a simple cash-flow and loans spreadsheet.

  20. The text-critical and exegetical value of the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Cook

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyse a number of Dead Sea manuscripts and/or fragments in order to determine their linguistic and exegetical value. The article will, firstly, address textual material that is largely in agreement with the Massoretic Text – 1QIsaa is a case in point. Secondly, fragmentsthat are seemingly less relevant will be discussed. The less helpful fragments from the Biblical books Proverbs and Job are taken as examples. Finally, highly significant textual differences, such as a fragment from Genesis 1 and one from the complicated books of Jeremiah, will be evaluated.

  1. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M; Langlois, Judith H

    2006-04-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the "beauty-is-good" stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the "beauty-is-good" aphorism.

  2. The learned physician as a charismatic healer: Urso of Salerno (flourished end of twelfth century) on incantations in medicine, magic, and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lugt, Maaike

    2013-01-01

    Urso, the last of the great Salernitan physicians, was both an ardent defender of a theoretical, scientific medicine and the first in the medieval West to propose, in his aphorisms, a rational and naturalistic explanation of the healing power of incantations. The article explores this paradox and provides an in-depth analysis of Urso's highly original and hitherto ignored argument, as well as its intellectual and social background. According to Urso, the efficacy of incantations relies not on the power of words, but on the charismatic physician's "aura"-spirits emanating from his body-and the patient's confidence in and conformity with the physician. Urso compares medical incantations to teaching, fascination, demonic magic, sacraments, and prayer. It is argued that Urso's incursions into theology are both a tactic to defend his bold naturalism against accusations of unorthodoxy and a reflection of his ambition to create a comprehensive "science of everything." Urso's text and an English translation are provided in an appendix.

  3. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

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    Maria Luz D. Calibayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  4. There is no such thing as Society. Ferdydurke in neoliberalism, postmodernism and gender

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    Ewa Majewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Ferdydurke is discussed as a forerunner of the logic of late capitalism with all its repercussions, as identified by Frederick Jameson. Gombrowicz’s novel is seen as an early prognosis of neoliberal ideology, with its demands for effectivity and productivity as well as negation of social and affective bonds. Margaret Thatcher’s aphorism: “there is no such thing as society” is a pretext for a critical analysis of Ferdydurke, including the feminist critics of the European vision of the subject built on fear of the Other. This feminist analysis of Ferdydurke reveals several problems with the notion of body – theories of Julia Kristeva (on abjection and Lynda Nead (on the female nude are employed to demonstrate this argument. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis is that queer disruptions of the binary logic of gender oppositions do not necessarily produce anti-patriarchal results.

  5. [Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent epistemological inadequacy of the epidemiological time to recognize the social and historical aspects involved in the complexity of the disease expressions in human populations.

  6. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  7. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

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    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  8. The role of working memory and divided attention in metaphor interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D

    2014-10-01

    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.) place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs. Forty healthy participants completed the Metaphor Interpretation Test (developed by the authors). The task includes 20 items chosen from a list of metaphors that were rated on several scales (e.g. imagery, aptness) in a study by Katz et al. (Metaphor Symb Act 3(4):191-214, 1988). Participants were asked to rate the familiarity and provide an explanation of each metaphor. A scoring system was developed to categorize answers into: abstract complete (AC), abstract partial (AP), concrete (CT), and other/unrelated (OT) types. Participants also completed short-term memory and divided attention tests. Overall, participants produced 56 % AC, 25.38 % AP, 7.88 % CT, and 10.88 % OT responses. It was found that a measure of verbal short-term memory span was the best predictor of performance on this task (adjusted R(2) = .369). It appears that short-term memory span, not working memory or divided attention, contributes most to providing abstract responses in explaining metaphors. This is in line with the idea that when one accesses the semantic network associated with a novel metaphor, one must hold this information in mind long enough to search for and link similar cognitive networks.

  9. D'un complex d'inferioritat proverbial

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    Maria Conca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is is a paper about the history of Catalan proverbs borrowed by Spanish tradition and lost in modern Catalan. The authors give the real origin of such proverbs and stress the sociolinguistic relevance of this «oblivion», as a kind of inferiority complex, to the present-day consciousness of the Catalan speech community.

  10. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

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    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  11. EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ VE SÖZ VARLIĞI ÜZERİNE THE EMSĀL Ü NESĀYİH-İ TÜRKÌ AND ITS VOCABULARY

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    Talip DOĞAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proverbs that connected to lots of fields such as history,folklore, sociology, psychology, philosophy and morality are veryimportant language characteristics in terms of expression beauty,eloquence and conceptual richness. The proverbs which usually consistof one sentence with a brief language have the power of expressing thewide range of meanings. When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thought and we can see that they are made use of the music of language. All kinds of events about the life with every aspects and colorfulness are present in proverbs, the products of oral literature. So we can see the religious, moral, understanding, common values, mental state, imagination and intelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Also it is seen that sayings in the proverbs have become stereotyped with the blend of national language and thought in the process of history.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì in Meraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in 1910. In the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì, there are proverbs ordered according to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet. In this manuscript it is important that the proverbs were written by saving the dialect characteristics.In this study, vocabulary of proverbs in the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. Thus, some words in the work have been compared with historical and modern Turkish dialects. Tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe, ahlak gibi birçok alanıilgilendiren atasözleri; deyiş güzelliği, anlatım gücü ve kavram zenginliğibakımından çok önemli dil unsularındandır. Kısa ve özlü bir dil ilegenellikle tek cümleden oluşan atasözleri, çok geniş manaları ifade etmekudretine sahiptir. Yerinde söylendiği zaman düşünceye kuvvet katanbu sözlerde, dilin bütün inceliklerinden ve musikisinden istifade edildiğigörülür. Sözlü edebiyat ürünlerinin başında gelen atasözlerinde hayatadair

  12. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queseth, Per-Olaf

    2010-07-01

    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)

  13. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone?Exploring (Dis continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

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    Akosua K Darkwah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life– education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships - in six hundred (600 adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, Ghanaian women who live in a culture that values an interdependent way of being have not changed statistically significantly so far as issues of autonomy and decision-making are concerned.

  14. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone? Exploring (Dis) continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzokoto, Vivian A A; Darkwah, Akosua K

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally) through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life- education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships-in six hundred (600) adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, there have only been modest disruptions in the lives of Ghanaian women as far as issues of autonomy and decision-making in are concerned.

  15. The relationships of the process/reactive, paranoid/nonparanoid, length of illness, and length of hospitalization dimensions to schizophrenic abstract thinking deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C G

    1976-11-01

    Attempts to determine whether the quality of schizophrenic thought disorder varies from one type of schizophrenic to another in earlier studies have been hindered by the contamination of the major individual difference dimensions with each other. In the project described here, partial correlations were run between each of two abstraction deficit measures (Proverbs Test Abstract Level and Autism scores) and four independent variables which represent dimensions commonly used as criteria in individual differences research in schizophrenia--Ullmann-Giovannoni Process-Reactive scores, the MMPI Paranoia Scale, length of illness, and length of hospitalization. In each correlation the three noncriterion individual difference measures, the unused abstraction measure, age, education, and WAIS Vocabulary were partialed out. The correlations were also corrected for attenuation. After partialing, level of abstraction was negatively correlated with processness. Autism was positively related to reactiveness and length of hospitalization. Neither of two paranoid/nonparanoid measures used nor length of illness was related to either dependent variable.

  16. THE PLACE OF GRAPE IN TURKISH FOLK CULTURE AND IN CONTEXT OF MYTHOLOGY / TÜRK HALK KÜLTÜRÜNDE VE MITOLOJIK BAĞLAMDA ÜZÜMÜN YERI

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    Dr. Ebru ŞENOCAK

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The grape grown since the pre-historic eras has adistinct part within the verbal cultural tradition as wellas being an important health source meeting thenutrition need in Turkish folk culture. The grape thatwas the theme of folk songs, riddles, proverbs, idioms,tales and legends in folk literature was also used with itsboth curing and symbolic meanings in having a child,marriage and wedding customs, drinking wine, dowrytradition, folk beliefs and folk medicine in our folklore. In the researches carried out depending on the factthat the grape, raw material of the wine, is accepted asthe drink of the Gods in mythology and it is mentioned inTorah, Bible and the Psalms of David as the sacred drink,it was determined that in Turkish culture and mythology,the grape is the symbol of beauty, fertility, blood, soul,love and health.

  17. 英语谚语的理解和翻泽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郐滨

    2009-01-01

    Proverbs are the glittering gems of the cultural treasure house in the world. On the whole, they are deep in meaning and rich in rhyme. Moreover, they are not only the carriers of intelligence and wisdom of the people but also the reflectious of the languages and the arts. From the per-spective of their content, proverbs are all the collective wisdom of peoples, distilled from centuries of experience of dealing with the problems and difficulties of life. In sbort, proverbs have long been justifiably entided a highly condensed encyclopedia, which is deep in meaning, pithy in form and pleasant in sound.

  18. NILAI SOSIAL BUDAYA JEPANG DALAM PERIBAHASA JEPANG YANG MENGGUNAKAN KONSEP BINATANG

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    Sriwahyu Istana Trahutami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs conveying animal concepts can be found in almost languages. They are used to express indirectly the spesker’s meaning. The data of the research are taken from Japanese Proverb Dictionary. This study used referential and inferential methods.The methods were used to determine life values in Japanese society or Japanese culture. This analysis reveals that in Japanese proverbs the animal like dog, cat, frog, snake, raccoon, tanuki, fish etc is often mapped on to human beings to expressing human relationship and to show characteristic of the Japanese people and culture.

  19. 明代古诗选本中的“谐隐”与博雅思潮%"Humorous"and Liberal Thoughts in the Classical Poem Anthology in the Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳进

    2016-01-01

    the classical poetry anthologies in the Ming Dynasty collects a great number of maxims, proverbs and oth-ers, which, on the one hand, inherited the style classification and the integration of diverse values as evidenced in Wenxin Diaolong(Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature) by Liu Xie, and, on the other, was directly impacted by Yang Shen’s Fengyayi Pian (On Elegance), Gujin Feng Yao (Folk Songs) and Gujin Yan (Proverbs: Past and Present) and by the academic atmosphere of advocating the classical, retro and liberal thoughts represented in the works. Toward the end of the Ming Dynasty, this trend was blended with the spirit of"self soul expression", curiosity and uniqueness advocacy and revealed its liberal thoughts, classic addiction and unconventionality in the motto writ-ings and Gushigui(Return to Classic Poems).%明代古诗选本中箴铭、谣谚等谐隐类话语的大量收录,一方面是承继刘勰《文心雕龙》的文体分类观念和多元融合的价值取向,直接的影响则来自杨慎《风雅逸篇》《古今风谣》和《古今谚》等,及其所代表的宗经、复古、博雅的学术风气。明末,这股风气又与“独抒性灵”、好奇尚异的性灵思潮合流,在箴言体小品的创作与《古诗归》的评选中都呈现出博雅嗜古又独标心解的特点。

  20. Headache in the writings of Moses Maimonides and other Hebrew sages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1993-06-01

    In the history of philosophy, theology, and medicine, Maimonides shares the limelight with Arabic scholars such as Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sinna and Ibn Zuhr, chronologically between the great intellectuals of classical Greece and Rome and those of the later Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Maimonides was a very great philosopher and theologian, usually underrated by the historians. He was also an outstanding medical practitioner and teacher. Moses Maimonides had an incredible literary ability and an encyclopedic knowledge. He wrote extensively in the fields of theology, mathematics, law, philosophy, astronomy, ethics, and, of course, medicine. His medical writings are varied, comprising extracts from Greek medicine, a series of monographs on health in general and several diseases in particular, and a pharmacopoiea. The present essay extracts, primarily from Maimonides' medical writings, his pronouncements dealing with headache. Since most of Maimonides' pronouncements about headache in his Medical Aphorisms were derived from Graeco-Roman medical writers such as Hippocrates, and especially Galen, in regard to these statements Maimonides was merely a compiler--not an innovator. Some of his concepts about the causes of headaches being related to a dysequilibrium of the body humors are clearly medieval in origin. Other statements demonstrate this concern with preventive medicine and the maintenance of a healthy regimen of daily living. Medications to treat illness should only be used if non-medicinal means such as diet and exercise are not effective. The heritage of Maimonides' writings is being more and more appreciated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Ama Fening

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  2. Skin pathology and medical prognosis in medieval Europe: the secrets of Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Smoller, L

    2000-12-01

    This article analyzes a medieval text known as The Secrets of Hippocrates. Neither secret (because of its wide circulation in manuscript and print) nor by Hippocrates, the work offered readers a means of offering a prognosis of impending death based on observable signs on the skin. Although the aphorisms that make up the text make little sense in a modern medical understanding, the Secrets of Hippocrates fits well within three medieval traditions: the tradition of secrets literature, the medieval medical tradition, and the tradition of medieval Christian views about the body. First, like other books of secrets, a genre to whose conventions the text closely adheres, the Secrets of Hippocrates offered a shortcut to socially useful knowledge: the ability to offer an accurate medical prognosis. Second, the treatise corresponded to the medieval physician's concern for the so-called nonnaturals, such as diet and exercise. Third, it fit with a medieval Christian notion that sickness and sin were related, as were sin and ugliness. Just as a leper's deformities were a window to his sinful soul, so skin pathologies could clue a medieval physician to the lethal disease hidden inside the body.

  3. Heidegger Teaching: An Analysis and Interpretation of Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    German philosopher Martin Heidegger stirred educators when in 1951 he claimed teaching is more difficult than learning because teachers must "learn to let learn". However in the main he left the aphorism unexplained as part of a brief four-paragraph, less than two-page set of observations concerning the relationship of teaching to learning; and…

  4. Una cançó de refrany i cobles glossadores del segle XVI basada en la frase "Mal aja qui en dones fia"

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    Josep Romeu i Figueras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author studies the origin, spread and connotations of a misogyny proverb picked up from a xvi century refrain that circulated in Valencia and Catalonia as a symbiosis of popular tradition and Renaissance flavour.

  5. ETHNOPEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF THE COMICAL OF THE MORDOVIAN PEOPLE

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    Anastasiya A. Osmushina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article explores the folklore’s educational potential and the comical of the Mordovian people in the context of reflection of socio-philosophical categories in it. It also reveals the basis and content of the comical and specifics of the laughing matter for Moksha and Erzya people and their effect on the formation of personality. This kind of research is noval and paper has an interdisciplina ry character. Materials and Methods: the analysed materials included Mordovian myths, aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, fairytales, and ritual songs. We used quantitative-qualitative analysis, generalisations and s ynthesis. Results: a detailed comparison of Moksha and Erzya folklore revealed a significant degree of similarities. Both sub-ethnic groups share the same comical view of social vices (injustice, drunkenness, gambling, etc. and individual vices (the manifestation of a lack of vital energy and information: laziness, slovenliness, poverty, and other forms of the wrong use of vital energy: hypocrisy, lying, stupidity, cursing, etc.. In terms of differences, Moksha people are more inclined to support common effectiveness and common justice whereas Erzya people are inclined to maintain individual justice and individual effectiveness. Consequently, the education of Moksha and Erzya in general is similar. The upbringing is directed to creating a model of behaviour that reflects sufficient and excessive vital energy, justice, hard work, tidiness, common sense, and cunning. Ridiculing of the vices, however, is sanctioned. We brought to light the object of the Moksha comical (insufficient vital energy, deviation from justice and genuineness and its subject (deviation from human destiny, from natural creativity. We found that the tropes contain an illocutionary power. The perlocutionary effect is disapproval of the vices and admiration of the virtues which form the desiderative norms – the norms reaching the aim of education and upbringing

  6. Pupil size behavior during online processing of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, G; Biondi, J; Castro, S; Agamenonni, O

    2016-12-01

    In the present work we analyzed the pupil size behavior of 40 subjects while they read well-defined sentences with different contextual predictability (i.e., regular sentences and proverbs). In general, pupil size increased when reading regular sentences, but when readers realized that they were reading proverbs their pupils strongly increase until finishing proverbs' reading. Our results suggest that an increased pupil size is not limited to cognitive load (i.e., relative difficulty in processing) because when participants accurately recognized words during reading proverbs, theirs pupil size increased too. Our results show that pupil size dynamics may be a reliable measure to investigate the cognitive processes involved in sentence processing and memory functioning.

  7. Cosmic Pessimism

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    Eugene Thacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of After Life (University of Chicago Press presents a series of aphorisms exploring pessimism's motility and its sessility. "A long, low funereal sigh" opens the reader onto an abrupt anatomical study of pessimism, its moral and metaphysical considerations and music. Songs of spite, of futility, of sleep, of doom and further mournful voices resound.

  8. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  9. McLuhan at 100: Exploring the Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) is most remembered for his statement "The medium is the message," an aphorism that embraces the theme of this issue of "Educational Technology." McLuhan showed as never before the hidden biases within all technologies. Today, 100 years after his birth, his laws of media and perceptive aphorisms…

  10. Good Deeds That Are Most Punished, Part 1: Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    High on any Top 10 list of the most frequent advice offered to young faculty members is this: No good deed goes unpunished. The aphorism at first seems cynical, pessimistic, dysfunctional. Doing good, as members of a higher-education community, is their job. What if everyone just looked out for No. 1? The entire promotion-and-tenure system--which…

  11. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Krikmann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: presenting source material, pointing out the main problems that have been caught the interest of paremiologists so far, such as 1 the frequency of animals in proverbs and 2 the repertoire structure of animal proverbs. Animal proverbs as a research subject has been divided in the following semantical-rhetorical categories: A. Proverbs concerning animal identity. B. Proverbs concerning the relationship between people and animals (usually in metaphorical meaning. C. Proverbs concerning the relationships between (metaphorical, as a rule animals . D. Proverbs concerning the relation of animals (either metaphorical or non-metaphorical towards non-zoological nature and dimensions. The article provides a brief characterisation of stereotypes belonging to the latter three categories under discussion. Follows a more detailed overview of material belonging to category A, i.e. proverbs concerning the problem of specific identity of animals, or to be more exact, two subcategories determined by the topics and statements of the literal level of meaning: 1 The animal retains its specific identity ~ it will not ~ cannot be turned into another animal; 2 Son -- parent relationship, transmitting of special characteristics from parents to their offspring. A few examples of groups extracted from subcategory 1:Quasi-autologies:'Animal X is X ~ remains an X'All representatives of species X are identical, similar, alike, there is no significant difference between themAnimal X behaves as

  12. [The clinic and the general physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinich, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    The clinician's activity consists of in the simple words of Dr. Gonzalo Castañeda "knowledge, good deeds and bread winning ". The respective value that clinicians grant to each of these, is variable, but even those whose priority is the latter of the three are obliged to accomplish the other two. Knowledge requires continuous medical education. Effective education requires the ability to separate the "wheat from the chaff". It is important to know how to study. Knowing the patient requires careful collection of symptoms, signs, and paraclinical data, as well as awareness of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the data, but acknowledgment of the important discrepancies that occur among different observers as well as in the same observer at different times should not be disregarded. Clinical medicine is a scientific art that challenges the reasoning and decision-making abilities of the practitioner, who must apply various diagnostic strategies, the hypothetic-deductive strategy usually being the most important of all. Knowing the disease that the patient bears is not enough: it is equally important to know the patient who bears the disease. In clinical medicine there are no diseases, only diseased people. The biological approach to the patient must be substituted by a biopsycho-social one. The clinician's main objective--to heal, has become enormously fiacilitated by the dramatic progress of modern scientific medicine, which has provided the physician with powerful but dangerous tools. The old Hippocratic aphorism, primum non nocere, should never beforgotten. Equally essential for the clinician is application of evidence-based knowledge applied to diagnostic and therapeutic measures; there should be no room for past attitudes that were supported by empires and the advice of "authorities". A solid and warm patient-physician relationship is a tremendously important aspect of the healer's behavior.

  13. Drug Design and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  14. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  15. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.

    2015-04-01

    working at Catania airport (Sicily, Italy) and observing the Mt. Etna fountains about 33 km far away. Collocated infrared satellite observations will be shown as well to complete the investigation. The case study on November 23rd, 2013 is taken as reference case due to its strength and its well-defined narrow plume, which is transported by the prevailing wind hundred kilometers away. For this case study, the X-band radar in Catania tracked the ash-signal from 9:40 UTC to 10:30 UTC every 10 min providing, at each acquisition step, the following variables, abbreviated as ZDR, RHV, VEL, SWD KDP and ZHH. The latter stand for differential reflectivity, correlation coefficients, radial velocity, spectral width, specific differential phase shift and reflectivity, respectively. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that the interpretation of polarization diversity and Doppler shifts might introduce new insights in the estimates of the fraction of ash mass loading due to larger particles and its rate of mass flux. This would be an important achievement for the APhoRISM Project in witch this work is framed. APHORISM is a 3 years FP7-EU project started on December 2013 that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis.

  16. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-04

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ .

  17. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature.

  18. Conceptual associations of [time] as a dictionary entry. Spanish and German phraseological occurrences and their usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Piñel López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All humans experience time as a subjective experience, socially and culturally mediated. From birth we inherit a conception of the perception of time that has been transmitted by popular culture and is manifested mainly through oral tradition as phrasal expressions, proverbs and proverbial phrases. The differences in the perception of reality between different communities are expressed in their languages. They ultimately result in distinct symbols and conceptual associations, even if there is a common cultural tradition, as in the case of German and Spanish. These symbols and conceptualizations are realized in phraseology which refers, sometimes in a metaphorical way, to some aspects of reality. Phraseological creation is determined by universal conceptualizations, based on biological and psychological factors, and particular conceptualizations rooted in specific cultural variables associated with a social community of group. This paper is a revision of the concept of ‘time’ as reflected in German and Spanish phraseology. ‘Time’ is associated, among other notions, with concepts of destruction, medicine, opportunity, patience, change, justice, truth and advice. The phrasal idioms that illustrate the above concepts in both languages show that, despite the cultural differences, the perception of time, its conceptualization and its influence in the lives and behaviour of people.

  19. Simulation of aromatic SOA formation using the lumping model integrated with explicit gas-phase kinetic mechanisms and aerosol-phase reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Y.; Jang, M.; Beardsley, R. L.

    2014-04-01

    The Unified Partitioning-Aerosol phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model has been developed to predict the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through multiphase reactions. The model was evaluated with aromatic SOA data produced from the photooxidation of toluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB) under various concentrations of NOx and SO2 using an outdoor reactor (University of Florida Atmospheric PHotochemical Outdoor Reactor (UF-APHOR) chamber). When inorganic species (sulfate, ammonium and water) are present in aerosol, the prediction of both toluene SOA and 135-TMB SOA, in which the oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) ratio is lower than 0.62, are approached under the assumption of a complete organic/electrolyte-phase separation below a certain relative humidity. An explicit gas-kinetic model was employed to express gas-phase oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Gas-phase products are grouped based on their volatility (6 levels) and reactivity (5 levels) and exploited to construct the stoichiometric coefficient (αi,j) matrix, the set of parameters used to describe the concentrations of organic compounds in multiphase. Weighting of the αi,j matrix as a function of NOx improved the evaluation of NOx effects on aromatic SOA. The total amount of organic matter (OMT) is predicted by two modules in the UNIPAR model: OMP by a partitioning process and OMAR by aerosol-phase reactions. The OMAR module predicts multiphase reactions of organic compounds, such as oligomerization, acid-catalyzed reactions, and organosulfate (OS) formation. The model reasonably simulates SOA formation under various aerosol acidities, NOx concentrations, humidities and temperatures. Furthermore, the OS fractions in the SOA predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimentally measured OS fractions.

  20. Nonliteral language in Alzheimer dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Wild, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The use of nonliteral language in clinical assessment, especially testing the patients' ability to interpret proverbs, has a long tradition in psychiatry. However, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in dementias is not yet clear. The aim of this review article is to examine the current evidence on nonliteral/figurative language (proverb, metaphor, metonymy, idiom, irony, sarcasm) comprehension in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. A comprehensive literature search identified 25 studies (16 proverb, 3 metaphor, 0 metonymy, 5 idiom, 3 sarcasm) on nonliteral language comprehension in dementia. Studies predominantly indicate a deficit. Most studies investigated Alzheimer's dementia. Applied correctly, nonliteral language is a worthwhile diagnostic tool to evaluate language and abstract thinking in dementias. During assessment, familiarity testing (e.g., by asking "are you familiar with the proverb XY") is obligatory. Still, future research is needed in several areas: evidence on decline of nonliteral language over the course of the illness is limited. So far, almost no studies delineated proverb comprehension in high risk populations such as patients with mild cognitive impairment. Currently, there is a lack of studies addressing performance in direct comparison to relevant differential diagnosis like older-age depression, delirium, brain lesion, or other psychiatric conditions.

  1. Aging and the aged in Aesopic fables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, J

    1997-01-01

    Little attempt has been made to re-assess the attitudes to aging and old age of the ancient-medieval Greek-speaking world on the basis of the literary remains (which are common to both) since Richardson (1933). There are however some collections (proverbs, sayings, "purple passages" from literature and so forth) which include material revealing attitudes which are in fact quite different from those of today and which can even be surprising. One such collection, the large number of fables which more or less conform to the genre associated with Aesop, is here analyzed to isolate the texts which have to do with aging and the attitudes they reveal. Of the surprisingly few fables which touch upon the matter, most are distinctly complimentary. In most instances the elderly are seen to increase, rather diminish, in certain powers other than physical strength. Fables are found which characterize them as being astute, intelligent, crafty, loyal and, above all, capable of giving sound advice and good leadership when the situation requires it of them. The celebrated Fable of the Tortoise and the Hare, although it was not specifically interpreted in this way in ancient times, best sums up the general attitude: that dogged persistence (the characteristic of the elderly) will ultimately prove superior to all the erratic bursts of youthful speed anytime. Hence Cicero: "Old age is more spirited than youth, and stronger!"

  2. A DIALOGIC ENLIGHTENMENT PERSPECTIVE; APPROACH TO THE OTTOMAN AND EUROPEAN RELATIONS IN PSEUDO-ORIENTAL LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hasan BAKTIR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly held that pseudo-oriental letters used anOriental mask to comment on contemporary European society andmanners; Eastern contexts, proverbs, customs and culture were thoughtto be supplementary to the central theme. Therefore, the representationof the Ottoman Orient in the letters was taken as of mostly illustrative(Conant, 157-61. However, it is not illuminating to argue that pseudoorientalletters were mainly concerned with the discussion ofcontemporary social and political issues. We can find more thanillusion in the letters in terms of the representation of the OttomanOrient. We will survey the historical process can disclose theinteraction between Europe and the Orient and unravel the consistentspirit which reinforced the negotiation between East and West. Thecritical perspectives in the Turkish Spy and Persian Letters blended thepositive and negative aspects of the two worlds; the pseudo-orientalletters amalgamated the familiar and unfamiliar, ridiculous and seriousfacets of the Eastern and Western cultures. The use of Orientalnarrators worked as a metaphor for the intellectual and culturaltransformation of Eastern and Western perceptions of each other. Thistransformation created a critical narrative tradition where Eastern andWestern values had contact, clashed, and found a way to get rid ofreligious prejudice. Using Bakhtin’s concept of dialogy, the presentpaper aims to discuss how the two continents interanimated each otherby disclosing the serious and absurd aspects of the two cultures.

  3. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  4. KANDUNGAN NILAI MORAL DALAM UNGKAPAN TRADISIONAL JAWA DAN PEPATAH CINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Harti Widyastuti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the moral values in Javanese traditional expressions and Chinese proverbs. The data on Javanese expressions were collected from Javanese course books and Kasusastran Jawi and those on Chinese proverbs were collected from Pepatah China Kuno untuk Generasi Modern. The data were analyzed by classifying the themes and comparing Javanese traditional expressions with Chinese proverbs. The findings are as follows. First, the themes include (a self-control, (b ethics of marriage and social life, (c leadership ethics, and (d ethics of managing a country and nation. Second, the similarity in themes shows a common way of life in Javanese and Chinese societies. This can serve as a means of understanding the cultures of the two ethnic groups so that there is a close relationship and mutual respect.

  5. FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION IN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

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    Dan Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the functional description of figurative expression in the phraseological units of Russian and Chinese languages. Metaphor is able to provide re-examination of the knowable through conscious and recorded as the value of a linguistic unit – metaphor for linguistic objective environmental object of conscious vision of reality. Phraseology as one of the «antropoemkih» sections of the linguistics with the language of phrasebook – as mirror, in which the community identifies Lingvokulturnaja their national identity. Proverbs and idioms literally difficult to precisely translate into others languages, because their value is based on the nationally-specific manner. A characteristic feature of phraseology is a «figurative situational motivation, which is directly linked to the worldview of the people – a native speaker, mediastinum cultural connotations, which is its figurative base. Every culture develops its own symbolic language and its image of the world in which his unit gets its value. Shaped spheres attention is drawn to the characters as cultural semantics is mostly symbolic. The symbol can be attributed to the stereotype phenomena characteristic for any culture. 

  6. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  7. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage. PMID:19903732

  8. A Translation Study on School Signboards in Surakarta: Types, Functions, And Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardianna Nuraeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to map out types of bilingual signboards found in Elementary and Secondary schools in Surakarta based on their functions, to assess their quality in terms of accuracy and acceptability, and to describe factors influencing the translation quality. This descriptive qualitative research used data sources in the form of documents and persons, i.e. bilingual signboards displayed on school walls and those called raters who have competencies in assessing translation quality. Content analysis, Interview, and Focus Group Discussion were applied as the methods to collect and analyze the data of bilingual signboards. As a result, there are three types of school signboard, namely signboards showing names of place, signboards showing the condition of a particular place, and those saying proverbs. Dealing with the function, signboards having informative, suggestive, restrictive and mandatory functions are identified. The majority of the data resulting accurate and less acceptable translation is found in universal signboards, while culture-bound signboards tend to be rendered less accurate and less acceptable due to some factors that can be read thoroughly in this article.

  9. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  10. Confusing redaction and corruption: A house going to hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alfred Loader

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two dimensions to the argument offered in this article, both of them pertaining to methodological issues. The first is that of distinguishing textual criticism from redactional criticism, especially with recourse to the critical apparatus of the Stuttgart Hebrew Bibles. Secondly, the danger of over-emphasising the sound distinction between so-called �literary� and �historical� exegetical modes into an unsound separation between them. Proposals for the emendation of the text in Proverbs 2:18 are used as an example of both issues at once. It is advanced that a historical enquiry into the origin of the text can shed light on an analysis of the text �as it stands�, which undermines the reading of the �final text� as an exercise that can, and may, have nothing to do with enquiry into the growth of that text. This article endeavours to advance its argument by means of a practical contribution to solving the perceived textual problems of the crux interpretum, rather than indulging in the kind of theoretical skirmishes that characterised South African debates at the end of the previous century.

  11. Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: the impact of schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2004-01-30

    Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate two dissociable impairments of pragmatic language comprehension: (1) an insensitivity to irony, which is associated with poor theory-of-mind (i.e. a difficulty with inferring other people's thoughts); and (2) poor recognition of metaphors, which may reflect degraded semantics. This study investigated whether non-clinical high-schizotypal adults show similar impairments of pragmatic language. Thirty-six university students completed the Raine Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Wechsler Memory Scale Logical-Memories subtest, Raven's Progressive Matrices and a story comprehension task that tested the ability to discriminate between incongruous statements and appropriate uses of ironical, metaphorical or literal speech. Counter to the pattern found for patients, high-schizotypal adults were just as capable as low-schizotypal adults of identifying appropriate metaphors, suggesting a discontinuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy for the metaphor-recognition problem. This study's finding of intact metaphor recognition in high-schizotypal adults contrasts with previous findings of poor proverb comprehension in these individuals and is interpreted in terms of different semantic processes required for recognizing and interpreting metaphors. Consistent with the pattern found for patients, high-schizotypal adults were significantly impaired in their ability to appreciate when a literally contradictory utterance could be interpreted as ironical, suggesting continuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy for the irony-appreciation problem.

  12. Cultural adaptation and health literacy refinement of a brief depression intervention for Latinos in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Zorangelí; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies addressing the mental health needs of Latinos describe how interventions are tailored or culturally adapted to address the needs of their target population. Without reference to this process, efforts to replicate results and provide working models of the adaptation process for other researchers are thwarted. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of a cultural adaptation that included accommodations for health literacy of a brief telephone cognitive-behavioral depression intervention for Latinos in low-resource settings. We followed a five-stage approach (i.e., information gathering, preliminary adaptation, preliminary testing, adaptation, and refinement) as described by Barrera, Castro, Strycker, and Toobert (2013) to structure our process. Cultural adaptations included condensation of the sessions, review, and modifications of materials presented to participants including the addition of visual aids, culturally relevant metaphors, values, and proverbs. Feedback from key stakeholders, including clinician and study participants, was fundamental to the adaptation process. Areas for further inquiry and adaptation identified in our process include revisions to the presentation of "cognitive restructuring" to participants and the inclusion of participant beliefs about the cause of their depression. Cultural adaptation is a dynamic process, requiring numerous refinements to ensure that an intervention is tailored and relevant to the target population.

  13. Ertel's vorticity theorem and new flux surfaces in multi-fluid plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameiri, Eliezer [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Dedicated to Professor Harold Weitzner on the occasion of his retirement“Say to wisdom ‘you are my sister,’ and to insight ‘you are my relative.’”—Proverbs 7:4Based on an extension to plasmas of Ertel's classical vorticity theorem in fluid dynamics, it is shown that for each species in a multi-fluid plasma there can be constructed a set of nested surfaces that have this species' fluid particles confined within them. Variational formulations for the plasma evolution and its equilibrium states are developed, based on the new surfaces and all of the dynamical conservation laws associated with them. It is shown that in the general equilibrium case, the energy principle lacks a minimum and cannot be used as a stability criterion. A limit of the variational integral yields the two-fluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A further special limit yields MHD equilibria and can be used to approximate the equilibrium state of a Hall-MHD plasma in a perturbative way.

  14. The Cultural Differences between Chinese and English Reflected by Their Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qian

    2015-01-01

    社会学家告诉我们,一切文化都是独特的,互不相同的。学习一种外语不仅要掌握语音、语法、词汇和习语。实际上,学习语言与了解语言所反映的文化是分不开的。本文粗略探讨日常对话,谚语,比喻和禁忌语这些语言现象所折射出的两种语言之间存在的文化差异。%Social scientists tell us that cultures differ from one another,and each culture is unique.Learning a foreign language well means more than merely mastering the pronunciation,grammar,words and idioms.In fact,it is inseparable from learning its culture.This paper attempts to do a brief study of certain cultural differences between Chinese and English reflected by everyday conversations,proverbs,metaphor and association as well as taboos.

