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Sample records for aphis gossypii glover

  1. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

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    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    1999-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artificial light (5000 l...

  2. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artifici...

  3. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  4. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  5. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear.Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts-hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash-were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants.Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant.

  6. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  7. Bioefficacy of some biorational insecticides for the control of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, (Hemiptera: Aphididae on greenhouse grown cucumber

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    Mohammad Saeed Emami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 is a serious pest of cucumber in greenhouse plantings. Biorational insecticides are an alternative of broad spectrum insecticides for aphid suppression in greenhouse. In this regards, the efficiency of some biorational insecticides including soap based on coconut oil, surfactant based on sodium sulfosuccinate and antifeeding based on potassium nicotinate were assayed on A. gossypii in the cucumber greenhouse. The trials were set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Samplings were carried out one day before spraying and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying. The data were submitted to ANOVA and the means comparison was performed using Duncan’s test. The results indicated that the highest mortality in insecticidal soap, surfactant and antifeeding treatments occurred after 3 days, with 78.47 %, 67.16 % and 60.48 % mortality, respectively. The results of the trials are discussed in terms of improving management of the populations of A. gossypii.

  8. Resistance to imidacloprid in different field populations of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae in South of Iran

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    S.S. Seyedebrahimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key cucurbits pest in Iran and is managed with repeated insecticide applications. Reports of insecticide control failures have recently increased, particularly with imidacloprid. To quantify resistance to imidacloprid in cotton aphid, seven populations were collected from 7 different places in South of Iran (Shiraz, Jahrom, Saadatshahr, Marvdasht, Kavar, Sadra1 and Sadra2, all in Fars province. To estimate the response of 5 days old A. gossypii populations to imidacloprid, leaf dip bioassays were performed in the laboratory. Lethal concentrations at 50% (LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis and used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR. The bioassay results showed significant discrepancy in susceptibility to imidacloprid among the populations. The lowest and highest LD50 were estimated for Shiraz population with 37.09 and Sadra1 with 636.80 µg mL–1 respectively. The highest levels of resistance to imidacloprid were detected for Sadra1 (RR=17.17 fold. In the other populations some levels of resistance were detected. In Jahrom, Kavar, Marvdasht and SaadatShahr populations the RRs were from 3.85 to 7.11. As emphasized by the slope of responses and after a comparison of RRs with other studies it is supposed that resistant populations appear in first stages of development and have the ability to become more resistant with age.

  9. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  10. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

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    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  11. EFISIENSI PENULARAN VIRUS MOSAIK BENGKUANG DENGAN Aphis craccivora Koch. DAN A. gossypii Glover.

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    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Yambean mosaic virus is the most important virus infecting yam bean in Indonesia. The virus were transmitted either mechanically or via aphid.  This study to test the transmission efficiency of the virus via A. craccivora and A. gossypii by using different number of aphid such 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 for each treatment. To determine the transmission efficiency, incubation period, type of symptom and incidence were used as parameter. Transmission of virus by A. craccivora showed incidence range 90 to 100%, significant differences in incubation time of 1 aphid compared to other treatments and showed severe leaf mosaic, vein-banding and severe leaf malformation such as string. However, the incidence of transmission of virus by A. gossypii was range 70 to 100%, with longer incubation period in compare with A. craccivora. There was no significant differences of incubation period among treatments by A. gossypii. The infected plants showed leaf malformation, vein-banding, wrinkle and blotch on the leaves. Based on these, both aphids species could transmitted virus efficiently, and among them A. craccivora considerate has higher ability as efficient insect vector to transmit the virus in compare with A. gossypii.

  12. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  13. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

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    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  14. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

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    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  15. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Lígia Helena de; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Breda, Mariana Oliveira; Marques,Edmilson Jacinto; Lima,Iracilda Maria de Moura

    2012-01-01

    Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri) of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%); Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%) and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L.), Ch...

  16. Multivariate approach to quantitative analysis of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their natural enemy populations at different cotton spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Dos S. Dias, Carlos T.; Brugger, Bruno P.; S. Lira, Aline Cristina; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between pests and natural enemies using multivariate analysis on cotton in different spacing has not been documented yet. Using multivariate approaches is possible to optimize strategies to control Aphis gossypii at different crop spacings because the possibility of a better use of the aphid sampling strategies as well as the conservation and release of its natural enemies. The aims of the study were (i) to characterize the temporal abundance data of aphids and its natural enemies using principal components, (ii) to analyze the degree of correlation between the insects and between groups of variables (pests and natural enemies), (iii) to identify the main natural enemies responsible for regulating A. gossypii populations, and (iv) to investigate the similarities in arthropod occurrence patterns at different spacings of cotton crops over two seasons. High correlations in the occurrence of Scymnus rubicundus with aphids are shown through principal component analysis and through the important role the species plays in canonical correlation analysis. Clustering the presence of apterous aphids matches the pattern verified for Chrysoperla externa at the three different spacings between rows. Our results indicate that S. rubicundus is the main candidate to regulate the aphid populations in all spacings studied.

  17. Oral delivery mediated RNA interference of a carboxylesterase gene results in reduced resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in the cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover.

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    You-Hui Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is an effective tool to examine the function of individual genes. Carboxylesterases (CarE, EC 3.1.1.1 are known to play significant roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in many insect species. Previous studies in our laboratory found that CarE expression was up-regulated in Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae adults of both omethoate and malathion resistant strains, indicating the potential involvement of CarE in organophosphorus (OP insecticide resistance. Functional analysis (RNAi is therefore warranted to investigate the role of CarE in A. gossypii to OPs resistance. RESULT: CarE expression in omethoate resistant individuals of Aphis gossypii was dramatically suppressed following ingestion of dsRNA-CarE. The highest knockdown efficiency (33% was observed at 72 h after feeding when dsRNA-CarE concentration was 100 ng/µL. The CarE activities from the CarE knockdown aphids were consistent with the correspondingly significant reduction in CarE expression. The CarE activity in the individuals of control aphids was concentrated in the range of 650-900 mOD/per/min, while in the individuals of dsRNA-CarE-fed aphids, the CarE activity was concentrated in the range of 500-800 mOD/per/min. In vitro inhibition experiments also demonstrated that total CarE activity in the CarE knockdown aphids decreased significantly as compared to control aphids. Bioassay results of aphids fed dsRNA-CarE indicated that suppression of CarE expression increased susceptibility to omethoate in individuals of the resistant aphid strains. CONCLUSION: The results of this study not only suggest that ingestion of dsRNA through artificial diet could be exploited for functional genomic studies in cotton aphids, but also indicate that CarE can be considered as a major target of organophosphorus insecticide (OPs resistance in A. gossypii. Further, our results suggest that the CarE would be a propitious target for OPs resistant

  18. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars.

  19. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  20. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

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    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  1. 缩节胺对棉蚜种群繁殖的影响%Effects of Mepiquat Chloride (DPC) on Species Reproduction of Aphis gossypii Glover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周运刚; 王俊刚; 马天文; 何泽敏

    2011-01-01

    The contact toxicity, repellent effect, adult longevity and reproductive capacity and population growth of Aphis gossypii were studied by different concentrations of mepiquat chloride (DPC).The results show that there was no contact effect. Within the same time after treatment,the repellent effect on aphids was enhanced with the concentration gradient increased. 48h repellent rate was 33.3% treated by concentration of 400 mg o L-1; and 48 h repellent rate was 18.2% treated by 25 mg· L-1. In the same concentration,the repellent effect increased with the processing time. On the 7 th day,48 h repellent was 66.4% treated by concentration of 400 mg · L 1; 48 h repellent rate of 46.2% treated by 25 mg · L-1. On the first day,the Aphis gossypii life span and reproductive capacity of adults were not inhibited, and life expectancy was reduced only in the treatment of 400 mg · L-1. As time moved on,Aphis gossypii adult life and reproductive capacity were tapered,which indicated that Aphis gossypii life and reproductive capacity of adult were affected with cotton growth in DPC treatments. DPC also had good effects on Aphis gossypii inhibition.%研究不同质量浓度缩节胺对棉蚜触杀作用、忌避作用、成虫寿命及生殖能力和种群增长的影响.结果表明,缩节胺对棉蚜没有触杀作用.在处理后的同一时间内,随处理质量浓度的升高,对棉蚜的忌避作用增强.400 mg·L-1、48 h的忌避率为33.3%,25 mg·L、48 h的忌避率为18.2%.在同一质量浓度下,随处理时间的延长,对棉蚜的忌避作用增强.到第7天时,400 mg·L-1、48 h的忌避率为66.4%,25mg·L-1、48 h的忌避率为46.2%.处理第1天,棉蚜成虫寿命和生殖能力均未受到抑制,仅400 mg·L-1处理的蚜虫寿命减少.随处理时间的延长,棉蚜成虫寿命和生殖能力逐渐下降,说明缩节胺处理对棉蚜成虫寿命和生殖能力的影响与棉花生长时间有关,同时缩节胺对棉蚜种群有较好的抑制作用.

  2. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  3. Over-expression of CYP6A2 is associated with spirotetramat resistance and cross-resistance in the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianfei; Pan, Yiou; Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiwu; Xi, Jinghui; Wu, Yongqiang; Huang, Xiao; Zhu, E; Xin, Xuecheng; Zhan, Chao; Shang, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-selected spirotetramat-resistant strain (SR) of cotton aphid developed 579-fold and 15-fold resistance to spirotetramat in adult aphids and 3rd instar nymphs, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain (SS) [26]. The SR strain developed high-level cross-resistance to alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin and very low or no cross-resistance to the other tested insecticides. Synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) dramatically increased the toxicity of spirotetramat and alpha-cypermethrin in the resistant strain. RT-qPCR results demonstrated that the transcriptional levels of CYP6A2 increased significantly in the SR strain compared with the SS strain, which was consistent with the transcriptome results [30]. The depletion of CYP6A2 transcripts by RNAi also significantly increased the sensitivity of the resistant aphid to spirotetramat and alpha-cypermethrin. These results indicate the possible involvement of CYP6A2 in spirotetramat resistance and alpha-cypermethrin cross-resistance in the cotton aphid. These together with other cross-resistance results have implications for the successful implementation of resistance management strategies for Aphis gossypii.

  4. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  5. 棉蚜体内感染沃尔巴克氏体(Wolbachia)的分子检测%Molecular Identification of wsp Gene of Wolbachia Infected in Aphis gossypii Glover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国伟; 沈佐锐

    2004-01-01

    Wolbachia是存在于节肢动物体内的一类呈母系遗传的细胞内共生细菌,这类细菌可以通过卵的细胞质传播并参与调控寄主的生殖活动.通过对Wolbachia外膜蛋白质的wsp基因进行特异性扩增,证实了寄生于不同植物的棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)体内均有感染,说明Wolbachia可能广泛存在于棉蚜体内, 扩增出的Wolbachia目的片段为 590 bp左右.通过对棉蚜体内感染的Wolbachia的wsp基因序列进行分子检测,为进一步研究棉蚜的孤雌生殖与Wolbachia的相关关系等奠定基础.