  15. Saving the “Undoomed Man” In Beowulf (572b-573

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxim Wyrd oft nereð // unfӕgne eorl, / þonne his ellen deah “Fate often spares an undoomed man when his courage avails” (Beowulf 572b-573 has been likened to “Fortune favors the brave,” with little attention to the word unfӕgne, which is often translated “undoomed”. This comparison between proverbs emphasizes personal agency and suggests a contrast between the proverb in 572b-573 and the maxim Gӕð a wyrd swa hio scel “Goes always fate as it must” (Beowulf 455b, which depicts an inexorable wyrd. This paper presents the history of this view and argues that linguistic analysis and further attention to Germanic cognates of (unfӕge reveal a proverb that harmonizes with 455b. (Unfӕge and its cognates have meanings related to being brave or cowardly, blessed or accursed, and doomed or undoomed. A similar Old Norse proverb also speaks to the significance of the status of unfӕge men. Furthermore, the prenominal position of unfӕgne is argued to represent a characterizing property of the man. The word unfӕgne is essential to the meaning of this proverb as it indicates not the simple absence of being doomed but the presence of a more complex quality. This interpretive point is significant in that it provides more information about the portrayal of wyrd in Beowulf by clarifying a well-known proverb in the text; it also has implications for future translations of these verses.

  16. Analysis of Differences between Japanese and Chinese Idioms%日汉习语的差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金秋

    2016-01-01

    汉语和日语中的同形同义,同形异义词汇较多,也同样大量遍布在成语,谚语和惯用语之中。本文试图从中日成语,谚语和惯用语的异同加以分析比较,以期日语学习者透过语言的差异来体会文化的差异,回归生活,体会语言的精髓所在。%There are a lot of synonyms and homonyms in Chinese as well as in Japanese. They exist in most idioms, proverbs and phrases. This paper attempts to analyze and compare the similarities and differences of Chinese and Japanese idioms. Through the contrast, the people who learn Japanese can know the cultural differences, return to life and experience the essence of language.

  17. Semiotics of Power and Dictatorship in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Later Novels

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    Yémalo, C. AMOUSSOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the different uses of symbols to express power and interpersonal relationship in Ngũgĩ’s bulkiest novel Wizard of the Crow (2006, with a few illustrations from Matigari (1987. It draws on the semiotic approach and identifies about a hundred discourse strings in which signs are used to express tenor between characters. In the main, supernatural, faunal and floral symbols are found to be main vehicles of power, though many other such avenues as ‘vocations’, ‘social and gender-related symbols’ and ‘biblical characterisation and numerology’, etc are unexplored here for space constraints. Before the analysis, it is deemed necessary to overview the theoretical background to the study in which relevant concepts have been clarified. It has been concluded that there is no other work in which power is so much expressed through the explored devices as in Wizard of the Crow.Keywords: tenor, symbol, index, proverb, modality metaphor, modaliser/ weakener, modulator/strengthener

  18. IMAGINABLE AND AXIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONCEPT SPHERE OF LAND IN THE MENTALITY OF MODERN BRITISH ETHNOS

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    Olyanich Andrey Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the cognitive and semiotic development of imaginable and axiological parameters (characteristics of the concept sphere of land that are assimilated by the representatives of contemporary British ethnicity, and their reflection in the mentality of the ethnic society. The study is aimed at identifying these characteristics of the investigated concept sphere by using the associative experimental techniques of questioning informants of British origin native residents of the UK, whose origin is a true Anglo-Saxon. The reflections received from informants enabled to represent the concept sphere of land as an agricultural object, the object of work, institutional object, the object of entertainment, the object of aesthetic perception, the object of pragmatic use (object of lease, sale, economic profit extraction. The axiological characteristics were identified: firstly, by linguosemiotic analysis of the linguistic resources which are accumulated in the mental and linguistic fund of an English-speaking ethnic group, keeping in memory the language signs indicating the axiological potential of the sphere; secondly, by means of informants answers to the questionnaire on the evaluation of proverbs. The axiological and cognitive reflection of the concept sphere of land was recorded through the evaluation of epithets, stylistically marked as positive adjectives; evaluative statements semanticizing the state of delight or satisfaction; phraseological units with a positive connotation; paremias.

  19. Folklore as historical and cultural legasy of the lower Volga region in the first third of the XXth century: B.S. Laschilin, A.M. Listopadov

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    Rodionova Olga Igorevna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the question of the folklore phenomenon in the folk art of the Lower Volga Region in the first third of the 20th century is considered. In the course of research high emphasis was placed on the Cossack subject matter. The role of B.S. Laschilin and A.M. Listopadov in collecting and publishing folk art, the folklore of the Don Cossacks, is revealed. Boris Stepanovitch Laschilin’s work left a great impact in the artistic life of our region. In B.S. Laschilin’s books, that were published in Rostov-on-Don, Saratov, Stalingrad-Volgograd, contained tales, fairy tales, bylinas, legends, songs, ditties, proverbs, sayings, ancient dramas of the first Russian folk theatres, exorcisms. Boris Stepanovitch kept selecting songs and ditties, chastooshkas for Voronezh Folk Choir “Voronezh girls”, which are still in the repertoire of the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Chorus. Folklorist and musician Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov, who collected and studied folk songs from his youth up, and recorded them in the Don Region hamlets and Cossack villages, spent more than 50 years of his life on the research of the Don Cossack’s musical culture. Alexander Mikhailovich Listopadov’s heritage made an important contribution to the native musical folklore study. Folklore compositions is a unique source of knowledge of history, way of life, moral and other national concepts, which allows us to reconstitute a linguistic personality of a definite historical epoch.

  20. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

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    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  1. 关于中韩成语俗语中“狗”象征意义的对比研究%Comparative study on China and Korean idioms"dog"symbolic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱子

    2012-01-01

      中韩两国的语言中都存在大量的成语和俗语。成语和俗语是语言中历史悠久,经过长时间筛选和提炼的比较固定的内容,是民族心理和民族文化的一面镜子。本文以文化语言学的角度分析中韩成语俗语中“狗”的象征意义,探讨两国人民意识形态、思考方式的异同点。%  There are lots of idioms and proverbs in China and Korea language. Idioms in the language has a long history, the relatively fixed content after a long time of screening and refines, is the national psychology and a mirror of national culture. In this paper, in the perspective of cultural linguistics analysis of China and Korea idioms"dog"symbolic significance, Explore the similarities and differences in ideology and way of thinking.

  2. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

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    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  3. Интеллектуальные характеристики людей в английских и русских пословицах и поговорках

    OpenAIRE

    Валисова, Т.

    2013-01-01

    In this article is a comparison of intellectual characteristics of people in English and Russian Proverbs and sayings. Discusses what lexemes are indicated by the intelligence and stupidity. It turns out the similarities and differ- ences of cultures and relations to smart and stupid

  4. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

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    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are agents capable of helping others, learning new behaviours and forgetting old ones. The evolutionary approach to archaeological systems has therefore been hampered by the 'modern synthesis' - a gene-centred model of evolution as a process that eliminates those that cannot handle stress. The result has been a form of environmental determinism that explains human evolution in terms of heroic struggles and selective winnowing. Biologists committed to the modern synthesis have either dismissed agency as a delusion wrought in our bodies by natural selection, or imposed a sharp, Cartesian split between 'natural' and 'artificial' ecologies. We revisit the seminal literature of evolutionary biology and show that the paradigmatic fault lines of 21st century anthropology can be traced back to the 19th century and beyond. Lamarck had developed a two-factor evolutionary theory - one factor an endogenous tendency to become more advanced and complex, the other an exogenous constraint that drove organisms into conformity with environment. Darwin tried to eliminate the progressive tendency and imposed linearity constraints on evolution that Thomas Henry Huxley rejected. When experimental evidence falsified Darwin's linear hypothesis, the race began to develop a new, gene-centred model of evolution. This became the modern synthesis. The modern synthesis is now under pressure from the evidence of anthropology, sociology, palaeontology, ecology and genetics. An 'extended synthesis' is emerging. If evolution is adequately summarised by the aphorism survival of the fittest, then 'fitness' cannot always be defined in the heroic sense of 'better able to compete and reproduce'. The fittest organisms are often those that evade selective winnowing, even when their ability to compete and reproduce has been compromised by their genes. Characteristically human traits like language, abstraction, compassion and altruism may have arisen as coping strategies that

  5. "Kia whakatomuri te haere whakamua": "I Walk Backwards into the Future with My Eyes Fixed on My Past"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This "whakatauki" or "proverb" speaks to Maori perspectives of time, where the past, the present and the future are viewed as intertwined, and life as a continuous cosmic process. Within this continuous cosmic movement, time has no restrictions--it is both past and present. The past is central to and shapes both present and…

  6. Innocents Abroad: The Politics of Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufva, Hannele

    Some failure types that occur in cross-cultural interactions are described, mainly from the point of view of Finns and Finland and from primarily anecdotal and "folk theoretical" data. Material from such sources as newspapers, joke collections, proverbs, and student experiences are used as the basis of the discussion. Non-grammatical errors, or…

  7. Metonímia i metàfora des d'una perspectiva cognitiva

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    Joseph Hilferty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author presents some principles of Cognitive Linguistics useful in dealing with metonymy and metaphor as semantic resources in relation to idioms and proverbs. Beyond their interest for studies of Literature and Linguistics, these resources show how the human mind works.

  8. Educacion al Aire Libre: Libro de Actividades II = Outdoor Education: Student Activity Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Alma Flor, Comp.; And Others

    Divided into four sections, the book includes activities for students to do before camp, on the way to camp, at camp, and after camp. Activities to do before camp include writing proverbs, tongue twisters, riddles, poems, and stories. Activities to do on the way to camp include singing songs and reading a map. The words to the following songs are…

  9. Adinkra Banners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Adinkra cloth is a stamped fabric that is made in Ghana, Africa. Symbolic motifs that represent proverbs are carved from calabashes, a type of gourd, and are dipped into a black dye made from the bark of the badie tree. Adinkra artists divide the fabric into squares and create patterns and repetitive designs using the inked stamps. When it is used…

  10. Put Power into Your Presentations: Using Presentation Software Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.; Burmeister, Marsha L.

    2009-01-01

    Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and OpenOffice Impress are relatively common tools in the classroom and in the boardroom these days. What makes presentation software so popular? As the Chinese proverb declares, a picture is worth a thousand words. People like visual presentations. Presentation software can make even a dull subject come to…

  11. There Is No Business Model for Open Educational Resources: A Business Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The economic proverb "There is no such thing such as a free lunch" applies also to open educational resources (OER). In recent years, several authors have used revenue models and business models to analyse the different sources of possible funding for OER. In this article the business models of Osterwalder and Chesbrough are combined with research…

  12. Agricultural Renaissance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An old Chinese proverb says that "poverty gives rise to the desire for change," and this may in part explain why 18 farmers from a rural village in east China’s Anhui Province made the bold decision in 1978 to fix farm output quotas per

  13. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  14. Traditsioonilise kujundkõne nüüdisaegsest uurimisest / Anneli Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Anneli, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Phraseologie und Parömiologie (sari ilmub aastast 1999; http://www.phraseologie.net ) ; Claudia Aurich. Proverb Structure in the History of English: Stability and Change. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, 2012 ; Urška Valenčič Arh. "Ein Prinz auf der Erbse". Phraseologie und Übersetzung. Schneider Verlag GmbH, 2014

  15. 心路历程--筷子%Chopstick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends, Our past columns have been filled with a variety of topics. They have included es-says, proverbs, jokes, and even a few of my poems. Now it is time for an original shortstory written especially for you in this magazine. I hope you enjoy reading it as much as Ienjoyed writing it.

  16. Anthropocentric or Ecocentric Environmentalism? Views of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Bulent; Akman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    An Indian proverb says that "the man's heart toughen as he drifts apart from nature." Living in harmony with nature is only possible by abandoning of mankind from its idea of dominance on nature. Deep ecology refuses the superiority of human against nature with a radical attitude within ecological philosophy, and it wants the individuals…

  17. Seventeen Moments in Golden Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Chen

    2015-01-01

    Both Chinese and Western people believe in the proverb that"a friend in need is a friend indeed".More than70 years ago,when the Chinese nation faced its most dangerous situation,a foreign friend came with timely help.It was our northern neighbor-the former Soviet Union.At the critical stage of

  18. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  19. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  20. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  1. Mass Communication and Mass Media: A Concept of Game Theory Approach

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    H. Tafazzoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the historical point of view, the formation and evolution of media in the form that we know today, and according to the age of several thousands of years of human's social life on the soil planet, has changed to reality later. This has happened while the media has evolved in a larger scale with an incredible speed. In those far periods of time the wide propagation and distribution of information to the lots of contacts was not possible because of technical limitations. But people were trying to communicate in a limited form with each other and with their contacts by using other methods. This communication didn't go beyond the human's voice. Through experience they have learnt that if they make a horn with their hands and speak loudly in it from its narrow part, attracts the contact that is further than the usual sound board. But with society's being more complicated, giving information in the shortest time became very important. Various methods of transferring information were formed according to the technology and facilities. In middle ages the bellmen, the singers and the badger storytellers had the duty of information exchange by poems and proverbs, or news and information were written on the animal skin or clay or stone tablets for the distribution and propagation of news. But bringing news and information with primary tools for the contacts were along with some barriers, because their duplication was a hard, time consuming and costly task. Scholars and rulers had found that when the political and governmental information and news reaching time is shorter, consequently its effects on the contacts and their reaction toward the received data would be more.

  2. Pesquisa em Educação Matemática e mentalidade bélica Mathematical Education Research and militaristic mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, vamos considerar a questão da relação entre pesquisa em educação matemática e transformação social. Num primeiro momento, argumentaremos em favor do ponto de vista de que a mentalidade bélica teria constituído o principal fator que teria levado ao surgimento histórico do matemático profissional e do professor de matemática, bem como ao surgimento da matemática e da educação matemática como práticas sociais autônomas de pesquisa. Em seguida, com base no aforismo estético de Whitehead de que a função da razão é promover a arte da vida, argumentaremos em favor da necessidade de se combater essa mentalidade bélica através do desenvolvimento de uma educação ético-política baseada em usos sociais da matemática, no passado e no presente, que nunca são neutros em relação a essa ética. Palavras-chave: Pesquisa em Educação Matemática. Mentalidade Bélica. Educação Ético-Política.In this paper, we are going to consider the question about the relationship between research in mathematics education and social change. First, we make the argument that a militaristic mentality constituted the main factor that led to the historical rise of mathematicians and mathematics teachers, as well as mathematics and mathematics education as autonomous social practices of research. Next, based on Whitehead’s aesthetic aphorism, stating that the function of reason is to promote the art of life, we will assert the need to counter this militaristic mentality by developing an ethical-political education based on current or past social uses of mathematics, which are never neutral in relation to these ethics. Key-words: Mathematics Education Research; Militaristic Mentality; Ethical-Political Education.

  3. Técnica, corpo e coisificação: notas de trabalho sobre o tema da técnica em Theodor W. Adorno Technique, body and reification: work notes about this theme by Theodor W. Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison José Bassani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se aqui de umas notas de trabalho sobre o tema da técnica em Theodor W. Adorno. O ensaio Educação após Auschwitz e um conjunto de aforismos que compõem o livro Minima moralia são tomados como fontes principais, mas também como roteiro de investigação. As críticas de Adorno à técnica aparecem em vários registros e privilegiamos, nos marcos de nossa reflexão, as relacionados ao corpo e à produção da consciência, elementos que se combinam diversamente nas obras pesquisadas, mas que encontram seu desiderato na crítica ao mundo administrado e aos destinos da subjetividade. Nossos resultados mostram que nas reflexões de Adorno o profundo processo de embrutecimento do humano e a supressão de quaisquer traços de particularidade aparecem intimamente relacionados com o crescente processo de tecnificação, o que por sua vez engendra uma certa pedagogia dos gestos e do corpo. Sugere-se, neste sentido, que a técnica mais refinada não necessariamente leva a um aumento das possibilidades humanas, mas, talvez encaminhe, tendencialmente, a uma escravização do corpo por meio da incorporação dos processos reificadores da tecnificação.This paper brings some work notes on the topic of technique by Theodor W. Adorno. The essay Education after Auschwitz and some of the aphorisms in Minima moralia are taken as main sources, and also as part of an investigation plan. Adorno's criticism of technique appears in several parts of his work. In our reflection, we have prioritized criticism related to the body and the production of conscience, as they are elements which have different combinations in the researched texts, but a common goal in the criticism of the administered world and the destiny of subjectivity. Our results show that, in Adorno's reflections, the deep process of human brutalization and the suppression of any particularity traits are closely related to the growing technification process, which engenders a certain gesture

  4. STORIES – A POWERFUL TOOL IN TRIBAL LITERATURE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOW MARTEN GOT HIS SPOTS: AND OTHER KOOTENAI INDIAN STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sripadmadevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, stories hold prime place in the process of individuation. The art of story-telling is as old as human civilization. And the world of Tribe is of no exception. Many of the rural and tribal societies are oral in nature. Their history is not written but orally transmitted from one generation to another, in the form of poetry, songs, proverbs, stories, narrative dances and various rituals. Their historical and cultural information are passed on through some of these means. Primarily they used stories for imparting knowledge and courage to the budding generation. Among the array of tribes across the world, the Kootenai people – a particular sect of tribe - today exist in south-eastern British Columbia, Washington State, Idaho and Moutana. For centuries, Kootenai children and adults gathered on cold, dark winter nights to listen and learn from stories. Recorded by their elders and illustrated by Kootenai artists from the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana, these Kootenai stories are originally intended to educate young tribal members about their history and culture. The collection of How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories packed with morals, in which Marten learns a hard lesson in obedience; Coyote and Trout, in which Coyote learns the consequences of greed; Little Weasel's Dream, in which the child Little Weasel learns the importance of listening to his elders; and Tepee Making, an illustrated lesson in construction. The main focal point of the present paper is to exhibit, how by employing the technique of storytelling, these tribes can communicate and mould their rising generation, with special reference to How Marten Got His Spots: and other Kootenai stories.

  5. 生活与逻辑的交汇——詹姆斯·C·霍尔特论大宪章%Where Life and Logic Meet: James C. Holt on the Great Charter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树栋

    2012-01-01

    J. C. Holt is known for his study of the Great Charter. As a result of research of that famous document, his Magna Carta is praised as a masterpiece. The main concern in Holt' s work is with law, but it is with law as historical process. For him, law is not doctrine, but fact. In his work, he sought to do away with the anachronisms of Whig history, set the Great Charter in the concrete conditions of the England and Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He made much effort to practice F. W. Maitlands' aphorism that law is the point where life and logic meet.%英国当代著名史学家詹姆斯·C·霍尔特以研究大宪章知名,他的《大宪章》一书是20世纪大宪章史学的杰作,被认为是20世纪后半叶大宪章研究领域最重要的一部著作。霍尔特的大宪章研究在方法上的突出特色,是将法律或原则还原为生活,通过比较,即通过对大宪章与欧洲中世纪其他同类文件的对比研究,以及对英王国与欧洲其他王国的对比研究,从实际生活过程解说大宪章的产生和特点。他致力于去除辉格派史学传统带来的那些时代错乱的历史解释,从生活与逻辑的交汇点阐释大宪章的内容和性质,依据大宪章的内在特点与时代发展的关系说明大宪章的历史与神话的联系。

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF POMEGRANATE IN FAIR TALES COMPILE IN TURKEY AND MYTHS MİTOLOJİLERDE VE TÜRKİYEDE DERLENEN MASALLARDA NARIN YERİ

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    Münir CERRAHOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the unknown period of date (history, pomegranate is a fruit met by chance rather close together besides the source of healthy at the great religion, at the religious boks, and at the mythologic short story. At the mythologic context pomegranate was accepted forbidden fruit ascribing sacredness to it and it has been the symbol of abundance prosperity immortality of spirit, prolificacy and was symbol of prolificacy abundance and prosperity. Again at the mythology pomegranate is accepted the sign of wealthy, immortality of soul, productivity and abundance invincibility power of heros,. Besides it is used to symbolize matrimany tie of becoming untied life and rebirth.At the turkish public culture and reportece pomecrenate has been subject fairly tales folk songs, epics of lovers dream motifs, proverbs a tradetional turkish guatrain forms and riddies (aplay ful Formula found in folk narratives riddles, a traditional Turkish guatrain forms, proverbs, folk songs, fairy tales, epics of lovers and drinking wines. At the interior of verbal tradition it has been a subject to fairy tales vather freguently. At fairy tales pomegranate is an answer of riddle, it’s a magic fruit to couse to have a child for who hasn’t a child, it’s a experience mediator, given material and spiritual presents, it’s a magical medicine to recover patients and sometimes it causes obstinacies to come to someane’s head. Tarihin bilinmeyen dönemlerinden itibaren nar, sağlık kaynağı olmasının yanında, büyük dinlerde, dini kitaplarda, mitolojik öykülerde adına sıkça rastlanan bir meyvedir. Dini ve mitolojik bağlamda nara kutsallık atfedilerek nar yasaklı meyve kabul edilmiş, doğurganlığın, bolluk ve refahın sembolü olmuştur. Mitolojide nar zenginliğin işareti, ruhun ölmezliği, doğanın verimliliği ve bolluğu, kahramanların yenilmezliği ve güçlülüğünün işareti olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ayrıca evlilik bağının

  7. 国内外政府服务绩效评估研究的比较*--基于WOS与CNKI数据的分析%A Comparison of Overseas and Domestic Research on Government Service Performance Evaluation Based on the Data from WOS & CNKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚虎平; 忠格草

    2013-01-01

    Being the "eyes of the society", the scholars can find some deep social rules before the multitude,and we can get some useful information to forecast the government performance status quo by studying the academic researches on such topics. After establishing two"image databases" based on 373 abroad studies and 97 domestic studies collected from WOS and CNKI, we use the two variables of focus degree ( FD) and focus ratio ( FR) to compare the differences between the two types of studies. Eventually, we find that the Chinese scholars take a holistic perspective to understand government service and try to establish a"service-oriented government performance eval-uation system", while the oversea counterparts try to evaluate the specific government performance services. It is suggested that a new met-aphor of government service be implemented, and government service market segmentation be made to improve the research qualities and practice efficiencies.%借助学者这个“社会的眼睛“来把握政府服务绩效的现状,这是一种数据挖掘评价的路径。通过对WOS ( Web of Science)和CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure)数据库中政府服务绩效评估研究的比较,可以发现,国外通过解构的方式,将“政府服务“细化为交通、卫生、基础设施等具体服务进行绩效评估研究,其目的是为了实现公民满意,在竞争中保证服务质量。国内各种研究都要纳入“服务型政府“的范畴,力图构建一个整体性的“服务型政府绩效评估“体系。借鉴国外经验,我们需要破除研究中的“刮风“习惯,推进有明确对象的政府服务绩效评估研究;在实践中需要对政府服务进行市场细分,推进政府在服务提供中的终极责任制。

  8. NATURALIZATION AND SEYHULISLAM YAHYA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE ŞEYHÜLİSLAM YAHYA

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    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Local factors which are important source of our classical literature in terms of contents were used more characteristicly by some classic poets. One of these poets, Şeyhülislam Yahya, although he has an identity of Muslim preacher, employed the delight and entertainment of life with elegant Turkish of Istanbul. Above all in his ghazals, he is highly successful in expressing the coloured stage chosen in daily life by using elegant Turkish, idioms proverbs, and folk sayings. Understanding of this art is effective in his being one of the most important represantative of naturalization at XVII. century. Klasik edebiyatımızın dil ve muhteva bakımından önemli kaynaklarından olan mahallî unsurlar, bazı klasik şairlerimiz tarafından daha belirgin bir şekilde kullanılmıştır.. Bu şâirlerden biri olan Şeyhülislam Yahya, bir din adamı kimliğine sahip olmasına rağmen hayatın zevk ve eğlencelerini sade İstanbul Türkçesini kullanarak şiirlerinde işlemiştir. Özellikle gazellerinde kullandığı sade Türkçesi, deyimleri, atasözleri ve halk deyişleri vasıtasıyla günlük hayatın içinden seçtiği canlı sahneleri anlatmada çok başarılıdır. Bu sanat anlayışı, onun mahallîleşmenin XVII. yüzyıldaki en önemli temsilcilerinden biri olmasına neden olmuştur.

  9. Tempos históricos, tempos físicos, tempos epidemiológicos: prováveis contribuições de Fernand Braudel e Ilya Prigogine ao pensamento epidemiológico Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking

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    Gil Sevalho

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto é uma abordagem acerca do tempo enquanto categoria científica para a epidemiologia. A partir do aforismo tempo-lugar-pessoa, o tempo é apontado como elemento pouco pensado pela epidemiologia, embora esteja presente em vários dos seus conceitos. No entanto, o tema tem sido objeto de reflexão importante na movimentação recente de várias disciplinas, tais como a história, a geografia, a biologia e a física, e deve por isto representar para a epidemiologia um ponto de vista interessante, tanto no que concerne ao diálogo interdisciplinar quanto ao estabelecimento de um olhar crítico voltado para a própria disciplina. Com o objetivo de argumentar a respeito destes aspectos, apresenta-se o tempo histórico de Fernand Braudel e o tempo físico de Ilya Prigogine, construções teóricas que serão comparadas com um provável tempo epidemiológico. Ao final, usando a questão das infecções emergentes como exemplo, faz-se considerações sobre a aparente inadequação epistemológica do tempo epidemiológico para reconhecer e lidar com os aspectos sociais e históricos envolvidos na complexidade do adoecer humano coletivo.The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent

  10. Study of Sexism in Language and Its Development%语言中的性别歧视及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to make a systematic study of the reasons of sexism in English by means of an⁃alyzing sexism phenomenon and try to study the sexism in English from the following aspects:generic mascu⁃line, naming and addressing terms, semantic derogation of woman, masculine-feminine order and sexism in proverbs and idioms. In this paper,by linking language with culture ,the origin and cause of sexism phenome⁃non are analyzed and dealt with, which enables people to deeply understand the reasons for sexism in lan⁃guage and realize the necessity to eliminate the phenomenon,furthermore, both linguistic approaches and so⁃cial efforts are put forward to eliminate the sexism in language, which makes a contribution to further study.%分析英语中的性别歧视现象,深入研究造成该语言现象的原因。从男性词、称谓语中的性别歧视现象、女性词语的“贬化”现象、男先女后的词序、谚语中的性别歧视现象五个方面分析英语中的性别歧视现象,把语言和社会文化紧紧联系起来,使人们深刻理解性别歧视现象产生的根源,意识到消除这种现象的必要性及其方法,为以后的研究做出贡献。

  11. 提高教师对本科教学积极性的思考和对策%POSITIVE THINKING AND COUNERMEASURES OF IMPROVING UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛钧

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate education is the base in colleges and universities. Undergraduate teaching, as one part of undergraduate education, plays an essential role in undergraduate education. A proverb says, "Education plans, teacher-centered. " Teachers' teaching enthusiasm can directly affect the quality of undergraduate teaching, and will affect the development of talented persons who were fostered by the school. Top colleges and universities for research should pay enough attention to the undergraduate teaching same as scientific research; deepen the reformation; increase the investment; give awards to the teachers who made outstanding achievements; increase the weight of the professional evaluation and promotion with a democratic and humanized management, which is the effective way to improve teachers' enthusiasm in undergraduate teaching.%本科教育是高校的立校之本,而本科教学在本科教育中占有绝对重要的地位.教育大计,教师为本.教师教学的积极性直接影响到本科教学质量,进而影响到学校培养的人才质量.研究型高校也应把本科教学提升到与科研同等重要的高度,深化本科教学改革,加大本科教学投入,重奖在本科教学中做出突出成绩的优秀教师,并在称职晋升评定要求条件中加大本科教学的权重,对教师实行更为民主、人性化的教学管理,这将是提高大学教师对本科教学积极性的有效途径.

  12. Anything new under the sun of African Biblical Hermeneutics in South African Old Testament Scholarship?: Incarnation, death and resurrection of the Word in Africa

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    Madipoane Masenya (Ngwan'a Mphahlele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In this article, two lenses are used to engage the task of African Biblical Hermeneutics. The one lens is derived from African wisdom, i shavha i sia muinga i ya fhi?, in which there is a need for people to affirm their own roots. Drawing from the wisdom of the preceding proverb, we argue that, in their scholarship, African biblical scholars have to take seriously their own African heritage and thus do justice to their contexts rather than rely heavily on Western paradigms if their scholarship is to impact communities and also contribute towards shaping the face of biblical hermeneutics as a whole. The other lens is an analogy derived from the following events in Jesus� life: incarnation, death and resurrection. The task of African Biblical Hermeneutics has to be a three-fold process for the Bible to be �gospel� in Africa: Firstly, the incarnation of the Word � the Bible as the Other has to incarnate into African contexts for it to become an African Word. Secondly, the death of the Word � this entails a critical engagement with the Word from multiple perspectives for it to be relevant to the struggles of African people. Thirdly, the resurrection of the Word � the biblical text has to be allowed to address and transform an African person in new creative ways. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE HE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  13. Cine eres y en cine te convertirás

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    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Compendium of thoughts and reflections about the movies and their impact in our culture, our way to see and perceive the world. Not a history or essay, but a succession of fragments and aphorisms that reveal certain paradigmatics images, certain predominant speeches, of what movies had been and represent as a reservoir of ideas and sensations, of visions and textures that respond to historic circumstantces from the 20th centtuy, as well as changing in taste, regarding to ethics and aesthetics that have signed our age.

  14. Time for a relook at Spitzer's laws of neonatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, P; Ryan, C A

    2013-11-01

    Thirty years ago, 20 tongue-in-cheek aphorisms relating to the practice of neonatology were published and became known as Spitzer's laws of neonatology (SLN). They became widely cited, perhaps because they resonated with some of the experiences of practicing neonatologists at that time. The purpose of this study was to see if Spitzer's laws still resonated with doctors currently practicing in neonatology. A questionnaire containing the 20 Spitzer's laws was distributed to 17 pediatric doctors during their neonatology placement. Each statement has the options of it being noted as rubbish, funny, intuitively correct or evidence based. Respondents were allowed to give more than one opinion for each statement. Less than a quarter (23.5%, n=4) of 17 doctors had previously heard of Spitzer's laws. Of the 355 opinions on Spitzer's statements, almost half (42%) were said to be rubbish, less than a third (31%) were intuitively correct and one-fifth (21%) were said to be funny. Only 5% were thought to be evidence based. Statement 7 'The milder the RDS, the sooner the infant will find himself on 100% oxygen and maximal ventilatory support', scored the highest as being the most rubbish statement (94%). It was also felt to be neither evidence based (0%), funny (0%) nor intuitively correct (6%). The aphorism,'The month you are on service always has three times as many days as any other month on the calendar', scored the highest (45%) as being the funniest. Statement 16, 'If they ain't breathin', they may be seizin'' was considered the aphorism most likely to be evidence based (35%, n=7). A third (35%) of the doctors said they would use Spitzer's laws for teaching future medical students. Many current neonatal practitioners still find SLN humorous but largely irrelevant and not evidence based.

  15. Conceptual Metaphors in Chinese Political Speeches ─ A Case Study of Xi Jinping’s 2016 New Year Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Zhi-lan

    2016-01-01

    As a sort of cognitive means and thinking mode, conceptual metaphor is widely applied to political discourses. States-men often publicize their political thoughts by using conceptual metaphors in their political discourses so that the audience can understand their political ideas easily. Based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, this paper aims to analyze the conceptual met-aphors in Xi Jinping’s 2016 New Year address so as to summarize the types, functions and significance of conceptual metaphors in Chinese political discourses, in the hope of helping readers interpret political speeches better.

  16. Ahmet Efe’nin Çocuk Hikâyelerinde Değer Eğitimi ve Hikâyelerin Türkçe Eğitimine Katkısı Value Educatıon In Ahmet Efe’s Children Stories And Contrıbutıons Of These Stories To Turkısh Educatıon

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    Zekerya BATUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ahmet Efe’s children stories works are examinedfrom the aspect of value education and Turkish education. Efe’schildren stories are taken as examples. It is used the method of storymap for analizing those stories. Those stories are given value educationpart. Those stories contributed development of Turkish education.Ahmet Efe’s stories are analized and those values are found: dearment,God dearment, motherland dearment, family dearment, frienddearment, nature dearment, animal dearment, honesty, sincerity,goodness, helpful, the valve of work and production, the valve of mercy,the valve of pity, the valve of school life, life happiness in the thosestories. In those stories being critizing behaviors are: lie and cheat, notobeying advice, jealousy and anger, betroying trust, theft and greedy arefound and examined in the those stories. Consequently, with regard tovalue education it is seen that they have a rich content.Ahmet Efe’s works are examined in terms of their contributionstoTurkish education, and usage of proverb, idiom, reduplication,routines and echoic words. In these works intensive usage of proverbs,idioms, duplications, routins and echoic words is seen. Examinedstudied used effectively proverbs, idioms and sayings mold.In the light of this data it is deduced that Ahmet Efe’s works areresources which are to be benefited in the process of value educationand Turkish education. Bu çalışmada, Ahmet Efe’nin çocuk hikâyelerinde değer eğitimi ve hikâyelerin Türkçe eğitimine katkısı bakımından incelenmiştir. Örneklem olarak Ahmet Efe’nin yazdığı çocuk hikâyeleri alınmıştır. Bu hikâyelerin çözümlenmesinde ise hikâye haritası yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Hikâyelerin çocuk edebiyatı açısından taşıdığı özellikler “Değer Eğitimi” olarak belirlenmiş, sözcük çeşitliliği açısından ise Türkçenin gücüne katkısı ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ahmet Efe

  17. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

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    Gopolang H. Sekano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa etelelwa pele ke e namagadi di wela ka lengope� [those who are led by a female leader fall into dongas]. In the light of this situation an intensive study regarding the need for an egalitarian concept and constructive interpretation of Bible passages, Setswana proverbs and idioms regarding the inevitability of female leadership is paramount to people who have an androcentric concept of religion and culture.

  18. Female role models in Bukusu folktales: Education at the mother’s hearth

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    Namulundah Florence

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Folktales serve a descriptive, as well as prescriptive role, by consistently depicting societal and cultural norms. Sexist portrayals sanction the marginality of Bukusu women, particularly when these reflect prevailing gender roles and expectations. However, contests over identity and representation are as ancient as (unwritten history. The analysis of tales From Our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs, offers a wide range of role models for women; some of which depict female agency in exacting circumstances (Florence, N., 2005. From our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs. NJ: Africa World Pres/The Red Sea Press. Further, females as narrators, protagonists, and the primary audience act as both curator and creators of culture.

  19. The Laughter of Fools: The Relevance of Wisdom in Today’s World

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    Katharine Dell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different facets of the character type of the fool in the book of Proverbs and looks at his primary characteristics in the context of some of the main themes of Proverbs. Particular concerns are with the difficulties of parenting a fool and the idea of life as a path full of choices, with problems with communication and with other characteristics of the fool such as not listening to others, a tendency to hasty anger, wiliness and getting into unsuitable social situations. This paper puts this discussion in the context of the wider wisdom quest and its theological themes. It ends with images of the fool from Ecclesiastes and some insights for modern application.

  20. [Role of context recall in destination memory decline in normal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Allain, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, little was known about destination memory, or memory for the destination of outputted information. In the present work, this memory was evaluated in 32 older adults and 36 younger adults, who had to associate proverbs to pictures of famous people and decide, on a subsequent recognition task, whether they had previously told that proverb to that face or not. When deciding about the destination, participants had to provide contextual judgment, that is, whether each picture had been previously exposed in color or in black and white. Participants also performed a neuropsychological battery tapping episodic memory and executive functions. Findings showed poor destination recall in older participants. Destination recall in older adults was reliably predicted by with their context recall. Destination memory seems to be particularly affected by aging, a deterioration that can be related to deficits in processing contextual features during encoding.

  1. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  2. Антропоним в жестко структурированном тексте

    OpenAIRE

    Фролова, О. Е.; Frolova, O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with antrophonims in proverbs. The embodied antrophonims are used referently, denoting concrete persons. The referent use of antrophonims concern Christ and Saints Nicolas (Христос, Никола). The disembodied names are used in a position of vocative and an actant of a situation. The disembodied names form a close circle known to a speaker and and to an addressee.

  3. The role of graphic design in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Daša

    2014-01-01

    Well designed visual image is the first step of advertising that has an impact on our business partners and consumers. According to Slovenian proverb that "clothes make the man" we could say the same for graphic design and marketing. Well executed graphic design and visual communications enable the communication of our product with a customer. This could be also a communication with artistic approach and a special connection. In order to obtain good results, advertisers use techniques to get...

  4. Elementary Analysis of the Bible Linguistic Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月汀

    2014-01-01

    The English language in its development course embraces every aspect of social life and it reflects the unique cultural tradition of the western society. The bible has had a huge impact on western culture. There are a lot of English words from the bible. This paper from derived words, euphemism, idiom, proverb and British and American literature perspectives discusses the linguistic artistic characteristics of the bible and its influence on the English language.

  5. Some Cultural Problems in the English-Chinese Translation of English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔加玛丽

    2014-01-01

    <正>1 Introduction 1.1What is idiom?As the essence of language,idioms,including sayings and proverbs,are characterized by their concise,rich and vivid expressions,relating geography,history,religious belief and social conventions(李瑞华,1996:p125).Both English and Chinese are rich in idioms despite the striking cultural differences in the two languages.As the result of

  6. ‘I am like a green olive tree’: The Wisdom context of Psalm 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the thesis of Walter Beyerlin from 1980 that Psalm 52 is a paraenetic- didactic Wisdom poem from the late Persian period. Beyerlin reached his conclusion from a comparison of Psalm 52 with post-exilic Wisdom psalms such as Psalms 37, 49, and 73. The direct literary influence that Psalm 52 received from the book of Proverbs and the motifs it shares with Jeremiah 9 are investigated here, since the author contends that the Wisdom influence on the Psalm was even greater than Beyerlin had envisaged. The article comes to the conclusion that the author(s of the Psalm attempted to compose a psalm by establishing a network of allusions to a corpus of authoritative texts, inter alia, the Wisdom psalms. The end product is a brilliant composition which interprets the teaching of Proverbs for the needs of a group of Jewish believers who probably lived at the end of the Persian period.

  7. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    OpenAIRE

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-01-01

    Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the...

  8. Intelligence. Indochina Monographs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    literary pieces such as proverbs, folk songs, lyrical poems cad ritual chants. The composition of these songs and poems is simple, -•% the language...governing the composition of folk songs, lyrical poems and ritual chants helped sharpen the Communist propaganda technique to the point that every...Vietnam—United States—Free World intelligence community were great and constant. During this long war the entire intelligence program improved each

  9. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  10. Актуалізація міжконцептуальних зв’язків концепту SEMANA SANTA в сучасній іспанській мові

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the features of the representation of the concept´s SEMANA SANTA conceptual links in Spanish linguistic culture. The purpose of this scientific research is the identification and analysis of the representation of SEMANA SANTA conceptual relations in the Spanish linguistic culture. The object of the research is the the concept SEMANA SANTA and the subject is relationships between proverbal units, which reflect the relationships between the concept SEMANA SANTA and other ...

  11. The Analysis of Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory——From The Point of AD Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, originally called dynamic equivalence raised by Eugene A. Nida is directed primarily towards equiva-lence of response rather than equivalence of form. From the application of proverbs and advertising translation, this article aims to discuss the translation strategy, in order to help readers flexibly use the "functional equivalence" theory, and then make this theory be able to work for us.

  12. The wisdom of Ben Sira in MENA cultural context: A cultural topical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pilch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical Books of Proverbs and Ben Sira (Sirach; Ecclesiasticus yield no narrative continuity or logical outline. They are simply collections. The best way to interpret these books is with the aid of a topical index. Most topical indexes are based on English (or another language translation. This article proposes a tentative topical index reflecting Middle East North African culture and its values. It will serve as the outline for a full length commentary already in process.

  13. CHINA DEHYDRATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  14. Measures to be Taken to Enhance Freshmen's English Listening-Speaking Abilities in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-hua; Cao Rui; ZHANG Guang-ling

    2009-01-01

    The English Listening-Speaking abilities of college freshmen should be trained in a multi-faceted approach.This paper suggests some effective training methods which can enhance the abilities in English Listening-Speaking for freshmen such as: story telling,special topics,picture talks,free talks,proverbs,debating,oral reports,group discussions and so on from a practical point of view.

  15. Thanks to literature and fellow scientists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal training has the disadvantage that trainees may simply accept what they are taught without questioning it, unlike the autodidact who can only learn by asking questions all the time. Sometimes, he will not get an answer and that need not be because the question is stupid, but may be because his peers are used to there being no satisfactory answer and have simply accepted the conventional mythology without further question. So it is about time to ask some assorted questions and where possible, suggest how to find an answer: 1 Why does the composition of the solvent used to extract oil from oilseeds affect the amount of oil being extracted and its phosphatide content? 2 Why does a heat treatment (Alcon, Exergy, expander increase the phosphatide content of the crude oil and decrease its non-hydratable phosphatide (NHP content? 3 Why does water degumming of crude oil remove relatively more magnesium than calcium? 4 What is the mechanism of phosphatide removal by silica hydrogel and why is it enhanced by simultaneous soap removal? 5 What is the mechanism of NHP-removal during alkali neutralisation? 6 Could it be that the Long Mix neutralisation process as used in the US leads to insufficient removal of the pro-oxidants copper and iron and that this explains why oil tends to less stable in the US than in Europe, especially when it contains linolenic acid? 7 Could different deodorisation conditions explain this geographically determined anomaly? 8 What happens during flavour reversion? 9 Why is walnut oil more stable in the nut than in the bottle? 10 How much oil is lost by saponification or hydrolysis during refining? 11 What is the mechanism of colour fixation? 12 Does the activity of interesterification catalysts depend on their counter cation? 13 What is the chemical nature of the colour formed on interesterification catalyst activation? 14 What is crystal memory? Does it exist? However, we should not forget the Dutch proverb that:

  16. The Tibetan Concept of Ethics and Morality in Daofu County of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENJIA Wengmu; LIAO Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    morality in folk literature .Folk literature is another mirror that accumulates, pre-serves and reflects the Tibetan's concept of ethics and morality.For thousands of years, the tradition-al ethics and morals of the Daofu Tibetans have been given a vivid and lively interpretation in the proverbs and folk stories of Daofu .Proverbs and folk stories are the two most representative styles in the folk literature of the Tibetans in Daofu .They are the cultural artistic forms with unique ethnic characters created in the process of the Daofu Ti-betans’ living and production .The proverbs and folk stories open a door for us to step into the spir-itual world of the common Tibetan .Moreover, the concept of virtue and vice has always been a value system with which to judge the moral standard in the Tibetan society .Speaking from moral philoso-phy, virtues are moral, and vices are immoral.It is a moral evaluation of an individual or a group and involves all aspects of the society .In brief, most orally transmitted literature is always filled with the praises about the bravery, strength, hard-working, kindness, and the philosophy of Tibetan Buddhism, including promoting good and abstai-ning from evil, cause-and-effect transmigration, maha-karuniko, benefitting the whole and self-lessness .All of these can still give people great enlightenment and moral lessons . The Daofu Tibetan's concept of ethics and mo-rality has the following basic characteristicFirst-ly, it takes religious morality as its core;secondly, it is characterized by of compatibility and open-ness; thirdly, it is characterized by universality;fourthly, it is characterized by stability and gradual change.In general, during the long process of the history, the Tibetans who have lived in Daofu of western Sichuan for generations are gradually de-veloping, continuing, and enriching their value system of ethics and morals from their own unique way of thinking .It is not only an important part of the Tibetan culture, but

  17. The Importance of MS PHD'S and SEEDS Mentoring and Professional Development Programs in the Retenion of Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.

    2012-12-01

    According to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences, underrepresented minority (URM) participation in STEM disciplines represents approximately one third of the URM population in the U.S. Thus, the proportion of URM in STEM disciplines would need to triple in order to reflect the demographic makeup in the U.S. Individual programs targeting the recruitment and retention of URM students in STEM have demonstrated that principles of mentoring, community building, networking, and professional skill development are crucial in encouraging URM students to remain in STEM disciplines thereby reducing this disparity in representation. However, to paraphrase an old African proverb, "it takes a village to nurture and develop a URM student entering into the STEM community." Through programs such as the Institute for Broadening Participation's Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science and the Ecological Society of America's Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), URM students are successfully identifying and benefitting from meaningful opportunities to develop the professional skills and strategies needed to achieve their academic and career goals. Both programs share a philosophy of professional development, reciprocal mentoring, field trips, internships, employment, research partnerships, collaborations, fellowships, scholarships, grants, and professional meeting travel awards to support URM student retention in STEM. Both programs share a mission to bring more diversity and inclusivity into STEM fields. Both programs share a history of success at facilitating the preparation and advancement of URM students. This success has been documented with the multitude of URM students that have matriculated through the programs and are now actively engaged in the pursuit of advanced degrees in STEM or entering the STEM workforce. Anonymous surveys from

  18. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge-Paul Eholié

    2012-08-01

    African proverb states that the growth of a deep-rooted tree cannot be stopped. Our tree is well rooted in existing field experience and is, therefore, expected to grow. In order for us to let it grow, long-term cost-effectiveness approach and life-saving evidence-based programming should replace short-term budgeting approach.

  19. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  20. Telemedicina y Cirugía Plástica Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cabrera Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La Telemedicina es aplicable a todos los campos médicos, incluyendo la Cirugía. Poca atención se ha prestado a sus aplicaciones diagnósticas, de las que sin embargo, nuestra especialidad, en la que es perfectamente aplicable el antiguo proverbio chino "una imagen vale mil palabras", podría salir muy beneficiada. Esto permitiría una mayor reducción de costes con contundentes mejoras en eficiencia y calidad. Presentamos un modelo de Telemedicina tipo envío y almacenaje (store and forward desarrollado y aplicado en un hospital británico del sureste de Inglaterra desde hace 7 años. Comentamos las ventajas e inconvenientes del sistema y sus posibles aplicaciones en nuestro medio. Es un hecho claro que estas tecnologías van a producir un gran cambio en la sociedad y en el quehacer diario del médico durante la próxima década. Lo que hoy conocemos como Telemedicina, en breve perderá el prefijo "tele" porque la población entenderá este tipo de Medicina y de aplicaciones telemáticas como algo habitual. Sin duda, nuestra especialidad será una de las grandes beneficiadas de la aplicación de estas tecnologías.Telemedicine is available in any medical fields, including Surgery. Poor attention has been showed to diagnosis application. Nevertheless, Plastic Surgery, is a practice in which the application of the old chinese proverb: "A picture is better than thousand words", would be very benefited, reducing costs and improving efficiency and quality. We present a Telemedicine store and forward model developed and worked in a Plastic Surgery Unit of southern England for 7 years. We show system advantages and disvantages and its potential applications in our country. It's clear that this technology will be able to produce a great change in our society and in our daily medical activity in the next years. What today we knows as Telemedicine, in a few time will lose "tele" prefix, because people will understand as usual this kind of Medicine and

  1. A Summary on Buddhism and the History and Culture of Chaoshan%佛教与潮汕历史文化综论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群辉

    2013-01-01

      佛教从南朝刘宋年间传入潮汕,1500多年来历朝历代的基本面貌虽有不同,但对潮汕文化的塑造产生了巨大的影响。佛教传入潮汕后,逐渐适应本地的自然、人文环境,并积极参与到社会文化的发展进程中,与社会经济、道德、习俗等相互渗透、相互作用、相互构筑,从一个重要的侧面塑造了特质鲜明的潮汕文化。从潜藏的思想观念到触目可见的文化事相,潮汕文化无不透露出众多的佛教元素,诸如饮食文化中的素食、建筑文化中的寺塔建筑、方言文化中的佛教俗语、民间艺术中的潮州佛乐、礼仪文化中的佛化葬俗、节俗文化中的佛教节日以及组织文化的善堂等,就是其中荦荦大者。%Buddhism was introduced into Chaoshan Area during the Liu Song years of Southern Dynasty and had an important role in shaping the Chaoshan culture over the past 1500 years, during which China wit-nessed changes with different dynasties. After its arrival, Buddhism gradually adapted to the local natural and human environment, and participated actively in the development process of social culture, and thus created the distinctive characteristics of Chaoshan culture from an important side through mutual penetration, interac-tion, mutual construction with social economic, moral, custom. Whether from its hidden concepts or from some visible cultural events and phenomena, Chaoshan culture always reveals plenty of Buddhist elements, of which most essential points include vegetarian in Chaoshan’s food culture, the temple constructions in architectural culture, the Buddhist proverbs in the dialect culture, the Chaozhou Buddhist music in folk arts, the Buddhist fu-neral custom in etiquette culture, Buddhist festivals in festival culture and the almhouses in organizational cul-ture.

  2. Metaphor, language, and culture Metáfora, linguagem e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kövecses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and language are connected in a myriad ways. Proverbs, rules of turn-taking in conversations, pronouns of power and solidarity, background knowledge to the understanding of conversations, politeness, linguistic relativity, the principle of cooperation, metaphor, metonymy, context, semantic change, discourse, ideology, print culture, oral culture, literacy, sociolinguistics, speech acts, and so forth, are just some of the concepts in which we find obvious connections between culture and language. Several disciplines within the language sciences attempt to analyze, describe, and explain the complex interrelations between the two broad areas. (For a brief and clear survey, see Kramsch 1998. Can we approach this vast variety of topics from a more unified perspective than it is traditionally done and currently available? The present paper focus on such possibilities.A cultura e a língua estão conectadas numa miríade de formas. Provérbios, regras de tomada de turnos na conversação, pronomes indicativos de poder e solidariedade, conhecimento prévio para o entendimento de conversas, polidez, relativismo linguístico, o princípio a cooperação, metáforas, metonímias, contexto, mudança semântica, discurso, ideologia, cultura impressa, cultura oral, letramento, sociolinguística, atos de fala, além de outros, são apenas alguns dos conceitos nos quais encontramos conexões óbvias entre cultura e língua. Várias disciplinas das ciências linguísticas tentam analisar, descrever e explicar as interrelações complexas entre estas duas grandes áreas. (Para uma revisão breve e clara, consultar Kramsch 1998. Será que podemos abordar esta vasta variedade de tópicos de uma perspectiva mais unificada do que tem sido tradicionalmente feito e está geralmente disponível? O presente artigo enfoca tais possibilidades.

  3. 模因论与电影片名翻译%Memetics and the Translation of Movie Title

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳子玉

    2014-01-01

    Memetics is a new theory based on Darwin ’ s evolutionary theory to interpret the law of cultural evolution .As a new subject , it shows strong power of transmissibility since it was born .The scholars from different fields have been combining Memetics with their own subjects in order to gain more inspiration .A movie is the combination of culture , artistry, commercialization, and a growing number of foreign movies has made the translation of movie title very important .In translation of the titles , we always use our mind-set factors such as idioms , allusions and proverbs .This paper attempts to start from the theory of Memetics , to analyze and explain the influence of Meme in the translation of foreign movie title .%模因论( Memetics)是基于达尔文进化论的观点来解释文化进化规律的新理论。作为一门新兴学科,模因论从诞生后就表现出强大的传播性。各个领域的学者们都在将模因论与各自的学科相结合以获得新的启示。电影集文化性、艺术性以及商业性于一体,国外电影的逐渐普及使得影片片名的创作和翻译也显得极其重要。在人们心中早已成为思维定势的成语、典故、俗语等中国传统文化因子常常被借用、模仿和复制在外国电影的片名中。拟从模因论的理论出发,分析、解释模因在外国电影片名翻译中的影响。

  4. Chapters, Epistolary Essays and Epistles. The Case of Michael Glykas’ Collection of Ninety-Five Texts in the 12th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini-Sophia Kiapidou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that the variety of terms in use (“chapters”, “epistolary essays”, “epistles” etc. regarding Michael Glykas’ ninety-five texts of theological content, which have been published by Sophronios Eustratiadis in two volumes under the title Εἰς τὰς ἀπορίας τῆς θείας γραφῆς κεφάλαια, is so wide as to cause wonder as well as confusion regarding their genre. Eustratiadis was the first to consciously introduce the term “chapters” instead of “epistles”, the widely-used term for Glykas’ texts in the various editions and studies, since “the oldest manuscripts as well as Glykas himself name the collection as chapters”. This paper examines thoroughly the accuracy of his statement and shows that the manuscript tradition of the collection does not justify its designation as chapters. On the other hand, when Glykas referred to his texts as chapters, it was during an overall editing not only of the collection of his ninety-five texts but of his overall work (namely his two poems, his proverbs and the collection, when he apparently considered his various texts as units of a single book. Based on these data, even if the term κεφάλαια is maintained in contemporary references to Glykas’ work two points should be made clear at the very beginning: (a it does not carry any genre content, but instead is of a general use in order to describe texts of various genres, and mainly (b it concerns more texts than the ninety-five of the collection under discussion here, whose title in any case varies so much in the manuscript tradition that it needs to be re-examined. Moreover, the comparison of Glykas’ collection with other relevant works of the middle Byzantine era, namely the Epistles and the Amphilochia of Photius, the epistles of Nicetas Stethatos and the Ponemata diaphora of Demetrios Chomatenos, lead to the assumption that Glykas’ collection comprise various texts, mostly

  5. VOCABULARY RELATED MOTHERLESS AND FATHERLESS CHILDREN AT TURKISH /TÜRKÇEDE ÖKSÜZ VE YETİM ÇOCUKLARLA İLGİLİ SÖZLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Celal GÜNGÖR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Çocuğun sağlıklı bir birey olarak yetişmesinde ve topluma kazandırılmasında, toplumun çekirdeğini teşkil eden kurum olarak ailenin dolayısıyla ebeveynlerin rolü yadsınamaz. Bir çocuğun yaşayabileceği en büyük acılardan biri hiç şüphesiz anne ve baba şefkati, sevgisinden uzak öksüz ve yetim büyümektir. Orhun Abideleri’nde annesiz anlamıyla bir at için kullanılan öksüz ve ilk İslami eserlerden itibaren kullanılan Arapça yetim karşılığı Türkçenin tarihî metinlerinde, başta atasözleri olmak üzere sözlü kültür ürünlerinde ve Anadolu ağızlarında pek çok kullanım mevcuttur. Çalışma kavramsal ve yapısal inceleme olmak üzere iki kısımdan oluşmaktadır. Kavramsal inceleme kısmında bu kullanımlar hem tematik olarak hem de dönem ve saha açısından tasnif edilirken, yapısal inceleme kısmında ifadeler kelime, kelime grubu ve cümle düzeyindeki birlikler olarak ayrılmıştır. The role of family, constituting the core of society and thereby parents can not be ignored in raising a healthy child to grow into adults and integrate them into the society. One of the biggest tragedya child may suffer is to grow up with the lack of parental love and affection. Orphan, which was used to describe a hourse in Orhun Monuments and a person whose father and mother died in early İslamic works has a lot of uses in historical Turkish texts, mostly in proverbs, in oral culturel Works and in Anatolian dialects. This study consist of two conceptual and structural parts. While the material in conceptual study is classified in terms of both theme and period and field, expressions are divided into word, word group and sentences.

  6. Language and folklore in Hamid Mosaddeq’s poem

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    IRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract"Standard language", "sub-standard language" and "meta-standard language" are the language types of many varieties. Use of sub- standard language in making poetry, known as “stylistic deviation”, is one of the ways of highlighting poetic language. More attention to this technique of language in the contemporary period was paid by Nima. Nima believed that all words have the potentiality to enter the realm of poetry. No word is essentially poetic or non-poetic, but the way of using words by the poet determines its poetic value.Hamid Mossadegh by the use of sub-standard language elements, in addition to increasing the richness of his poems, made them closer to the mind, language and life of people. Folkloric elements of Mosaddeq’s poems were divided into seven groups: 1 Slang words, 2 common and spoken vocabulary 3 Irony and Proverbs 4 Tlfzhay popular 5 allusion to folk tales 6 folk beliefs and customs 7 local vocabulary.Slang words in poems Mosaddeq in the "verb" and "noun" have been examined. Many folk verbs such as "Shangidan" and "gap zadan (to chat" in Mosaddeq’s poems have been applied. Some of folk verbs in his poems are in such a way that at first, one could not understand the point. These verbs have several meanings that one or more specific meanings are slang, like verb "gereftan (to get" that means "to grow the root of the plant" has slang sense.There is an abundance application of folk nouns in Mosaddeq’s poem. Some of the nouns used in Mosaddeq’s poem, considering their figurative meanings, can be investigated in the folk nouns group, like "foot" in the figurative sense of "will"."Colloquial and current words are of the most frequent elements of folk words in the poetry of Mosaddeq. These words in the category of "nouns" and "verbs" could be analyzed. Lexical verbs such as "to hip" and "Perfume of Moskow" are of this kind. "Irony and Proverbs" are the other folk elements of the poetry of Mosaddeq. "till eye can see

  7. On Wisdom Education of the Ancient Israelites as Revealed inProverbs ofthe Hebrew Bible%从《圣经·箴言》看古代以色列民族的智慧教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滟波

    2016-01-01

    《希伯来圣经》是犹太民族的核心经典,蕴藏着丰富的教育思想资源,培育了无数推动人类文明进程的伟人.其中的《箴言》视智慧为一切美德的基础,其智慧教育主要体现在对年轻人追求智慧、孝敬父母、谨言慎行、仁义宽厚和勤勉精进等品德的重视和培养.追求智慧是成就一切美德的基础;孝敬父母是和谐人伦关系的智慧;谨言慎行是待人处事的智慧;仁义宽厚是为人处世的智慧;勤勉精进则是自我发展的智慧.教育者应该以培养年轻人具备这些美善的品德为教育目标.唯此,我们的教育对象才能真正成为拥有理想人格和完美人性的"完整的人".

  8. JAPON ATASÖZLERİNDE GEÇEN BAZI HAYVAN İMGELERİ ÜZERİNE TESPİTLER / DETERMINATIONS ABOUT SEMANTIC FEATURES OF SOME ANIMAL IMAGES IN JAPANESE PROVERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Haluk AKBAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atasözleri, geçmişten günümüze aktarılan, uzun tecrübe ve gözlemlere dayanılarak oluşturulmuş ve toplum tarafından benimsenmiş, özlü öğütler veren kalıplaşmış sözlerdir. Atasözleri, toplumun ortak tecrübe, duygu, düşünce, tutum, davranış, dünya görüşü, inanç ve kültür yapısını yansıtır.Bu çalışma, Japon atasözlerinde hayvan imgelerinin nasıl geçtiğini ve bu imgelerin nasıl anlamlandırıldığını genel hatlarıyla ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Japon atasözlerinde, anlatıma canlılık ve güç kazandırmak için çeşitli metaforlara (benzetme ve aktarmalara başvurulduğu görülmektedir. Atasözlerinde sıklıkla kullanılan metaforlardan bir kısmını ise zoonimler (hayvan imgelerine dayanan ifadeler oluşturmaktadır. Bu makalede, Japon atasözleri taranmış; hayvan imgelerine ilişkin atasözleri derlenerek bu bağlamda değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. 

  9. Il metodo della fisica e le problematiche della biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the ancient Hermetic aphorism solve et coagula, we investigate the nature of the interface between physics and biology by moving up and down the different temporal and spatial scales which enter the description of natural phenomena. Various indications seem to support both the existence of such an interface and the possibility of finding methods, languages, and targets shared by such two disciplines. However, this possibility becomes remote if one moves further and further from the microscopic level of atoms and molecules (and, correspondingly, of molecular biology. We conclude that the biologically founded epistemology proposed by Maturana and Varela as well as cultural anthropology and sociology cannot yet be treated with the methodology of physics.

  10. Team networking in palliative care

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    Odette Spruyt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  11. Arte y religión en Schopenhauer: de la necesidad metafísica a la justificación estética de la existencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ruiz Callejón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I analyze the concept of «need for metaphysics» and its relationship to art and to the author’s project of philosophy.

  12. Planning for giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Charles A.

    This ancient Chinese proverb stresses the importance of the role of AGU in the field of continuing education. When the Committee on Financial Resources made the recommendation that the Union should be on a firmer basis and the Council approved the 5-year fund drive, the vision was toward the future—decades at least—and far beyond ‘rice’ and ‘trees.’A large percentage of AGU members contribute regularly and liberally to their alma maters. This financial support to universities and colleges is essential. The donors are well rewarded with the knowledge that their gifts are to be used for education.

  13. Matthias Neuenhofer: Videos 1988-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    sorts of meanings” that might be read from the quoted aphorism, with a consistency which is rare within the media arts field in general and which he early on made part of his working method. This entails renouncing the use of a video camera while simultaneously integrating the obvious self...... is the prerequisite for the displayed mastery of the slow feedback ‘run’, entailing the wealth of forms and their ‘growth’ potential. Technically and perceptually it flows into a continuum, a perpetuum mmobile, in which the editing cuts and interruptions remain only important as the dramatic accentuations......, an additional, yet crucial possibility – to waive even the most General, the origin of all distinctions: the white noise of the world and the feedback sprung from it. Matthias Neuenhofer seems nevertheless to escape this theoretically fascinating and seductive potentiality. He does not fall back to a mimesis...

  14. What is Morality? Pascal's Heartfelt Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite his enduring fame as a scientist and a thinker, Blaise Pascal's moral philosophy has received very little attention by modern Anglophone ethicists, who have written instead endless volumes on the epistemology of his wager—itself a piece of apologetics and an early example of game theory. They have labelled Pascal a ‘philosopher of religion’ and pretty much left him there, as marginal as religion itself seems to be these days. Yet, Pascal did have a moral philosophy of his own and one that can help us answer the question ‘what is morality?’ from the perspective of lived personal experience. It is not an easy one to detect, for it is scattered across his unsystematic maxims, short reflections and aphorisms, themselves scattered across a number of differing manuscripts. Reconstructing and outlining it is the chief aim of my paper.

  15. A linguistic analysis of sexist statements by Janusz Korwin-Mikke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kuros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the author has performed a linguistic analysis of several chosen sexist remarks by Janusz Korwin-Mikke in order to prove how stereotypically women are regarded by the famous politician. This conservative man treats stereotypes as a proof of good order and fights to prevent women from trying to change what for thousands of years has given the general order and happiness for male sex and, in his opinion, for female sex. Significant for the author’s paper has been the importance of antifeminist’s texts within pragmatic and semantic aspect. The paper has concentrated on solely the linguistic aspect - in detail there have been discussed among other things: aphorisms and neologisms which are used by the controversial politician. In the paper the author has tried to prove that J. Korwin- Mikke’s language provokes and insults the opposite sex.

  16. CONCEPT OF «TRUTH» (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chongyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a linguistic-cultural study of the concept of TRUTH in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. The concept of TRUTH is an important part of Russian national consciousness and is especially fully disclosed in the proverbial fund of the Russian language. The study of paremiological content of the concept of TRUTH is based on the texts of the National corpus of Russian language. It is noted, that God's Truth is one thing, but the Truth of life is another thing. In the second case, a person has to choose between truth and untruth. This antonymy is present in many of the proverbs: «To live true – means to distance from people, to live untrue means to anger the God». But in many Russian Proverbs there is a duality of consciousness: «One can’t live without truth as well as with truth», «One doesn't want to live with untruth and can’t live with truth». Moreover, it is noted that truth can be used for selfish purposes: «Truth is like a chained dog: it will bite whom it is released for». Thus, proverbs and sayings reflect the existence of different types of attitude of Russian people to the truth. Analysis of the materials allows to mark the following conceptual features of the truth: 1. Truth of the divinity. 2. Truth is goodness, light, frankness, integrity, heroism. 3. Truth of the «earth»: a Truth is dangerous; b There is no Truth on earth; it is weak; it can be bought. 4. It is hard to live on the earth without truth; it is necessary to tell the truth. 

  17. The Meanings Of Goldfish In Wedding Ceremony Of Toba Batak Society

    OpenAIRE

    Christin Magdalena P.

    2014-01-01

    Paper entitled "The Meanings of Goldfish in Wedding Ceremony of Toba Batak Society" contains about understanding whyToba Batak people use goldfish in a wedding ceremony as a symbol of blessing given by hula-hula and the bride's parents to the couple. And found ed some roles of giving the goldfish and their functions. There are some rules and proverbs position used when delivering goldfish follow Batak Toba philosophy. The purpose of this paper work in order to provide insight to the people ...

  18. The Driving Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    There is a popular aphorism in China,"The third-class enterprise produces products,the second-class creates brands,and the first-class develops standards".This shows that Standardization has been heavily emphasized in China.As the super large govemment-owned enterprise,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) bears the mission of providing public energy and implementing social responsibility with the construction and operation of national power grid as its core business,SGCC has been always paying great attention to the standardization work since its establishment,and made outstanding achievements in both standardization and corporate development,ranked 7th in the FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 in 2011.

  19. Il De uno alla luce dell’Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris di Francis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Bassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [Reading “De uno” in light of Francis Bacon’s “Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris”]. Although Vico was admittedly disappointed by Bacon’s Exemplum tractatus, a parallel reading of this text and De uno can provide insights as to how Vico ended up having to confront a series of issues: how does the universal law project itself into history? Where does the law stem from? Is there a link between law, occasion, and utility? What are the sources and the scope of authority? How does violence affect the law? What role for religion and piety? How to devise a philology for the laws and ancient fables? Bacon’s scattered aphorisms offer glimpses into problems which find a solution in the all-encompassing order of De uno.

  20. Le lion, l’étoile y l’hélice: estudio descriptivo de la metáfora en textos técnicos franceses del ámbito de la automoción y de su traducción al español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez Gutiérrez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical texts are usually character- ized by the use of terminology, and they are said to be clear, concise, precise and objec- tive. It is terminology which is normally considered one of the most important diffi- culties to understand specialized concepts because they are expressed by means of this terminology. Nevertheless, there are other linguistic and cognitive elements which are frequently used to express specialized con- cepts, for instance, metaphors. In this paper we aim to analyze the use of cognitive met- aphors in a corpus of French semi- specialized technical texts and to consider whether the use of these metaphors could be a problem should these metaphors have to be translated into Spanish.

  1. Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ni

    2014-01-01

    This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...

  2. SAYINGS IN NESHATI’S DIVAN / NEŞÂTÎ DİVANI'NDA SÖZ KALIPLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ömer SAVRAN

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the proverbs, sayings and idioms seen at divan of Neshati, who is shown as one of the masters of gazel at his own period, are presented with the examples. The poet in his poems tried to reflect the expressions that can be part of daily speaking and folk literature with respect to the understanding of art of classical poems. It is believed that the language materials given provides information about thoughts, understanding of art and measure values of poets of the century of XVII with the help of the poems of Neshati.

  3. "They're gonna explain to us what makes a cube a cube?" Geometrical properties as contingent achievement of sequentially ordered child-centered mathematics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Gardener, Rod

    2012-09-01

    In mathematics education, there is a continuing debate about the nature of mathematics, which some claim to be an objective science, whereas others note its socially and individually constructed nature. From a strict cultural-historical perspective, the objective and subjective sides of mathematics are but manifestations of a higher-order phenomenon that may be summarized by the aphorism that mind is in society to the extent that society is in the mind. In this study, we show, drawing on exemplifying materials from a second-grade unit on three-dimensional geometry, how mathematics manifests itself both as objective science all the while being subjectively produced. A particular three-turn interactional sequence comes to play a central role. We conclude by re-assigning a positive role to a much-maligned sequentially ordered conversational routine.

  4. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  5. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    such bottom-lines can be stretched. Readers of Nietzsche appreciate the philosopher's capacity to encapsulate complex ideas in a simple form, which is yet quite complex in itself. This being the case, I want to look precisely at Nietzsche's elasticity when it comes to articulating his well-known desire...... to ignite established ideas, and blow them to pieces with his own dynamite. Quite literally, can an elastic set things on fire, survive the fire? Can a truth be final even when it is elastic? What does it mean to write, for Nietzsche, when writing presents itself as a sin against silence, as a fire...... that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  6. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  7. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  8. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving towards a knowledge economy: an economy in which the application of knowledge replaces the importance of capital, raw materials, and labor as the main means of production. He suggests that knowledge...

  9. 轻松一刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓敏

    2008-01-01

    Does the dog know the proverb,too? A little boy did not like the look of the barking dog."It’s all right."said a gentleman."Don’t be afraid. Din’t you know the proverb‘Barking dogs don’t bite’?""Ah, yes."answered the little boy."I know the proverb, but does the dog know the proverb, too?"