  6. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton=Efeitos de inseticidas botânicos na taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%; Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Piper aduncum L (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375 and 0.05%. Cotton leaf discs, CNPA 8H cultivar with 5 cm in diameter were immersed for 30 seconds in products broth and dried for 30 minutes. Eight replicates per concentration were used and each disc was infested with five apterous adult females of A. gossypii uniform in size and confined for 10 days. Compostonat®, Rotenat® and Neempro provided negative ri decreasing A. gossypii population. Natuneem® and Neemseto® and the essential oil of F. vulgare showed positive ri increasing the population. The coefficients of determination (R2 of regression lines ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. The essential oils of C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides and P. aduncum were not statistically significant precluding the establishment of regression lines.Inseticidas botânicos têm sido estudados, visando o controle alternativo de pragas. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos desses inseticidas sobre a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (ri de Aphis gossypii. Os inseticidas botânicos foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® e Neempro (0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 e 1,75%; Nautneem® e Neemseto® (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%; e os óleos essenciais de Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e Piper aduncum L. (0; 0,0125; 0,025; 0,0375 e 0,05%. Discos de folhas de algodoeiro, cultivar CNPA 8H, com 5 cm de di

  7. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depan Cao

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs, which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.

  8. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco S Fernandes; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias,José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Santos, Bárbara Davis B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (...

  9. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  10. 瓜蚜为害对寄主植物主要营养物质和次生物质的影响%Influences of Aphis gossypii Glover feeding on the contents of main nutrients and secondary compounds in host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 常静

    2013-01-01

    为明确瓜蚜Aphis gossypii Glover与其寄主植物相互作用关系及其机理,本文采用蒽酮比色法、考马斯亮蓝法、磷钼酸-磷钨酸比色法及索氏回流法,分别测定了瓜蚜为害对黄瓜、哈密瓜、南瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜等5种寄主植物叶片内可溶性总糖、可溶性蛋白质、单宁及黄酮含量的影响.结果表明,瓜蚜为害后,供试寄主植物叶片中可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量显著降低,而单宁和黄酮的含量明显上升.说明瓜蚜为害导致寄主植物营养质量下降,而次生代谢物质含量上升,从而对植食者产生诱导抗性.%In order to investigate the interaction between Aphis gossypii Glover and its host plants, it was determined how the aphid feeding affected the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, tannin and flavone in the leaves of its five host plants ( Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo var. saccharinus, Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis, Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa) , using anthrone colorimetric method, Coomassie brilliant blue staining, phosphor - molybdenum acid -phosphor - tungstenic acid colorimetry and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein in the leaves of its host plants decreased while the contents of tannin and flavone increased after the host plants were fed by the aphids. This indicated that the aphid feeding caused the decrease of host plant' s nutrition quality while the increase of harmful secondary metabolite contents, and therefore, induced the resistance to herbivores.

  11. Occurrence of Lysiphlebus testaceipes parasitizing Aphis gossypii in watermelon in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Ocorrência de Lysiphlebus testaceipes parasitando Aphis gossypii em melancia, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson as a biological control agent of the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover in watermelon crop in Vale do Açu, RN. It was observed that near the harvest, almost all collected aphids were mummified, and after analyzing the emerged parasitoids, the parasitoid L. testaceipes was identified. Therefore, in the future, this species may be included in A. gossypii integrated management programs.Este é o primeiro relato do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson como agente de controle biológico do pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover na cultura da melancia, na região do Vale do Açu, Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Observou-se que próximo da colheita quase todos os pulgões coletados encontravam-se mumificados e, na análise dos parasitoides emergidos, constatou-se o parasitismo por L. testaceipes. Essa espécie, portanto, poderá ser incluída em um programa de manejo integrado de A. gossypii futuramente.

  12. Why the aphid Aphis spiraecola is more abundant on clementine tree than Aphis gossypii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostefaoui, Houda; Allal-Benfekih, Leila; Djazouli, Zahr-Eddine; Petit, Daniel; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2014-02-01

    Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii cause harmful damages on clementine tree orchards. Weekly surveys measured the abundance of aphids (larvae, winged and wingless adults) as well as of auxiliary insects and parameters of energy metabolism. Correlatively, soluble carbohydrates, total free amino acids, free proline and condensed tannins were quantified in control and infested leaves. Both aphid species showed parallel temporal variations, but A. spiraecola was consistently more abundant regardless of the stage. Amino acids had a positive effect on both aphid species abundance, but neither condensed tannins nor auxiliary insects seemed to modulate aphid populations. Interestingly, the leaf carbohydrate content was positively correlated with the abundance of A. spiraecola, but not with that of A. gossypii. Moreover, A. gossypii's abundance was significantly down-regulated by high proline concentrations. Thus, the higher abundance of A. spiraecola could be explained by a better tolerance to high proline contents and a better conversion of foliar energy metabolites.

  13. 寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜在线粒体DNA COⅠ基因序列上的分化%Variation of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of Aphis gossypii Glover based on mtDNA CO Ⅰ gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    为了探明同域棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)种群的生态分化与进化程度,检测了室内长期筛选所得的迁飞型、滞留型、棉花型和瓜型棉蚜品系,以及在南京田间采集的棉花和黄瓜上的棉蚜,共84个样本的线粒体DNA COⅠ基因的部分序列.结果表明:南京地区寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜种群的COⅠ序列同源性很高,为99.8%~100%.在各样本的569 bp大小序列中检测到3个突变位点,共形成4种单倍型( H1~H4),其中2个突变发生在迁飞型中,另1个发生在滞留型中,而棉花型和瓜型棉蚜中没有检测到突变,各品系棉蚜还共享着同一单倍型H4.迁飞型棉蚜的单倍型多样性(h)最高,为0.68~0.75,滞留型为0~0.18,而棉花型和瓜型无多样性.各种群内核苷酸多样性(Π)都极低.UPGMA聚类分析表明,迁飞型与其他各品系间的遗传距离相对较远.系统进化树显示,棉蚜种群正向着3个支系分化:支系一为COⅠ没有变异的棉花型、瓜型、滞留型和迁飞型个体所组成,数量占绝对优势;支系二和支系三仅由迁飞型组成,其COⅠ序列均发生了变异.迁飞型品系中存在突变位点的单倍型H3和没发生突变的H4,在平均寿命、净增殖率与内禀增长率上均没有显著差异,COⅠ序列在该位点上的变异还不足以影响迁飞型棉蚜的生态适合度.%In order to illustrate the degree of ecological differentiation and evolution in Aphis gossypii population, portion of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (CO I ) in mtDNA of 84 samples from migratory, sedentary, cotton- and cucurbits-specialized strains,and the natural population in cotton and cucumber fields in Nanjing,were examined. The results showed that the identity of CO I pairwise sequences was 99.8%-100% among these samples, and three mutations in CO I sequence were found in migratory and sedentary strains which resulted in 4 haplotypes( H1-H4). Two mutations were detected in the migratory

  14. A cost of alarm pheromone production in cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.

    2005-02-01

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene, is used by many aphid species as an alarm pheromone to warn related individuals of predation. Disturbed cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, released (E)-β-farnesene into the air as detected by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS). Solvent extracts of cotton aphids of various life stages and weights also were analyzed by GC MS for sums of ions 69 and 93, which discriminated (E)-β-farnesene from coeluting compounds. Aphids of all life stages and sizes reared on cotton plants in both an environmental chamber and glasshouse contained (E)-β-farnesene in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 ng per individual. The quantities of (E)-β-farnesene in aphids increased in relation to increasing body weight, and variation in individual weights explained about 82% of the variation in alarm pheromone. However, the concentrations (ng/mg fresh weight) declined exponentially with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that aphid nymphs try to compensate for their smaller size by producing relatively more pheromone per weight than adults but still cannot approach an evolutionary optimal load, as assumed in adults with the greatest total amounts. This suggests that young aphids need to balance costs of growth and maturation with costs of producing the alarm pheromone.

  15. A new active piggyBac-like element in Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guana-Hua Luo; Min Wu; Xiao-Fang Wang; Wei Zhang; Zhao-Jun Han

    2011-01-01

    Nine piggyBac-like elements (PLEs) were identified from the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover.All the PLEs shared high sequence similarity with each other.However,eight of the nine PLEs were unlikely to encode functional transposase due to the existence of disruptive mutations within the coding regions.The other one PLE contained major characteristics of members in the piggyBac family,including TTAA target site duplications,inverted terminal repeats (ITRs),and an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a transposase with a putative DDD domain.This one with an intact transposase ORF was named AgoPLE1.1.The predicted transposase shared 47% similarity with that of Trichoplusia ni piggyBac IFP2.Phylogenetic analyses showed that AgoPLE1.1 was most related to the Heliothis virescens PLEl.1 (HvPLEl.1) element,with 45% and 60% similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.A functional assay demonstrated that AgoPLEl.1 encoded a functional transposase and was able to cause precise excision in cell cultures.On the other hand,few genomic insertion polymorphisms of AgoPLE1 were observed in the genome of the cotton aphid.These observations suggested that AgoPLEl.1 was a PLE that invaded the cotton aphid genome in recent periods and retained its activity.

  16. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded.

  17. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  18. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures that ca...

  19. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications.

  20. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  1. [Relationships between Aphis gossypii and its natural enemies in megranate field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunding; Li, Lei; Bi, Shoudong; Lou, Zhi; Ding, Chengcheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Li, Changgen

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the relevancy of Aphis gossypii with its natural enemies was studied by using grey systematic analysis. The results showed that the major natural enemies of Aphis gossypii were Tetragnathidae (0.8607), Therdion octomaculatum (0.8058), Therdion octomaculatum (0.7989), Haramonia aiyridis (0.7881) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7758). As for the daily total predation, the natural enemies which highly associated with the ideal dominant natural enemies were Erigonidium graminicola (0.8975), Tromobidiidae (0.8132), Propylacea japonica (0.7806) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7669); while for the quantity, Erigonidium graminicola (0.8482), Chrysopa sinica (0.7533), Tetragnathidae (0.7532), Therdion octomaculatum (0.7411) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7716) were the major natural enemies. According to the relational grade of the individuals between various natural enemies and ideal dominant natural enemies, the major natural enemies were Erigonidium graminicola (0.8461), Tromobidiidae (0.7325), Propylacea japonica (0.6983), Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.6815) and Chrysopa sinica (0.6757). The species having >0.9567 horizontal and vertical niche overlaps with Aphis gossyppii were Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata and Tetragnathidae, while the temporal niche overlaps between Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata, tetragnathidae and Aphis gossyppii were >0.4020. It could be concluded that the main natural enemies of Aphis gossyppii were Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata and Tetragnathidae.