  10. COLLOCATION DICTIONARY OF ADJECTIVES IN TEACHING TURKISH: METHOD AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Bülent ÖZKAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To collect the main vocabulary of a language is the major aims of lexicology works. Lexicology looks after to prepare not only for general purpose lexicon for mother tongue users but also particular purpose lexicons for special aims (e.g. proverbs and idioms dictionary, terms dictionary, synonym words dictionary, antonym words dictionary, collocation dictionary etc.. Today, when the studies are considered about the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish, general purpose lexicon works, and particular purpose lexicons for special aim works are insufficient and limited. In lexicology, collocation dictionary is one of the main products of lexicology, seen as a non mentioned subject at the study of Turkey Turkish vocabulary. On the other hand, in lexicology, collocation has been taken place in literature as an important applying method, especially in the corpus linguistics applications and defining the stage of preferences in language teaching.This study’s object is to investigate the collocations in a corpus-based approach, is defined as adjective and lexicalized 11.320 lexemes as headword in Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Dictionary which is including the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish. This study has speciality is being the first, about purpose, content and method also executing by experienced researchers at similar studies. The anticipated outcomes of this study are as follows: 1.It will be defined the adjectives’s syntactic features which have intense usage in generally language and especially in Turkey Turkish. 2.It will be made semantic and syntactic corpus-control of adjectives in Türkçe Sözlük (Turkish Dictionary which is including the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish. 3.It will be defined the concept domains of adjectives-noun and noun-adjectives relationship in Turkish. 4.It will be defined the adjective-noun usages based by frequency appearance relationships about mother tongue and second language teaching for Turkish. 5.It will be collected main

  11. The dynamic and ever-changing volcanic nature of Iceland -An outdoor laboratory for education on natural processes and the human impacts on them-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    "Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand" (Chinese Proverb). Throughout the global history fundamental knowledge on utilizing natural resources, nowadays known as ecoliteracy, was passed on to next generations by our ancestors. Nevertheless, their practices were often unsustainable and lead directly or indirectly to severe ecosystem degradation. Nowadays, overexploitation of natural resources is still a global main driver for ecological degradation, water quality decrease and climate change. While ecoliteracy is still an essential knowledge, the societal structures required to maintain the knowledge have diminished. Today, about 80% of the population in Western countries lives in urban areas dominated by concrete structures with frequently only isolated green spaces. Environmental education is dominated by theoretical concepts taught using a wide range of multimedia technologies to simulate direct experiences of natural processes. Nevertheless, these technologies can only provide a superficial insight into the functioning of natural processes. Only direct on-sight investigations can provide a thorough experience of the dynamic, ever-changing environmental processes. Iceland is a 103,000 km2 large island, located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge just south of the Arctic Circle. In that area the earth crust is only a few km thick, leading to frequent volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. Due to the long winter and the wet climate glaciers formed on all major peaks and cover 11% of the island. Most riverbeds are in their pristine state and water quality is in general excellent. The Icelandic nature may look pristine but is indeed severely degraded. Unsustainable landuse, namely deforestation and overgrazing, in an environment characterized by harsh winters and volcanic activities had devastating effects on the nature. Since settlement 1100 years ago 40% of its vegetation and soil have been lost. Soil conservation and

  12. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  13. Çizgi Filmler ile İlkokul Öğrencilerinin Söz Varlığı Üzerine Bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin AYAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the students' vocabulary acquisition that directly affect the media broadcasts are also cartoons. In this study, the cartoons that follow the primary school students to do determine their contribution to the development of students vocabulary and aim to compare these vocabulary elements with the thesaurus of primary school students. In this study, document analysis and categorical content analysis methods were used. Watched by most of the students total of 30,000 words data has been compiled from 10 cartoons. The elements of vocabulary; words, idioms, proverbs, repetitions, special names, molds words and including slang words was studied in a total of seven categories. Total 27.946 and 3.839 different vocabulary items were found from the cartoons. This vocabulary elements except words is including 424 idiom, 4 proverb, 72 repetitions, 205 mold word, 4 slang words and 1.592 special name. 3,839 different words in cartoons and uses of primary school students 6322 different words in Karadağ (2005 's research were compared and 1.916 word has been shown to be a common. 49.90 % of different words in the cartoons, have been found to be used by primary school pupils of 80.70 % of the total words

  14. Esperanto Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fiedler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the phrasicon of Esperanto, i.e. the inventory of idioms, phrases, proverbs, catchphrases and other items of pre-fabricated speech that are stored in speakers' mental lexicon. On the basis of origins, Esperanto phraseology can be classified into three groups: First, many phraseological units have entered the language through various other languages. This group includes classical loan translations especially from the Bible as well as ad-hoc loans introduced by speakers from their mother tongues more or less spontaneously. Secondly, there is a group of planned, i.e. consciously created, phraseological units. They mainly go back to Zamenhof, the initiator of the language, who published an Esperanto Proverb Collection (Proverbaro Esperanta in 1910. Thirdly, there are phraseological units which have their origin in the language and the cultural life of the speech community. The paper will show that the planned language Esperanto, with its agglutinative character, free word order and flexible word formation, possesses the prerequisites for creating stylistically appealing and catchy phraseological units. An analysis of literary and journalistic texts as well as oral communication in Esperanto reveals that its phraseology is widely used and that authors like to modify phrases and idioms according to the textual situation. The use of phraseological units proves that Esperanto is a living language. Phraseology can be considered a criterion for assessing the successful development of the planned language system from a project to a full-fledged language. It demonstrates the complexity of Esperanto culture.

  15. BENTUK FUNGSI, DAN MAKNA KIAS DALAM JUDUL BERITA MAJALAH GATRA DAN PEMANFAATANNYA PADA PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA DI PGMI STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuentie Sova Puspidalia

    2016-04-01

      Based on the research result, it revealed figurative language in the news titles ofGatra magazine in 2013 to 2015. The figurative language used was (1 a simile used as many as 5 times, (2 metaphor 23 times, (3 metonymy 25 times, (4 anthropomorphisms 25 times, (5 Symbolic 17 times, (6 hyperbole 21 times, (7 allegory 92 times, (8 periphrasis 25 times, (9 personification 22 times, (10 Innuendo, (11 sarcasm first time, (12 synecdoche 16 times, (13 synesthesia 9 times, and (14 proverb 2 times. Thus, the total of figurative words used in the headlines inGatra magazineon 2013 to 2015 are as many as 267 times consisting of 14 types of figurative language form. If it was ranged, the use of figurative language wasdominated with the allegory type that was 86 times. Next, it is followed with metaphor and metonymy, which appeared 23 times of use respectively. The third rank was the use ofperiphrasis that was about 22 times, personification 20 times, followedwith the forth rank that was synecdoche as many as 15 times. Then, the sequential low uses of figurative language were Innuendo and sarcasm only once, proverb 4 times, simile 5 times, and synesthesia 8 times. Meanwhile, the function varied from one type of figurative language to others. The use of figurative language was revealed to function variously, i.e.,to awaken, shorten, beautify, explain, illustrate, visualize,enliven and stressed.

  16. Theological imagination as hermeneutical device: Exploring the hermeneutical contribution of an imaginal engagement with the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, biblical scholarship has neglected the hermeneutical contribution that an imaginal engagement with the text may make. The author’s aim in this article was to develop theological imagination as a hermeneutical device. This was done by briefly considering the concurrence in the hermeneutic contributions of three interpreters of biblical texts, with specific regard to their understanding of biblical imagination. These were Walter Brueggemann, Paul Ricoeur and Ignatius of Loyola. Their hermeneutical contributions concur in their understanding of a biblically informed imagination, and it is specifically this aspect of the concurrence of their thought that was explored. An illustration from Proverbs 14:27, which draws on the metaphor and biblical motif of the fountain or source of life, was put forward to demonstrate how the concurrence in the contributions of these biblical interpreters may influence an imaginal engagement with the text.Keywords: Old Testament; Proverbs; Hermeneutics; The fear of the Lord/Yahweh;  Walter Brueggemann; Paul Ricoeur;  Ignatius of Loyola; Imaginal engagement

  17. The Historical Development of the Written Discourses on Ubuntu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2011-01-01

    the period from 1993 to 1995 that the Nguni proverb ‘umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu’ (often translated as ‘a person is a person through other persons’) was used for the first time to describe what ubuntu is. Most authors today refer to the proverb when describing ubuntu, irrespective of whether they consider...

  18. Rare Germplasm Resources of Biology of Agriculture in Yunnan Province and Its Peripheral Area%云南及周边地区稀有农业生物种质资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑殿升; 高爱农; 李立会; 刘旭

    2013-01-01

    “云南及周边地区生物资源调查”项目于2006-2011年,对云南省31个县、四川省8个县和西藏自治区2个县的农业生物资源进行了系统调查.系统调查的41个县的地形、地貌十分多样,气候类型很多,有“一山有四季,十里不同天”的说法.加之,这些县份都集居有少数民族,少数民族有各自的传统文化和生活习俗,从而赋予了农业生物资源丰富的民族文化内涵.正因为这里的多样性气候和各异的民族文化,造就了丰富的农业生物资源.通过调查获得了大量基础数据和信息,收集到5300多份农业生物种质资源,其中有一批稀有种质资源,这些稀有种质资源对相应农业生物的起源进化和系统分类研究,以及新品种选育都具有重要利用价值.%From 2006 to 2011 ,the project of "investigation of biological resources in Yunnan province and its peripheral area" has been carried out,which has conducted a systematic survey on agricultural biological resources of 31 counties in Yunnan province,8 counties in Sichuan province,and 2 counties in Tibet autonomous region. The terrains and landforms in the 41 counties investigated are plenty diverse,so does the climate,which is described as a proverb that is ' there are four seasons at the same mountains, and five miles in the different weathers'. In additions , these counties are the concentrative areas inhabited by minority peoples who possess their own traditional culture and life habitudes, which has endued the biological resources of agriculture with abundant connotations of nationality cultures. The different climates and diverse traditional cultures have resulted in abundant biological resources of agriculture. Many of basic data and information, and over 5300 accessions of biological germplasm resources of agriculture have been obtained. Some of them are rare germplasm resources, which has important value in appropriate research on origin, evolution, and

  19. "As mulheres voam com seus maridos": a experiência da diáspora palestina e as relações de gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fagundes Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, proponho uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e as formas de organização da experiência imigratória contemporânea no bojo da experiência diaspórica dos palestinos. Segundo um provérbio árabe, coletado em trabalho de campo, "as mulheres voam com seus maridos". A explicação se refere a um funcionamento peculiar da vida da família árabe que recebe as noras na unidade doméstica do marido, e, por conseguinte, essa unidade é também a do pai do marido. Foi através desse provérbio que tive acesso a um comentário nativo sobre o "ir e vir" de esposas da Palestina ou de outras cidades para residir na cidade do Chuí (RS e de lá para outras localidades. No mundo pós-colonial, as mulheres se converteram em potentes símbolos de identidade de sociedades e nações. As mulheres islâmicas e, em especial, as palestinas se encontram dentro desse debate ideológico sobre a integridade e autenticidade cultural. Essa fala proverbial nos dá acesso a diferentes pontos de vista sobre os dispositivos culturais que presidem esses fluxos e nos exige uma reflexão sobre as relações de gênero e o modo como analisamos o protagonismo das mulheres muçulmanas.This article proposes a reflection about gender relations and the forms of organization of contemporary Palestinian immigrants' experience. According to an Arabian proverb, collected during fieldwork, "the women fly with their husbands". The explanation refers to a kinship structure through which daughters-in-law come to live in the husband's father's domestic unit. This proverb reveals some aspects about the "coming and going" of Palestinian wives who reside or come from other localities to settle in Chui city. In the post-colonial era, women were converted in powerful identity symbols. Islamic women, specially Palestinians women, are part of a ideological debate about cultural integrity and authenticity. That proverb gives us access to different viewpoints on the cultural

  20. Women in Achebe’s Novel “Things Fall Apart”

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    Mundi Rahayu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the image of women in Chinua Achebe novel’s Things Fall Apart. As the prominent postcolonial writer, Achebe has a vivid expression describing the social cultural values of the Ibo community in Nigeria, Africa. Analysis of the novel is done through the perspective of postcolonial feminism. Postcolonial feminism finds the relation and intersection between Postcolonialism and feminism. This interplay is interesting to observe. The findings show that in traditional patriarchal culture as in the novel, women are portrayed happy, harmonious members of the community, even when they are repeatedly beaten and barren from any say in the communal decision-making process and constantly reviled in sayings and proverbs. However some other interesting findings are that the women also have big role in the belief system of the community, and in Achebe’s novel he made it an amusement, for example by punishing Okonkwo because of his beating to his wife in the sacred time.

  1. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  2. The elements of Turkish folk culture of Âşık Deryâmî's poems

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    Erol Eroğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Âşık Deryâmî is one of the representatives of minstrel literature of the 20th century. Like his predescessor and contemporary minstrels, he lived as a member of ordinary people, and naturally, grew up with folk culture. The main purpose of this study is to examine the folk culture elements that take place in Minstrel Deryâmi’s poems. To achieve this goal books about Deryâmî hasbeen scanned with great care; proverbs, idioms, place names, plant names, local sayings, beliefs, occupations, folk poets and minstrels, prayers, curses, religious motives, relatiosships, musical instruments, fairy-tale motives etc. in books have been struggled to examine. The datas have been shown in tables. It has been brought out that two indispensible words “rose” and “nightingale” of both divan literature and folk literature are mostly used in Deryâmî’s poems.

  3. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

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    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  4. Watching the dark: new surveillance cameras are changing bat research

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    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2014-01-01

    It is, according to an old proverb, “better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” And those of us trying to discover new insights into the mysterious lives of bats often do a lot of cursing in the darkness. Bats do most things under cover of night, and often in places where humans and most other animals can’t go. This dark inaccessibility is great for bats, but not so great for those of us trying to study them. Successful conservation hinges on understanding bat behaviors and needs, as well as identifying and addressing the things that threaten them in the darkness. But how do we light a candle without scaring the bats away or altering their behavior?

  5. A pure quasi-human algorithm for solving the cuboid packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG WenQi; HE Kun

    2009-01-01

    We excavate the wisdom from an old Chinese proverb "gold corner, silver side and strawy void", and further Improve it into "maximum value in diamond cave" for solving the NP-hard cuboid packing problem. We extract, Integrate and formalize the idea by west modern mathematical tools, and propose a pure quasi-human algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on two sets of public benchmarks. For 100 strongly heterogeneous difficult benchmarks, experiments show an average packing utilization of 87.31%, which surpasses current best record reported in the literature by 1.83%. For 47 difficult benchmarks without orientation constraint, experiments show an average volume utilization of 92.05%, which improves current best record reported in the literature by 1.05%.

  6. OCCASIONAL PHRASEOLOGICAL SYNONYMY

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    Flor Mena Martinez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Just from one type of formal modification, i.e. lexical substitution, various semantic relationships between the the original phraseological unit (PhU and the modified occurrence (MPhU can be derived. We cannot rely on the semantic connection between the elements which take part in the substitution to describe and identi@ this semantic link. This is so because many times there is no semantic connection between the lexemes involved in the process. The key to interpret the kind of semantic relationship has to be extracted from the contextual clues. Following a cognitive approach, the purpose of this paper is doublefold. First, we focus on the analysis of one type of semantic relation, the synonymy, of creative variations of proverbs; and second, we check the validity of the cognitive approach to identify the procedures, transformations and changes which take part in the process of formal modification which ends in the generation of a synonymous paremiological unit.

  7. THE PHYSICS OF MELTING IN EARLY MODERN LOVE POETRY

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    Andrea Brady

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting is a familiar trope in early modern erotic poetry, where it can signify the desire to transform the beloved from icy chastity through the warmth of the lover’s passion. However, this Petrarchan convention can be defamiliarised by thinking about the experiences of freezing and melting in this period. Examining melting in the discourses of early modern meteorology, medicine, proverb, scientific experiments, and preservative technologies, as well as weather of the Little Ice Age and the exploration of frozen hinterlands, this essay shows that our understanding of seeming constants – whether they be the physical properties of water or the passions of love – can be modulated through attention to the specific histories of cognition and of embodiment.

  8. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

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    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  9. A woman praised by women is better than a woman praised by seven men

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    James A. Loader

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The title, a parody on Ruth 4:15bb and Proverbs 31:28, counterposes the motif of praise in the final scene of what is probably the opus classicum for the foregrounding of women in the Old Testament with the same motif in a text notorious for praising women into subservience. After a short presentation of the text of Ruth 4:13-17, its main ideas and compositional relationships with the rest of the Book, the focus falls on the praise of the women of Bethlehem, its presuppositions, logic, use of terms and the role of its speakers in the story. It is concluded that a non-feminist, intentional reading highlights the critical perspective of women in the narrative, which means that the gist of mainstream feminist readings of the Ruth story is corroborated even from a perspective independent of feminist hermeneutic.

  10. ONE SEGMENT OF THE BULGARIAN-ENGLISH PAREMIOLOGICAL CORE

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    KOTOVA M.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English proverbial parallels of the Russian-Bulgarian paremiological core are analysed in the article. The comparison of current Bulgarian proverbs and their English proverbial parallels is based upon the material of the author’s multi-lingual dictionary and her collection of Bulgarian-Russian proverbial parallels published as a result of her sociolinguistic paremiological experiment from 2003 (on the basis of 100 questionnaires filled by 100 Bulgarian respondents and supported in 2013 with the current Bulgarian contexts from the Bulgarian Internet. The number of 'alive' Bulgarian-English proverbial parallels, constructed from the paremiological questionnaires (pointed out by 70 % - 100 % respondents is 62, the biggest part of which belongs to the proverbial parallels with a similar inner form (35, i.e. the biggest part of the segment of the current Bulgarian-English paremiological core (reflecting the Russian paremiological minimum contains proverbial parallels with a similar inner form.

  11. Los Refranes o Proverbios en Romance (1555, de Hernán Núñez, Pinciano

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    Madroñal, Abraham

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The work tries to consider «Refranes o proverbios en romance» by Hernán Núñez, the Greek Commander, a peculiar work that appears in an important moment of the Spanish history and literature. It is also remarkable for being a posthumuous work because his author did not want to publish it in life or to leave it unknown. The study focus on the peculiarities of all type, from the purely linguistic ones to those which have to do with the literature, without forgetting the circunstances of the author and the relationships that this collection of proverbs has with other previous and later ones (Valles, Mal Lara, Correas, Spanish and foreigners. The work genesis, its originalilty and repercussion..., and the editions from the first to the last one (2001 are also studied. Hernán Núñez, Professor at Salamanca University, prestigious philologist at his time, publisher and translator of classical editions, decides to make a collection of proverbs at the end of his life, the most plentiful ever known. So that he does not mind using any procedure to get the proverbs: from buying them to his students to going to other compilations, hand-written or in progress. His relationship with the Erasmism and humanists of the age are shown in these pages which include clearly irreverent, anticlerical and scatological proverbs that shocked later writers.El trabajo pretende considerar la obra Refranes o proverbios en romance (1555 de Hernán Núñez, Comendador Griego, una obra curiosa que aparece en un momento crucial de la historia y de la literatura españolas. Se da la particularidad además de que es obra póstuma porque su autor no quiso que se publicara en vida, pero tampoco que quedara inédita. El estudio se centra en las peculiaridades de todo tipo, desde las puramente lingüísticas a las que tienen que ver con lo literario, sin dejar de considerar las circunstancias personales del autor y las relaciones que este refranero tiene con otros anteriores y

  12. A “bitter” end to asthma revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Sheng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Speaking of asthma,one is immediately reminded of incessant coughing and wheezing,and the unsightly scene of phlegm-spitting.A wide range of remedies have been tried,ranging from ancient folklore belief of smelling honey to modem inhaling β2-adrenoceptor agonists,but none proves to have long-lasting effect for this common chronic pulmonary disease.As a Chinese proverb says,a good medicine always tastes bitter.Maybe the problem with those old remedies is that they are not bitter enough.Jokes aside,there may actually be some truth in this,as shown by a recent study from Stephen B.Liggett's laboratory in the University of Maryland (Deshpande et al,2010).In a survey for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM),this group inadvertently identified several types of bitter taste receptors,which are members of the GPCR family.

  13. Getting Hooked on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-04-01

    Other fun things in this issue include three Quote Boxes by Olney (3) that will allow your students to engage in deductive reasoning to solve the puzzles. Kelkar (4) presents a slightly more difficult but very clever mystery element game; it provides clues to element symbols that all fit into a single matrix. Ibanez's game (5) lists popular sayings or proverbs and the student's job is to match each with an analogous chemical phenomenon. As always, answers are provided. For the more sophisticated among us, there is Who Wants to Be a Chemist Extraordinaire? devised by Campbell and Muzyka (6), who describe their use of online chemistry game shows patterned on popular TV programs. Examples of the HTML files with sample questions are available through JCE Online. These are just some of the many suggestions that can be found in this issue of JCE. Try a few, you might like them!

  14. Psalm 32 as a wisdom intertext

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    Philippus (Phil J. Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is considered by the majority of investigators to be a psalm of thanksgiving with a mix of wisdom poetry. In this article, the thesis is defended that it was devised from the beginning as a wisdom-teaching psalm although it simulates the form of a psalm of thanksgiving in certain respects. The case for this is argued on the basis of the complete integration of its parts, as well as its similarity to Proverbs 28:13–14 and some other wisdom texts. The aim of the psalmist seems to have been to argue (on the basis of a personal experience that stubbornness in accepting the guilt of sin causes suffering, but that Yahweh is eager to restore an intimate relationship with those worshippers who confess their guilt and are willing to accept his guidance on the way of life.

  15. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  16. The Horse With Two Saddles-Tamxhwe in Modern Golok

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    Fernanda Pirie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three examples of oral sayings, mainly from the Golok area, used in conflict mediation are presented and discussed in terms of their usage by mediators and how they reflect Tibetan values and life. ''You have to go to Golok to hear real tamxhwe." Conflict resolution is a topic most Amdo Tibetans will readily discuss and the oratorical skills of the zowa (gzu ba 'mediators' are always emphasized. It was in Golok that they were said to be particularly impressive. ''They make displays of oratory during the early stages of the mediation process,'' explained one informant, a respected mediator from Machu (Rma chu. ''They use proverbs and riddles that are difficult to understand. It is like jousting with words, a display of skill.'' He was referring to the representatives of individual parties, but the same skills are even more important for mediators. The more serious and entrenched the conflict—two Amdo tribes may fight for generations over valuable grassland—the more important it is to secure a high-status mediator, often a lama or local leader with a reputation for oratory. The mediators' task is to persuade reluctant parties to compromise and accept compensation in lieu of taking revenge for an injury or killing; this can require a lengthy and elaborate process extending over several days. ''In Golok,'' my informant continued, ''they use tamxhwe; those who can make good speeches and employ it well enjoy high reputations.'' The tamxhwe, it appeared, were like proverbs or riddles and in one or two cases an informant was able to repeat one of them to me, but I was repeatedly told that I had to go to Golok to learn more. The oratorical skills of the Golok mediators obviously had a considerable reputation throughout Amdo, and in the summer of 2004 I went to this large area in southern Qinghai Province to investigate. ...

  17. SOME WAYS OF TANGIBLE EXPRESSIONS USED IN NECATI’S GHAZELS NECATİ’NİN GAZELLERİNDE KULLANILAN KİMİ SOMUTLAYICI ANLATIM YOLLARI

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    İsrafil BABACAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The sources indicate that he successfully used ode, proverbs, idioms and language features in his ghazels and his aim was concreted expression characteristics can be more easily understood language to create a poem. In this study, effects of specific events to the fore in terms of sampling in terms of frequency and impact of concrete sampling events that prominent and features in Necati’s ghazels expect from his proverbs and idioms and focused on concrete ways of expression that connect nice analogy (teşbih-i beliğ.This narrative that the based on these roads is made more impressive, fluent and rich in terms of social life. Kaynaklar, Necati Bey’in gazellerinde, atasözleri, deyimler ve diğer halk dili özelliklerini başarıyla kullandığını ve bunu yapmaktaki amacının ise daha kolay anlaşılabilecek somut anlatım özellikleri taşıyan bir şiir dili oluşturmak olduğunu belirtmektedirler. Bu çalışmada, Necati’nin gazellerinde atasözleri ve deyimler dışında sıklık ve etki bakımından ön plana çıkan somut olay örneklemesi ve teşbîh-i beliğ’e bağlı somutlayıcı anlatım yolları üzerinde durulmuştur. Söz konusu yollara dayanan bu anlatım tarzı onun şiirini daha etkileyici, akıcı ve sosyal hayat unsurları açısından zengin bir hale getirmiştir.

  18. Próba kognitywnego ujęcia mądrości (na materiale przysłów polskich i litewskich

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    Monika Bogdzevič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of wisdom in Polish and Lithuanian paremiology In this paper, an attempt has been made to present the semantic and axiological substance of wisdom hidden in the consciousnesses of two different, namely Polish and Lithuanian, linguistic-cultural communities. The analysis belongs to a branch of linguistics, interpreting language in terms of concepts, viewing it as a source of knowledge about people themselves, different communities, their mentality, ways of perception and interpretations of the way the world is. As a model to present the most thorough understanding of wisdom, the method of cognitive definition proposed by Jerzy Bartmiński is applied. Linguistic-cultural images of wise [person], understood as the concretizations of wisdom have to reveal him/her in opposition to stupid. The cognitive picture of wise is for the most part based on the analysis of features of character and appearance, portrayed behavior, interpersonal relations and the way others have as a perception of wise. Many cognitive parameters of wisdom are revealed while exploring the interactions between people and that of nature (plants, animals which surrounds them and investigating deeper interpersonal relations with other people. The material for research was taken from Polish and Lithuanian proverbs. The latter occur as a result of world perception, everyday life observation, confrontations with its phenomenon. The proverbs are taken from compendiums of Polish and Lithuanian proverbs: Nowa księga przysłów i wyrażeń przysłowiowych (The New Book of Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases by Julian Krzyżanowski and Lietuvių patarlės (Lithuanian Proverbs, Patarlių paralelės (Parallels of Proverbs by Kazys Grigas. Given as cognitive definitions the cultural visions of wise, despite all the emphasized differences, enable us to perceive many evaluations of wise similar or even common to Polish and Lithuanian cultures.   Próba kognitywnego ujęcia m

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese-French Body-Related Proverbs in Conceptual Metaphor——Take "Heart" (Coeur) as an Example%概念隐喻学视角下汉法肢体谚语对比分析——以“心”(Coeur)为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀英; 侯百耕

    2015-01-01

    概念隐喻学作为隐喻学的一部分具有普遍性,将其应用于汉法肢体谚语的研究是可行的.肢体谚语是很生动的语言集合,根据概念隐喻学的核心理论,即源域与目标域之间隐射关系,肢体谚语中的源域是与身体有关的词汇,目标域是人或与人有关的行为,通过肢体与这些行为的相似性把人类的情感表达出来.汉法两国谚语中都有很多与“心”(coeur)有关的谚语,本文从概念隐喻学的角度分析“心”(Coeur)这一形象所具有的隐喻意义的相似性与相异性,并探究其文化内涵的异同,从而使我们对语言与文化之间的关系有更深入的认识.

  20. The Beowulf manuscript reconsidered: Reading Beowulf in late Anglo-Saxon England

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    L. Viljoen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a hypothetical late Anglo-Saxon audience: a multi-layered Christian community with competing ideologies, dialects and mythologies. It discusses how that audience might have received the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. The immediate textual context of the poem constitutes an intertextual microcosm for Beowulf. The five texts in the codex provide interesting clues to the common concerns, conflicts and interests of its audience. The organizing principle for the grouping of this disparate mixture of Christian and secular texts with Beowulf was not a sense of canonicity or the collating of monuments with an aesthetic autonomy from cultural conditions or social production. They were part of the so-called “popular culture” and provide one key to the “meanings” that interested the late Anglo-Saxon audience, who would delight in the poet=s alliteration, rhythms, word-play, irony and understatement, descriptions, aphorisms and evocation of loss and transience. The poem provided cultural, historical and spiritual data and evoked a debate about pertinent moral issues. The monsters, for instance, are symbolic of problems of identity construction and establish a polarity between “us” and the “Other”, but at the same time question such binary thinking. Finally, the poem works towards an audience identity whose values emerge from the struggle within the poem and therefore also encompass the monstrous, the potentially disruptive, the darkness within B that which the poem attempts to repress.

  1. ’n (Outobiografiese Twitter-teologie

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    Jan-Albert van den Berg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An (autobiographical Twitter-theology. Due to the increasing challenges created by an evolving digital world, traditional expressions of the Christian faith could become irrelevant for a fast-paced world. Through an autobiographical orientation, a search for meaningful personal expressions of the Christian faith on Twitter is traced and mapped down. Facilitated through a practical-theological inquiry and employing a qualitative empirical research methodology, personal aphorisms of the Christian faith on Twitter are traced down and presented as possible examples of a relevant digital autobiographical theology. Through the contribution of these empirical realities, new hermeneutical outcomes and a strategic involvement are facilitated. The creation, development and meaning of new theological formulations and articulations are explored and described through these expressions. In the tracing of and in the mapping down of these new expressions of faith, demarcations of a possible lived spirituality in the digital sphere are sounded out and verbalised. Through the documentation of these new and relevant articulations of the language of faith, a contribution is made to a meaningful digital autobiographical theology.

  2. History of rheumatology

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    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  3. Decision analysis of treatment choices in the osteochondroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, W H

    1981-01-01

    Physicians tend to decry the lack of data on which they can make decisions. This is commendable, and all should encourage the pursuit of better data and more precise analysis. But decisions must be made, and each physician must deal with what data are available and evaluate them against all the general uncertainties. Equally important are the values that we place on the outcome of treatment. Much of the disagreement among physicians about treatment protocols involves a difference in values. While this is not necessarily bad, it points to the need to consider explicitly the value we place on a result or the morbidity possibly accompanying that result. In the osteochondroses, consideration of values will protect patients from overzealous treatment. Finally, the formality of a decision process should not necessarily modify a plan of treatment based on fundamentally sound principles, intuition, and anecdotal experience. Regardless of which factors represent the basis for an individual surgeon's selection of a particular approach, evaluation of both desirable and undesirable aspects of each alternative prevents impulsive acceptance of the most recently described, often unproven operation. Salter's aphorism: "The decision is more important than the incision," is particularly applicable in treatment of the osteochondroses.

  4. SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN SUSHRUTA SAMHITA

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    Singh R.K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita is an Ayurvedic text, by the legendary Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine (Indian traditional medicine, with innovative chapters mainly on surgery. There is a general impression that Sushruta Samhita is only an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text book of surgery. Sushruta Samhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. It still retains the land mark position in the field of surgical texts. In addition to his worldwide known work of historical significance on plastic surgery, he also made similar unique contributions on numerous aspects of medicine, such as fracture and dislocations, urinary stones, skin diseases including leprosy, Pancha Karma (Purification procedures, toxicology, pediatrics, eye diseases, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynaecology, etc. A very limited conceptual work has been performed on the selected chapters of Sushruta Samhita. Therefore a review conceptual study has been carried out on the various surgical concepts of Sushruta Samhita. Outcome of this study shows, Sushruta Samhita is written in the aphorism form and the techniques described in it are eminently in line with technical abilities of the times. It is need of the hour to explore the hidden truth by decoding the versions of the texts.

  5. “VP成狗”的认知阐释%The Interpretation of VP as a Dog in Cognitive Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军华; 聂纯叶

    2016-01-01

    “狗”的意象图式发展使得流行语中多了大量“狗族”词汇,其中“VP成狗”更是风靡一时,为大众广泛使用“。VP成狗”的发展是隐喻机制作用的结果,它的固定化、语法化与意象图式变化相关。从认知语言学角度出发,概述“VP成狗”的构式来源和演化路径,以及“狗”的意象图式的修正与再建对该构式形成的影响。%With the image schema of dog developing, the words about dog are appearing in the catch⁃words. Among these catchwords, VP as a dog is the most popular word which is widely used by the public. Met⁃aphor mechanism has an important effect on the development of VP as a dog, and its stabilization and grammat⁃icalization are relevant to the change of image schema. This paper summarizes the origin and evolution of the construction VP as a dog, and which effects the revising and reconstructing image schema of dog make in cog⁃nitive linguistics.

  6. 外语教育中的隐喻研究述评%A Review of Metaphor Researches in Foreign Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许保芳; 袁凤识

    2014-01-01

    随着应用认知语言学的发展,越来越多的研究者认为应将认知语言学的最新研究成果应用于外语教育之中。但隐喻在外语教育中并没有得到应有的关注。从外语课堂中的隐喻学习研究、隐喻能力研究及外语教育中的隐喻研究方法三个方面,对国内外外语教育中的隐喻研究状况进行评述,供外语教育领域的广大教师和研究者参考,以促进外语教育中的隐喻研究。%With the development of cognitive applied linguistics ,more and more researchers strongly think that we should apply the current cognitive linguistics academic achievements into foreign language education .However ,metaphor has not been given necessary attention in foreign language education . This paper ,from the perspectives of metaphor learning in classroom ,metaphorical competence and met-aphor research methods ,attempts to present an general review of current metaphor researches ,in order to provide research references for the teachers and researchers ,and promote the metaphor research in foreign language education .

  7. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession.

  8. POETIC MANNER OF THE TONGUE-TIE: CHERNOMYRDINKIS (CHERNOMYRDIN’S IDIOMS

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    Natalia G. Bragina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper I analyze chernomyrdinki (chernomyrdin’s idioms, i.e. the spontaneous public statements of Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin. He was a key figure in Russian politics in the 1990s. The chernomyrdin’s idioms turned to be the most salient feature of the speech portrait of Viktor Chernomyrdin. The chernomyrdin’s idioms are the expressive, subnormal, illogical statements. They break linguistic norms, i.e. stylistic, grammatical, syntax norms of the standard language. The author could be characterized as «“Ego” who creates by intuition, apart fromthe aesthetic reflection and artisticgoals» [Grigor’ev 1986]. The remarkable features of the chernomyrdin’s idioms are discussed in their relationship with such topics as: creativity; aphorisms; paradoxes; tongue-tie; language of power; language of weakness; language game. The chernomyrdin’s idioms in the context of internet-communication are also under consideration. “The explosion of the language silence of the deaf-and-dumb layers of the language” [Grigor’ev 1986] could be carried out in the expressions which were made by the author subconsciously, apart from the special artistic goals. The deviations from the standard language, i.e. slips of the tongue, and mistakes could make free the creative energy and the creative capacity of the language. The experts estimate such expressions as the product of art. This is the reason, why chernomyrdin’s idioms are still very popular. 

  9. Autistic autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Ian

    2009-05-27

    Autism narratives are not just stories or histories, describing a given reality. They are creating the language in which to describe the experience of autism, and hence helping to forge the concepts in which to think autism. This paper focuses on a series of autobiographies that began with Grandin's Emergence. These are often said to show us autism from the 'inside'. The paper proposes that instead they are developing ways to describe experience for which there is little pre-existing language. Wittgenstein has many well-known aphorisms about how we understand other people directly, without inference. They condense what he had found in Wolfgang Köhler's Gestalt Psychology. These phenomena of direct understanding what other people are doing are, Köhler wrote, 'the common property and practice of mankind'. They are not the common property and practice of people with autism. Ordinary language is rich in age-old ways to describe what others are thinking, feeling and so forth. Köhler's phenomena are the bedrock on which such language rests. There is no such discourse for autism, because Köhler's phenomena are absent. But a new discourse is being made up right now, i.e. ways of talking for which the autobiographies serve as working prototypes.

  10. O trágico, o cômico e a "distância artística": arte e conhecimento n'A Gaia Ciência, de Nietzsche

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    Ernani Chaves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da leitura de A Gaia Ciência, pretendemos mostrar alguns elementos importantes que, nesse livro, se constituem em torno do tema da "distância". Analisando principalmente três aforismos do livro, procura-se esclarecer o deslocamento no texto e no pensamento de Nietzsche da distância como Ferne, de origem romântica, à distância como Distanz. Entretanto, procura-se ao final mostrar que Nietzsche desloca o tema romântico da Ferne, caracterizando-a como uma "distância artística", que se torna o traço distintivo entre a perspectiva da arte e a perspectiva do conhecimento.This reading of The Gay Science intends to show some important elements which, in this book, gravitate around the theme of "distance". Analysing particularly three aphorisms of the book, our goal is to clarify the movement, in the text and in Nietzsche's thought as well, from distance as Ferne, with its romantic source, to distance as Distanz. However, in the end, we intend to show that Nietzsche dislocates the romantic theme of the Ferne, taking it as an "artistic distance", which becomes the distinctive trace between the perspectives of art and knowledge.

  11. O jogo do PE: luzes examinantes para o além-mundo da Pastoral Educativa EP game: examining lights toward the beyond-world of Educative Pastoral

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    Sandra Mara Corazza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O jogo do PE (Pastoral Educativa: 1 aproveita as quatro partes que compõem Also Sprach Zarathustra, de Nietzsche, para desenhar a própria configuração; 2 utiliza a maioria dos subtítulos de Also Sprach..., sem necessariamente fazer corresponder-lhe o que ali Zaratustra falou; 3 solicita licença para propor a esta fala - pelo amor antigo que lhe tem - outros aforismos, idéias e considerações, mesmo que extemporâneos, para montar o tabuleiro onde possa jogar o PE; 4 entende "jogo" do mesmo modo que Foucault, ou seja, como um conjunto de regras de produção da verdade; 5 descreve esse jogo imediatamente, sem mais delongas.The EP (Educative Pastoral game: 1 makes good use of the four parts which constitute Also Sprach Zarathustra, by Nietzsche, to outline its own configuration; 2 uses most of the subtitles of Also Sprach…, without necessarily making it correspond with what Zarathustra spoke there; 3 asks for permission to propose this speech - due to the old love devoted to it - other aphorisms, ideas and considerations, even if extemporaneous, to build the board where EP (Educative Pastoral game can be played; 4 understands "game" the same way Foucault does, that is, as a set of rules of truth-production; 5 describes this game immediately, without any delay.

  12. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  13. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    , Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high resistance to saltwater and longer plant life (3-5 years); it's a rich source of starch in times of droughts and other natural disaster. Colocasia, on the other hand, is viewed as prestigious source of food in Palau. Whereas Cyrtosperma requires little tending once it has been planted Colocasia is more delicate for its fragility and shorter plant life (8-12 months). Therefore more efforts are spent tending Colocasia than Cyrtosperma (McKnight and Obak, 1960; Bammann and Wey, 1991). Although both are eaten quite often, Colocasia can be found in many aspects of Palauan cultural practices (funerals, first birth ceremonies, transfer of title ceremonies) and used symbolically in chants, dances, proverbs, and stories with moral lessons (Palau Society of Historians, 2008).

  14. Norma y uso: las ideas educativas en Juan de Robles / Etymology and use: The educational ideas of Juan de Robles

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    Alejandro Gómez Camacho

    2014-10-01

    El culto sevillano (1631. This paper focuses on the educational ideals in Robles´s works and the relationships between spelling and teaching of reading. By examining Robles´s pedagogical references, one prominent idea is emphasized: teaching of reading aren´t encouraged by phonetic spelling. Consequently, new letters of the Spanish alphabet and new alphabetical order have been rejected. The grammarians who defended phonetic spelling assert the new letters help Spanish children to learn to read faster and better than the traditional literacy. Letter names and alphabetical order are also changed to facilitate literacy learning. In contrast, traditional alphabet and etymological spelling are reclaimed by Juan de Robles for teaching reading and writing, because the phonetic spelling had slowed down the learning of literacy. Robles also criticizes Jesuit schools and Ratio Studiorum. The primacy of Spanish over Latin and the use of tales and proverbs for education are the major discrepancies between Robles and Jesuit pedagogy. The results of this paper show that pedagogic arguments that link Spanish grammar and spelling with teaching of reading and writing in the Spanish Golden Century are incorporated into the controversy over Spanish orthography reform also to defend traditional spelling around the first third of the seventeenth century.

  15. Türkiye Türkçesi Ağızlarında At, At Donları ve Nişaneleri İle İlgili Adlandırmalar Namings About Horse Coats and Markings In Dialects of Turkish

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    Murat KÜÇÜK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Turks are known as a mounted nation in history scene. The roleof horse in Turkish history has been one of the main reasons of Turksmaking up a special world depending on horses. From the horses herosrode in wars to species of those, various details about horse coats, areexisted in language sources of different periods. From standart Turkishto dialects of Turkish and various dialects of Turkish language in Asia,variety of vocabulary such as words, idioms and proverbs about horseconcept in all territories Turkish is spoken is drawing attention. Thevocabulary about horse and horse breeding is among the oldestelements of Turkish language.Unfortunately, cultural and scientific values which Anatolia, thathas a history of horse breeding reaching ancient times, has broughtnowadays, are not considered enough as it needs to be according to it’shistory in Turcology studies. Although various researches arepublished, vocabulary about horse and horse breeding could not havebeen totally researched. With a purpose of contributing studies in thissubject, vocabulary about horse and horse breeding in dialects ofTurkish will be mentioned.Sample vocabulary which is subject of this article are limited with“Namings About Horses, Horse Coats and Markings” determined fromDerleme Sözlüğü. According to the purpose of this study, samplevocabulary are not analyzed as etymologic, phonetic and morphologic;vocabulary is studied as thematic, the territories they are used arespecified and their meanings are given. Türkler, tarih sahnesinde at üstünde bir ulus olarak tanınmıştır. Atın Türk tarihinde oynadığı rol, Türklerin ata karşı özel bir dünya oluşturmasının başlıca sebeplerinden biri olmuştur. Savaşlarda kahramanların bindikleri atlardan bunların türlerine, at donlarına kadar çeşitli ayrıntılar, farklı dönemlerin dil ürünlerinde yer almakta, Türkiye Türkçesi ölçünlü dilinden Türkiye Türkçesi ağızlarına, Asya’daki

  16. Wood for the trees

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    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  17. Wa re o Bona e Hlot�a, wa e Namet�a Thaba! Bibele, Basadi ba Maafrika ba Afrika-Borwa le HIV le AIDS

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    Madipoane Masenya(ngwan�a Mphahlele

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of the history of the reception of the Christian Bible in South Africa particularly by African- South Africans has not been a smooth ride. It was part of a bigger package that included among others, the importation of European patriarchy onto African soil, the land grabbing exercise which resulted in among others, the impoverishment of African peoples and, the emasculation of the African man. The latter in turn led to the intensification of patriarchy within the average African family. The preceding situation, was not helpful to the context and/or situation of African women who were already then, at the bottom of the patriarchal ladder, because, as can be expected, within the context of the Black church and theology then, little if any except for a handful of liberation theologians and members of some ecumenical bodies, was done to make the theology propagated then, relevant to pertinent issues which affected the lives of Black people.Given the historical marginalisation of women in the Bible and Theology, not only in South Africa, but also globally, it becomes obvious that even in our context, mainstream theology and biblical hermeneutics left issues pertaining to gender justice basically untouched. It is no wonder, as we will argue in this paper, that given that already vulnerable situation into which African women have been thrown into by the preceding factors as well as by how the Bible continues to be used in our HIV and AIDS contexts, their situation may be succinctly captured as that of a limping animal that has been made to climb the mountain! The Northern Sotho proverb or saying: Wa re o bona e hlot�a, wa e namet�a thaba (while limping, you let it climb the mountain simply means that a certain situation is being aggravated (by an external factor. The present article will use the preceding proverb as a hermeneutical lens through which to analyse the reception of the Bible by African women in the HIV and AIDS context of

  18. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

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    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  19. O fracasso escolar no cenário das patologias da contemporaneidade

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    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to schooling failure, within the sphere of contemporary pathologies, requires placing the social relationships in a historical dimension, characteristic of an epoch. When we refer to the aphorism: the unconscious is the social (ASSOUN, 1994; we disengage ourselves from readings that place the individual versus society and think schooling failure to be the reflex of contingencies, historical transformations and unconscious determinations that carry the initials of the social symptom, which is structured as the reflection of discourse production dominant of the period. It is therefore necessary to place discourse and pedagogical practice, which emerged in the Modern era, in order to understand schooling failure, an expression that directly opposes the ideals expected of schooling in terms of excellence of the learning function. What truth is depicted from schooling failure if the symptom results from repressed truth? It refers to the return and insistence stemming from the destination that civilization confers to the discomfort lived by humans. Thus, schooling failure, the return of a truth, attaches itself to a historical contingency or belongs to present day pathologies, wherein, the ideal to transform and to better society with scientific progress and improvement of technique persist as conditions for liberty and happiness. The execution of such an assignment is aligned to a forged model that imprisons the child in a technical childhood. Finally, schooling failure, as it reveals subjective truth, insinuates itself into the wrong direction to social demands that impose equality and cut out expressions of singularity excluded from spaces established by the dominant discourse, which give priority to orthopedics forms in order to sustain the ideal of perfect men.

  20. Urkönig-Urmenscg: il romanticismo politico di novalis ed il katechon del re

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    Giovanni Panno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Faith and Love [Glaube und Liebe] is not only a praise of the monarchy or a collection of great aesthetical aphorisms which belong to the usual definition of Romanticism. This paper aims to recognize the frame of the political thought of NOVALIS through an analysis of SCHMITT’s critique of Romanticism. To understand the figure of King and Queen means to find out their roots in NOVALIS’ conception of the exchange between I and Not I. This contribution focuses on the way in which NOVALIS tries to free Fichtes’ principles of the first Doctrine of Science from their theoretical prison and to apply them to a practical field. NOVALIS’ true Utopia is the achievement of an individual’s capacity to be more than a simple I, through recognizing the internal division of the subject and its necessity to build up a non-subjective relationship to the world. The true identity which exists between Subject and Subject is nothing that can be considered safe for always, rather it bases the giving up of an illusory world-construction. The way NOVALIS intends to avoid the Subject-Object relation and it runs through the death of the illusory world of the I as an abdication in the meaning of PESSOA’s work. To imitate the symbol of the King, who looses his character of temporal power to become a pure soul, which means to be that man, who able to achieve his true nature by letting the Not I become a You.

  1. A tríade naturalizante na concepção educacional de Pestalozzi e Froebel: homem, Deus e natureza

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    Alessandra Arce

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O presente artigo é resultado da tese de doutoramento que versou a respeito do estudo da idéias de Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 e de Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852. Neste trabalho nosso objetivo é o de apresentar e analisar as idéias que estes autores possuíam sobre o Homem, a Natureza e Deus. Esta triade constitui-se na pedra fundamental de suas teorias educacionais. Para tanto o estudo realizado centra-se sobre duas obras fundamentais de ambos A Educação do Homem - Aforismos de Pestalozzi e A Educação do Homem, de Froebel. A conclusão a que chegamos aponta para o processo de naturalização e mistificação dos três integrantes desta tríade, o que lhe atribuiria um caráter a-histórico e reacionário.Palavras chave: Pestalozzi, Froebel, escolanovismo.   Abstract This article belongs to our doctorate thesis studies, which one analyzed Johann H. Pestalozzi (1746- 1827 and Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852 educational thoughts. The aim of this article is to present and analyze the ideas of Froebel and Pestalozzi about Man, God and Nature. This triune substantiated author's educational theory. Therefore this study focuses on two fundamental books written by each authors: The Education of Man - Aphorisms from Pestalozzi and The Education of Man from Froebel. The conclusion of this work shows us a comp1etely naturalization and mystification of the triune integrants, which make it not historical and conservative for this century. Key words: Pestalozzi, Froebel, progressive education. 

  2. Homeopatia: prática médica coadjuvante Homeopathy: coadjutant medical practice

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    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em vista do binômio saúde-doença da concepção homeopática abranger aspectos diversos da individualidade humana, a escolha do medicamento deve englobar as características psíquicas, emocionais, gerais e físicas do paciente. Neste processo de "individualização do medicamento", o entendimento da complexidade humana exige tempo e dedicação, encontrando a resposta satisfatória após um conjunto variável de atuações. Atuando de forma coadjuvante às demais práticas médicas, o médico homeopata deve ter consciência de que poderá suspender os medicamentos alopáticos necessários à manutenção da integridade do paciente tão somente quando tiver certeza da ação substitutiva do medicamento homeopático escolhido. Deste modo, estará cumprindo o aforismo hipocrático primo non nocere.Considering that in the homeopathic conception, the binomial health-disease encompasses several aspects of human individuality, choice of the medication should include the patient's psychic, emotional, general and physical characteristics. In this process of "individualization of medication", understanding the human complexity demands time and dedication to finding the satisfactory reply after a variable number of attempts. Acting as coadjutant to other medical practices, the homeopath should be aware that he may only interrupt administration of the allopathic drugs necessary for maintenance of the patient's integrity when he is assured of the substitutive action of the homoeopathic medication chosen. This way, the Hippocratic aphorism primo non nocere will be fulfilled.

  3. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  4. Territori di Babele. Aforismi sulla traduzione di Jean-Yves Masson

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    Riccardo Raimondo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Yves Masson pubblica i suoi aforismi sulla traduttologia nel 1991. Attraverso questi inediti precetti, possiamo seguire un filo conduttore che si dipana dalle origini della riflessione sulla traduzione fino alle più recenti teorie.In 1991 Jean Yves Masson published his aphorisms on Translation Theory. Following these original guidelines, we are able to trace the developments of translation theory from its origins to the present.

  5. The Role of Shahnameh’s Verses in Textual Coherence of Tarikh-e Jahangosha

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    فرزانه علوی زاده

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarikh-e Jahangosha is the most important work about Kharazmshahian and the Mongols. Utilising imagery, rhetoric, abundant Persian and Arabic poems, Quranic verses and traditions, and proverbs have caused the prose to resemble poetry, fading its historical goals. Here, quoting verses from the mythological parts of Shahnameh, Rostam and Sohrab stories (37verses, and Rostam and Esfandiar (26 verses doubles the literary value of the book on the one hand, and brilliantly indicates Joveini’s inclination to Shahnameh and Ferdowsi on the other. Studying the coherence and the congruency between the verses of Shahnameh and the prose of Tarikh Jahangosha, this essay seeks to scientifically demonstrate that this connection has occurred with a rhetorical approach, mentioning that it should be attended more in connection to the structural aspect than the historical goals of the book. Therefore, the functions of Shahnameh’s Verses in Tarikh-e Jahangosha and the methods of their merging has been studied from three aspects of syntactic, semantic, and literary, and each with appropriate evidence. Key Words: Tarikh-e Jahangosha, Shahnameh’s Verses, Syntactic Connections, Semantic Connections, Literary Connections, Textual Coherence.

  6. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  7. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  8. Digging One's Own Grave

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    Arvo Krikmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that some points in the explicationof the figurative expression digging one’s own grave via the concept of blending given by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner are problematic: (1 Not understanding the consequences of one’s deeds is an almost universal presuppositionof and impulse or motivation for actualizing any utterance with a forewarning or gloating content (e.g., proverbs, not the singularity characterizing just the expression of grave-digging as such. (2 The inversion of causal and temporal structure is not the case because of metonymic association between the concepts of the grave and death, as a result of which specific causal and temporal order loses any significance. Many synonymous examples can be given in which the image refers to events before the death, between the death and funeral, as well as those after burial. (3 The source domain needs not to be restricted to natural death and modern civilized funerals but should include also the cases of violent deaths, e.g., the scenario of execution and the scenario of hunting and trapping. Preliminarily, a very brief synopsis of the main phases of development of cognitive linguistic theory of metaphor and some favourite examples of blends, used also in previous works, is provided.

  9. "WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT NOW" PROVERBIAL RHETORIC IN THE CHURCHILL-ROOSEVELT CORRESPONDENCE

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    Wolfgang Mieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Both Winston S. Churchill (1874-1965 and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 882-1945 were masters of the English language and effective orators, rallying their people through word and deed to fight as allies against the dictatorial powers during the Second World War. Their public speeches and interviews are replete with proverbs, proverbial expressions, and other phraseologisms. This is also true for their private and secretive letters, messages, memoranda, and telegrams, as can be seen from the materials that Warren F. Kimball edited in the three volumes of Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. The proverbial language, especially metaphorical texts referring to the body, animals, and the military, gives their important communications a lively and humane flavor that illustrates their deep friendship, trust, and support of each other. Frequently used as metaphorical arguments, these proverbial interjections into an otherwise factual epistolary exchange from 1933 to 1945 bear witness to the determination of these two world leaders to win the struggle for a free world.

  10. Wenceslau de Moraes, interpreter of japanese culture

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    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p153 In this article we will comment on the critical and creative aspects of Japanese poetry in the work of Portuguese author and diplomat Wenceslau Moraes, who was the first translator of Japanese haiku into Portuguese. The author adopted the form of quatrain poem using lines of five or seven syllables for transcription of Japanese three line verses.  Wenceslau valued puns, popular expressions and other elements of poetic function present in the traditional haiku. The author also commented on aspects of poetic art, philosophy, religion, aesthetics and Japanese language from the philosophical principles of Shinto and Buddhism. His complete works, in the form of essays, letters, diaries and travel reports, include 14 volumes dedicated to Japan and Japanese culture, with special attention to Relance da alma japonesa, published in 1925, a work that covers from tradition court poetry, collected from court anthologies published since the VIII Century a.D, to the classic haiku and popular songs and proverbs.

  11. “Civis romana sum”. La Londra intertestuale di Bernardine Evaristo

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    Samanta Trivellini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bernardine Evaristo’s novel in verse The Emperor’s Babe (2001 features the story of Zuleika, the daughter of Nubian immigrants, who lives in Roman London at the beginning of the third century A.D.. Evaristo’s sources are both classical – Latin poetry, proverbs, mottos, myths, as well as material culture – and modern – for example, Oscar Wilde’s perspective on history informs the revisionist intent of the novel.This article aims to examine the role of quotations and intertextual echoes in the development of the storyline and in the dialectic between past and present. If apparently they contribute to the recreation of the ancient cultural background, at a deeper level, they also engender ironic tensions and parodic effects through discrepancies in tone, style and narrative situations. Moreover, in relation to the protagonist’s gendered and subaltern position, quotations and other references are a crucial aspect of Evaristo’s rewriting of history: by mapping today’s post-imperial and multicultural London on to the Roman city, The Emperor’s Babe subverts the myth of the nation at its roots.

  12. Gaan na die mier, kyk na sy weë en word wys: Metafoor of paradigma?

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    Johan Buitendag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Go to the ant, consider her ways, and be wise. Metaphor or paradigm? This article takes as its point of departure two citations. The one is from Marshall and Zohar’s contention that the wave-particle dualism is more than a metaphor and the other is from Clayton claiming that indeterminacy was not merely a temporary epistemic problem, but reflected an inherent indeterminacy of the physical world itself. What does it mean if it is not a mere way of speaking? The author of this article departs from the premise that the task of systematic theology is the endeavour to understand reality and that this is a collective enterprise together with other sciences as well. A constructive empiricism could indeed lead to an understanding of reality where reality is more than merely idealistically conceived. Truth is therefore to be replaced with a pragmatic, but value-laden concept of understanding or comprehension. This has the effect that both epistemology and ontology have to be revisited and subsequently panentheism too. The argument finds its niche in Old Testament wisdom literature and Proverbs 6:6 forms the lens of reference. The late South African ethologist Eugène Marais’s epic work, The Soul of the Ant, is applied to illustrate such a proposed epistemic community.

  13. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia?A window into semantic processing deficits

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    Francesca ePesciarelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia.

  14. Learning from Errors

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    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  15. Discussion on Horse in the Year of Horse%马年我们一起说说“horse(马)”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁美玲

    2014-01-01

    Horse is a loyal friend of mankind since ancient times. In 2014, we enter the Chinese Lunar Year of the Horse, and the topics of the horse have spring up. This paper, by using methods of comparative study, analyzes the past and present lives of horse from seven aspects including history related to the horse, a variety of English expressions, vocabularies, idioms, proverbs and twisters, horse culture in car logoes, and cultural differences and their causes between Western horse culture and Chinese house culture, so that we can better promote cultural communication and learning.%自古以来,马就是人类忠实的朋友。2014进入中国农历马年,关于马的话题更是如雨后春笋般出现。文章采用对比研究的方法,从与马有关的历史渊源、各种英文表达、英语词汇、习语谚语及歇后语、现代汽车车标中的马文化、中西方马文化差异及其原因等七个方面详细分析了horse(马)的前世今生,从而更好地促进文化交流与学习。

  16. Chinese-English Translation in Terms of Meme%模因论视域下的英汉翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林福泰

    2015-01-01

    汉语的语言强势模因可以分为四类:网络热点词汇、诗词歌赋和谚语、四字词、常用句式。这四类在英汉翻译过程中可以得到再现,利用旧模因已有的影响力,使译文成为新的模因,扩大了模因的受众,找到新的宿主,这种创新性使译文在适度的同化当中借用和传播汉语语言文化的模因,从而扩大旧模因和新模因的双重传播效果。%The four strong memes in Chinese language are: internet hot words, poets and proverbs, four-character phrases and sentence patterns. These four memes can be used in translation so that the existing strong influence of them can help the translation version become new memes, thus expanding readers and find new hosts. The creation makes translation version borrow and spread Chinese memes in its language and culture, thus expanding the effect of both the old and the new memes.

  17. Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Todaka, Emiko

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have investigated the relationship between environment and health from a scientific perspective and developed a new academic field, "Sustainable Health Science" that will contribute to creating a healthy environment for future generations. There are three key points in Sustainable Heath Science. The first key point is "focusing on future generations"-society should improve the environment and prevent possible adverse health effects on future generations (Environmental Preventive Medicine). The second key point is the "precautious principle". The third key point is "transdisciplinary science", which means that not only medical science but also other scientific fields, such as architectural and engineering science, should be involved. Here, we introduce our recent challenging project "Chemiless Town Project", in which a model town is under construction with fewer chemicals. In the project, a trial of an education program and a health-examination system of chemical exposure is going to be conducted. In the future, we are aiming to establish health examination of exposure to chemicals of women of reproductive age so that the risk of adverse health effects to future generations will decrease and they can enjoy a better quality of life. We hope that society will accept the importance of forming a sustainable society for future generations not only with regard to chemicals but also to the whole surrounding environment. As the proverb of American native people tells us, we should live considering the effects on seven generations in the future.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF FOLK CULTURE ELEMENTS INCLUDING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is a total of common values, behaviors and ways of living patterns produced, kept alive, transferred to the next generations orally or written, informal education and concentrating on traditional areas. There is no doubt that transferring folk culture to the next generations will contribute to the protection of national identities against globalization, an inevitable process. The way of its realization is based on education. One of the most important lessons in which folk culture can be transferred to the young generations in primary education is social studies. The aim of this research is to reveal to what extend folk culture elements were included in 4th,5th, 6th, 7th grade social studies textbooks and workbooks. At the end of the research, which was carried out with scanning model and content analysis, it was found that seasonal festivals, children's games, marriage, processing, women's clothing and dress-ornament, dining-food-beverage, Karagoz, proverbs, folk music/instrument, Turkish folk dances, wrestling, and javelin folk culture elements were mostly included in the textbooks. Since social studies is an interdisciplinary field, it was presented with samples that all the elements of folk culture can be included in social studies textbooks.

  19. Inspiration of Zeng Guofan's Ideas on Morality Cultivation for Contemporary Officer's Moral Construction%曾国藩修身思想对当代官德建设的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀伟

    2014-01-01

    曾国藩在修身方面继承并发扬了儒家的思想,把修身进德和学业作为人生的两大财富,形成了一套自己的修身理论和修身方法,如著名的“日课十二条”、“三字箴”、“五箴”及“八本之说”等,他被后世人奉为“立德、立言、立功”三不朽的为官楷模,他的修身思想对当代领导者的自身道德修养和廉政建设具有深远的启发意义。%Zeng Guofan inherited and carried forward the Confucian self-cultivation areas of thought, the cultivation and academic life of wealth as the two formed a set of their own theories and methods, such as the famous"twelve day class", "three word Pro","five Proverbs"and"eight oriented"and so on, he was regarded as the world after"moral, words, meritori-ous"three immortality of the official model, cultivating his thoughts on contemporary morality itself leaders and clean gov-ernment has far-reaching instructive.

  20. Odontology or philologic: medical disputation about the teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Curt Gerhard; Lorber, Wilma Dorotheé

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation, here rendered, was published at the gymnasium of Hof in 1669. It is remarkable that the respondent, who was probably also its author, declared in the title page that he intends to do his task "following the custom of the blessed Hebrews and any other conventions of true Israelites" and cites in the following text repeated proverbs of Rabbis. Therefore, we suppose him to have been a Jew converted to the Christian faith. His Odontology is a large collection of knowledge about the teeth, the etymology of this term, the question of them belonging to the bones, their anatomy and fixation in the jaws, and their tasks in the crushing of foods and helping in pronunciation, and in animals for self-protection. With respect to their removal, he emphasizes that one read Sennert's Institutiones Medicae. The points of view discussed by the author depended more heavily on philological than on medical authors. Nevertheless, there are mentioned also "paramedical" opinions of the general population. The monograph seems to us important for the history of dentistry.

  1. THE EFFECT OF FRENCH ON THE TANZİMAT LİTERATURE AND SERVET-İ FÜNUN ( WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAĞLI

    2012-03-01

    century. Education in both French and Turkish was given in navigation schools, in medicals schools and engineering schools which were opened during the time of Ahmet III; they were rearranged again and were supported by Mahmut III. In the process of arranging books, similar books from Europe were taken as an example. Besides books, encyclopedias were speedily published. The negative influence of French newspapers published in İzmir and Istanbul continued to affect the Turkish language. It is possible to see the words such as madam, museum, operas, committee, modern, fabricator, economics, political and democrat in the first issue of the newspaper called Basiret in 1870. Nouns like restaurant, café, hotel, school, cinema, theatre and patisserie began to appear in commercial and economical domains in the 19th century as well. Lots of new commercial companies in Beyoğlu in Istanbul preferred some French names. It is worth pointing out that French was the most recognized foreign language spoken in those times. The officials of those times were trying to encourage everyone to learn a foreign language keeping in mind the proverb “A man who speaks a language is a man, a man who speaks two languages is worth two men, a man who speaks three is worth all mankind.” For example, the newspaper Mecmua-i Lisan(1898-1900 taught its readers French through translation. During the Tanzimat Period of the Ottoman Empire, when “western literature” was mentioned, French literature was the most acknowledged among all. Almost all of our writers were influenced by French writers when writing their first books. For this reason, most of our writers knew French. For example, Şinasi learned French while working as a secretary at Reşat Bey’s office. Later on, when he went to France, he started to be well known in literature by translating Lamartine’s books. Another example is Ziya Paşa, who knew French and Arabic. He learned French while working at the Palace as a secretary; Ethem

  2. BIBLICAL METAPHORS IN LETTERS OF LEV OF OPTINA

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    Svetlana Olegovna Zakharchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first analysis of tropes in the letters of the first Elder Lev (Nagolkin of Optina Pustyn Monastery (Opta’s hermitage – i. e. proverbs, allusions, allegories periphrasis and metaphors. Elder Lev most frequently used such tropes as "the storm of temptations", "the heart field", "happy harvest", "rags of the passions", "the marriage of the soul", "verbal sheep", "soldier of Christ", "spiritual milk", "the mind’s wolf", "a log of pride". One special thing about these tropes is that they blend together severalbiblical quotations and the Gospel images. Both simple and extended metaphors are used, and all the metaphors in the letters of St. Lev of Optina have a special function: they actualize biblical events, describe symbolically the inner world of a person and show the way to the salvation of the soul. It is typical of the Elder to use his own unique tropes, which are very diff erent from the traditional poetic images of the Russian literature of the 19th century.

  3. THE PROBLEM OF FORMING PLANTS EMPATHETIC JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN BY MEANS OF NLP TECHNIQUE – METAPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagornova Anna Yurevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of the formation of empathic attitudes in primary school means NLP - metaphor for metaphor can serve as a swarm - a direct analogy, history, personal experience, the parable, anecdote, proverbs, legends, fairy tales. Emphasizes the efficiency of the use of simple and complex metaphors as a means invigorated resource mechanisms of age when working with children. A distinction between literary and therapeutic metaphor, the main function of which is to dive into the world of a child, educators created by God. Emphasis on the need to form a tripartite em-pathic relationship between the child, the teacher and the narrative that allows the child is to identify with its characters and events. Underlines that one of the purposes of the metaphor in the therapeutic process of NLP is to gather information about the child to understand his world map, to find out the problems. States that the metaphor can serve as primary school children and speech, when he invests his experience in verbal expression.

  4. The Aesthetics of Sundanese Traditional Design, Case study: Rice Containers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Jamaludin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional design that is still made and exists today is a legacy from mythical culture period. That is to say that it has its own aesthetical concept that is different from modern aesthetics. Some of the traditional designs in Sundanese society is the rice containers that come in different form depends on the rice condition. The design of a traditional rice container in Sundanese culture is made in basic shapes, such as square, circle and triangle or configuration of the basic shapes resulted in a beautiful design. The rice containers mostly made of woven bamboo. Uniquely, these visual basic shapes also found in proverbs and idioms in Sundanese language as a symbol of perfection of conduct.  Square symbolizes attitude or behavior, circle is for belief or faith, and triangle represents a holy place. Rice in traditional community such as Baduy in Banten has a connection with the myth of the goddess of rice. Thus, Sundanese traditional culture and society highly respect the rice. This is one of the reasons why the traditional rice containers are designed in those form. This study has come to a conclusion that traditional design made is not merely to fulfill utility needs but also to represent the Sundanese macrocosm.

  5. A magyar lóversenyek világa az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchiában - Horse Races in the Austro–Hungarian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÓSA, Maja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the well-known proverb reads: Hungarians are born to ride horses. Our centuries-old equestrian culture had many different stages, but the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a decisive epoch when the Hungarian horse breeding could prosper. In this article I discuss this era through the efforts of Count István Széchenyi and Baron Mikós Wesselényi for horse breeding. With a detailed description of the horse races I intend to highlight the versatility of this era. People of different status could reach a consensus during the turf which became an important scene of politics, economy and community life. It was the world of wealthy stable owners where the most prominent beasts of the internationally renowned horse breeding competed, where the members of the petite bourgeoisie found amusement in their bets; it meant self-denial for jockeys and fashion for ladies. Horse races simultaneously dissolved and deepened social contradictions while they involved many political and economic opportunities.

  6. 浅论张爱玲自译小说《金锁记》中的异化策略%Foreignization in Eileen Chang’s Self-translated Novella“the Golden Cangue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石径

    2014-01-01

    如今翻译界已广泛认同异化是文学翻译的发展趋势。张爱玲早在上世纪七十年代初就在自译小说《金锁记》时集中使用了异化的翻译策略,使原作《金锁记》的语言和文化特点在英文译文中得到充分展现。该文综合对比原文和译文,从颜色和声响、成语及俗语、中国文化特色词汇三方面具体分析了异化策略的体现和效果。%That foreignization strategies should be adopted in literature translation is a growing consensus reached by most schol⁃ars in the field. Eileen Chang in her self-translated novella“the Golden Cangue”in the 1970s has put such strategies to use, re⁃producing a translation that fully embodies the language and cultural features of the original. This paper looks into the ways for⁃eignization is implemented by comparing“the Golden Cangue”with its Chinese original work from three perspectives: colors and sounds, idioms and proverbs, and other Chinese cultural-loaded terms.

  7. Bearing the Burden of Native Experience: A Stylistic Approach to Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God

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    Debaleena Dutta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe has made a creative Africanization of the English language in all his literary works. In the process of writing counter-narratives to Euro-centric misrepresentations of Africa, Achebe has successfully harnessed the colonizer’s language to make it bear the burden of his native experience. The present paper proposes to take up the third novel by Achebe, namely Arrow of God (1964 to introspect the different kinds of narrative strategies involved in it. This includes a study of the kind of narrator used, and a survey of the various ways in which the language is maneuvred—through the usage of standard and pidgin English, through linguistic devices like humour, satire and irony, through symbols, proverbs, images, metaphors and songs—in order to capture a vivid picture of Nigeria of the late 1920s, in which the novel is set. In a nutshell, this stylistic criticism aims to illustrate in effect how Achebe creatively extends the frontiers of English language to accommodate the various shades of Nigerian reality within it.

  8. 旅游西班牙语课堂中的文化导入--以西语社会文化谚语为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩文

    2014-01-01

    With the new tendency of the development of the world’s tourist market, the tourist Spanish classes is more and more important nowadays, whose characters of cultural diversity also demand renovated resources and methods for teaching the language. This article intends to investigate the relationship between the history, the culture and the tourism of Spain through the cultural proverbs. In addition, it offers approaches to the cultural introduction in the practice, in fields like phonetic, lexicon and grammar.%随着世界旅游市场的新发展,旅游西班牙语课程的设置显得日益重要,而该课程的多元文化特色也决定了对教学资源和教学方法的新要求。谚语是文化的载体,语言是文明的窗口。本文试图以西语社会中的文化谚语为切入点,重点梳理西班牙历史、社会文化与旅游业发展三者间的关系,并在课堂教学方面给出一些文化导入尝试。

  9. Democracia racial: o não-dito racista Racial democracy as unspoken racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sales Jr.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Na "democracia racial", o discurso racial entrincheirou-se no discurso "vulgar" (aforismático, passional, informal e privado, por meio da forma do não-dito racista que se consolidou, intimamente ligado às relações "cordiais", paternalistas e patrimonialistas de poder, como um pacto de silêncio entre dominados e dominadores. O não-dito é uma técnica de dizer alguma coisa sem, contudo, aceitar a responsabilidade de tê- la dito, resultando daí a utilização pelo discurso racista de uma diversidade de recursos tais como implícitos, denegações, discursos oblíquos, figuras de linguagem, trocadilhos, chistes, frases feitas, provérbios, piadas e injúria racial, configurando a não-intencionalidade da discriminação racial.In racial democracy, racial discourse entrenched itself in popular speech (aphorismatic, emotive, informal and private by means of the not-said. That discourse, closed tied to paternalist and patrimonial power relationships, is established as a silence pact between dominant and dominated. The not-said is a device to say something without acknowledging the responsibility for saying it. Racist discourse employs several devices, including hidden meanings, ambiguities, figures of speech, jokes, commonplaces, racial insults and proverbs, thus shaping the non-intentional character of racial discrimination.