  2. 抗吡虫啉棉蚜对其他新烟碱类药剂的交互抗性及相关酶的活性变化%Cross-resistance of the imidacloprid-resistant population of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae ) to other neonicotinoid insecticides and changes in activities of related enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓斌; 石绪根; 王红艳; 夏晓明; 王开运

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify the cross-resistance and the change in related enzymes of the imidacloprid-resistant population of Aphis gossypii to other neonicotinoid insecticides, the bioassay method was used to determine the cross-resistance of different resistant populations of imidacloprid-resistant A. Gossypii to dinotefuran and nitenpyram, and the synergism of three detoxification enzyme inhibitors to imidacloprid and other two neonicotinoid insecticides using cotton aphids of the imidacloprid-resistant population selected in the laboratory, the Xiajin resistant population in the field in Shandong and the susceptible population. The activities of detoxification enzymes and AChE of three populations of cotton aphid and the inhibition effect of insecticides were determined through biochemical analysis. The results showed that the imidacloprid-resistant population and the Xiajin resistant population exhibited no cross-resistance to dinotefuran, but showed 5. 28-fold and 4. 89-fold cross-resistance to nitenpyram, respectively. Dinotefuran could significantly inhibit the activities of CarE, GST and AChE of the imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid. Nitenpyram showed little effect on the activities of CarE, GST and AChE of the imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid. Carboxylesterase inhibitor TPP and mixed-functional oxidase inhibitor PBO had obvious synergism to imidacloprid and nitenpyram, while had little synergism to dinotefuran. Glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor DEM showed no obvious synergism to the three insecticides. Dinotefuran and nitenpyram could inhibit the activities of detoxification enzymes and AChE of the imidacloprid-resistant conton aphid, with dinotefuran showing significant effect. The results demonstrate the great application value of dinotefuran in control of the imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid, and its structure can provide a reference to the development of neonicotinoid insecticides in the future.%为明确抗吡虫啉棉蚜Aphis gossypii对其他

  3. Multiple Mutations on the Second Acetylcholinesterase Gene Associated With Dimethoate Resistance in the Melon Aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokeshwari, D; Krishna Kumar, N K; Manjunatha, H

    2016-04-01

    The melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan and extremely polyphagous species capable of causing direct and indirect damage to various crops. Insecticide resistance in melon aphids is of particular concern. To determine the basis of resistance, organophosphate (OP)-resistant strains of A. gossypii were obtained by continuous selection with dimethoate in the laboratory, and resistance mechanisms were investigated along with susceptible strains. Three resistant strains LKR-1, LKR-2, and LKR-3 exhibiting 270-, 243-, and 210-fold resistance obtained after 30 generations of selection with dimethoate, respectively, were utilized in this study. The role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a target enzyme for OPs and carbamates (CMs), was investigated. AChE enzyme assay revealed that there was no significant change in the activities of AChE in resistant and susceptible strains. However, AChE inhibitory assay showed that 50% of the enzyme activity in resistant strains was inhibited at significantly higher concentration of dimethoate (131.87, 158.65, and 99.29 µmolL(−1)) as compared with susceptible strains (1.75 and 2.01 µmolL(−1)), indicating AChE insensitivity owing to altered AChE. Molecular diagnostic tool polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed the existence of two consistent non-synonymous point mutations, single-nucleotide polymorphism, viz., A302S (equivalent to A201 in Torpedo californica Ayres) and S431F (equivalent to F331 in T. californica), in the AChE gene Ace2 of resistant strains. Further, cloning and sequencing of a partial fragment of Ace2 (897 bp) gene from susceptible and resistant strains revealed an additional novel mutation G221A in resistant strains, LKR-1 and LKR-2. Susceptible Ace2 genes shared 99.6 and 98.9% identity at the nucleic acid and amino acid levels with resistant ones, respectively. Functional analysis of these point mutations was assessed by in

  4. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Santos, Bárbara Davis B

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions.

  5. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S Fernandes

    Full Text Available Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae and Cycloneda sanguinea (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions.

  6. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  7. [Effects of host plants on the life table parameters of experimental populations of Aphis gossypii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping; Chang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the life table parameters of Aphis gossypii reared on five host plant species at (25 +/- 1) degrees C in laboratory. There existed significant differences in the durations of various developmental stages, adult longevity, mean offspring number per day, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, and population doubling time for the A. gossypii populations reared on the host plants. For the aphids on Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate, they needed the longest time (5.84 days) to complete one generation, but for those on the other four plants, no significant differences were observed, with the time needed ranged from 5.24 to 5.45 days. The adult longevity was the longest (20.04 days) on Cucumis sativus, but had no significant differences on the other four host plants, being from 14.76 to 16.03 days. The populations' survival curves on all test host plants were of Deevey I, i. e., the death mainly occurred during late period. The survival rate on C. sativus was higher than those on the other four host plants. Based on the intrinsic rates of increase of A. gossypii, its host suitability was in the order of Cucumis melo var. saccharinus > Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate > Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis > Cucumis sativus > Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa.

  8. Cycloxaprid: A novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide to control imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Qi, Haoliang; Yang, Daibin; Yuan, Huizhu; Rui, Changhui

    2016-09-01

    Imidacloprid is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with potent insecticidal activity. However, resistance to imidacloprid is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species. Cycloxaprid with cis-configuration is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, which shows high activity against imidacloprid-resistant pests. The LC50 of imidacloprid against the resistant Aphis gossypii was 14.33mgL(-1) while it was only 0.70mgL(-1) for the susceptible population, giving a resistance ratio of 20.47. In this imidacloprid-resistant population, a point mutation (R81T) located in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit was found out. But this point mutation did not decrease the activity of cycloxaprid against A. gossypii. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 1.05 and 1.36mgL(-1) for the imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant populations, respectively. In addition, cycloxaprid provided better efficacies against resistant A. gossypii than imidacloprid in the fields. Although cycloxaprid was highly toxic to A. gossypii, it showed high selective activity between A. gossypii and its predominant natural enemies, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla sinica. These results demonstrate that cycloxaprid is a promising insecticide against imidacloprid-resistant A. gossypii and suitable for the integrated pest management.

  9. Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Kalaitzaki, Argyro; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Michaelakis, Antonios; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Dourtoglou, Vassilis; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2017-02-16

    The insecticidal activity of a new nano-formulated natural pyrethrin was examined on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the predators Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae), in respect with the nano-scale potential to create more effective and environmentally responsible pesticides. Pyrethrin was nano-formulated in two water-in-oil micro-emulsions based on safe biocompatible materials, i.e., lemon oil terpenes as dispersant, polysorbates as stabilizers, and mixtures of water with glycerol as the dispersed aqueous phase. Laboratory bioassays showed a superior insecticidal effect of the pyrethrin micro-emulsions compared to two commercial suspension concentrates of natural pyrethrins against the aphid. The nano-formulated pyrethrins were harmless, in terms of caused mortality and survival time, to L3 larvae and four-instar nymphs of the predators C. septempunctata and M. pygmaeus, respectively. We expect that these results can contribute to the application of nano-technology in optimization of pesticide formulation, with further opportunities in the development of effective plant protection products compatible with integrated pest management practices.

  10. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  11. Transcriptomic comparison of thiamethoxam-resistance adaptation in resistant and susceptible strains of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yiou; Peng, Tianfei; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chen; Xi, Jinghui; Xin, Xuecheng; Bi, Rui; Shang, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    A thiamethoxam-resistant strain of cotton aphid (ThR) strain displayed a 19.35-fold greater resistance to thiamethoxam compared to a susceptible cotton aphid (SS) strain. Solexa sequencing technology was used to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in cotton aphids in the context of thiamethoxam resistance. A total of 22,569,311 and 21,317,732 clean reads were obtained from the ThR and SS transcriptomes, respectively, and assembled into 35,222 non-redundant (Nr) consensus sequences. The expression of 620 unigenes changed significantly in the ThR libraries compared to the SS strain; 349 genes were up-regulated, and 271 genes were down-regulated (P≤0.001). Expression levels of ribosomal proteins, ATP synthase, cytochrome c oxidase, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase and esterase were up-regulated significantly in the ThR strain compared to the SS strain. The genes of cuticle proteins, salivary proteins, and fibroin heavy chain decreased dramatically. One nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α subunit was down-regulated in the ThR strain. The expression levels of 10 differentially expressed unigenes were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR, and the observed trends in gene expression matched the Solexa expression profiles. Specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nAChRs that cause amino acid substitution were found from the ThR and SS stains respectively. These data illustrate that genetic changes in nAChR genes and up-regulated ribosomal proteins, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c oxidase, esterase and peroxidase may confer the tolerance of resistant cotton aphids to thiamethoxam.

  12. Comparative efficacy of emulsifiable-oil, wettable-powder, and unformulated-powder preparations of Beauveria bassiana against the melon aphid Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphicidal efficacy of two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA conidia, an emulsifiable-paraffinic oil dispersion (OD) and a clay-based wettable powder (WP), were compared to unformulated conidia in laboratory tests with adult melon aphids (Aphis gossypii). For the initial 24 hou...

  13. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Zayame Vegette [UNESP; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Piedade,Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  14. Nitenpyram, Dinotefuran, and Thiamethoxam Used as Seed Treatments Act as Efficient Controls against Aphis gossypii via High Residues in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Yunhe; Lin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-14

    The effects of eight neonicotinoid seed treatments against the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemies in Bt cotton fields were evaluated, and the concentrations of these neonicotinoids in cotton leaves and soil were also investigated. The results showed that all neonicotinoid seed treatments efficiently reduced A. gossypii populations throughout the cotton seedling stage. The percentages of curly leaf plants in all of the neonicotinoid seed treatments were below the threshold for economic loss. Among the eight tested neonicotinoid seed treatments, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam showed high control efficiency against A. gossypii. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were higher than those of other neonicotinoids in cotton leaves. Moreover, residues of dinotefuran and nitenpyram remained at low levels in the soil. However, the abundance of natural enemies in the cotton field was to some extent influenced by neonicotinoid seed treatments. Therefore, neonicotinoids nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam used as seed treatment can provide effective protection that should play an important role in the management of early-season A. gossypii in Bt cotton fields; however, the risks of neonicotinoids to the environment should also be considered.

  15. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    OpenAIRE

    Zayame Vegette Pinto; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  16. Cloning of Partial Sodium Channel Gene From Strains of Fenvalerate-Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Aphid(Aphis gossypii Glover)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-juan; GAO Xi-wu; ZHENG Bing-zong

    2003-01-01

    The strain of fenvalerate-resistant cotton aphids was selected using fenvalerate insecticide in the laboratory, the resistance factor of the strain was 199.54. Three degenerate primers were designed and used to perform PCR amplification. A cDNA encoding partial sodium channel gene was cloned from the fenvalerate-resistant and -susceptible strains. There were two nucleotide acid differences between fenvalerate-resistant strain and -susceptible strain, resulting in an amino acid mutation, Met→Leu. It is predicted that the mutation is related to the cotton aphid resistance to fenvalerate.

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  18. Development of controlled release formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid and their bioefficacy evaluation against aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, N A; Khan, M A; Malik, Kamlesh; Walia, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid were prepared employing polyvinyl chloride and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and their bioefficacy was evaluated against the aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop. The CR formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid provided better or equal control of the pests than commercial formulations. CMC-based formulation provided a superior control of both the pests. The Imida-CMC, which showed the lowest population of leaf hopper (10.50 leafhopper/100 cl), provided significantly superior control among all treatments after 35 days after germination (DAG). The residue of carbofuran and imidacloprid in potato tuber and soils were not detectable at the time of harvesting in any one of the formulations.

  19. Pathogenicity of conidia-based preparations of entomopathogenic fungi against the greenhouse pest aphids Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, and Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Filotas, M; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

    2014-05-01

    Seeking new isolates of entomopathogenic fungi with greater virulence against greenhouse aphid pests than those currently registered in North America for control of these insects, single-dose screening assays of 44 selected fungal isolates and 4 commercially available strains were conducted against first-instar nymphs of Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. The assays identified a number of Beauveria and Metarhizium isolates with virulence equal to or greater than that of the commercial strains against the nymphal aphids, but none exhibited exceptionally high virulence. Virulence of Isaria isolates was unexpectedly low (1000conidia/mm(2)). In dose-response assays, Beauveria ARSEF 5493 proved most virulent against M. persicae and A. gossypii; however, LC50s of this isolate did not differ significantly from those of B. bassiana commercial strain JW-1. Dose-response assays were also conducted with Aulacorthum solani, the first reported evaluations of Beauveria and Metarhizium against this pest. The novel isolate Metarhizium 5471 showed virulence⩾that of Beauveria 5493 in terms of LC25 and LC50, but 5493 produced a steeper dose response (slope). Additional tests showed that adult aphids are more susceptible than nymphs to fungal infection but confirmed that infection has a limited pre-mortem effect on aphid reproduction. Effects of assay techniques and the potential of fungal pathogens as aphid-control agents are discussed.