  10. Ambiguity in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, G T

    1998-04-01

    As listeners and readers, we rarely notice the ambiguities that pervade our everyday language. When we hear the proverb `Time flies like an arrow' we might ponder its meaning, but not the fact that there are almost 100 grammatically permissible interpretations of this short sentence. On occasion, however, we do notice sentential ambiguity: headlines, such as `Two Sisters Reunited After 18 Years in Checkout Counter', are amusing because they so consistently lead to the unintended interpretation (presumably, the sisters did not spend 18 years at the checkout). It is this consistent preference for one interpretation-and one grammatical structure-rather than another that has fuelled research into sentence processing for more than 20 years. Until relatively recently, the dominant belief had been that these preferences arise from general principles that underlie our use of grammar, with certain grammatical constructions being preferred over others. There has now accrued, however, a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that these preferences are not absolute, but can change in particular circumstances. With this evidence have come new theories of sentence processing, some of which, at first glance, radically question the standard notions of linguistic representation, grammar and understanding.

  11. 法语语言中的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志红

    2015-01-01

    Language is the carrier of the culture. Every language must reflect the ways of thinking and social val-ues of the nation. Sexism does exist in various social institutions and countries to varying degrees. France, which pro-claims " All are created equal", is no exception. This widespread social phenomenon is mirrored in the language nat-urally. The author will give a clear explanation of the gender discrimination in French from several aspects such as pronouns, nouns, sexual coordination, interpersonal relationships, proverbs and so on in the article.%语言是文化的载体,任何语言必然反映一个民族的思维方式和社会价值观念,性别歧视不同程度地存在于不同的社会制度和国家中,在一向声称“人生而平等”的法国也不例外。这一普遍的社会现象,自然会在语言中得到折射。本文将从词汇、人际关系、谚语、语义、性的配合等方面阐释法语语言中的性别歧视现象。

  12. Паремія як засіб характеристики іспаномовної особистості (на матеріалі концепту “труд”)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Проаналізовано комплекс суджень про труд в іспанських прислів’ях та приказках і виявлено місце й характеристики цього поняття у свідомості іспаномовної особистості. This article attempts to analyze the complex judgments about the labor in Spanish proverbs and sayings and on the basis of this analysis to identify the place and characteristics of this concept in the minds of the Spanish language personality....

  13. 浅析韩国语俗谈的多样性与社会性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    “俗谈”是产生于韩国人民群众日常生活中的真实记述,是一种艺术性浓缩的实用语言。它反映了人们的生活状态以及他们的风俗、习惯、信仰等。本文通过对韩国语中的部分俗谈的种类、意思构造、构造形式、构成手法,以及韩国语俗谈中所用的词汇手段的具体分析,阐述了韩国语俗谈的利用价值和对人类的语言文化生活的影响。%Proverb is produces in the Korean people populace daily life real record, is one artistic concentration practical language. It has reflected people's life condition as well as their custom, the custom, the belief and so on. This article through the type, the meaning structure, the structural types, the constitution technique which vulgarly discussed to in Korean part, As well as Korean vulgarly discussed uses glossary method concrete analysis, Elaborated Korean vulgarly discussed use value and to humanity's language culture life influence.

  14. Role-separating ordering in social dilemmas controlled by topological frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marco A.; Perc, Matjaž; Wardil, Lucas; Szolnoki, Attila; da Silva Júnior, Elton J.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2017-03-01

    ``Three is a crowd" is an old proverb that applies as much to social interactions as it does to frustrated configurations in statistical physics models. Accordingly, social relations within a triangle deserve special attention. With this motivation, we explore the impact of topological frustration on the evolutionary dynamics of the snowdrift game on a triangular lattice. This topology provides an irreconcilable frustration, which prevents anticoordination of competing strategies that would be needed for an optimal outcome of the game. By using different strategy updating protocols, we observe complex spatial patterns in dependence on payoff values that are reminiscent to a honeycomb-like organization, which helps to minimize the negative consequence of the topological frustration. We relate the emergence of these patterns to the microscopic dynamics of the evolutionary process, both by means of mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. For comparison, we also consider the same evolutionary dynamics on the square lattice, where of course the topological frustration is absent. However, with the deletion of diagonal links of the triangular lattice, we can gradually bridge the gap to the square lattice. Interestingly, in this case the level of cooperation in the system is a direct indicator of the level of topological frustration, thus providing a method to determine frustration levels in an arbitrary interaction network.

  15. SOME SLAVONIC SOURCES OF THE INTERPOLATIONS IN THE OLD RUSSIAN VERSION OF FLAVIUS IOSEPHUS’ «THE JEWISH WAR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pichkhadze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Slavonic sources of three interpolations in the Old Russian version of Flavius Iosephus’ The Jewish War. The text of the first interpolation (about The Adoration of the Magi is preserved in the Interpolated redaction of The Tale of Aphroditianus in a more authentic form; it may be a modified version of the apocryph about the Magi (known for instance from the Velikiye Chet’yi-Minei which is close in content but not in wording to the interpolation of The Jewish War and The Tale of Aphroditianus. In the second interpolation the apostles are named kaližnici‘shoemakers’ in accordance with some Slavonic sources in wich St. Paulis referred to as usmošvec ‘currier; shoemaker’. The third interpolation mentions piyavicy solomon’skiya ‘the leeches of Solomon’ (allusion to Proverbs XXX 15–16 – this utterance derives presumably from the translation of 13 Orationes of St. Gregory of Nazianzus made in the 10th century in Bulgaria. In the light of these facts, together with the borrowings from different Slavonic sources in other interpolations within the Old Russian version of The Jewish War which have been identified earlier, the use of Slavonic sources may be considered a common feature of the interpolations of the Old Russian version.

  16. A SADAK (GUIVER WHICH IS RELEASET WITH SHADOW HUNTING: LOCALIZATION GÖLGE AVIYLA BOŞALAN BİR SADAK: MAHALLÎLEŞME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya AVŞAR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It is said that Turkish Literature in Ottoman period step forward to popular way. İt is defined that the localization means daily speaking language, proverbs, local topics. But it is defination that based on national state. İt is emphisized that it is wrong way Ottoman period in which multi-cultural and multi language is evaluate with the same logic.İt was explained that what is the background of this logic. Osmanlı dönemi Türk edebiyatının 15.yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren mahallîleşme denen bir çizgide ilerlediği söylenir. Mahallîleşme şiirde; “konuşma dili, atasözü-deyim ve yerel konular kullanma” olarak tanımlanır. Ancak bu tanım, ulus devlet mantığına dayanır. Bu makalede çok kültürlü ve çok dilli bir imparatorluk edebiyatı olan Osmanlı dönemini bu mantıkla değerlendirmenin yanlışlığı vurgulanmış olup bu mantığın arka planı üzerinde durulmuştur.

  17. 微观互文性视角下的《围城》英译%Translation of Weicheng from Perspective of Micro-intertextuality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娟

    2015-01-01

    A new perspective for understanding translation activities and translation phenomenon was put forward by intertextuality theory .From the perspective of analysis of intertextuality in Weicheng ,the in‐tertextual sign was discussed .There are mainly five types of micro‐intertextuality in English version of Weicheng :quotation ,allusion ,parody ,proverb and“untraceable codes” .The translators will be affected by the intertextuality theory ,so different translation strategies were adopted to different types of intertex‐tual signs .%互文性理论的提出为认识翻译活动,理解翻译现象提供了全新的视角。以微观互文性为研究视角分析探讨《围城》中互文符号的翻译。微观互文性在《围城》英译本中主要体现在以下五种类型中:引用,典故,仿拟,谚语,无法追溯来源的代码。译者在翻译过程中受到互文性的影响对不同类型的互文符号采取不同的翻译对策。

  18. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  19. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  20. Lifelong learning arrangements in chinese organizations in the context of an emerging knowedge economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilin Meiyi, Yao

    2008-01-01

    There is a proverb in China: huo dao lao, xue dao lao, which means keep on learning as long as you live. Though this is an ancient thought for Lifelong Learning, the meaning of the current research in Lifelong Learning is still up to date. Kessels (2001) stated that our society is gradually moving t

  1. “Hisense”, High Sense ;“Haier”, Higher :Brand Names Can Create Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡漪

    2007-01-01

    As a Chinese proverb declares,"The beginningof wisdom is to call things by their right names."For an entrepreneur,the beginning of his success isto call his brand by a right name.A brand needs agood name as much as the mankind does.A brand

  2. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  3. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  4. Bir Zarif Âşık: Rusçuklu Zarîfî Ve Dîvânı An Elegant Lover: Ruscuklu Zarifi And His Divan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÖNEL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zarîfî, who is mentioned as Zarîfî Baba, Zarîfî Ömer Efendi, ZarîfîBaba Ömer Efendi, Şeyh Ömer Zarîfî Efendi, Ömer Baba in the sources,was a 18th century Divan poet. In the history of literature, there are sixmore poets other than Zarifi who used the same nickname. Five of themlived before him while one of them is his contemporary. He was born inRuse (Pyce, within the borders of Bulgaria today, and died in 1795 inthe same place. As a Sheikh of the Sa‘diye cult he wrote ârifane poems.Zarîfî, who is also known as a Pendnâme poet, is recorded in biographicsources to have a Divan. However, it was believed either to havedefeated by time or lost. As a result of our researches, we discoveredthat the writing with the T 3863 registration number in IstanbulUniversity Library is actually the Divan of Ruscuklu Zarîfî. Although thepoet himself is a calligrapher, the so-called edition is not his owncalligraphy. The Divan, copied by Es-Seyyid İbrahim el-Rodosî is a rearrangedone. However, it does not contain all the components of a wellstructuredDivan. There are 31 poems in the first part which we callKaside, and there are 536 poems in the Gazels section. The Kasides areaddressed to God, the Prophets and the Saints. There are no poemsaddressing to any statesmen. There are poems in each letter in thealphabet from aleph ( ا to the last letter of the Arabic alphabet ‘y’( .(ىThere are five types of verses in Divan such as Mesnevi, Kaside, Gazel,Murabba and Muhammes. Although Zarîfî's poems are mainly Sufistic,the reflections of classical and hikemi style are also visible. The poet,who uses a simple and comprehensible language, also employs idiomsand proverbs in his works. The reflections of Pendnâme style are alsoevident in his works. The Divan was prepared for publication and itcame to light by being introduced broadly in this article. The life andliterary biography of Zarîfî, about whom there are very limited language

  5. Modern medicine is losing its humanistic essence: 'Patients no more, but diseases' is the new motto now.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Bulut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For medicine, which is as old as history of humanity, the virtue of helping has always been a priority. However, the way medicine see diseases and human being changed from time to time, and the treatment approaches were shaped accordingly. Ancient Greek's Knidos and Kos Schools of Medicine reflecting one of the earliest schools of systematic medical education show us two distinct perspectives. School of Kos carries the characteristics of Hippocratic medicine and reach a diagnosis not considering the disease symptoms but through the disease itself, and the prognosis of the patient is taken into consideration as well. The disease and the patient are handled with a holistic view without focusing on an organ and the treatment is planned accordingly, while the School of Knidos focuses mainly on the disease not to the patient and reach a clinical diagnosis based on the specifications presented from the symptoms. Today's modern medicine mentality has significant similarities with the School of Knidos approach. This model ignores the cases specific to the patient while diagnosing and applying treatment methods. The physicians who get more specialised every day are becoming implementers of an alienated medicine in contrast to Hippocrates's 'There is no disease, but the patient' aphorism. Nowadays, with the rapidly developing technology and ever-growing accumulation of knowledge, it is possible to say that we moved away from the 'humanistic' medicine concept. In addition, in today's medicine, embedding the business concepts into medicine and commercialization of medicine have significant effects on this phenomenon. The establishment and assessment of the relationship of patient-physician on the basis of ‘customer satisfaction' is changing physicians' opinions on their profession and patients, which leads to a worrisome transformation such as moving away from traditional medical virtues. In this process, respect and trust for the physician are shaken and

  6. The goal : Health for all - the commitment : All for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary Health Care was the means by which Health for All by the Year 2000 AD was to be achieved. And Health for All was possible only if All were mobilised for Health. This meant not just governments and medical establishments, but people themselves. Primary health care is essentially health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost the community and country can afford. And in working for such positive health, the role of health experts or doctors is the same as that of a gardener faced with insects, moulds and weeds. Their work is never done. Primary health care is a health conscious people's movement. Its implementation depends on knowledge of proper disposal of services and a persistent demand from an active and quality conscious consumer-the public. Strong political will, community participation and intersectoral coordination are its basic principles. However, the National Health Policy of India, 1983, was hardly debated in both houses when tabled. Both NHP 1983 and 2002 failed to confer the status of a Right to health, while most other nations are planning newer strategies to put Right to Health and Medical Services into practical use. Community participation in health is an aphorism that awaits genuine realisation in many countries of the world, notably of the third world. India, unfortunately, is no exception. Progressive Five Year Plans in India have reduced percentage spending over health as a part of GDP, which is an alarming state of affairs. Public awareness and activism alone can remedy this alarming condition. The people should not forget that health is not only a commodity that a benevolent government/ institution/ individual bestows on them. It has to be earned and maintained by the individual himself. Health problems cannot be solved in isolation. They will ultimately be part of our struggle for an egalitarian society

  7. Changing theory, changing role of Coriolis effect - The East-West asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff seismic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    It is a long history the tale of the recognized asymmetries of the Earth. In 1600 William Gilbert (1544-1603) published De Magnete in which the North and South geomagnetic pole are described. In 1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1628) in the XXVIIth aphorism of the Novum Organum (second part) describes the southern tips of the continents, and many other asymmetries were later described. In 1975 Samuel Warren Carey (1911-2002) stated: Neither north and south, nor east and west are tectonically equivalent. A non exhaustive list of asymmetries of the Earth is: The magnetic polarity; The land-hemisphere and the water-hemisphere; Southern tips of the continents; Larger extension of expanding mid-oceanic ridges on the southern hemisphere; South-eastward trend of younger ages in the long Pacific seafloor volcanic chains; A larger width of the seafloor isochrones bands on the Nazca region; A pear-shaped Earth; etc. It is a few decades that the different slopes of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards the east and west has been enclosed in the list. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30 degrees, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper (Luyendyk, 1970; Isacks & Barazangi, 1977; and many others). The cause of this difference has been identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west - the so called westward drift (Bostrom, 1971; Stevenson & Turner, 1977; among others). This solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction (Jordan, 1974; Ranalli, 2000; Caputo & Caputo, 2012). Moreover, a simplistic evaluation of the regime of the convective motion in the mantle and of the order of magnitude of the involved forces (viscous, buoyancy, inertial) hastily judges as negligible the role of the Coriolis effect in producing the observed slope differences of the Wadati-Benioff regions. Instead, it is possible to show that changing

  8. Les origines antiques d’un « art de la prudence » chez Baltasar Gracián

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Alfred Blüher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article met en évidence que l’« art de la prudence » que Baltasar Gracián propose dans son Oráculo manual renoue avec les méthodes de l’ars vitæ et de la prudentia tactique que les penseurs gréco-latins de l’Antiquité avaient développées, en se servant souvent de formules frappantes, maximes et adages. Les aphorismes de Gracián puisent dans le riche trésor de cette sagesse pragmatique, empruntant tout autant les traits d’un certain stoïcisme que d’habiles conseils d’« adaptation » et de « dissimulation ». Les éléments de cet « art de la prudence » proviennent de quatre domaines différents : ouvrages philosophiques, notamment Sénèque, Épictète et Plutarque ; littérature gnomique, telles les sentences des Sept Sages de Grèce ou celles de Publilius Syrus ; écrits satiriques, surtout Martial et Perse ; et réflexions d’ordre politique et moral de Tacite.This article argues that the « art of prudence » recommended by Baltasar Gracián in his Oráculo manual revives the methods of the ancient Greeks and Romans who had been advocating an ars vitae and a tactical prudentia, which they often expressed as striking slogans, maxims and adages. Gracián’s « aphorisms » draw on the rich treasure of this pragmatic wisdom, adopting the features of a certain stoicism but also the cunning counsel praising « adaptation » and « dissimulation ». The components of this « art of prudence » belong to four different fields : philosophical works, in particular Seneca, Epictetus and Plutarch ; gnomic literature, such as the maxims of the Seven Sages or those of Publilius Syrus ; satirical writings, especially Martial and Persius ; and Tacitus’ political and moral thought.

  9. Ética y estética (Novenas Conferencias Aranguren, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trías, Eugenio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein's Tractatus contains a mysterious aphorism to the effect that «ethics and aesthetics are the same». The existence of an underlying connivance between ethics and aesthetics has been acknowledged ever since ancient times. Here we try to look into this hard and interesting issue from the open horizon of boundary-philosophy, as put forward in my latest publications. The task will be carried out at three stages. The first one is given over to an elucidation of one core concept of ethics, freedom, in an interactive connection with our fore-understanding of our human condition. Then we raise the (Kantian question about how the ethical «symbolically resounds» through art. The third and last stage brings up the subject of the link between ethics and aesthetics on the ground of several examples, both ancient and modern (from the great tragedies and some artistic manifestations of our modernity.

    Un misterioso aforismo del Tractatus de Wittgenstein enuncia que «ética y estética son lo mismo». Que una corriente de complicidad existe entre ética y estética es reconocido desde la antigüedad. Lo ético se argumenta en la praxis; el arte lo hace a través de la poiésis, o creación, ya definida por Platón y Aristóteles. Aquí se intenta abordar esta interesante y difícil cuestión desde el horizonte abierto, a través de mis últimas publicaciones, por la filosofía del límite, y se realizará en tres etapas. Una primera dedicada a esclarecer uno de los conceptos nucleares de la ética, la libertad, en relación de interacción con la precomprensión que podemos poseer relativa a nuestra humana conditio. Se planteará luego la cuestión (kantiana de que a través del arte «resuena simbólicamente» lo ético. En una tercera y última etapa se desarrolla el tema del nexo entre ética y estética, dándose algunos ejemplos pertinentes, antiguos y modernos (de las grandes

  10. «I want to be a pop idol» Oscar Wilde tra parodia e reinvenzione glam in Velvet Goldmine di Todd Haynes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Martino

    2017-01-01

    masculinity of many 1960s musicians. Employing a methodological approach in which cultural studies, literary studies and neo-musicology  speak to each other, the present analysis establishes a strong connection between Oscar Wilde and glam culture – a relationship established by Haynes himself in the very first scenes of the film – which nevertheless the present essay defines in a more specific way, considering the film as a whole in terms of a glam parody and refashioning of Wilde's epopee, one in which Wilde's images and aphorisms seem to question with their complexity and their desecrating potential the present age.

  11. CONSTRUYENDO FORMAS DEL PENSAMIENTO / Constructing forms of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeo Ramos Carranza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La construcción exige conocimiento y ayuda a entender la lógica de la arquitectura por encima de los avances y descubrimientos producidos por ciencias, ingenierías e industrias. En cualquiera de las tendencias o movimientos que a lo largo del pasado siglo se han reconocido en arquitectura, técnica y tecnología de la construcción se han tratado como un aspecto esencial de su producción cultural y arquitectónica, y fueron usadas para indagar nuevas formas, nuevas arquitecturas, tratando de resolver una demanda social que no encontraba respuesta con los medios habituales de construir. El aforismo de Mies van der Rohe, “sólo reconozco problemas de construcción”, además de aludir a un momento en el que la industria estaba llamada a tener una participación decisiva en el futuro de la arquitectura, el sentido universal que encierra, revela que, la cuestión de la construcción en arquitectura, es una forma del pensamiento que afecta al proyecto desde sus primeros momentos. Quizá, por esta razón, muchas de las arquitecturas que visitamos o estudiamos, se preocupan profundamente por cual sería en cada momento, la mejor manera de expresar la condición constructiva de lo formado.SUMMARY: The construction requires knowledge and help to understand the logic of architecture over the progress and findings produced by science, engineering and industry. In any trends or movements throughout the last century have recognized architectural, technical and construction technology have been treated as an essential aspect of its cultural and architectural production, and were used to investigate new forms, new architectures trying to solve a social demand response was not the usual means of building. The aphorism of Mies van der Rohe, "I recognize only construction problems", and alluding to a time when the industry was destined to play a decisive role in the future of architecture, the universal sense it contains, reveals that, the issue of

  12. On the Surreal Metaphors in Herta Müller’sAtemschaukel%论赫塔•米勒《呼吸秋千》中的超现实隐喻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文权

    2014-01-01

    2009年诺贝尔文学奖得主、德国女作家赫塔•米勒的长篇小说《呼吸秋千》充分展示了她的诗学观,而她的诗学观又受到她独特的族群背景和跌宕的人生经历的深刻影响。她的诗学理论基本上建立在她对事物独特的感受方式和表达方式上,试图突破传统的认知模式,来表达精微而痛彻的人生经验。《呼吸秋千》一书中超现实隐喻的生成和工作机理,再一次印证了米勒的诗学核心“臆造的感知”,把看似无关的事物糅合到一个自创的新词里,由之而生的隐喻产生出超现实的效果,表达了日常语言无法言说的感觉认知,揭示了人性的深度和复杂。%Atemschaukel, a novel by the 2009 Nobel Laureate in Literature, the German writer Herta Mueller, is another practice of her unique poetics which has been molded into shape by her singular ethnic background, the historical environment and her personal experiences. The core of her poetics,“Die erfundene Wahrnehmung”, is engendered through her unrivalled way of perception and cognition, as well as the resulting singular ways of expression. All this is reflected in some surreal met-aphors she created in the afore-said novel. An analysis of the genesis and workings of these metaphors helps reveal and deepen our understanding of her poetic mechanism. It is concluded that her practice of achieving surreal effects by combining irrele-vant images into coined words is her brand of exploration of the depth and complicity of humanity.

  13. 隐喻理论在大学英语多义词教学中的应用%The Application of Theories of Metaphor in the Teaching of Polysemy in College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昕

    2012-01-01

    Polysemy is a universal linguistic phenomenon. It is also a genius of English. Conceptual Metaphor Theory argues that the component between word and its meanings is not arbitrary. Polysemy is not created at random. Metaphor is an important motivation of semantic expansion. It is signifi- cant for college English teachers to make aware of the great cognitive value of metaphorical concepts and pay adequate attention to the application of theories of metaphor in polysemy teaching. This can help lighten learners" burden of memory, raise their interest and facilitate their vocabulary acquisi- tion. Theoretically based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Image Schema Theory, with plenty of examples provided, the thesis puts forward some pedagogical implications of applying conceptual met- aphors and image schemas in polysemy teaching lish vocabulary teaching. , with the hope to provide some food for college Eng-%一词多义是普遍的语言现象,也是英语的一大特色。概念隐喻理论指出,一个词语诸多义项不是任意的关联,隐喻是词义变化的重要方式,是词义扩展的重要理据。教师帮助学习者了解多义词的基本意义和隐喻意义之间的关系,学习者对词汇多个义项的记忆将不再是孤立的,割裂的,从而大大减轻其记忆负担,激发词汇学习的兴趣,促进词汇习得。文章通过大量的隐喻实例,并借助意象和思维导图等思维工具论述如何将概念隐喻和意象图式具体运用于大学英语多义词的教学,希望对大学英语词汇教学提供一些启发和参考。

  14. El denunciador: un vecino que acata y cumple

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    Eduardo José Del Valle Mora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This document studies the configuration of the Denouncer, based on what the author calls in its work as, neighbor legislative panopticism. The Denouncer, is a control mechanism of normative fulfillment designed by the Spanish Crown and the Supreme Council of the Indians, that served as an element of coercion and intimidation within the population, with the purpose of allowing the configuration of the Ordered City in the terms of the Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias (Indies Kingdoms Compilation of Laws. In this paper the author studies the application and obeyance of this compilation, as well as the recognized aphorism “se acata, pero no se cumple” (law is accepted but not fulfilled, in order to propose that the policy of the Denouncer was a control mechanism designed by the colonial authorities. Finally, this article proves that the Denouncer was a person that accepted and fulfills the Indian legal system.//Este documento estudia la configuración del Denunciador, fundamentado en lo que el autor llamó en su trabajo "panoptismo legislativo vecinal". La política del Denunciador se presentó como un mecanismo de control de cumplimiento normativo establecido por la Corona y el Supremo Consejo de Indias, como una herramienta de coerción e intimidación de la población. En este sentido, se configuró como un instrumento que permitiera el establecimiento de la “ciudad ordenada” en la Recopilación de Leyes de los Reinos de las Indias. Se presenta el análisis de la aplicación y cumplimiento de esta compilación así como el estudio del reconocido aforismo “se acata, pero no se cumple”. Finalmente, se plantea la política del Denunciador como mecanismo de control diseñado por las autoridades coloniales. En este documento se encontrarán los principales postulados que llevan a concluir que el vecino denunciador fue presentado en la ley como el sujeto de derecho que acataba y cumplía lo dispuesto en el ordenamiento jur

  15. Scientific Items in Cyprus Turkish Tales

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    Sevilay Atmaca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.

  16. TÜRKÇE’DE METİN ÖĞRETİMİ YERİNE METİNLE ÖĞRENME

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    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our world, from 1900s to the present, much kind of approaches and methods have been applied on language teaching. These approaches are traditional, behavioral, constructive and cognitive as the main parts. The traditional approach which is the oldest approach in the language teaching covers the teaching of rules of the grammer, literature, proverbs and liberal education.The language has been teached as the other behaviors, like repetation, imitation, memorizing and classical conditioning as the stimulation-reaction in behavioral approach. These thoughts had start to been changed in 1950s and the thought that is the “language is the for the communicating” had start to spred. Then the studies containing communication and the usage of the language in daily life have been done. Nowadays with the constructive approach, the thought that is “language is the social communication tool” has been supported.The developing of mental, emotional, and social skills have been handled and teaching of language has been done with the many kind of activities,duties and projects. In our country, important developments have been done during the last years parallel to the world. A new Turkish Programme with the constructive approach has been prepared by leaving the behavioral approach. Education approaches such as constructive approach, multiples intellect, student-centered learning, inter-disciplinary approach, etc. are taken as basis in new 2004 Turkish Education Programme. In this way, new Turkish Programme contains developing skills such as mental, emotional, and social and language teaching is being done with the many kind of activities,duties and projects.

  17. A critical analysis of domestication in Makhambeni’s translation of Chinua Achebe’s novel No longer at ease (1960

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    M.R. Masubelele

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through translation the target reader is exposed to other cultures. Translators, therefore, have to use the target language to convey the source text message to the target reader. There are various choices at their disposal as to how they wish to convey the source text message. They may choose to adopt the norms and conventions of the source text message, and therefore those of the source language and culture, or choose those of the target language. Commonly, adherence to the target language norms and conventions leads to a strategy in which the foreignness of both linguistic and cultural conventions is reduced. According to Venuti (1995 this is domestication. Since translations are rarely equivalent to the original, this article seeks to examine how Makhambeni uses Venuti‟s domestication as a translation strategy, with the purpose of rewriting the original to conform to functions instituted by the receiving system. The descriptive approach to translation, which advances the notion that translations are facts of the target culture, will be used to support the arguments presented in this article. It will be shown that, although Achebe has used a lot of Igbo expressions and cultural practices in his novel, Makhambeni has not translated any of the Igbo expressions and cultural practices into Zulu. Instead Makhambeni used Zulu linguistic and cultural expressions such as similes, metaphors, idioms, proverbs and of cultural substitutions to bring the Igbo culture closer to her audience. It will be concluded that through the use Zulu linguistic and cultural conventions Makhambeni has effectively minimised foreign culture and narrowed the gap between the foreign and target cultures. She has successfully naturalised the Igbo culture to make it conform more to what the Zulu reader is used to.

  18. Ou wyn in nuwe sakke: 'n Kritiese waardering van Bijbels lexicon

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    Anna Nel Otto

    2011-10-01

    the lexicon is structured, an exposition of different types of lexical items and motivation for the choice of lemmata and period covered, on how to look up lexical items, etc. Even non-believers could use the lexicon, as the introduction also contains background information in block format, i.e. an exposition of the content of the Bible, and information on Dutch Bible translations, proverb collections and Bible names. The benefits of this lexicon are that it includes only examples of current usage and as such accommodates neologisms and changed meanings. Although the authors sometimes divert from the terminology for different types of lexical items, as defined by themselves, the treatment of dic-tionary articles is generally very consistent and information is easily accessible. The value of the lexicon could possibly be enhanced by using more cross-references.

    Keywords: BIBLE, CITATION, CURRENT USAGE, DUTCH, FIXED EXPRESSION, LEXI-COGRAPHY, LEXICON, MEANING, NEOLOGISM, ORIGIN, PROPER NAME, PROVERB

  19. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

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    Biedermann Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers

  20. A pilot investigation of "metaphor blindness" in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-06-01

    Previous research from our group suggests that patients with lesions in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL)-which is concerned with abstract numerical cognition and cross-modal association (which is consistent with its strategic location at the crossroads between the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes) have difficulty understanding proverbs and metaphors (Ramachandran and Hubbard, 2001). In the current pilot investigation, we report "metaphor blindness" in a college student population; that is, either the complete inability or difficulty for otherwise intellectually non-challenged individuals to comprehend metaphors of language. Participants (N=205) read 12 metaphorical ("The detective jumped at the clue") and 12 literal ("The accident was a fall") sentences and had to decide whether the sentences conveyed a metaphorical or literal meaning. The mean accuracy for these metaphorical sentences was 11.0 (SD=2.3; RNG=0-12); the mean accuracy for literal sentences was 7.2 (SD=1.8; RNG=2-10). We found that 5% of participants (11/205) were unable or had difficulty understanding metaphors (i.e., were statistical outliers), while their score for literal sentences felt within a normal statistical range M=8.3 (SD=2.3; RNG=5-10). Follow-up control procedures were conducted in order to help ascertain that the results were not due to low verbal IQ and task difficulty. Likewise, none of the "metaphor blind" participants reported any psychiatric or neurological histories that would impair language comprehension, including strokes, brain injuries, language problems dyslexia, and signs of late language onset. The results are very preliminary and future studies are needed to confirm these findings. We suggest that brain modules may be specialized even for subtle functions like metaphor and their formation in embryogenesis may be controlled by small handfuls of genes whose expression can go awry--as in "metaphor blindness".

  1. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3.

  2. Parental Curse as Invisible Violence: Anti-maternity in the Traditional Culture of the XIX Century

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    Lidija Radulović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Curse is an appellative genre, a clichéd verbal proverb that is uttered in belief, that with the assistance of supernatural forces, God or demon, through the magical properties of words, evil will come upon an individual. It is examined through the context of the ideal motherhood discourse in the tradition culture of the XIX and the first half of the XX century, in view that it was perceived to be an idiosyncrasy of female demeanor. Maternity as a cultural construct in the traditional culture of Serbia is based upon the ideal motherhood discourses as a gift from god, as an innate role for women, an inherent instinct for caring towards others, as an unconditional motherly love. In practice, normative regulations and the concrete actions of a mother are not in complete concurrence, mothers love is not an objective fact, it can be present or not, vary in intensity, it can be selective, but it will depend on the personal history and cultural construct. Through such a focal point, motherly curse is perceived as a form of behavior that can be signified as anti-maternity. In the conceptualization of a parental curse, from one viewpoint, the manner of usual behavior of women that has no real implications on the life of the child is legitimized, and on the other hand, it is believed that a mothers curse has the most potent magical effect and is delivered up to the ninth generation. Parental curse and the ritual of "cursing" do not include a black magic connotation, and were considered a legitimate social mechanism through which evil was countered with evil i.e. the transgressor was being punished in cases where there existed no formal mechanism of punishment. Through such actions, the community, or family are re-imposing order in the social relations, synchronously sending a message that reaffirms the correct matrix of behavior and moral values of the community.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE TEXTS IN TURKISH AS A FOREI GN LANGUAGE COUR SE BOOKS IN TERMS OF FORMULAIC EXPRESSI ONS

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    Nil Didem ŞİMŞEK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since primitive times, the need to communicate with each other has paved the way for the use different types of languages; and the question of language has become an unsolvable, complex issue. It is not possible to limit language with definitions. Language, as a social institution, differs from other languages with the cultural and social structure it has been shaped through; and forms its own lexicon. Aksan (1996:9 ; considers the lexicon of a language as “a whole made up of not only the words, but also the idioms, communicative expressions, formulaic expressions, proverbs, terms and various sets of expressions of that language.” As there are numerous lexical items in a language, there are numerous cult ural elements as well. Each unit among the lexicon provides an important communication between the speaker of that language and the cultural values to which that language belongs; and strengthens the relationship between them. Formulaic expressions, or in other words, communicative expressions are the most significant ones among these units that constitute the lexicon. Cultural transfer has an important role especially in teaching Turkish to foreigners. The functionality of these units is noteworthy in the transfer and the deliberate use of the cultural elements of that language. The aim of this study is to evaluate the texts in beginner level (A1 Turkish as a foreign language course books in terms of formulaic expressions (communicative expressions. The d ata sources for the study are the A1 level books of Lale and İstanbul series. Transferring the culture is quite important in teaching a language. In order to present the language along with the culture, formulaic expressions (communicative expressions sho uld be included frequently, particularly in the beginner level course books.