  20. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  1. The effect of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Budia, F; Medina, P; Morales, I; Fereres, A; Viñuela, E

    2015-02-01

    The effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea and adults of Adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. Natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central CMV-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector were evaluated in the short and long term (1 and 5 days) in the presence and absence of the natural enemy. The spatial analysis by distance indices methodology together with other indices measuring the dispersal around a single focus was used to assess the spatial pattern and the degree of association between the virus and its vector. Both natural enemies significantly reduced the number of aphids in the CMV-source plant after 5 days but not after 1 day. The CMV transmission rate was generally low, especially after 1 day, due to the limited movement of aphids from the central CMV-source plant, which increased slightly after 5 days. Infected plants were mainly located around the central virus-infected source plant, and the percentage of aphid occupation and CMV-infected plants did not differ significantly in absence and presence of natural enemies. The distribution patterns of A. gossypii and CMV were only coincident close to the central plant. The complexity of multitrophic interactions and the role of aphid predators in the spread of CMV are discussed.

  2. 4种真菌对木槿棉蚜毒力作用的研究%Study on Virulence of 4 Fungus Species on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文凯

    2014-01-01

    In the tests strains of 4 fungus species including P.c, Pfu02, B and Ma4 were cultured on SDAY solid culture media, and suspension liquids were prepared separately with the conidia got in the culture. A comparative study was made on virulence of the suspension liquids on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants indoors and outdoors by spraying. The test results showed that all the 4 fungus species had good indoor virulence on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants and the optimal one was Strain B with the lethality rate reaching 100% while Strain Ma4 had the lowest lethality rate of 63.28%. It was also found that the strains had definite inhibiting effects on the fecundity of Aphis gossypii indoors. But due to the influence of environmental factors,the fungus strains had poor outdoor control effects on Aphis gossypii and the best was Strain B with the lethality rate being only 7.94%. The test results indicated that the fungi had good indoor application effects as microbial insecticides,but had limitations in outdoor application.%本试验利用SDAY固体培养基对P.c、Pfu02、B、Ma44种真菌菌株进行培养,用培养所得的各种分生孢子分别配制成悬浮液,采用喷雾法在室内、室外对木槿上棉蚜的毒力作用进行了比较研究。试验结果表明:4种真菌菌株在室内对木槿棉蚜均有较好的毒力作用,最理想的是菌株B,致死效果达到了100%,最差的是菌株Ma4,也达到了63.28%,同时发现对棉蚜的繁殖力有一定的抑制效果。但在室外由于环境因素的影响,对棉蚜的控制作用很差,最好的菌株B对蚜虫的致死率也只有7.94%。该试验表明,各真菌作为微生物杀虫剂在室内施用时效果理想,而在室外施用时受到一定的局限性。

  3. 迭球螋成虫对棉蚜的捕食作用%Predation of Aphis gossypii by Forficula vicaria adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 沈平; 吴建华; 朱惠英; 杨学毅; 常承秀; 张永强

    2014-01-01

    Predation of Aphis gossypii by Forficula vicaria adults was determined in the laboratory. The results showed that the predator-prey model fitted HollingⅡ(1959):Na=0. 9936Nt/(1+0. 0041Nt). The largest dai-ly predation number was 176. 9, and the best seeking density was about 92 according to Holling Ⅲ new functional response model Na=a·exp(-bN-1t)by Wang Shize et al (1988). The relationships between searching efficien-cy and prey density were studied by using Holling (1959)model:E=a/(1+aThNt), showing that the searching efficiency decreased as the prey density increased. The relationships between searching efficiency and F. vicariadensity were described by Hassell (1969)model E=QP-m and Beddington (1975)model E=aT/[1+btw(P-1)] as E=0. 6318P-1.3693 and E=0.7384/(2.2668P-1.2668), respectively;Beddington (1975)model could de-scribe the relationships between searching efficiency and F. vicariadensity better than Hassell (1969)model. The relationships between searching density and A. gossypii and F. vicariadensities were described by Beddington (1975)model E=a/[1+aThNa+btW(P-1)]. as E=0.7384/(2. 2668P+0. 00404Na-1. 2668), suggesting that the searching efficiency declined when F. vicaria and A.gossypi idensities increased.%在室内测定迭球螋(Forficula vicaria Semenov)成虫对棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)的捕食作用。结果表明,迭球螋对棉蚜的捕食功能反应符合 HollingⅡ(1959)型模型,拟合的圆盘方程为Na =0.9936 Nt/(1+0.0041 Nt );根据汪世泽等(1988)提出的 HollingⅢ型功能反应新模型Na =a·exp(-bN-1t )拟合,求得日均最大捕食量176.9头,最佳寻找密度92头;利用 Holling(1959)寻找效应与猎物密度关系公式E=a/(1+aThNt ),结果表明寻找效应随猎物密度的增加而降低;利用 Hassell (1969)模型 E=QP -m 和 Beddington(1975)模型 E=aT/[1+btw (P-1)]对寻找效应与迭球螋成虫密度之间的关系进行拟

  4. Characterization of acetylcholinesterases, and their genes, from the hemipteran species Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, N; Viner, R; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Devonshire, A L; Moores, G D

    2003-12-01

    Gene sequences encoding putative acetylcholinesterases have been reported for four hemipteran insect species. Although acetylcholinesterase insensitivity occurs in insecticide-resistant populations of each of these species, no mutations were detected in the gene sequences from the resistant insects. This, coupled with a series of experiments using novel reversible inhibitors to compare the biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterase from a range of insect species, showed that the cloned cDNA fragments are unlikely to encode the hemipteran synaptic acetylcholinesterases, and there is likely to be a second ace locus.

  5. Bioassay of Toxicity of Dimethoate and Its Effects on Aphis Gossypii%乐果对瓜蚜的毒力测定及其繁殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立生; 高宏华; 吴家雪; 陈攀

    2003-01-01

    用浸渍法以40%乐果乳油对瓜蚜(Aphis gossypii)成虫进行毒力测定和繁殖力的影响试验.结果表明:瓜蚜对乐果反应极不敏感,LC50值851.13μg/mL;800μg/mL、400μg/mL的乐果溶液对瓜蚜的繁殖力有明显的抑制作用;200 μg/札的乐果溶液对瓜蚜繁殖力的影响不明显;100μ g/mL的乐果溶液对瓜蚜的繁殖力有微弱的增殖作用.

  6. Behavioral responses of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) to volatiles from plants infested by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphidae) and analysis of volatile components%多异瓢虫对瓜蚜为害后植物挥发物的行为反应及挥发物成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 韩海斌; 闫锋

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the roles of volatiles from host plants in the process of Hippodamia variegata ( Goeze) searching for preys, the behavioral responses of the lady beetle adults to volatiles from Aphis gossypii Glover, intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants were observed with a Y-tube olfactometer. The results showed that the adults were significantly attracted to volatiles from high-density (≥700 individuals/L) aphids, aphid-plant complex, and aphid-infested Cucumis sativus plants (aphid density≥400 individuals/pot) and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa plants (aphid density ≥200 individuals/pot) , while not to volatiles from low-density ( ≤500 individuals/L) aphids and the intact plants. Dynamic headspace collection was used to extract volatiles from the intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants, respectively, and the extracted volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight, twelve and eighteen components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. sativus, respectively. The main components include 1-octadecene, [ E ]-5-eicosene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are p-xylene, 1, 2-dimethy-benzene, tridecane, 1-tetradecene, a-farnesene, cedrol, octadecane, hexacosane and other seven unknown components. Eleven, eighteen and twenty components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. pepo var. medullosa, respectively. The main components include a-caryophyllene, 1-octadecene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, a-pinene, tetradecane, longifolene, a-caryophyllene and other two unknown components. The results lay a necessary foundation for further research on the effective components to attract lady beetles.%为明确寄主植物挥发物在多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata

  7. 多异瓢虫食物消耗与利用与其猎物棉蚜的寄主植物种类相关%Food consumption and utilization of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is related to host plant species of its prey, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 段文昌; 庞保平

    2015-01-01

    [目的]猎物质量和类型在捕食者食物选择、消耗及营养转化过程中起着重要作用,植物的营养质量影响植食者的营养质量,进而植食者作为捕食者猎物的营养质量.为进一步了解植物-猎物-捕食者三营养层的相互作用,研究了寄主植物对捕食者食物消耗与利用的影响.[方法]在室内评价了多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)4龄幼虫和雌成虫取食和利用5种不同葫芦科植物上的棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover的效率.[结果]多异瓢虫4龄幼虫和成虫均对南瓜Cucurbita moschata var.melonaeformis上的蚜虫取食量最高,而对瓢葫芦Lagenaria siceraria var.gourda上的蚜虫取食量最低.4龄幼虫取食哈密瓜Cucumis melo var.cantalupensis上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率、食物利用率和食物转化率均达到最大,而雌成虫在取食黄瓜Cucumis sativus和搅瓜Cucurbita pepo var.medullosa上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率不存在显著差异,在取食黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的蚜虫时,其食物利用率和食物转化率也不存在显著差异.因此,哈密瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为多异瓢虫4龄幼虫的猎物,而黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为成虫的猎物.[结论]寄主植物种类与多异瓢虫对棉蚜的捕食效率相关,该结论为进一步利用昆虫的食性对害虫进行控制奠定理论基础.

  8. Geostatistical Analysis on Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Aphis gossypii Glover and Ladybird%棉蚜与瓢虫空间格局及种群时序动态耦合关系的地统计学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亮; 马德英; 邢海业; 王同仁; 张建锐

    2008-01-01

    应用地统计学方法研究了南疆阿瓦提棉区的棉蚜及瓢虫的空间分布格局及其时序动态耦合规律,结果表明:大尺度下:棉蚜变程范围在6.60~24.60 m,平均12.07 m;块金/基台盛发期范围8.35%~49.98%,消退期在6.63%~13.90%;小尺度下:棉蚜变程范围在1.37~14.76 m,平均3.525 m;块金/基台范围盛发期1.32%~38.81%,消退期在0.21%~83.54%;通过种群动态分析、各向异性变异函数分析及普通克里格插值三维模拟分析,表明不同尺度下瓢虫与棉蚜有着比较典型的追随关系,但小尺度下受随机因素干扰较多,种群变化曲线有一定程度的波动.

  9. New biotechnological applications for Ashbya gossypii: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-10-28

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has long been considered a paradigm of the White Biotechnology in what concerns riboflavin production. Its industrial relevance led to the development of a significant molecular and in silico modeling toolbox for its manipulation. This, together with the increasing knowledge of its genome and metabolism has helped designing effective metabolic engineering strategies for optimizing riboflavin production, but also for developing new A. gossypii strains for novel biotechnological applications, such as production of recombinant proteins, single cell oils (SCOs), and flavour compounds. With the recent availability of its genome-scale metabolic model, the exploration of the full biotechnological potential of A. gossypii is now in the spotlight. Here, we will discuss some of the challenges that these emerging A. gossypii applications still need to overcome to become economically attractive and will present future perspectives for these and other possible biotechnological applications for A. gossypii.

  10. 75 FR 75170 - APHIS User Fee Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... to submit comments or questions to APHIS on either the Web page itself (e.g., ease of use, content... to sign up to receive notifications when changes are made to the user fee Web page. Done in... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS User Fee Web Site AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  11. Hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. Cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro Growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. Gossypii var. Cephalosporioides on cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações sobre o hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro, inoculadas artificialmente e incubadas a 20-22°C durante cinco a sete dias, evidenciaram as seguintes características: (a em raízes: acérvulos isolados ou em grupos, massa conidial cor branco-suja, alaranjada ou salmão (mais freqüente, setas marrom-escuras, muitas vezes encobertas pela matriz gelatinosa; conídios produzidos também no micélio aéreo ou nas extremidades das setas, onde ficam aderidos, formando pequenos aglomerados; (b na superfície das sementes: conídios produzidos nos ápices de setas que emergem diretamente do tegumento, ficando aderidos uns aos outros, formando cachos, semelhantes a cadeias, que são vistos brilhantes sob a luz, em estereomicroscópio. As setas férteis são formadas também no micélio aéreo que recobre as sementes, geralmente após cinco dias de incubação. Os acérvulos com massa conidial raramente são visíveis, exceto em sementes danificadas ou mortas. Como característica de C. gossypii, observou-se que as sementes exibem, de modo geral, uma coloração rosada, em decorrência da abundante esporulação; a ausência ou escassez de micélio aéreo e as setas curtas resultam em um crescimento rente ao tegumento e aspecto compacto. Comparativamente, nas sementes com C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides, as setas são mais longas e menos densas; o micélio aéreo com setas férteis ocorre com mais freqüência, conferindo às sementes tonalidades acinzentadas e aspecto solto. A constatação de setas férteis em lesões foliares de ramulose evidencia que, no campo, essas estruturas podem funcionar como autênticos conidióforos, desempenhando um importante papel epidemiológico, ao possibilitar a disseminação dos esporos pelos ventos, a longas distâncias.The growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides on artificially

  12. Kohut and Glover. The role of subjectivity in psychoanalytic theory and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, F

    1998-01-01

    The role of conflictual elements in the genesis of a new theory and in relation to the use of theory in a psychoanalytic controversy will be explored in two "case" studies. In the first, a close reading of Kohut's "The Two Analyses of Mr. Z" and in the second, a detailed examination of Glover's shifting allegiances toward Kleinian theory will reflect the role of transference and of idealization as powerful motivating elements.

  13. Growth stress triggers riboflavin overproduction in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Thomas; Wiesenburg, Andreas; Gätgens, Cornelia; Funke, Andreas; Viets, Ulrike; Vijayalakshmi, Swaminathan; Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is used for riboflavin biosynthesis on an industrial scale, but even the wild type displays overproduction. Because riboflavin overproduction was known to start at the transition between growth and stationary phase, it was suspected that overproduction was induced at low growth rates. However, chemostatic cultivations performed at different growth rates did not result in any detectable riboflavin formation. In this study, we report that it was not the final growth rate that triggered riboflavin overproduction but a decline in growth rate. Therefore, continuous fermenter cultivations with dilution rate shifts were performed. Peaks of riboflavin overproduction were observed in the wild type and in a RIB3placZ reporter strain after downshifts in dilution rate. Accumulation of riboflavin correlated with an increased expression of lacZ reporter activity. The step size of the downshifts corresponded to the peak size of riboflavin formation and reporter activity. Expression of further RIB genes encoding riboflavin biosynthetic enzymes was analyzed by RT-PCR. RIB mRNA levels of the ribulose-5-phosphate branch of the divided riboflavin biosynthesis pathway (RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5) were found to increase in the riboflavin production phase, whereas the RIB2 and RIB7 mRNA levels belonging to the GTP branch remained constant. We propose that a decline in growth rate triggers the increased expression of RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5 resulting in riboflavin overproduction. Because although a reduction in oxygen supply, temperature increase or decrease, or salt stress did affect growth, but neither did lead to riboflavin overproduction nor did induce RIB3 reporter expression, we conclude that declining nutrition must be the stress stimulus. Because about half of the cells in the hyphae of Ashbya gossypii did not accumulate riboflavin, the regulatory response on the cellular level can be estimated to be at least twice as great in comparison to what we

  14. Blockage of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway affects riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rui; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-10

    The Ashbya gossypii riboflavin biosynthetic pathway and its connection with the purine pathway have been well studied. However, the outcome of genetic alterations in the pyrimidine pathway on riboflavin production by A. gossypii had not yet been assessed. Here, we report that the blockage of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the recently generated A. gossypii Agura3 uridine/uracil auxotrophic strain led to improved riboflavin production on standard agar-solidified complex medium. When extra uridine/uracil was supplied, the production of riboflavin by this auxotroph was repressed. High concentrations of uracil hampered this (and the parent) strain growth, whereas excess uridine favored the A. gossypii Agura3 growth. Considering that the riboflavin and the pyrimidine pathways share the same precursors and that riboflavin overproduction may be triggered by nutritional stress, we suggest that overproduction of riboflavin by the A. gossypii Agura3 may occur as an outcome of a nutritional stress response and/or of an increased availability in precursors for riboflavin biosynthesis, due to their reduced consumption by the pyrimidine pathway.

  15. 77 FR 15033 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User..., as amended. The system of records being proposed is the APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to add a new system of records, entitled APHIS...

  16. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  17. Toxicity of pymetrozine and thiamethoxam to Aphelinus gossypii and Delphastus pusillus Toxicidade de pimetrozine e tiametoxam a Aphelinus gossypii e Delphastus pusillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Braz Torres

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of pymetrozine and thiamethoxam to the cotton aphid parasitoid Aphelinus gossypii Timberlake and to the whitefly predator Delphastus pusillus (LeConte. Cotton leaves containing mummies of the parasitoid A. gossypii were collected and treated with seven concentrations of both insecticides. Parasitoid emergence was not affected by pymetrozine and ranged from 59.9% to 75.0%, but decreased with the increase of thiamethoxam concentrations ranging from 30.2% to 69.6%. Cotton leaves infested by whitefly and treated with recommended rates of both insecticides were collected three hours, three days and six days after spraying and colonized with larvae and adults of D. pusillus. Predators released on thiamethoxam-treated leaves experienced mortality from 70% to 100%, while those released on pymetrozine-treated leaves showed mortality from 0% to 20%. Topical toxicity from both insecticides was studied on larvae, pupae and adults of D. pusillus. The survival of predator after six days of exposure to 400, 600 and 800 mg/L of pymetrozine a.i. was higher than 69.6%, and to 25, 100 and 200 mg/L of thiamethoxam a.i. was lower than 8.7%. The toxicity data for A. gossypii and D. pusillus characterize the pymetrozine as harmless for both species, and thiamethoxam of low to moderate toxicity for A. gossypii treated mummies, and high toxicity for D. pusillus.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade de pimetrozine e tiametoxam ao parasitóide do pulgão-do-algodoeiro Aphelinus gossypii Timberlake e ao predador da mosca-branca Delphastus pusillus (LeConte. Folhas de algodoeiro contendo múmias do parasitóide A. gossypii foram coletadas e tratadas com sete concentrações de ambos inseticidas. A emergência do parasitóide não foi afetada pelo pimetrozine e variou de 59,9% a 75%, enquanto as múmias tratadas com tiametoxam produziram emergência de A. gossypii variando de 30,2% a 69,6%. Plantas infestadas

  18. 棉蚜对12种杀虫剂的敏感性测定%Determination of Sensitivity of Aphis gossypii to 12 Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建伟; 张东海; 陈晋忠; 魏立强; 刘小宁; 张学涛

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] This experiments aimed to clear the sensitivity of cotton aphid in northern Xinjiang to insecticides used commonly in production and market. [Methods] The sensitivity of cotton aphid collected from 147 farm and Xinhu farm population were determined to twelve insecticides of four types by filter paper diffusion method respectively. [Results] The results showed that the sensitivity of two cotton aphid populations was the same to insecticides with the same type, and different to different types of insecticides, and high sensitivity to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, avermectin, and lower sensitivity to pyrethroid and organophosphorus compounds. [Conclusions] According to the results, insecticide types, dosages and application frequency should be controlled strictly, in order to delay the resistance development of cotton aphid, and different insecticides should be applied alternately and mixed reasonably.%[目的]为探明新疆北部棉区棉蚜种群对市场上和生产中常用药剂的敏感性程度.[方法]采用滤纸药膜法分别测定了147团和新湖农场棉蚜种群对4大类杀虫剂中的12种常用药剂的敏感性.[结果]2个棉蚜种群对同类杀虫剂的敏感度基本一致,对不同杀虫剂敏感性有较大差异.对吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、阿维菌素敏感性高,对菊酯类和有机磷类药剂敏感性低.[结论]根据测定结果,生产中应严格控制用药种类以及施药量和施药次数,选用不同类型杀虫剂轮用或混用,以延缓棉蚜抗性发展.

  19. 多食性瓢虫捕食5种蚜虫的统计学比较:实验室研究%COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY:A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; Ahmad Pervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-i, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.%通过食蚜瓢虫Propylea dissecta(Mulsant)的捕食统计学参数的比较,尝试回答瓢虫是如何克服食物基础季节性的变动问题.在实验室中饲养五世代的瓢虫从五种蚜虫(Rhopalosiphum maidis(Fitch),Aphis craccivora Kock,Aphis gossypii Glover,Uroleucon compositae(Theobald)和Lipaphis erysimi(Kalt))为食物来源获得营养.相对适合的猎物次序是A.gossypii,A.craccivora,R.maidis,U.compositae和L.erysimi.新生幼虫的死亡率最高,其次是卵.统计表明,净生殖率、内懔增长率和有限增长率为(407.18,0.2274天-1,1.2553天-1)最高的在A.gossypii和最低的(176.02,0.1533天-1,1.1657天-1)在L.erysimi,一个世代时间最短的26.43天是捕食A.gossypii;而最长的33.73天为捕食L.erysimi.本研究为P.dissecta捕食A.gossypii高发生提供一种解释,因为它经历了

  20. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  1. 7 CFR 322.15 - APHIS review of permit applications; denial or cancellation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.15 APHIS review of...

  2. Riboflavin, overproduced during sporulation of Ashbya gossypii, protects its hyaline spores against ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, K P; Arst, H N; Althöfer, H; Revuelta, J L; Monschau, N; Schlüpen, C; Gätgens, C; Wiesenburg, A; Schlösser, T

    2001-09-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2), essential in tiny amounts as a precursor for oxidoreductase coenzymes, is a yellow pigment. Although it causes cytotoxicity via photoinduced damage of macromolecules, several microorganisms are striking overproducers. A question, unanswered for decades, is whether riboflavin overproducers can benefit from this property. Here, we report an ultraviolet (UV) protective effect of riboflavin. The spores of Ashbya gossypii, a riboflavin-overproducing fungus, are more sensitive to UV than those of Aspergillus nidulans. The addition of riboflavin to suspensions improves the UV resistance of both spore types. Interestingly, we show that regulation of sporulation and riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii are linked. In batch culture, both were elevated when growth ceased. At constant growth rates, obtained in a chemostat culture, neither was elevated. Supplementation of cultures by cAMP, a known stress signal, negatively affected sporulation as well as riboflavin overproduction, establishing a second, independent argument for the linkage.