  4. L’Empire ottoman à travers la biographie picaresque d’Eliya Karmona Ottoman empire through picaresque biography of Eliya Karmona

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    Marie-Christine Varol

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’autobiographie romancée d’Eliya Karmona publiée en 1926, Comment naquit Eliya Karmona comment il grandit et comment il devint directeur du Djugetón projette un regard critique sur les tribulations d’un jeune homme juif dans les dernières années du sultanat, entre 1884 et 1908.Sur le mode sarcastique, maniant l’auto-ironie, il construit sur ses déboires un roman picaresque qui sacrifie à la loi du genre, mais qui s’apparente par d’autres aspects aux genres cultivés par les Judéo-Espagnols : le récit de voyage, le récit exemplaire, le traité sur les us et coutumes, les mémoires romancées, les proverbes. On y trouve aussi des éléments très ottomans comme le journal personnel, tenant compte des menus faits, des dépenses et des rentrées, dont P. Dumont et F. Georgeon (1985 ont montré qu’il s’agissait d’une habitude ottomane bien utile comme source d’information historique. L’auteur se livre dans cette œuvre à une critique acerbe et comique des pesanteurs du système ottoman, qui font obstacle à toute initiative, mais il critique aussi les raideurs communautaires qui pèsent comme un carcan sur l’initiative personnelle, l’inadaptation des structures et, partant, l’inefficacité des stratégies mises en place pour survivre par les individus. Cependant, son œuvre révèle en creux une certaine nostalgie pour le monde disparu. On perçoit l’admiration du héros et son attachement à certaines valeurs de ce monde ancien, et l’on ne peut s’empêcher de lui donner raison lorsqu’on mesure ce que les communautés juives ont perdu avec la disparition de l’Empire ottoman.The fictionalized autobiography of Eliya Karmona How Eliya Karmona was born, how he grew up and how he became the director of Djugetón casts a critical eye on the tribulations of a young Jewish man in the last years of sultanate from 1884 to 1908. In sarcastic mode, with self-irony, he builds on his disappointments a

  5. Neil Mather Brice 1934-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, W. I.; Farley, D. T.; Helliwell, R. A.; Kennel, C. F.

    How many of us express our deepest thoughts about life on our office doors? Neil Brice evidently did, because he posted Oscar Wilde's famous aphorism on his. We are sure Brice wished that he had said it first.Neil Brice is now dead 11 years, killed at age 40 in an airplane crash in Pago Pago, American Samoa. This article is a remembrance of him. Yet it is more than that, for in recalling Brice, we call forth memories of the time when modern magnetospheric physics was being born, a time when our measurements were consistent only in their suggestive inconsistency, a time when there was no refuge for the unimaginative.

  6. Pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse

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    Nihal TUNCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of pre-service teachers from different departments related to the concept of child abuse. This study aims to determine pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse as a qualitative study, conducted in line with phenomenological design. In the study, one of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum diversity sampling method, was employed. The participants of the study are 15 pre-service teachers attending the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Teacher Education for the Intellectually Disabled, Pre-school Teacher Education, Social Studies, Art Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies, German Language Teaching, French Language Teaching, and Teacher Education for the Hearing Impaired, all within the Education Faculty of Anatolian University, Turkey. The data of the study was collected through the focus-group interview technique. The data collected from two different focus-group interviews were analyzed by content analysis technique using the NVivo 8 data analysis program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers explained the concept of child abuse by most strongly emphasizing emotional abuse and least strongly by emphasizing economic abuse. In light of the pre-service teachers’ opinions, it was also concluded that the culture constructed by society through the meanings attached to genders, society’s view of sexuality, child marriage, proverbs and idioms specific to the local society and superstitions lead to incidences of child abuse. The current study revealed that child abuse can be prevented by providing training to raise the awareness of child abuse primarily for families then children, teachers and other concerned people. It was also found that the majority of pre-service teachers do not have enough information about how to act in the face of an incidence of child abuse.

  7. How Long Are Sayings?

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    Anneli Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We talk, communicate, chat, speak, and make utterances – all thesesynonymous verbs signify verbal communication and mark the same action. The action may also be expressed by means of set expressions, or more precisely, phrases or idioms. Words, phrases and syntactic units, or the sc. microtexts, are at our disposal. The issue may be also considered at another angle – namely, how short can a phrase be for it to preserve its contents? Compared to other short forms (proverbs, riddles, phrases are generally characterised as being shorter. It has been determined that the minimum length of a phrase is a combination of at least two fully semantic words. According to a common claim aphrase characterises a specific situation. Therefore, a phrase can only exist as a set expression in a context. Conceptualising phraseologisms, however, prompts the question of the ‘obligatory’ and ‘facultative’ constituents of a phraseologism, i.e. the issue of its form and, more importantly, of its defining. While discussing the motivation of phrasal expressions, scholars often refer to their opacity vs. transparency. But what would the ideal form be for which people possess sufficient background knowledge, including phraseological competence, which is required for understanding a given expression? What is the smallest number ofwords necessary for understanding an expression? Whether and to which extent can we find help in metalanguage framing a set phrase? In the article I will discuss the issues related to the study of phrasal semantics on the example of set phrases connected with the image of talking, narration, words, etc. The discussion will rely on material from the database of Estonian phrases.

  8. Poverty alleviation in Nigeria: lessons from socioeconomic thoughts of the Yoruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Joel B; Oni, Adesoji; Atanda, Ademola; Oyejola-Oshodi, Benedicta O

    2009-01-01

    Nigeria is the 13th largest oil producer in the world. Yet about 56 per cent of the total population lives in absolute poverty. This article confronts conventional theories of poverty with the indigenous thoughts of the Yoruba (one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria). Darwinian, individualistic, cultural, situational and structural theories of poverty associate it either with individual-case or economy-wide factors. Approaching anti-poverty strategy through individual-related factors (such as training the unskilled poor) without due consideration to the economy-wide factors (such as job creation for the poor) ends up redistributing rather than actually reducing aggregate poverty. The analysis of poverty-related proverbs of the Yoruba reveals a consistency between the conventional theories and what the Yoruba think about poverty. The Yoruba believe in chronic (osi) versus transitory (ise) poverty, associated with suffering. They believe that poor people can escape the poverty trap through their own personal efforts (such as by developing a positive work attitude, working hard and reducing their family size) along with the help of support systems (such as job creation and food security). The Yoruba believe that job creation is the best anti-poverty strategy. They further believe that by removing hunger, poverty becomes insignificant. Based on these two axioms, this article suggests that attention be paid to job creation and food security for the poor. It also recommends that studies of the socioeconomic thought of the other major Nigerian tribes with respect to poverty be undertaken, so as to arrive at nationally and culturally derived anti-poverty strategies in Nigeria.

  9. Construction of Strong Memes in News Headlines%新闻标题中强势模因的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕

    2016-01-01

    模因主要通过模仿得到复制、传播和发展,复制能力强、传播范围广、存活时间长的模因便成为强势模因。新闻作者通常采用恰当的模因传播策略对成语谚语、流行歌曲等进行语言变异,建构新闻标题中的强势模因。强势模因使新闻标题更具感染力和传播力,更能吸引读者。模因论为新闻标题的研究提供了一个新视角,同时也有力地解释了成功的新闻标题应当具备的条件。%Memes are duplicated,transmitted and developed by means of simulation,among which those with strong duplication, wide spread and long life become strong memes. The news writer frequently adopts proper communication strategies to transform idioms,proverbs and popular songs so as to construct strong memes in headlines.It turns out that strong-meme-based news headlines can be more eye-catching and more probable to be widely spread.Memetics not only provides a new angle for the research of news headline but also effectively explains what excellent headlines should be like.

  10. Teatino: el perfil de un vocablo desgastado entre la apología y el sarcasmo

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    Llompart, Gabriel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the term «Theatine,» which originally referred to Cajetan’s Order of Monks in 16th-century Italy, co-founded by Cardinal Pietro Caraffa, bishop of Theati, to advance the Counter Reformation. Confusion concerning the term and the pejorative meaning it soon acquired evince to us the overuse of it, the diverse intentionality with which it was employed and the harm done thereby to the monks themselves, who eventually had to adopt a different name for their image to clear up. So it went among the elite, to judge from their epistolary correspondence and the literature; among commoners, from wise sayings and proverbs.

    Se analiza el vocablo «teatino» con que se empezó a conocer la Orden de Clérigos Regulares de San Cayetano, fundada en Italia en tiempos de la Contrarreforma por el cardenal Pedro Carafa, obispo de Teati. La confusión de denominación y el sentido peyorativo que generó este término a poco de su creación nos habla del desgaste de la palabra, la diversa intencionalidad con que se utilizó y el perjuicio sufrido por los propios clérigos, obligados a cambiar de nombre para limpiar su imagen. Así se refleja entre la élite a través de la documentación epistolar y la literatura y, popularmente, en dichos y refranes.

  11. Pedagogy to andragogy

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    *

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I would like to congratulate Muneshwar JN, Mirza Shiraz Baig, Zingade US, Khan ST for highlighting a very important issue regarding the teaching methods for health care professionals. Study has proved the Chinese proverb: “If I hear, I forget; if I see, I remember; if I do, I know”. Along with this I want to focus little on “podcast” as new teaching method. At present, education trend have changed from pedagogy to andragogy i.e. from a teacher-centered learning to a student-centered learning. These methods of education trends have identified many different learning styles as well. So, now it has become necessary for educators to train themselves to upcoming teaching methods. Many new teaching methods are evolving in the current electronic world. In which Podcasts as a supplement to live lectures is one of the teaching method, which have been adopted by many universities. Podcasting is user friendly, where information is recorded, then uploaded to a website or published through programs like iTunes and made accessible to students. The file can then be played on a computer or digital player. Recently many studies have been conducted using podcast as a new aid and its effectiveness. Studies have shown that audio podcasts as an effective aid for review before exams, enhancing student performance; acceptability and perceived utility of podcasts was good among students. Introduction of podcasts in the beginning will offer the students a lot of flexibility in learning, with regard to place and time. Podcasts as a supplement to live lectures as teaching method has open up for future research to assess their utility on a long-term basis so as to pave the way for introducing podcasts as one of the teaching method.

  12. On the Translation of Picture Books from the Perspective of Creation of Children′s Stories-Taking the Chinese Translation of The Enormous Crocodile as an Example%从儿童故事创作谈儿童图画书翻译--以 The Enormous Crocodile 汉译为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢肖乔

    2016-01-01

    儿童图画书的翻译可以从儿童故事创作三要素之角色、情境、语言入手来进行研究。译者翻译时不仅要着力呈现原文的创作特点,更应力求使译文达到和原文一样的艺术效果。对于角色,译者要翻译出自创词、对比等修辞手段的艺术效果,也要翻译出角色言辞中暗含的声音特征和性格特点。对于情境,译者要炼字锻句,展现有形的场景、无形的气氛。对于语言,译者可以适当使用叠字词和俗语,使语言偏口语化,也要对韵律进行再创造。%The translation of children′s picture books can be considered from the presentation of characters,environment and language styles.The equivalent artistic effects with the source texts from the translation are the keys for translators,besides the creative features from the source texts.For translation of character description,the same rhetorical effects should be achieved in the target texts as those in the source texts and the features of voices and personalities are showed.For translation of environment description,visible settings are represented in the invisible atmosphere.For language translation,reduplicated words and proverbs can be used for the colloquial re -creation.

  13. Antón Perulero: Un cuento inédito de María Teresa León

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    Marina Bedia, Marta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a short story, apparently unpublished, by Maria Teresa León: «Antón Perulero», wich was not collected in any book of stories. Probably written in Argentina, at the beginning of the 40's, it has been found in a notebook of this authoress, wich is kept in the National Library (Madrid. The story is destined to a readership of children, and its characters (Maricastaña, Mátalas Callando, Antón Perulero himself are taken from the world of proverbs, set phrases and children's songs; the interest in children's literature and in folklore had been present in Maria Teresa Leon's writing from its beginning.Este artículo presenta un cuento, al parecer inédito, de María Teresa León: «Antón Perulero», no recogido en ninguna de sus colecciones de relatos. Escrito probablemente en Argentina, a principios de los años 40, ha sido encontrado en un cuaderno manuscrito de la autora, que se conserva en la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. El relato está destinado al público infantil, y sus personajes (Maricastaña, Mátalas Callando o el propio Antón Perulero están extraídos del mundo de los refranes, las frases hechas y las canciones para niños; el interés por la literatura infantil y por el folklore había estado presente en la escritura de María Teresa León desde sus inicios.

  14. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another Los estudios epidemiológicos son como las cerezas, van una detrás de la otra

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    Nuno Lunet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.El proverbio "Las palabras son como las cerezas" que expresa cómo cuando empezamos a hablar los asuntos van surgiendo de manera encadenada y terminamos con largas conversaciones, del mismo modo en que las cerezas que salen del plato encadenadas cuando cogemos una, puede también puede ser aplicado a la investigación epidemiológica. Una secuencia de estudios epidemiológicos, cada uno derivado del anterior, se presenta como un ejemplo de cómo cada investigación puede derivar en nuevas cuestiones en los estudios siguientes. Esta descripción subraya la necesidad de una planificación adecuada así como la utilidad de los estudios piloto para describir las deficiencias que difícilmente podrían haber sido anticipadas sin trabajo de campo. Se pretende ilustrar como la investigación epidemiológica puede proporcionar un enfoque profundo a cuestiones de investigación, siempre y cuando los resultados sean interpretados correctamente y las opciones metodológicas subóptimas sean tenidas en cuenta en futuras investigaciones.

  15. 从文化视角看《圣经》典故的翻译%From the perspective of culture to see the "Bible" allusions translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宣红

    2013-01-01

    Divide rooted in specific cultural allusions are impassable in cross-cultural translation. "Bible" in the fairy story, characters, fables and proverbs, resulting in a large number of "the Bible" allusions, has become an important part of the English language. Because there are many differences between the "Bible"allusions and Chinese culture, the translator often encounter obstacles in understanding " Bible" allusions in translation. Based on this, this paper aims to explore the translation principles and methods of "Bible" allusions from the perspective of culture, in order to better guide the future of the "Bible" allusions.%  根植于特定文化的典故在跨文化翻译中存在不可逾越的鸿沟。《圣经》中的神话故事、人物、寓言和箴言等产生了大量的《圣经》典故,已成为英语语言的一个重要部分。由于《圣经》典故与中华文化存在诸多差异,国内译者在翻译《圣经》典故时经常碰到理解上的障碍。在此基础上,本文旨在从文化角度探讨《圣经》典故的翻译原则和方法,以期更好地指导今后的《圣经》典故翻译。

  16. Analysis on Characteristic of Comments on Medicine in Zhe Gong Man Lu%简析《折肱漫录》“品药”之特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝文

    2015-01-01

    Zhe Gong Man Lu was written by Huang Chenghao in the Ming Dynasty which consisted of seven volumes. This book contains excellent medical essays in traditional Chinese medicine based on the clinical experience of the author. The contents ofZhe Gong Man Lu focus on three issues, such as replenishing the vital energy, keeping in good health and medicine. The name ofZhe Gong Man Lu originated from the proverb “Excellent doctors can endure the pain similar to three times of humeral fracture ”. The third volume of Zhe Gong Man Lu explained the comments on medicine on basis of 53 kind of Chinese herbs which were tasted by the author and applied in his clinical experience, with preciseness and characteristics. This article analyzed the comments on medicine inZhe Gong Man Luin order to extend the knowledge of doctors.%《折肱漫录》为明代黄承昊撰辑,凡7卷,是医话著作中的精品。作者以自身治病用药的经验为主,汇集了养神、养形、医药3个方面内容,取“三折肱而为良医”之义,著成此书。“品药”出自卷3,黄氏对53种口所亲尝、身所亲历的常用药物加以评述,甚为精当,极有特色。本文将对“品药”的内容进行分析,以增广临证之视野。

  17. 加强励志教育创新大学校园文化建设%Reinforcing the inspirational education to inovate campus culture construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 苗树梁; 杨立富

    2016-01-01

    Based on inspirational education, this thsis explores inspirational education in five respects,that is, reading inspirational books, telling motivational stories, watching inspirational movies, spreading motivational proverbs to bring the inspirational function into play. Inspirational education should play a role of motivation which is “educating students by advanced culture, inspiring students by advanced thoughts, impelling students by advanced atmosphere to sharpen students’ will, to cultivate their liberty, independence, strong-willed and active mind-set, to inspire their need of success and to promote their ability of serving the society.%以励志教育为突破口,通过读、讲、唱、看、传励志书、励志故事、励志歌曲、励志电影、励志箴言五项励志教育,发挥榜样激励作用,用先进的文化教育人,用先进的思想鼓舞人,用先进的气氛感召人,磨砺学生意志,培养学生自主,自立,自强和积极向上的心态,激发大学生成功的需要,提高大学生服务社会的本领。使每位学生能够立志成才,探知践行,将看不见、摸不着、不可称的励志精神、透过数字、成绩得以体现,为拓展大学校园文化建设,发挥积极作用。

  18. WE-A-16A-01: International Medical Physics Symposium: Increasing Access to Medical Physics Education/Training and Research Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeld, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ngoma, T [Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Odedina, F [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morgan, S [IAEA PACT, Vienna (Austria); Wu, R [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Sajo, E [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    provision of cancer services which include but not limited to lack of cancer registries, lack of funding, lack of human resources, lack of radiotherapy machines, lack of cancer drugs and lack of accessible and affordable cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Since there are considerable differences among African countries, in my presentation I will share with the audience how we address cancer control challenges in Tanzania in general and specifically in radiation oncology. The African continent cancer plan 2013 2017 Folakemi Odedina, PhD, Professor and Director of Health Disparities, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida The burden of cancer is rising in Africa, in addition to current heavy burden of communicable, and other non-cancer related non—communicable diseases. Conquering cancer in Africa will require a comprehensive collaborative approach with cancer clinicians, scientists, patients, advocates, policy makers and community leaders working hand-in-hand at the local, state, national, and continent levels with the primary mission: To reduce the number of deaths from cancer and improve the quality of life of cancer patients, survivors and caregivers. Unfortunately, less than 40% of African countries have a credible cancer control policy and program. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) decided to create an African Cancer Plan to provide cost-effective strategies that can be employed throughout the continent to fight cancer. Based on the African proverb that “It takes a village to raise a child”, the Cancer Plan provides specific strategies that can be used by individuals, employers, organizations and policy-makers to fight cancer. In addition, we have provided overarching strategies to address cancer in Africa and targeted 5-year plan for prostate, breast, cervix, lung and liver cancers. In developing this Cancer Plan, our primary goal is to decrease cancer incidence and mortality in

  19. THE BIBLE LANGUAGE IN THE AMERICAN LYRIC

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    Bruno Rosario Candelier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The footprint of the Bible in its intellectual and aesthetic expression is manifested in the creation of poetry and fiction. The religious and mystical poetry, and the use of biblical language through the recreation of characters, themes or motifs inspired by the sacred text, are a tribute to the Holy Book  and a creative vein of literature inspired by this paradigmatic work of our culture. The biblical language that channel profound teachings and revealed truths through diverse literary figures, has been a fruitful means of creation. Besides intuition and inspiration, in the poetic language flowing the signals of revelation that synthesize perception of consciousness, the metaphysics slope of the existing and the effluvia of Transcendence. In its implementation intervenes the creative power of poetry that the word formalized in images, myths and concepts. In numerous poetic creations there are formal, conceptual and spiritual reminiscent of the Holy Book. It’s prolific the trace of the Bible in literature, culture and spiritual awareness. The word that creates and raises is a melting pot of the aesthetic feeling and spirituality. In fact, the Gospel contains the inspiring principle of Christian mystical literature. By focusing biblical language in poetic creation, we appreciate literary formulas and compositional resources. There is a wisdom and a stylistic inherent in biblical language, which manifests itself in a biblical tone, a biblical image and a biblical technique that the language arts formalized in various forms of creation. Knowing from the biblical heritage is reflected in judgments, prophetic visions, parables, allegories, parallelisms and other resources that have fallen into the lyrical flow. The biblical language embodies a format registered by proverbs, hymns, prayers, metaphors and other expressive resources format. In the biblical text we find various literary forms that have fueled the substance of poetic creation, as

  20. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  1. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

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    Ghadamzli Sarrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well.  Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain.  The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story.  Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign.  The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive.  Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text.  The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters

  2. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Ghadamzli Sarrami , Mohammad Moghiseh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well. Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain. The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story. Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign. The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive. Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text. The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters demonstrate symbol of

  3. A RESEARCH ON THE NAMES OF ANIMALS IN DIVANU LUGATI’T TURK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem GUL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary studies have a great importance in surveys on a language. Language of a society presents both its life style and how it perceives the life. With vocabulary studies while the improvements in a language are being followed on the other hand the data about culture and geography of people come to light. Dîvânü Lugâti’t Türk, which is a work of Karahan Turkish era, is also very important as it reflects the vocabulary of 11th century Turkish language. There are 8783 words in index of Dîvânü Lugâti’t Türk. It is possible to find every kind of data about social life in the work as it reflects Turkish culture. This vocabulary has been investigated from various angles so far. This study is also about how the names of animals take place in the Dîvânü Lugâti’t Türk. It is frequently mentioned about animals and proverbs about animals in the dictionary which reflects cultural life of Central Asia. The animals, whose names were said in the work, emphasize nomadic people’s way of life and the importance of animals in people’s life and also they reflect geographical, cultural, and social life of the time. The data that was obtained by scanning from the work named Dîvânü Lugâti’t Türk analyzed by documentary analysis method. The words about animals were classified according to alphabetic order and the data handed discussed in a lexical system. The headwords in the work which are related to animals were examined. These terms were given together with their meanings and additional information in the work. As the work contains a very rich language and cultural material it is thought that new studies will be added in other words the area of research is seen as a continuously developed area. Dîvânü Lugâti’t Türk is a precious work which should be handled and studied in every issues not just in terms of language, culture, and literature. With this study it was aimed to contribute new studies on the topic by making a

  4. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

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    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  5. Environmentalists' Population Theories---From Malthus to Hardin%忧患主义者的人口论--从马尔萨斯到哈丁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳晓伟

    2016-01-01

    A brief review of the Malthusian population theories, especially the progression and population regulator theories has been made, and a systematic summary about advanced theory from Hardin, who is an ecological economist and inherited and further developed Malthusianism. Hardin's population theories are developed the Malthusianism in new era. Based on the knowledge from theo-ries in human ecology, economics and physics, like Three Laws in Ecology, the Tragedy of the Commons, the CC-PP game, the Ep-icurus Hypothesis, No Free Lunch Aphorism, the Conservation Laws, etc., Hardin refuted the omnipotence of technology development and the "religion" of infinite economic growth, and he systematically demonstrated the necessity of zero population growth. Hardin appealed to actions like humans' fertility control and reduction of environmental pollution before nature's revenge. The study confirms that maintaining the coordinated development of economy, social, population and nature, instead of the single target of economic development, is more in line with the socialist values and the trend of the time.%文章简要回顾了马尔萨斯的人口论,尤其是级数理论和种群数量调节器理论,比较系统地总结了生态经济学家哈丁对马尔萨斯人口论的继承和新发展。哈丁的人口论是新时期发展了的马尔萨斯主义,他通过生态学三定律、公地悲剧、 CC-PP游戏、伊壁鸠鲁假说、没有免费的午餐、守恒定律等人类生态学、经济学和物理学知识反驳了“技术进步万能论”和“经济无限增长的宗教”,重新系统地论证了实现人口零增长的必要性。哈丁呼吁:为了避免最终通过自然力量使人类种群走向全体毁灭的结局,人类应当对自身的生育行为加以节制,减少对生态环境的污染和破坏。研究结果表明,放弃唯经济发展论,维持经济、社会、人口与自然环境协调发展,更加符合社会主义价值观和时代潮流。

  6. 约束、具象、引用:查尔斯·伯恩斯坦的《影子时代》对历史的重构%Constraint,Concrete,Citation:Refiguring History in CHARLES Bernstein's Shadowtime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查尔斯·伯恩斯坦

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the abstraction and non-referentiality of Language Poetry has given way to a more intertextual and intellectual poetry-a poetry that interrogates history and the literature of the past so as to come to a better understanding of the present. In his "thought opera" about the great critic Walter Benjamin, Charles Bernstein uses elaborate language games, literary echoes, citations, constraints, and "found text" to rethink the life and aesthetic of the deeply conflicted German intellectual, whose career was framed by the two World Wars. The libretto Shadowtime, which can be read independently of the music, presents both a loving but also ironic portrait of Benjamin-a character as deeply flawed as he is sympathetic. Bernstein's language, often drawn directly from specific Benjamin texts, like "Hashish at Marseilles," is elaborately deconstructed so as to produce a complex network of puns, paragrams, and aphorisms. But this "poem including history" is also very funny-full of wit and comedy so that it has broad audience appeal. It provides a paradigm for what is happening in avant-garde American poetry today: the use of intermedia, sound play, and semantically charged language that inherits many of the features of the Language movement but is more meditative and thought-provoking.%近年来,语言诗的抽象性与非指示性已经让位于一种更具有互文性和智性的诗歌,这种诗歌通过考问历史和历史上的文学以求对当下获得更好的理解.在关于两战期间德国伟大的批评家瓦尔特·本雅明的"思想歌剧"中,查尔斯·伯恩斯坦运用了精心制作的语言游戏、文学回声、引用、约束以及"发现的文本"来重新评论这位充满矛盾的德国学者的生平和美学观.即便独立于音乐之外进行阅读,该歌剧剧本深情而又不乏反讽地刻画出本雅明既有瑕疵又感人至深的人物性格.伯恩斯坦常常直接从本雅明的"马赛的麻药"等具体文本中提取

  7. Conhecimento ecológico tradicional no fragmento da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: percepção ecológica dos pescadores Upper Paraná River floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge: fishermen’s ecological feeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosa Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento ecológico é uma sabedoria popular empírica acumulada pela prática de atividades em ambientes naturais. Alterações nos ecossistemas afetam o estoque dos recursos naturais explorados, bem como a prática tradicional deles dependente. Neste trabalho, é apresentado o conhecimento ecológico tradicional dos pescadores da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, regiões de Porto Rico (PR e Porto São José, Estado do Paraná. Um breve relato da teoria de fragmentação de habitats é apresentado, visto que esse ambiente está fragmentado pela construção de barragens de hidrelétricas. Três frases e um provérbio que revelam a dinâmica dos processos ecológicos dentre os pescadores foram anotados e confrontados com o conhecimento científico já reunido sobre a região. As frases demonstram uma interpretação popular em consonância com as descobertas científicas na planície. Essa sabedoria está ameaçada pela fragmentação da planície e pela perda da tradição, devido ao abandono da atividade pesqueira.The ecological knowledge is an empiric popular wisdom stored by the fishermen’s natural environmental practice. Changes in ecosystem affect the explored natural resources as well as the traditional practice dependent on them. This paper aims at presenting the upper Paraná river floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge from Porto Rico (PR and Porto São José (PR regions. A brief comment on fragmentation theory is presented because of the floodplain fragmentation imposed by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Three phrases and one proverb, which reveal the dynamics of the fishermen’s ecological process, were registered and confronted with the scientific knowledge of the region. The phrases show a popular and traditional interpretation in agreement with the upper Paraná river floodplain scientific discoveries. The ecosystem fragmentation and loss of tradition, due to the fishery practice

  8. Command in Air War: Centralized vs. Decentralized Control of Combat Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    would like to thank them for taking the time to educate me: � Calvin ,� �Zam,� �UB,� �Stilly,� �Alien,� �Zing,� �Goldie,� �Knob,� TSgt Frank Lofton... Calvin , Gen., USA Deputy Commander, CENTCOM during Desert Storm Warden, John, Col., USAF Director of Checkmate during Desert Storm Welch, Larry, Gen...Proverbs 16:9, New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993� Army helicopters

  9. "La lingüística implícita en el refranero español de contenido metalingüístico"

    OpenAIRE

    Manero-Richard, E. (Elvira)

    2000-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en una clase especial de de paremias del refranero español: aquellas que expresan un juicio de tipo metalingüístico. Se trata de un estudio de metalengua, en el que se propone una posible clasificación de estos refranes según el modelo de competencia de la lengua de Lyle Bachman y el modelo de saber lingüístico de Eugenio Coseriu. This paper focuses on a specila type of Spanish proverbs: those who contain a metalinguistic judge. It presents a possible clasification of t...

  10. THE ROLE OF HOLIDAY IN CHILDREN EDUCATION / ÇOCUK EĞĐTĐMĐNDE BAYRAMLARIN ROLÜ

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    Eldeniz ABBASLI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the celebration of the national holidays inAzerbaycan. One of these holidays is "Nevruz". Generally "Nevruz" is thesymbol of coming Spring not only in Azerbaycan but most of the countries of theworld. But in Azerbaycan, people celebratethis holiday traditionally. Here the children, students as well as the little childrenprepare for this celebration with great pleasure. They learn more proverbs,riddles, stories, dances, songs in order to take an active part in the celebration of"Nevruz". Such preparatiopns improve the knowledge of the children.

  11. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step, melodic

  12. Many Drops Make a Lake

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    Chaitanya S. Mudgal

    2014-03-01

    greater knowledge, better skills and disseminate this knowledge through this journal to influence as many physicians and their patients as possible. They have taken the knowledge of their teachers, recognized their giants and are now poised to see further than ever before. My grandmother often used to quote to me a proverb from India, which when translated literally means “Many drops make a lake”. I cannot help but be amazed by the striking similarities between the words of Newton and this Indian saying. Therefore, while it may seem intuitive, I think it must be stated that it is vital for the betterment of all our patients that we recognize our own personal lakes to put our drops of knowledge into. More important is that we recognize that it is incumbent upon each and every one of us to contribute to our collective lakes of knowledge such as ABJS. And finally and perhaps most importantly we need to be utterly cognizant of never letting such lakes of knowledge run dry.... ever.

  13. The scientific conferences organized during war time (1992-1995) in sarajevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    to the "survival" of B&H and its people. Some of the published articles, especially in the Medical Archives journal, which even in difficult war conditions did not break the continuity of its publication, and then it was the only scientific journal indexed in B&H, having been consequently cited in the major biomedical data bases in the world. Many scientists abroad have had the opportunity to learn about some of the wonders of Sarajevo "war medicine", thanks to this journal. Finally, despite the fact that it is another way of expressing its resistance to the aggression on B&H, the organized symposia in the war represented the continuity of the scientific research activities. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sarajevo under siege, in this way, kept in touch with the civilized world and modern achievements, despite the fact that they were victims of medieval barbarism. In addition, these meetings sent a powerful message to the world about the willingness to register and systematize all the war experiences, especially those related to medicine and medical practice, in terms of what Europe has not known, since the Second World War. Partially, we succeeded in that. The total number of 286 presentations were presented in seven war Conferences, as quantitative and qualitative contribution to the scientific activities, despite the inhuman conditions, in which these articles emerged. These presentations and Conferences testify to the enthusiasm of B&H community and academic institutions that have collaborated with it. Authors and co-authors presented the "war" articles that deserve to be mentioned in the monograph "1479 days of the siege of Sarajevo". Unfortunately, many of these brave authors are not alive and cannot read this. The task for us remains to remember them by their own good. Old Persian proverb says; "The event which is not recorded is as like it had never happened". Sapienti sat.

  14. Zoofolkloorseid aspekte eesti keerdküsimustes, liitsõnamängudes ja piltmõistatustes

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    Piret Voolaid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the use of animals in three major recently emerged subgenres of what has become to be called riddle periphery: conundrums, compound word games, and droodles.• Compound word games are direct “wh”-questions, e.g., Q: How do you put an elephant in the fridge? A: 1. Open the fridge. 2. Put the elephant inside. 3. Close the fridge.• Droodles mostly consist of a visual image serving as the question and the description of the image serving as the answer, e.g., Q: What is this? A: Four elephants sniffing an orange.• Compound word games mostly use the initial formula “What” or “Which kind?” and expect, instead of an adjective, a compound word as an answer, such as Mis tõugu hobune on parim ujuja? Vastus: Merehobune. [ Q: What horses swim the best? A: Seahorses.]Animals appear as characters in these riddles in great numbers but in specific riddle subcategories the animal paradigm manifests in a unique way.About one fourth of all Estonian conundrums feature animal names, and like in folk narratives (folktale, joke, tall tale or other genres of verbal art (fable, cartoons, plays the animal is associated with highly diverse imagery. Quite often these genres include anthropomorphic personification, where human characteristics attributed to a zoological creature tend to function as specific stereotypes and the animals often talk about us and serve as embodiments of humans. The use of animal characters who act as representatives of different types of humans allows safe ridiculing of the vices of humans and the society. In other minor forms of folklore (proverbs and phrases, the most popular animals are generally local domestic animals and fowl, but the most popular animal characters in Estonian conundrums are rather exotic (elephant, hippopotamus, etc.. One reason for this is perhaps the predominance of international material (e.g., elephant jokes originating from the Anglo-American culture area in the Estonian riddle

  15. Kakskümmend kaks kala eesti rahvausundis. I

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    Mall Hiiemäe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a sequel to the series of articles about the birds and insects in the Estonian fauna (See Hiiemäe 1996, 1997, 1998. In folk tradition the utilitarian attitude towards the fish was much more prevalent than towards the birds or insects. Until today, fishing has been an important source of living for the population in coastal regions, and for centuries the Estonians have shared their fishing waters with the neighbouring peoples: the Latvians, the Livonians, the Swedes, the Finnish and the Russians. Teutonic supremacy established its fishing rights both on the coasts and inland waters already in the 13th century.As to the subject of fish, Estonian folklore is rich in fishing magic. The disappearance of fish in a certain fishing area was often explained by the conflict between the locals and foreigners, or the leaving or taking the fish by some supernatural means (cf. the Estonian proverb: Envy draws the fish from sea.The bulk of folk tradition introduces generalisations based on long-term observation of nature and experience, also different prophesies and methods of magic to secure fishing luck. A part of the information centres on the aetiology of the fish, focusing on fabulates of uncertain genre about fish with distinctive outward characteristics, unique figure and behaviour. A separately standing group is formed of narratives which originate in the hunter-gatherer culture and have gone through changes influenced by land-tilling culture and Christianity, which regards fish as (somewhat demonised spiritual creatures of the sea world.European perch (Perca fluviatilis is distinguished by its habitat, spawning time and colour. The bright colour of its fins predicts the coming of cold winter. The fall in the number of perch has also been associated with the threat of Latvian fishermen to «take away» the perch if the fishermen were forced to pay for the fishing permits.Eel (Anguilla anguilla is believed to have developed from

  16. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

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    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  17. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  18. The City Image of Dostoevsky's Petersburg%陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下的彼得堡城市意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅星寰; 张一莹

    2015-01-01

    陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下的彼得堡城市意象——阴郁之花、神幻之城、罪恶之都、呼求悔改的"尼尼微",传达和推进了他的"彼得堡文本"的主题——"人之谜"的情感哲思、对俄罗斯现代性地批判、给予俄罗斯以及俄罗斯人未来道路选择的箴言,统摄着他的"彼得堡文本"的氛围和基调,形成了他富有特殊魅力的艺术表现.这些融入作家感怀的城市意象,源于现实又超越于现实之上,饱含了作家的文化批判及预言性质的深刻洞见.这些意象最终指向彼得堡的救赎之路,陀氏看到了传统观念终将经受洪水而倾覆的彼得堡有在信仰中被赎救的可能,从而藉着他的"彼得堡文本",给予彼得堡传统末日神话一个新的出路,盼望彼得堡成为响应呼召悔改后"新生"的城市.%The city image of Dostoevsky's Petersburg —Dark flowers,Magic City,Sin City,Call for repen-tance's 'Nineveh',communicated and promoted his "Petersburg text" theme—the emotion philosophy a-bout "mystery of the people",the modernity criticism of Russia,the proverbs given to choose the future path of Russia and the Russian,controlled his "Petersburg text" atmosphere and tone,and formed the special charm of artistic expression.These city images,which reflect the writer's lament and sentiment, come from life and beyond the reality,and fully reflect the writer's profound insight of cultural criticism and prophetic nature.These images finally point to the redemption road of Petersburg.Dostoevsky per-ceived that the traditional Petersburg would be capsized by flood finally,and there was possible to be saved in faith.Thereby,Dostoevsky created a new way for traditional doomsday myth of Petersburg via his"Pe-tersburg text",and hoped that Petersburg would become a"new city",which responses to calling for the repentance.

  19. EXPRESSIONS FROM REZMÎ DİVAN REZMÎ DİVANI’NDA DEYİMLER

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    Mehmet GÜRBÜZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressions and proverbs are language structures which received production of savings from past to today imagination and memory of society. Poets benefit from these possibilities of language to enhance their definitions on their poems and to make interest or to be clear and understandable abstract dreams which they have into brains more or less. Expressions were already formed with art understanding has an important role at this preference.Expressions are in Divan of Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî who lived second half of 17th century and first quarter of 18th century and use of these expressions will be tackled in our study. Remzi was a poet who used usually elements belong to Ottoman’s society daily life and concerning daily life expressions, phrases. Because he had sophisticated identity, was a member of Ottoman Empire, took education in palace and assigned during his life, it is noticeable that he used deeply concerning life elements in this way. Deyimler ve atasözleri, toplum hafızasının ve muhayyilesinin geçmişten günümüze elde ettiği birikiminin üretimi olan dil yapılarıdır. Şairler, şiirlerinde anlatımı güçlendirmek ve ilgi çekici bir hale getirmek ya da kurdukları soyut hayâlleri daha açık ve anlaşılır kılmak amacıyla dilin bu ifade imkânlarından az ya da çok mutlaka yararlanırlar. Deyimlerin zaten sanatlı bir anlayışla meydana getirilmiş olması bu tercihte önemli bir yer tutmuştur. Çalışmada 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısı ile 18. yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde yaşamış Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî’nin Divanı’nda yer alan deyimlerle bu deyimlerin kullanımı ele alınacaktır. Rezmî, Osmanlı toplumunun gündelik hayatına ait unsurları ve günlük diline ilişkin deyimleri, tabirleri sıklıkla kullanmış bir şairdir. Çok yönlü sanatçı bir kimliğe sahip olan şairin Osmanlı hanedanına mensup olması, sarayda eğitim görüp bütün hayatı boyunca sarayda görevler alm

  20. The Factors Music Making in ''Tamhidat Eyn Ol Ghozat Hamedani'' in a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    the garb of the phonetic and pun, repetition, and rhythm being in important parts of speech that close sometimes to prosodic weight. In the prose of Ein ol-Ghozat without feeling prosodic weight by listener, a Wave of song and weight dominates that is a result of phonetic and rhymes, and being Near a number of syllables in each mirror to each other and perhaps in all or part of the mirrors, the number of syllables is the same or close.Replication as a key element of the endogenous music is one of Ein ol-Ghozat 's stylistic characteristic. Replications are seen in three forms in Ein ol-Ghozat languages. 1- Phonetic repetition, this group consists of repeating the pun, rhyme and phoneme layout and etc. 2- Repetition of words or phrases. 3- Word Repetition: The Repetition is one of the most important and beautiful art repetition in preparations that in addition to give the integrated to prose is effective in order to better instill of the concept and content of the message of Ein ol-Ghozat, As repetition of the words "Alas," " O’ Friend," and "O’ Dear" in different phrases has a great influence in stimulation of feeling and induction emotional state to the reader's.Phonetic Repetition: One of the most important aspects of beauty in the mystical prose of Ein ol-Ghozat are voice and phonetic coordination that its peak can be found in a pun and rhyme and Incrustation. The using of rhyme in preparations is not the same. In a place that discussion is education and reasoning generally speaking, is not a poem, but in where that speaking is about stories and anecdotes and analogies or become emotional; usually poems used. One manifestation of this item is short sentences and aphorisms, whether in a place that the word is quote by an old or an important person or whether the author express his own speaks.Apart from these, Ein ol-Ghozat has worked other ways to enrich his words music. The most important of these methods are:•Bringing words that at least their initials are co

  1. Overview of the Factors Music Making in Tamhidat by Ein al-Ghozat Hamedani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Modarresi

    2013-11-01

    -Ghozat's prose without feeling prosodic meter by listener, a wave of intonation and meter dominates resulted from alliteration and rhyme, and proximity of the number of syllables in every symmetry and perhaps likeness and nearness of the number of syllables in all or parts of the symmetries. Repetition as a key element of the internal music is one of Ein ol-Ghozat's stylistic characteristic.  Repetitions are seen in three forms in Ein ol-Ghozat languages. 1- Alliteration, this group consists of various kinds of pun, rhyme, repetition, etc. 2- Parallelism: Repetition of words or phrases. 3- Palilology: Repetition of word: This form is one of the most important and aesthetic repetition in Tamhidat that in addition to making prose integrated, is effective in conveying the concept and content of the message of Ein ol-Ghozat, as repetition of the words "Alas," " O’ Friend," and "O’ Dear" in several phrases has a great influence in stimulation of feeling and  inculcation emotion in the reader. Alliteration: One of the most important aspects of aesthetics in the mystical prose of Ein ol-Ghozat are sound harmony and alliteration that can be mainly found in pun/ paronomasia and riming. Usage of rhyme in all Tamhidat is not in the same level. Wherever  discussion is didactic and reasoning, it is not generally riming, but where  the subject is stories and anecdotes and analogies or becomes emotional, usually is riming. One manifestation of this figure is short sentences and aphorisms, whether the word is quotation of  an old or an important person or whether the author expresses his own word. Apart from these, Ein ol-Ghozat has worked other ways to enrich his word's music. The most important of these methods are: Bringing words that at least their initials are co-voiced. Such as: "Ebtela" and "Emtehan" Phonemes processing: a kind of internal music is repetition and sameness of consonants and vowels. This figure in some cases, with creating a specific internal music, highlights the

  2. BURUH TANI WANITA PANGGILAN DAN EKSISTENSINYA MENURUT ADAT MINANGKABAU

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    Helfi Helfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women farm workers in groups are not common in Minangkabau, especially those who earn wages once a year. The wages are used as an alternative income by allocating them as a capital for other ‘business’ in solving economic household problems. Minangkabau implement matrilineal system which respect women called as bundo kanduang. A local proverb for the system is “limpapeh rumah nan gadang, amban puruak pagangan kunci, sumarak dalam nagari”. Discussions about women have not been finished yet.  The highest reward toward women in Minangkabau custom is not well-implemented in the real life. The Minang ‘queens’ are allowed to compete in economic sector without any gender consideration.

  3. 首尾双齐的Epanalepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎昌抱

    2003-01-01

    先请看例句: Believe not all you can hear,tell not all you believe.(Native American proverb) 这是一句美国地方谚语。美国Brigham Young University修辞学专家Gid-eon Burton教授将它收入自己制作的英语修辞格网页(网址:http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/E/epanalepsis.htm)。此例除结构整齐匀称、言简意赅之外,最值一提的是句中believe一词前后呼应,首尾双齐,给人以视觉的冲

  4. Financial Assets [share, bonds] & Ancylia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-11-01

    Instead Elaine Scarry: "Thermonuclear monarchy" reinvent Carry Nation since Aug 17, 1965 the Republic of Indonesia's President speech: "Reach to the Star", for "cancellation" usually found in External Debt herewith retrieved from "the Window of theWorld": Ancylia, feast in March, a month named after Mars, the god of war. "On March 19 they used to put on their biggest performance of gymnastics in order to "bribe" their god for another good year", further we have vacancy & "vacuum tube"- Bulat Air karena Pembuluh, Bulat Kata karena Mufakat" proverb from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. Follows March 19, 1984 are first prototype flight of IAI Astra Jet as well as March 19, 2012 invoice accompanies Electric car Kujang-193, Fainancial Assets [share, bonds] are the answer for "infrastructure" & state owned enterprises assets to be hedged first initial debt per capita accordances. Heartfelt gratitudes to HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja/PT. Smartfren INDONESIA.

  5. English Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littera Aperta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Setting out on the voyage of a new journal about Literary and Humanistic studies always entails an uncertain sailing, yet even more undetermined in the current context of global affairs, afflicted by economic crisis, collective despondency and growing disregard for Humanities in society. This is a bad time for poetry (“schlechte Zeit für Lyrik”, as Bertolt Brecht wrote in the 20s and then sang with a wider media effect the Spanish music band Golpes Bajos in the 80’s. However, we are convinced that discouragement, like fire, can only expand if fanned; optimism, in turn, has a performative virtue. Anyway, the Latin proverb, passed on by Ausonius, teaches that dimidium est facti coepisse: the beginning is half the whole. Our vision is that Littera Aperta will make of its title meaning its own identity, admitting a wide spectrum of analytical methodologies, spanning from ancient approaches, genuinely philological, to modern and postmodern strategies. Traditionally, Philology has sought to establish the Texts and recreate their meaning in its original context, whilst postmodern criticism asserts that the meaning of texts is merely a cultural construct. Nevertheless, we believe that in the critical journey it is possible to ply a route equidistant between Scylla and Charybdis: the text analysis helps to build theories and, complementarily, the methodical doubt of deconstruction impels us to test the validity of theories by means of a close textual reading. Let us admit, following Pierre Grimal, that systems grow old and become obsolete, more often than not very quickly and that only data remains unfaltering, “as a possession for all time”, to employ Thucydides’ definition of History. Yet it is not untrue either that systems, theories and models help to govern the chaos in the fluid system that is the world of data. Against the deconstruction principle of uncertainty raises the constructive aspiration to knowledge. The openness of the

  6. Koolipärimuse kogumisest Noarootsis ja Vormsis 2006. aasta kevadel

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    Piret Voolaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the project of collecting school lore, instigated by Nordens Institut på Åland (the Nordic Institute on Åland which aim was to collect school lore from Åland (Finland, Gotland (Sweden and the former regions of coastal Swedes in Estonia in spring 2006. The collected material was published in a Swedish-language joke anthology Det var en ko och det var poängen (’Once there was a cow - and that’s it!’, in which the Estonian material is presented in two languages. In Estonia, the fieldwork for the project was carried out in April and May, 2006, in two general education schools in West Estonia: in Noarootsi School (with 138 pupils and Vormsi Basic School (21 pupils. I undertook the three-day field trip to Noarootsi on my own, whereas on the two-day trip to the Vormsi Island I was accompanied by Alar Madisson, photographer of the Estonian Literary Museum, and Astrid Tuisk at the Estonian Folklore Archives. The choice of these two rural schools for folkloric fieldwork was made by our Swedish partners, who argued that these remain in the former settlement areas of the coastal Swedes and were particularly interested in the contemporary school lore of this particular region, which has been inhabited by Estonian Swedes for nearly eight centuries. The same fieldwork methods were applied in Noarootsi and Vormsi. First, the schoolchildren responded to questionnaires under the supervision of teachers. The questionnaires were based on one used in the 1992 major collection campaign for collecting school lore in Estonia. The children were asked to write down 1 jokes; 2 riddles, conundrums and trick tasks; 3 proverbs, truisms and set phrases/quip words; 4 horror tales and absurd tales; 5 parodies, songs, verses; 6 various predictions; 7 the repertoire of verse books, notebooks and friendship books; 8 various hobbies, customs and tricks; 9 games; 10 information on using the Internet. This was followed by in situ interviewing of

  7. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  8. Book Reviews

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    Joseph Aquilina

    1976-01-01

    .A.M. van Zantwijk, Horst Hartung, Die zeremonialzentren der Maya. Ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Planungsprinzipien. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Graz, Oostenrijk 1971. 136 blz., 6 plattegronden, 36 fotopagina’s. - R.A.M. van Zantwijk, F. Cancian, Another place, Photographs of a Maya community. The Scrimshaw Press, San Francisco, 1974. 95 blz. - C. Baks, Louis Dumont, Religion, politics and history in India; Collected papers in Indian Sociology. Le monde d’outre mer passé et présent, première série; études XXXIV. Mouton Publishers Paris/The Hague, 1970. - J. van Baal, Jacques Waardenburg, Classical approaches to the study of religion. Aims, methods and theories of research. Vol. I: Introduction and anthology; II: Bibliography. Mouton, The Hague/Paris 1973/74; 742 and 332 pp. Deel 3 en 4 in de Serie Religion and Reason. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Rodney Needham, Right & left: Essays on dual symbolic classification. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. xxxix + 449 pp. 1973. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Ino Rossi, The unconscious in culture: The structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss in perspective. E.P. Dutton & Co., New York 1974. 487 pp. - David S. Moyer, Rodney Needham, Remarks and inventions: Skeptical essays about kinship. Tavistock Publications, London, 1974. 181 pp. - John Beattie, Hilary Henson, British social anthropologists and language: A history of separate development. Clarendon Press Oxford 1974. 147 pp. - Jeremy Boissevain, Joseph Aquilina, A comparative dictionary of Maltese proverbs. Royal University of Malta. Malta 1972. 1iii, 694 pp., bibl., Indices, Appendices. - Rita Bolland, Marta Hoffman, The warp-weighted loom, studies in the history and technology of an ancient implement. Universiteitsforlaget, Oslo, etc. (heruitgave van 1964, in: Serie Studia Norvegica, z.j., 425 pp. - Peter J.M. Nas, Abner Cohen, Urban Ethnicity. A.S.A. Monograph 12, Tavistock Publications Limited. London, 1974. XXIV + 391 pp., Figs., Maps. - P

  9. Codex Cumanicus'ta Hayvan Adları The Turkic Animals Names In Codex Cumanicus

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    Akartürk KARAHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Codex Cumanicus is the first known Turkish monument written in Latin alphabet. It is thought that Codex Cumanicus was used for missionary and trading at the end of the XIII. century and the beginning of the XIV. century, in north of the Black Sea domains of Kipchak, Christian priests and Venetian merchants. In this book, except for the Persian, Latin, Kuman word lists, proverbs, riddles, hymns of Kipchaks are also provided. Although a work written for certain purposes, the Codex Cumanicus has a quite varied and rich vocabulary. The book draws attention to vocabulary specifically to all areas of daily life for example, precious metals, minerals, plants, animals, human and animal body, limbs, disease names, numbers names, color names, clothing, household goods, war materials, trading goods, religious terms, calendar (day, month, week names, law, measure, object names, food names and etc. The presence of these elements in the Codex Cumanicus, may give clues on many issues, such as Kuman-Kipchak language, lifestyles, cultures, geographies.For this purpose, in this article Turkic vocabulary of animals names in the Codex Cumanicus are discussed; and compared the field of historical and modern Turkic language. At the end of this study, most of the animal names of Codex Cumanicus were present the first texts in Turkic. Hapax legomenon animal names which aren’t encounterd in other periods of the Turkic languages have also been identified encountered. The Persian, Mongolian, Arabic, Greek, Russian quote animal names that are seen in this book is also remarkable. Some of the names of animals, however, only the Kipchak areas of historical and modern areas have been identified. This is observed only in the field names in Kipchak, the presence of these specific words Kipchak is evaluated. When the animal names are classified in Codex Cumanicus, it seems that the names of wild animals (twenty five percent and birds (twenty two percent form the majority

  10. WRITING ANXIETIES OF PEOPLE WHO LEARN TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE/TÜRKÇEYİ YABANCI DİL OLARAK ÖĞRENENLERİN YAZMA KAYGILARI

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    Sedat MADEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin proverb “verba volant scripta manent” meaning “spoken words fly away, written words remain” best shows the importance of writing skill which is one of the basic language skills. When it comes to writing skills of foreign students, making plans in target language in regards to this skill and develop a habit of writing are more difficult and exhausting compared to those for native speakers of a language. The aim of the study is to investigate writing anxieties of foreign students in Turkish universities according to such variables; “their gender, nationality, academic department, other foreign language they speak, their aim of learning Turkish, their level of Turkish and their reading habits and to explore whether there are any significant differences between the students’ writing anxieties with respect to these variables. For the study, 172 foreign students who study in different departments of Giresun University in 2014-2015 education year participated. The study is a survey type research study. The data was gathered through “Writing Anxiety Scale” which was created by the researchers in order to determine writing anxieties of foreign students. It was found that foreign students usually felt anxiety about writing in Turkish and their level of anxiety differentiated according to such variables; nationality, alphabet of their native language and their reading habits. Temel dil becerilerinden birisi olan yazma becerisinin önemini “Söz uçar, yazı kalır.” atasözü en güzel şekilde ifade etmektedir. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilere yazma becerisi kazandırma söz konusu olduğunda, bu becerinin hedef dilde planlanması ve alışkanlık hâline dönüştürülmesi zahmetli ve zor olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizde öğrenim gören yabancı uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinin yazma kaygılarını cinsiyet, uyruk, öğrenim gördüğü fakülte/yüksekokul, bildiği diğer yabancı diller, Türkçeyi

  11. Sait Faik Abasıyanık'ın Hikâyelerinin Söz Varlığı Üzerine About The Vocabulary Of Sait Faik Abasıyanık’s Stories

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    Mehmet Mehdi ERGÜZEL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important member of society, the works of poets or authors mention the presence of motion studies the opinion of the writer or the poet and the world in terms of reflecting the world of concepts is very important. All authors are affected by the society in which they live at the environment. A good writer has to talk about the use of the word not only the style of its own. Sait Faik had used a strong sense of form and content. "The presence of the short description of the culture milieu. Living of a society, life form, your outlook on life style, material and spiritual values, beliefs in short, the culture of the existence of the first information we can get there. The words of the language spoken by the existence of society, statements, these patterns are ready, includes proverbs. The presence of such a language, but also the world of concepts that speak the language of society, a cross-sectional view of the world "(AKSAN 1997. Proceeding from such understanding, in this article, from the books of Sait Faik Abasıyanık the presence of such a culture, and life out of his way of looking at the reflection of his work are describe. The eleven books of SaitFaik Abasıyanık, called Alemdağ’da Var Bir Yılan, Havada Bulut, Havuz Başı,Kayıp Aranıyor, Kumpanya, Lüzumsuz Adam, Mahalle Kahvesi, Sarnıç,Semaver, Son Kuşlar and Şahmerdan’s general index reached his books. Fromword groups created a list of related concepts, as well as giving a clue to thestyle of Sait Faik, the style reflects the sentences tried to reach conclusionsbased on the general question of vocabulary. Toplumun önemli birer ferdi olarak şair ya da yazarların eserlerinden hareketle yapılan söz varlığı çalışmaları, ilgili yazar ya da şairin kavramlar dünyasını ve dünya görüşünü yansıtması açısından oldukça önemlidir. Bütün yazarlar yaşadıkları çevreden ve içinde bulunduğu toplumdan etkilenirler. İyi bir yazar yalnızca

  12. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    misogynist theme that is so marked in the Spanish festival. Many anthroooloeists have noted the theme of the treacherous siren in Spanish folklore, a theme that corresponds to the female models carried aloft on the Tarasca's spine in Granada, Toledo, and other places. One observer, Stanley Brandes, was impressed with the pervasiveness of this specific male anxiety in the Andalusian town of Monteros. In his book on male folklore, Metaphors of Masculinity (1980), Brandes records a number of popular aphorisms that warn men to protect their fragile manhood from duplicitous females or suffer emasculation (one urges men literally to keep their penises in their pants or be castrated). In my own fieldwork in Seville Province, I found the eating/castration theme paramount in male folklore and I have recorded numerous Carnival ditties warning men and boys against the vagina dentata and other forms of female sexual aggression (Gilmore 1987; 1998). Literary scholar Louise Vasvari (1991, 3) refers to the "gastro-genital equivalence" symbolism of Spanish versification, which she identifies in writings dating back to the Middle Ages. Given all this evidence, we may conclude that with its defining misogynist theme and its female/monster imagery, the Spanish Tarasca embodies a dread of feminine sexuality that colors the Spanish male subculture. In particular, in the Hacinas case, the misogynist element combines a devouring theme along with the castration threat in the attack on the boys' genitals and in the liquid thrown onto the crotch, symbolizing, one may conjecture, semen and blood. While these themes are probably universal, their annual apotheosis in visual tropes, public rites, monster effigies, and masques may be specific to Spain. Both appalling in its ferocity and ennobling in its ultimate function as sacrificial object, the Tarasca is one of countless projections of universal human mental shadows as an embodiment, a visual metaphor, as James Fernandez has shown in his classic paper

  13. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    physics and of the industrial revolution, much of which took place not very far from where I am writing. We are reminded of James Watt (whose firm, Boulton and Watt, was in Birmingham) and his invention of the horsepower (HP). My slide-rule cursor has a special mark for 746 (watt/HP). We are reminded of the powers of 10 prefixes in the metric system, and of the importance of distinguishing upper case M, 106, from lower case m, 10-3. This distinction appears not to be very well known to journalists, who regularly report on new power stations which are capable of producing nearly as much power as a torch battery. Let us now return to our apples. The SI unit of force is the Newton, which is very appropriate since the Newton is about the weight of an average apple. Not of course the weight of a Twenty Ounce apple, whose weight is about 5 N. In the preface there is an implicit reminder that many English proverbs and figures of speech make use of Imperial units. My impression is that some of the countries of the British Commonwealth, when they went metric, did everything they could to eliminate all mention of Imperial units. (Referring to Imperial units has not been made a hanging offence, but perhaps that is because the death penalty has been abolished.) Do they now say 'A miss is as good as 1.6 kilometres' or is it rounded down to 'a kilometre'? In the course of a survey of obsolescent units we are reminded of the guinea (21 shillings = £1.05). In horse-racing, at least, it is not yet obsolete: there are classic races still called the Thousand Guineas and the Two Thousand Guineas, but no doubt the Brussels Eurocrats would like to call them the Thousand and Fifty Pounds or the One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-Three Euros, and will in due course prosecute someone if the names are not changed into Eurospeak. The final section of the book is entitled 'The global vision: illusion or reality'. In this the author calls for a unified system of units. But we already have one: SI

  14. The love moaning of a poet: the vocabulary of the letters written by Ahmed Arif to Leyla ErbilBir şairin aşk iniltileri: Ahmed Arif’ten Leyla Erbil’e mektupların söz varlığı

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    Sami Baskın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Arif, who is one of the Sociable Poets of the 1940s, wrote about the topics in his works in a romantic style. The enthusiasm and the romance in his works separates him from other poets of the era. Although he wrote only one poetry book, his poems such as Hasretinden Prangalar Eskittim, Haberin Var mı? (İçerde, Terketmedi Sevdan Beni became famous and were composed and sung by famous singers of Turkey like Funda Arar, Ahmet Kaya, Suavi, Edip Akbayram, Cem Karaca. These events made him become a famous poet not only in a narrow society who had similar thoughts, but also all over Turkey. There are many sources for the lyricism and romance that gave him this fame. However, the most important share among these many sources belongs to his love for Leyla Erbil. He did not limit his love with poems and he conveyed his love for Leyla Erbil in the letters he wrote, most of which were written between the years 1954-1959, and the last of which was written in 1977. In his poems, Ahmed Arif told his love, his environment, the intellectual world of the era, his exiles and the challenges he had experienced. All these reasons make the verbal existence of the Letters from Ahmed Arif to Leyla Erbil important. For this reason, in this study, the letters are examined in terms of verbal existence and the words in his works are classified under titles such as Basic Word Existence, Proverbs, Phrases, Terms, Verbal Structures, Reduplications, Slang and Expletives, Sayings specific to Diyarbakır, etc. and the concept areas are defined. As a result of this, it has been determined that Ahmed Arif was infatuated with Leyla Erbil, he even placed her in the very center of his personal life, sometimes he deified her, and defined her as “My lady, my friend, by sister, my daughter, my god, my messenger”. Moreover, it was also observed that the local sayings, phrases, and especially slang and expletives have important places in Ahmed Arif’s vocabulary.  

  15. Le lecteur du xviie siècle et l'argot. Problèmes de lisibilité et de pertinence

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    Claudine Nédélec

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous proposons d'étudier ici quelquesdifficultés présentées par la mise en place du lecteur virtuel, et la substitution du lecteur réel au lecteur virtuel, dans des textes qui utilisent un langage "risqué", l'argot, parce qu'il pose à la fois des problèmes de compréhension (de façon réelle ou fantasmatique, il n'est argot que s'il est réputé secret et de tolérabilité (comment un écrivain peut-il parler à ses lecteurs le langage du crime ?. Comme le lecteur réel est un être dans l'histoire, nous nous servirons comme base d'analyse de trois textes situés dans un contexte historique précis, le début du 17ème siècle : un extrait du roman intitulé la Vie généreuse des Mercelots, Gueux et Bohémiens (roman anonyme signé du pseudonyme de Péchon de Ruby, Lyon, 1596, un poème tiré des Premières Oeuvres poétiques du capitaine Lasphrise (par Marc Papillon, seigneur de Lasphrise, Paris, 1597 et une scène de la Comédie de proverbes (par Adrien de Montluc, comte de Cramail, Paris, 1634. Mais il est d'abord nécessaire de définir quelque peu ce qu'il faut entendre par argot.

  16. DICTIONARIES LOOKUP STRATEGIES FOR ARABIC-ENGLISH TRANSLATION

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    Mohammad Ahmad THAWABTEH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bien que les dictionnaires ont une extrême importance dans les cours de traduction, on les considère comme une épée à double tranchant. De grotesques traductions indiquent clairement que les étudiants utilisent les dictionnaires d’une façon incompétente. Les données de cette étude représentent les traductions d’une vingtaine d’étudiants de premier cycle d’Anglais à l’université d’Al-quds et l’université de Palestine Ahlyia. Les traductions sont examinées à base des stratégies de recherche en dictionnaire. Les résultats de l’étude montrent que les pièges des sorties de la traduction que les étudiants font sont dus au: 1-la dépendance exagérée du dictionnaire. 2- le manque de compréhension du texte dans sa langue d’origine. 3- le fait de choisir le premier sens. 4- le peu d’attention accordée aux exemples illustrés dans le dictionnaire. 5- favoriser la lecture attentive sur la lecture superficielle. 6- ignorance totale des collocations, des idioms, et des proverbes. 7- l’incapacité de comprendre le sens du contexte. Quelques stratégies de recherche dans le dictionnaire qui peuvent aider les étudiants de traduction à effectuer leur travail rapidement et efficacement sont proposées.

  17. 'Fragilization and Resistance' and 'Neighborhood and Shechina'

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    Bracha L. Ettinger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Com-passion involves transformational affects, and among them these major three: primary fascinance (that precedes or is in parallel to fascinum and might counter-balance control and submission by its transformational value, primary compassion (that precedes and might counter-balance abjection and abandonment, and primary awe (that might counter-balance shame and fear. These affects are primordial accesses to the other and to the Cosmos. Through them the other and the Cosmos do not turn into objects - their dynamic difference is preserved during cognizing. By way of these affects, the subtle human subjectivizing processes and the early positions are not "schizophrenic-paranoid". To be a subject without turning the other and the Cosmos into an object ― that is the question.

  18. Les stéréotypes lexicalisés comme répétitions connotées dans une fugue littéraire : Diálogo en Re Mayor de Javier Tomeo

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    Sylvie Fournié-Chaboche

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudiera la littérarité des formes lexicales porteuses de stéréotypes (expressions figées et proverbes, très nombreuses dans le roman de Javier Tomeo, Diálogo en Re Mayor (1993. Une réflexion théorique sur la stéréotypie et le figement linguistique, amènera à introduire la notion de stéréotype lexicalisé, en la préférant à celle de stéréotype lexical. On expliquera que ces formes fixes imagées sont porteuses de répétitions connotées en raison du processus de répétitions diachronique qui a contribué à leur formation. On exposera le principe d'une isotopie de la répétition (regroupant ces répétitions connotées mais aussi toutes les répétitions discursives intra-textuelles et on démontrera son existence en mettant en lumière la structure répétitive très originale de ce roman.Este artículo estudiará la literaridad de las formas léxicas con estereótipos (expresiones fijas y refranes muy numerosas en la novela de Javier Tomeo, Diálogo en Re Mayor (1993. Una reflexión teórica acerca de la estereotipia y de la fijación lingüística llevará a introducir la noción de estereotipo lexicalizado que es preferible a la de estereotipo léxico. Explicaremos que estas formas fijas y figuradas conllevan repeticiones connotadas gracias al proceso de repetición diacrónica responsable de su formación. Expondremos el principio de una isotopía de la repetición (que abarca las repeticiones connotadas pero también todas las repeticiones discursivas intratextuales y demostraremos su existencia poniendo de realce la estructura repetitiva muy original de esta novela.

  19. Défigement des phrasèmes dans la poésie moderne : Étude comparative français-catalan

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    Yakubovich Yauheniya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous analysons le défigement comme un recours linguistique courant de la poésie moderne. Le défigement reflète la sursaturation de la langue moderne par des formules contraintes, ce qui ne réduit pas, pourtant, la faculté créatrice de la poésie mais, au contraire, offre aux poètes de nouvelles approches au matériel linguistique et des ressources originales d’expressivité. Comme l'opération linguistique de défigement a attiré l’attention de bon nombre de chercheurs (cf. García-Page, 1989 ; Galisson, 1994 ; Rastier, 1997 ; Mejri, 2009 ; Ben Amor, 2006 ; Blanco, 2012 ; Català, 2012, etc., nous mentionnons quelques classifications proposées qui permettent de révéler aussi bien les traits définitoires que les moyens transformateurs du défigement et, quelquefois, des effets stylistiques particuliers. En ce qui concerne l'outil conceptuel de la présente recherche, notre définition de défigement se base, essentiellement, sur la notion de figement proposée au sein de la Théorie Sens-Texte (cf. Mel’čuk, 1997, etc., notamment sur le concept de phrasème. Nous empruntons aussi le classement des phrasèmes établi par les auteurs de ladite théorie. Nous présentons les typologies que nous avons élaborées en vue d’analyser et de comparer les différents cas de défigement en français et en catalan faisant partie d'un corpus poétique multilingue que nous avons constitué. Nous visons une description formelle et détaillée de tout genre de phrasèmes défigés (collocations, locutions, clichés, pragmatèmes, proverbes, citations, noms propres complexes… dans une perspective contrastive bilingue. Nous indiquons également les transformations sémantiques et les diverses nuances stylistiques introduites par les mécanismes de défigement dans les textes poétiques des deux langues considérées.

  20. Stitch and hem and line and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  1. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is and what a genre does. Therefore, genre is a central concept in many areas of scholarship today and is interlinked with many other central scholarly concepts, but its core function is still a subject of debate, and its connections with other core concepts remain sorely under-examined. Genre and … explores...... these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  2. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  3. Science and Technology and Counterterorrism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J

    2002-04-03

    Major scientific and technological breakthroughs played a pivotal role in our ability to win the Cold War. The possibility of a different type of war, in response to terrorism, has long been recognized. Indeed, countermeasures to address specific terrorist acts have been developed and are deployed, for example, at special sporting and political events. The current threat environment, however, has created an intense and compelling set of concerns; consequently, the challenge to the scientific Community to develop new concepts and products on an accelerated timeframe is clear. Also, the spectrum of terrorist threats is broad. It includes the use of conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear and radiological weapons, not to mention cyber-based attacks. The imperatives for advances have been amplified now that attacks are clearly possible within the U.S. borders. For example, advanced sensors and detectors that are able to monitor the proliferation of all the above warfare agents and their movement at entry points into the U.S. are clearly needed. The investments over the last decades in research and development efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories in nonproliferation have led unique technologies and detection capabilities that have proved useful; yet, many challenges remain. In particular, the development of accurate, robust, and low cost techniques that are easily deployable by first responders, law enforcement agencies, and military personnel is urgently needed. Advancements are needed in radiation, nuclear proliferation, and next-generation biological detection, as well as photonics and optics for global surveillance, information. science to convert data into useful forms, and forensic attribution. Current research and development efforts highlighting technical challenges, especially to the materials science community, will be presented.

  4. Kinetics and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  5. Fun and Games and Boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-08-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  6. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... code here Enter ZIP code here Living with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson for Veterans ...

  7. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  8. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  9. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua

    2005-01-01

    [1]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.2 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992, 1-116.[2]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.3 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-175.[3]Xu Dongyu, Chen Zongtuan, Meng Xiangying, Late Cenozoic Palaeoenvironments and Events in the Central Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 1-11.[4]Bischoff, J. L., Heath, G. R., Leinen, M., Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments from the Pacific manganese nodule province: Domes, A, B and C, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province (eds. Bischoff, J. L., Piper, D. Z.), New York: Plenum Press, 1979, 397-436.[5]Riech, V., Grafenstein, R. V., Sedimentological and geochemical trends in deep-sea sedimentation of the Clarion-Chipperton block southeast of Hawaii since the early Miocene, in: Manganese Nodules and Sediments in the Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, Sonne Cruise SO25, 1982 (eds. Von Stackelberg, U., Beiersdorf, H.), Hannover: Burdesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Geologischelandes(a)mster in der Bundesrepublic Deutschland, 1987, 71-104.[6]Johnson, G. C., Toole, J. M., Flow of deep and bottom water in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Reseach, 1993, 40(2): 371-394.[7]Marine Geology Department of Tongji University, Introduction to Palaeo-oceanography (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1989, 45-147.[8]Seibold, E., Berger, W. H., The Sea Floor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 97-125.[9]Rea, D. K., The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 1994, 32: 159-195.[10]Menard, H. W., Marine Geology of the Pacific, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.[11]Chamley, H., Clay Sedimentology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 259-289.[12]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth

  10. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ... meats to soups, salads, and sauces. Add dried milk powder or egg white powder to foods (like ...

  11. Apples and Oranges and Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    Private high schools have higher test scores than public schools. Does this mean they are better? Most studies of public versus private schools have explored the full range of income and achievement, one recently finding little if any difference that could not be accounted for by demographic differences. In this article, the author discusses the…

  12. Fun and games and boredom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...

  13. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  14. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  15. Ignorance and Science: Dilemmas, Perspectives, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses scientific ignorance and uncertainty. Highlights include approaching knowledgeable ignorance, including a taxonomy of ignorance and uncertainty frameworks and measures; social constructivism, subjectivity, and scientific realism; strategies for working with scientific ignorance; and frameworks for ignorance representation. (Contains 43…

  16. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  17. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  18. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Dalhoeven, B.A.G.W.; de Pater, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and per

  19. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products containing the... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  20. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social