  3. The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii as a competitive industrial inosine producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Rubén M; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside with growing biotechnological interest due to its recently attributed beneficial health effects and as a convenient precursor of the umami flavor. At present, most of the industrial inosine production relies on bacterial fermentations. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii to obtain strains able to excrete high amounts of inosine to the culture medium. We report that the disruption of only two key genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway efficiently redirect the metabolic flux, increasing 200-fold the excretion of inosine with respect to the wild type, up to 2.2 g/L. These results allow us to propose A. gossypii as a convenient candidate for large-scale nucleoside production, especially in view of the several advantages that Ashbya has with respect to the bacterial systems used at present for the industrial production of this food additive. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2060-2063. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Colletotrichum gossypii do algodoeiro Genetic variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum gossypii of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro é atacado por Colletotrichum gossypii (CG e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Ambos os patógenos são transmitidos pela semente e sua distinção morfológica é extremamente difícil e inconsistente. Tentativas foram feitas no presente trabalho para verificar a variabilidade genética entre CG e CGC através de RAPD-PCR, ERIC- e REP-PCR e PCR-RFLP da região ITS rDNA. Foram utilizados 53 isolados coletados de sementes e folhas de plantas de diferentes cultivares nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, e Paraiba, entre 1999 e 2003. Baseado em testes de patogenicidade, vinte e um isolados foram classificados como CG e 32 como CGC. Os resultados obtidos por RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se oito primers, revelaram dois grupos distintos sendo que o primeiro foi formado por 94% dos isolados de sementes e o segundo por 95% dos isolados de folhas. Na análise de ERIC- e REP-PCR, resultados semelhantes a RAPD foram obtidos, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi formado por 93% dos isolados provenientes das sementes e o segundo por 78% dos isolados provenientes das folhas. Quando o produto de amplificação da região ITS rDNA foi digerido com oito enzimas de restrição, um perfil de bandas semelhante para todos os isolados foi obtido. Resultados de RAPD, ERIC- e REP-PCR demonstraram que existem diferenças genéticas entre os isolados provenientes das sementes e aqueles provenientes de parte aérea, e esses dois grupos foram claramente distintos. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados utilizando outras técnicas moleculares para a obtenção de marcadores capazes de distinguir entre isolados de CG e CGC.Cotton is attacked by Colletotrichum gossypii (CG and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Both the pathogens are transmitted by seed and their morphological distinction is extremely difficult and inconsistent. In the present study, attempts were made to verify the genetic variability among 53 isolates of CG and CGC using

  5. Exploring the bacterial microbiota associated with native South American species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, J D; Ortego, J

    2014-06-01

    Aphids harbor a variety of bacterial endosymbionts, including the obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and diverse facultative symbionts. The former supplies its host with essential amino acids. The latter are not indispensable for insect survival, but often improve their host's fitness. To date, the study of such associations was restricted to aphids of Holarctic origin. The bacterial microbiota of seven Aphis species from Argentina was investigated. The presence of B. aphidicola was assessed by specific PCR. Additional symbionts were identified through PCR with eubacterial universal primers, cloning, and sequencing of nearly complete 16S rRNA gene, intergenic spacer region, and partial 23S rRNA gene and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Infection with B. aphidicola was confirmed in every species analyzed. The facultative symbiont Serratia symbiotica was detected in Aphis malalhuina Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2003, Aphis senecionicoides Blanchard, 1944, and Aphis schinifoliae Blanchard, 1939, while Hamiltonella defensa was identified in Aphis mendocina Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2006. Arsenophonus sp. was found infecting Aphis melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999, and a new, undescribed Aphis sp. In Aphis danielae Remaudière, 1994, no facultative symbionts could be recorded. When analyzing the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree grouped the S. symbiotica, H. defensa, and Arsenophonus isolates into three well-defined clusters showing little variability among clones corresponding to the same aphid host species. This article reports for the first time the endosymbionts associated with aphids native to South America. Despite their geographic origin, the qualitative composition of their microbiota revealed no evident differences from that described for aphids in the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. A developmental stage of hyphal cells shows riboflavin overproduction instead of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2013-12-01

    The hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii develops a mycelium. Nutritional stress leads to its differentiation into sporangia. These generate spores. In parallel, the yellow pigment riboflavin is produced. Intracellularly accumulated riboflavin, made visible as a bright green fluorescence, was observed in only 60% of the hyphal cells. For the remaining 40%, it was unclear whether these cells simply export riboflavin or its biosynthesis remains down-regulated in contrast to the accumulating cells. The approach followed in this work was to convert the hyphae into protoplasts by enzymatic degradation of the cell wall. Afterwards, the protoplasts were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of riboflavin accumulation. When a reporter strain expressing lacZ under the control of the most important riboflavin biosynthesis promoter, RIB3, was used, green protoplasts were found to have more than tenfold greater reporter activity than hyaline protoplasts. This was true on the basis of total protein as well as on the basis of hexokinase specific activity, a marker for constitutive expression. These results allow the conclusion that hyphal cells of A. gossypii differ in phenotype regarding riboflavin overproduction and accumulation.

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production.

  8. Of bars and rings: Hof1-dependent cytokinesis in multiseptated hyphae of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Andreas; Philippsen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed the development of multiple septa in elongated multinucleated cells (hyphae) of the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii in which septation is apparently uncoupled from nuclear cycles. A key player for this compartmentalization is the PCH protein Hof1. Hyphae that are lacking this protein form neither actin rings nor septa but still elongate at wild-type speed. Using in vivo fluorescence microscopy, we present for the first time the coordination of cytokinesis and septation in multiseptated and multinucleated cells. Hof1, the type II myosin Myo1, the landmark protein Bud3, and the IQGAP Cyk1 form collars of cortical bars already adjacent to hyphal tips, thereby marking the sites of septation. While hyphae continue to elongate, these proteins gradually form cortical rings. This bar-to-ring transition depends on Hof1 and Cyk1 but not Myo1 and is required for actin ring assembly. The Fes/CIP4 homology (FCH) domain of Hof1 ensures efficient localization of Hof1, whereas ring integrity is conferred by the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Up to several hours after site selection, actin ring contraction leads to membrane invagination and subsequent cytokinesis. Simultaneously, a septum forms between the adjacent hyphal compartments, which do not separate. During evolution, A. gossypii lost the homologs of two enzymes essential for cell separation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Three biotechnical processes using Ashbya gossypii, Candida famata, or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, K P; Revuelta, J L; Seulberger, H

    2000-05-01

    Chemical riboflavin production, successfully used for decades, is in the course of being replaced by microbial processes. These promise to save half the costs, reduce waste and energy requirements, and use renewable resources like sugar or plant oil. Three microorganisms are currently in use for industrial riboflavin production. The hemiascomycetes Ashbya gossypii, a filamentous fungus, and Candida famata, a yeast, are naturally occurring overproducers of this vitamin. To obtain riboflavin production with the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis requires at least the deregulation of purine synthesis and a mutation in a flavokinase/FAD-synthetase. It is common to all three organisms that riboflavin production is recognizable by the yellow color of the colonies. This is an important tool for the screening of improved mutants. Antimetabolites like itaconate, which inhibits the isocitrate lyase in A. gossypii, tubercidin, which inhibits purine biosynthesis in C. famata, or roseoflavin, a structural analog of riboflavin used for B. subtilis, have been applied successfully for mutant selections. The production of riboflavin by the two fungi seems to be limited by precursor supply, as was concluded from feeding and gene-overexpression experiments. Although flux studies in B. subtilis revealed an increase both in maintenance metabolism and in the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, the major limitation there seems to be the riboflavin pathway. Multiple copies of the rib genes and promoter replacements are necessary to achieve competitive productivity.

  10. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In...-defined EU CSF region must meet the following conditions, except as noted in paragraph (h) of this...

  11. Increased production of inosine and guanosine by means of metabolic engineering of the purine pathway in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Ruben M.; Revuelta, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Inosine and guanosine monophosphate nucleotides are convenient sources of the umami flavor, with attributed beneficial health effects that have renewed commercial interest in nucleotide fermentations. Accordingly, several bacterial strains that excrete high levels of inosine and guanosine nucleosides are currently used in the food industry for this purpose. Results In the present study, we show that the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, a natural riboflavin overproducer, excretes...

  12. Comparative metabolic flux analysis of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a high riboflavin-producing mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bo-Young; Wittmann, Christoph; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the central metabolic pathway of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a riboflavin over-producing mutant strain developed in a previous study in order to characterize the riboflavin over-production pathway. (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was carried out in both strains, and the resulting data were fit to a steady-state flux isotopomer model using OpenFLUX. Flux to pentose-5-phosphate (P5P) via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was 9% higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. The flux from purine synthesis to riboflavin in the mutant strain was 1.6%, while that of the wild type strain was only 0.1%, a 16-fold difference. In addition, the flux from the cytoplasmic pyruvate pool to the extracellular metabolites, pyruvate, lactate, and alanine, was 2-fold higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. This result demonstrates that increased guanosine triphosphate (GTP) flux through the PPP and purine synthesis pathway (PSP) increased riboflavin production in the mutant strain. The present study provides the first insight into metabolic flux through the central carbon pathway in A. gossypii and sets the foundation for development of a quantitative and functional model of the A. gossypii metabolic network.

  13. Cotton resistance to ramulose and variability of Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides Resistência do algodoeiro a ramulose e variabilidade de Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fernandes do Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cultivars and 21 lines of cotton were evaluated for resistance to ramulose (Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides in a field where the disease is endemic. The seeds of each genotype were planted in 5 x 5 m plots with three replications. The lines CNPA 94-101 and 'CNPA Precoce 2'were used as standard susceptible and resistant references, respectively. The disease incidence (DI was calculated from the proportion of diseased plants in the plot. The disease index (DIn was calculated from the disease severity using a 1 to 9 scale, and was evaluated at weekly intervals starting 107 days after emergence. The data collected was used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. In general, the DIn increased linearly with time and varied from 20.0 to 57.1 and AUDPC from 567 to 1627 among the genotypes which could be clustered in to two distinct groups. The susceptible group contained two cultivars and nine lines and the resistant group contained one cultivar and 12 lines. The relationship between disease index and evaluation times was linear for the 25 genotypes tested. The line CNPA 94-101, used as susceptible standard, was the most susceptible with an average DI = 83.4, DIn = 57.1 and AUDPC = 1627.7. The line CNPA 96-08 with DI = 37.8, DIn = 20.0 and AUDPC = 567.7 was the most resistant one. Among the commercial cultivars 'IAC 22' was the most susceptible and 'CNPA Precoce 2', used as resistant standard was the most resistant. The variability in virulence of the pathogen was studied by spray inoculating nine genotypes with conidial suspensions (10(5/mL of either of the 10 isolates. The disease severity was evaluated 30 days later using a scale of 1 to 5. The virulence of the isolate was expressed by DIn. All the isolates were highly virulent but their virulence avaried for several genotypes and could be clustered in two distinct groups of less and more virulent isolates. The isolate MTRM 14 from Mato Grosso was the least

  14. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from...

  15. 9 CFR 72.9 - Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.9 Interstate... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required. 72.9 Section 72.9 Animals and Animal...

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually...... reproducing ascomycete Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a well-defined sexual cycle, in which diploid cells can undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores in response to nutrient starvation. The diploid state is a requirement for meiosis and results from fusion of two haploid cells of the opposite mating type...... negatively instead of controlling mating. In line with this, a mating partner might not be required since the multinucleate compartments could still enable nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and meiosis. The presence of karyogamy is supported by our results that deletion of the A. gossypii homologs Kar3 and Kar4...

  17. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  18. 河西走廊棉区棉蚜和棉叶螨防治技术探析%Discussion and analysis on the preventing and curing techniques of Aphis gossypii and Cotton spider mites in Gansu Corridor cotton region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南宏宇

    2010-01-01

    @@ 棉蚜和棉叶螨是河西走廊棉区两种主要虫害,在棉花整个生育期均造成为害,防治过程中化学药剂广泛持续的使用,使害虫抗性增加,为害逐年加重,造成的损失和防治成本呈逐年加大的趋势,致使植棉户植棉效益下降.文中通过对两种主要虫害防治技术影响因素的比较和分析,总结了经济有效的防治方法,从而为实际生产中高效防治棉蚜和棉叶螨提供依据.

  19. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Cokos, B A; Sala, E

    2002-06-01

    The proliferation of algae on disturbed coral reefs has often been attributed to (1) a loss of large-bodied herbivorous fishes, (2) increases in sea water nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, and (3) a loss of hard coral cover or a combination of these and other factors. We performed replicated small-scale caging experiments in the offshore lagoon of Glovers Reef atoll, Belize where three treatments had closed-top (no large-bodied herbivores) and one treatment had open-top cages (grazing by large-bodied herbivores). Closed-top treatments simulated a reduced-herbivory situation, excluding large fishes but including small herbivorous fishes such as damselfishes and small parrotfishes. Treatments in the closed-top cages included the addition of high phosphorus fertilizer, live branches of Acropora cervicornis and a third unmanipulated control treatment. Colonization, algal biomass and species composition on dead A. palmata "plates" were studied weekly for 50 days in each of the four treatments. Fertilization doubled the concentration of phosphorus from 0.35 to 0.77 microM. Closed-top cages, particularly the fertilizer and A. cervicornis additions, attracted more small-bodied parrotfish and damselfish than the open-top cages such that there was moderate levels of herbivory in closed-top cages. The open-top cages did, however, have a higher abundance of the chemically and morphologically defended erect algal species including Caulerpa cupressoides, Laurencia obtusa, Dictyota menstrualis and Lobophora variegata. The most herbivore-resistant calcareous green algae (i.e. Halimeda) were, however, uncommon in all treatments. Algal biomass increased and fluctuated simultaneously in all treatments over time, but algal biomass, as measured by wet, dry and decalcified weight, did not differ greatly between the treatments with only marginally higher biomass (p cervicornis suppressed algal colonization compared to the unmanipulated controls. Instead, the herbivore

  20. Olfactory Responses of Three Species of Ladybird Beetles to the Aphids and the Leaves of Their Host Plants%3种瓢虫对蚜虫及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进忠; 缪昆; 孙淑玲; 苏红田

    2001-01-01

    本试验测试了七星瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫和异色瓢虫对麦蚜、中国槐蚜、绣线菊蚜、棉蚜及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应.结果表明七星瓢虫对带白杨毛蚜的杨树叶片的反应比较显著,龟纹瓢虫对带绣线菊蚜的苹果叶片的反应比较显著,而异色瓢虫成虫对带有棉蚜的木槿叶片反应比较显著.%The olfactory responses of the Coccinella septempunctata Lewis, Prophlaea japonica Lewis and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) to Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius). Aphis sophoricola Zhong, Chaito phoruspopuleti (Pznzer), A. citricola van der Goot, A. gossypii Glover and their host plants were examined using a four-arm olfactometer. The results showed that the C. septempunctata Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid-infested leaves of the poplar tree and C. populeti (Pznzer) odors, P. japonica Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid: A. citricola van der Goot and the aphid-infested leaves of the apple tree and H. aryridis (Pallas) was strongly attracted towards the combination of A. gossypii Glover and the aphid-infested leaves of the rose mallow.

  1. Aphis Glycines Virus 2, a Novel Insect Virus with a Unique Genome Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a major pest in soybeans, resulting in substantial economic loss. We analyzed the A. glycines transcriptome to identify sequences derived from viruses of A. glycines. We identified sequences derived from a novel virus named Aphis glycines virus 2 (ApGlV2. The assembled virus genome sequence was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, conserved domains were characterized, and distribution, and transmission examined. This virus has a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome of ~4850 nt that encodes three proteins. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp of ApGlV2 is a permuted RdRp similar to those of some tetraviruses, while the capsid protein is structurally similar to the capsid proteins of plant sobemoviruses. ApGlV2 also encodes a larger minor capsid protein, which is translated by a readthrough mechanism. ApGlV2 appears to be widespread in A. glycines populations and to persistently infect aphids with a 100% vertical transmission rate. ApGlV2 is susceptible to the antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway. This virus, with its unique genome structure with both plant- and insect-virus characteristics, is of particular interest from an evolutionary standpoint.

  2. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  3. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Fen Zhang

    Full Text Available In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover, on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas; however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis, but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey.

  4. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  5. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  6. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  7. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  8. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals...

  9. Reciprocal interactions between native and introduced populations of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and the specialist aphid, Aphis nerii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Agrawal, A.A.; Roge, C.; Bezemer, T.M.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Following its introduction into Europe (EU), the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) has been free of most specialist herbivores that are present in its native North American (NA) range, except for the oleander aphid Aphis nerii. We compared EU and NA populations of A. nerii on EU and NA milkweed po

  10. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  11. Microbiome diversity of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) with extensive superinfection of Arsenophonus and Wolbachia in native and invasive populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction among insects and microbes can lead to either symbiotic cooperation which could promote ecological and evolutionary adaptation, or a parasitic relationship through reproductive manipulation. We characterized the microbiome of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), with the long-term goa...

  12. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e o consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 tendo Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 como presa, bem como seu comportamento de oviposição em duas cultivares de crisântemo. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas do predador com até 24 horas de idade foram colocadas individualmente em placas de petri (5 cm contendo 20 ninfas de A. gossypii (1º, 2º e 3º ínstares, as quais estavam posicionadas sobre disco foliar (4 cm de cada cultivar ('White Reagan' e'Yellow Snowdon' em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em 'White Reagan' e 'Yellow Snowdon', respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (PThis work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as weel as its oviposition behavior on two crysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25±1ºC, RH 70±10% and 12h photophase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individualy in petri dishes (5cm with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (1st, 2nd and 3rt instars on leaf disc (4cm of each cultivar ("White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon" in a layer of agar-water (1%. Petiole of each crysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. The predador complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively

  13. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se observar o efeito de diversas substâncias nitrogenadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspectos morfológicos das colônias do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa em substrato sólido. Usou-se um substrato sintético como meio-básico e a este se adicionou peptona, metionina, asparagina, nitrato de sódio ou salicilato de amônia, conforme o tratamento. A testemunha não recebeu qualquer fonte de nitrogênio. Concluiu-se que a peptona foi o melhor tratamento para esporulação e crescimento miceliano, seguindo-se a asparagina que foi eficiente na indução da esporulação. O salicilato de amônia exerceu efeito inibidor do crescimento vegetativo e da esporulação do fungo. Para produção de inóculo, a curto prazo, recomenda-se o uso da peptona como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram observadas diferenças na pigmentação, bordos e densidade das colônias. A esporulação, embora abundante em substratos contendo peptona e asparagina, ocorreu em forma de verdadeiras massas localizadas de conídios na primeira, e como conídios dispersos na segunda.

    In this experiment, the effect of different nitrogenous substances on the mycelium growth, sporulation and morphological aspects of the colonies of the fungus Colletotrichum gossypii  South Var. cephalosporoides Costa planted in a solid substrate were observed. A synthetic substrate was used as a basic medium, and to this was added peptone metionine, asparagine, sodium nitrate or ammonium salicylate, according to the treatment. The control (group received no nitrogen whatsover. It was concluded that peptone was the best treatment for sporulation and mycelium growth, and that the next best was asparagine which was helpfull in inducing sporulation. Ammonium salicylate inhibited the vegetative growth

  14. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 and plant genotype on interactions among cotton, aphids and parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Sun; Li Feng; Feng Gao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Effects of CO2 level (ambient vs.elevated) on the interactions among three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) genotypes,the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover),and its hymenoptera parasitoid (Lysiphlebiajaponica Ashrnead) were quantified.It was hypothesized that aphid-parasitoid interactions in crop systems may be altered by elevated CO2,and that the degree of change is influenced by plant genotype.The cotton genotypes had high (M9101),medium (HZ401) and low (ZMS 13) gossypol contents,and the response to elevated CO2 was genotype-specific.Elevated CO2 increased the ratio of total non-structural carbohydrates to nitrogen (TNC:N) in the high-gossypol genotype and the mediumgossypol genotype.For all three genotypes,elevated CO2 had no effect on concentrations of gossypol and condensed tannins.A.gossypii fitness declined when aphids were reared on the high-gossypol genotype versus the low-gossypol genotype under elevated CO2.Furthermore,elevated CO2 decreased the developmental time of L.japonica associated with the high-gossypol genotype and the low-gossypol genotype,but did not affect parasitism or emergence rates.Our study suggests that the abundance of A.gossypii on cotton will not be directly affected by increases in atmospheric CO2.We speculate that A.gossypii may diminish in pest status in elevated CO2 and high-gossypol genotype environments because of reduced fitness to the high-gossypol genotype and shorter developmental time of L.japonica.

  16. [Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Robson J; Bueno, Vanda H P; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2008-01-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, RH 70 +/- 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size.

  17. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  18. Functional response of the ladybird, Cydonia vicina nilotica to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NASSER SAID MANDOUR; NESREN ABDEL-SALLAM EL-BASHA; TONG-XIAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    The functional response of Cydonia vicina nilotica Muls. (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) to six densities of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs on broad bean (Vicia faba Linn.) was investigated in the laboratory. A linear relationship between the rate of consumption and prey density was observed with r2 values between 0.58 and 0.97. Plotting prey density against prey killed by four larval instars, and adult males and females of C. vicina nilotica fit well with the type Ⅱ model of Holling' s disc equation.Adult females consumed the highest number of prey, followed by fourth instars and adult males. Based on the functional response data, the model predicts a maximum of 144.9, 116.3,86.2, 80.0, 72.5 and 20.0 nymphs to be consumed per day by an individual adult female,fourth instar, adult male, third, second and first instars, respectively. The differences in the responses of the predator to aphid densities are discussed.

  19. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina Aphididae (Hemiptera en plantas ornamentales de Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Szpeiner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In 30 surveys across Cordoba city and surroundings (Argentina I recorded, from November 2001 to May 2002, a total of 109 ornamental plants infested with aphid colonies. Surveys were conducted in the local botanical garden as well as homestead gardens and nurseries. Seventeen species of aphids were identified, 4 of which are new species in the area, from 47 ornamental plants. In a total of 59 plant/aphid associations, 38 new associations were found. I present the first record of aphids colonizing Cactaceae in Argentina. Most aphid colonies were medium and a high proportion (more than 40% showed alate individuals. The most frequent aphid species, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch were especially associated with the most frequent damages: curled leaves or buds and necrosis, respectively. More than 30% of aphid colonies were attended by ants. Camponotus Mayr and Prenolepis Mayr were the ant genus attending the highest number of aphid species.En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de

  20. Septin phosphorylation and coiled-coil domains function in cell and septin ring morphology in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseroll, Rebecca A; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Septins are a class of GTP-binding proteins conserved throughout many eukaryotes. Individual septin subunits associate with one another and assemble into heteromeric complexes that form filaments and higher-order structures in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the assembly and maintenance of higher-order structures in cells remain poorly understood. Septins in several organisms have been shown to be phosphorylated, although precisely how septin phosphorylation may be contributing to the formation of high-order septin structures is unknown. Four of the five septins expressed in the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, are phosphorylated, and we demonstrate here the diverse roles of these phosphorylation sites in septin ring formation and septin dynamics, as well as cell morphology and viability. Intriguingly, the alteration of specific sites in Cdc3p and Cdc11p leads to a complete loss of higher-order septin structures, implicating septin phosphorylation as a regulator of septin structure formation. Introducing phosphomimetic point mutations to specific sites in Cdc12p and Shs1p causes cell lethality, highlighting the importance of normal septin modification in overall cell function and health. In addition to discovering roles for phosphorylation, we also present diverse functions for conserved septin domains in the formation of septin higher-order structure. We previously showed the requirement for the Shs1p coiled-coil domain in limiting septin ring size and reveal here that, in contrast to Shs1p, the coiled-coil domains of Cdc11p and Cdc12p are required for septin ring formation. Our results as a whole reveal novel roles for septin phosphorylation and coiled-coil domains in regulating septin structure and function.

  1. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  2. Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines

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    Raman Bansal, M. A. Rouf Mian, Omprakash Mittapalli, Andy P. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument; however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut. Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®, a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

  3. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  4. Transgenic Bt Cotton Does Not Disrupt the Top-Down Forces Regulating the Cotton Aphid in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Sheng; Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Gao, Xi-Wu; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Top-down force is referred to arthropod pest management delivered by the organisms from higher trophic levels. In the context of prevalent adoption of transgenic Bt crops that produce insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), it still remains elusive whether the top-down forces are affected by the insect-resistant traits that introduced into the Bt crops. We explored how Bt cotton affect the strength of top-down forces via arthropod natural enemies in regulating a non-target pest species, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, using a comparative approach (i.e. Bt cotton vs. conventional cotton) under field conditions. To determine top-down forces, we manipulated predation/parasitism exposure of the aphid to their natural enemies using exclusion cages. We found that the aphid population growth was strongly suppressed by the dominant natural enemies including Coccinellids, spiders and Aphidiines parasitoids. Coccinellids, spiders and the assemblage of other arthropod natural enemies (mainly lacewings and Hemipteran bugs) are similarly abundant in both plots, but with the parasitoid mummies less abundant in Bt cotton plots compared to the conventional cotton plots. However, the lower abundance of parasitoids in Bt cotton plots alone did not translate into differential top-down control on A. gossypii populations compared to conventional ones. Overall, the top-down forces were equally strong in both plots. We conclude that transgenic Bt cotton does not disrupt the top-down forces regulating the cotton aphid in central China. PMID:27870914

  5. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  6. Leaf temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)population growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bridget F. O'Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; Clare Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; May R. Berenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) experience physiological changes that influence their suitability as food for insects.To determine the effects of living on soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under elevated CO2,population growth of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) was determined at the SoyFACE research site at the University of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign,Illinois,USA,grown under elevated (550μL/L) and ambient (370μL/L) levels of CO2.Growth of aphid populations under elevated CO2 was significantly greater after 1 week,with populations attaining twice the size of those on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.Soybean leaves grown under elevated levels of CO2 were previously demonstrated at SoyFACE to have increased leaf temperature caused by reduced stomatal conductance.To separate the increased leaf temperature from other effects of elevated CO2,air temperature was lowered while the CO2 level was increased,which lowered overall leaf temperatures to those measured for leaves grown under ambient levels of CO2.Aphid population growth on plants grown under elevated CO2 and reduced air temperature was not significantly greater than on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.By increasing Glycine max leaf temperature,elevated CO2 may increase populations of Aphis glycines and their impact on crop productivity.

  7. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini.

  8. LIME GREEN LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE EQUIPPED YELLOW STICKY CARD TRAPS FOR MONITORING WHITEFLIES, APHIDS AND FUNGUS GNATS IN GREENHOUSES%应用附加绿黄色光二极管的黄色胶片监测温室中的粉虱、蚜虫和蕈蚊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌祺; Alvin M. Simmons; 陈天业; Patrick J. Alexander; Thomas J. Henneerry

    2004-01-01

    绿黄色光二极管(LED)附加在塑胶杯和胶片捕捉器可增加捕捉实验室和温室中昆虫的数量.附加有530nm绿黄色LED的塑胶杯捕捉器比没有附加的捕捉到更多的Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood)和Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)B生态型.在温室中昆虫笼以四季豆和棉花试验,附加有530nm绿黄色LED的黄色胶片(YC)和透明塑胶片(CS)分别缩写为LED-YC和LED-CS)比每一种没有附加的捕捉器捕捉到更多的T. vaporariorum,B.tabaci B生态型,Ahis gossypii(Glover)和Bradysia coprophila(Lintner)成虫.绿黄色LED-YC在温室中有用为监测和控制的潜在性.%Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were attached to plastic cup and sticky card traps to improve Pest insect catches in the laboratory and in greenhouses. Plastic cup traps equipped with 530 nm lime green LEDs caught more adult Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B compared with plastic cup traps alone. Yellow sticky card (YC) and clear plastic sticky card (CS) traps equipped with lime green LEDs (LED-YC and LED-CS, respectively) caught more adult T. vaporariorum, B. tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover) and Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) compared with unlit traps of each type in greenhouse cage studies with shell beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). The lime green LED equipped YC traps have potential for use in greenhouses for insect detection,monitoring, and control.

  9. APHiD: Hierarchical Task Placement to Enable a Tapered Fat Tree Topology for Lower Power and Cost in HPC Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelogiannakis, George; Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Shalf, John; Wilke, Jeremiah J.; Knight, Samuel; Kenny, Joseph P.

    2017-05-14

    The power and procurement cost of bandwidth in system-wide networks has forced a steady drop in the byte/flop ratio. This trend of computation becoming faster relative to the network is expected to hold. In this paper, we explore how cost-oriented task placement enables reducing the cost of system-wide networks by enabling high performance even on tapered topologies where more bandwidth is provisioned at lower levels. We describe APHiD, an efficient hierarchical placement algorithm that uses new techniques to improve the quality of heuristic solutions and reduces the demand on high-level, expensive bandwidth in hierarchical topologies. We apply APHiD to a tapered fat-tree, demonstrating that APHiD maintains application scalability even for severely tapered network configurations. Using simulation, we show that for tapered networks APHiD improves performance by more than 50% over random placement and even 15% in some cases over costlier, state-of-the-art placement algorithms.

  10. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  11. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  12. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina

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    Alfonsina SZPEINER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de especies de áfidos.

  13. Effect of plant traps and sowing dates on population density of major soybean pests

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    Youssef E.Y. Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of certain field crops as plant traps in soybean fields. Maize, mungbean and sunflower were sown on the borders of soybean fields to investigate their ability to attract Lampides boeticus L., Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, aphids [Aphis gossypii (Glover & Aphis craccivora (Koch] and Nezara viridula L. away from soybean plants. Results revealed that sowing either maize or sunflower at the borders of soybean fields was not effective in reducing infestation with L. boeticus. On the other hand, surrounding the borders of soybean field with maize or mungbean might offer a reliable protection against the infestation with B. tabaci. When soybean was surrounded by a mixture of maize, mungbean and sunflower, it escaped from aphid infestation. Soybean plants surrounded by mungbean were more liable to be attacked by N. viridula individuals as compared with the other treatments where soybean plants were surrounded by maize, sunflower, mixture of the three plant traps, or soybean alone.

  14. 闽南番石榴树冠节肢动物群落的结构和动态%The Structure and Dynamic of Arthropod Communities of Guava Orchards in South Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梅香; 傅建炜; 占志雄; 李建宇; 张莉; 邱良妙; 刘长明

    2011-01-01

    2006年8月至2007年8月对惠安番石榴园树冠节肢动物群落结构特征及群落特征的时序动态进行了研究.结果表明,树冠节肢动物共采集到2纲、16目、100科总计218种,其中害虫116种、天敌61种、中性昆虫41种.害虫优势种为桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)和棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover,天敌优势种为细纹猫蛛Oxyopes macilentus L.Koch和大草蛉Chrysopa septempunctata Wesmael.节肢动物群落的物种丰富度、个体丰盛度、多样性指数、均匀度指数和优势集中性指数等特征随季节的更替发生波动.%The arthropod community structure and dynamics of guava orchards were studied in Huian County,Fujian Province from August 2006 to August 2007. The results showed that 218 arthropod species of tree crown were recorded, which belonged to 100 families of 16 orders in Insecta and Arachnoidea. Of them, 116 species of pests, 61 species of natural enemies and 41 species of neutral insects were included. The dominant pests were Bactrocera dorsalis and Aphis gossypii, and the dominant natural enemies were Oxyopes macilentas and Chrysopa septempunctata The richness, individual, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration of arthropod community index fluctuated with the change of season.

  15. 几种蚜虫对吡虫啉抗药性的研究%Studies on Resistance of 3 Species of Aphids to Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文亮; 党志红; 高占林; 贾海民; 张克锦

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity of Aphis gossypii, A. spiraeccla and Macrosi phum avenae in various places of Hebei province to imidacloprid were determine d. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the sensitiv ity of Aphis gossypii and Macrosiphum avenae to the insecticide among th e various places, but the sensitivity of A. spiraeccla in Xinji Changli and Qingyuan were 2.02~4.13 times lower than that in Yixian. It suggests a possiblil ity of imidacloprid-resistance of A. spiraeccla in some places. A strain of Aphis gossypii was selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for 7 months, a nd its sensitivity was 4.5 times reduced .

  16. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

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    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  17. Colonization of the biomass energy crop miscanthus by the three aphid species, Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulette, Q; Couty, A; Lasue, P; Rambaud, Z C; Ameline, A

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial C4-grass that has received much interest as a potential of impact on the local agroecosytem. In this context, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potential colonization of this new exotic plant species by three of the main aphid pest species of common crops in Picardie, northern France. In host preference experiments, the two polyphagous aphid species studied, Aphis fabae (Scop) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), exhibited an xclusive preference for their host plant, whereas the cereal specialist Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) showed no preference between its host plant and miscanthus. When assessed by electrical penetration graph technique, plant tissue probing activity by all three species always was characterized by pathway phases including potential drops that are typically associated to the transmission of noncirculative viruses. Phloem ingestion was observed in 5% of the polyphagous aphid individuals tested and in 20% of the R. padi tested. Aphids kept in clip-cages on miscanthus had a low survival rate and were unable to reproduce. These results demonstrate that miscanthus is not a suitable host for these three main aphid pest species but could act as a potential host for some viruses transmitted in a noncirculative manner and also in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The use of miscanthus as a barrier crop to limit the flow of aphid vectors and their phytoviruses is discussed.

  18. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

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    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  19. Core RNAi Machinery and Sid1, a Component for Systemic RNAi, in the Hemipteran Insect, Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Michel, Andy P

    2013-02-08

    RNA interference (RNAi) offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2), Argonaute2 (Ago2), and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS) showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain) regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.

  20. Core RNAi Machinery and Sid1, a Component for Systemic RNAi, in the Hemipteran Insect, Aphis glycines

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    Raman Bansal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi offers a novel tool to manage hemipteran pests. For the success of RNAi based pest control in the field, a robust and systemic RNAi response is a prerequisite. We identified and characterized major genes of the RNAi machinery, Dicer2 (Dcr2, Argonaute2 (Ago2, and R2d2 in Aphis glycines, a serious pest of soybean. The A. glycines genome encodes for at least one copy of Dcr2, R2d2 and Ago2. Comparative and molecular evolution analyses (dN/dS showed that domain regions of encoded proteins are highly conserved, whereas linker (non-domain regions are diversified. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the RNAi machinery of A. glycines is more similar to that of Tribolium casteneum as compared to that of Drosophila melanogaster. We also characterized Sid1, a major gene implicated in the systemic response for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Through qPCR, Dcr2, R2d2, Ago2, and Sid1 were found to be expressed at similar levels in various tissues, but higher expression of Dcr2, R2d2, and Ago2 was seen in first and second instars. Characterization of RNAi pathway and Sid1 in A. glycines will provide the foundation of future work for controlling one of the most important insect pests of soybean in North America.

  1. Identification of novel resistance gene sources to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, H; Ishiyaku, M F

    2013-08-01

    The development of cowpea aphid larvae was monitored on seven cowpea genotypes (IAR-48, TVu-15866, IT84S-2246-4, SAKA BABBA SATA, IT90K-76, KANANNADO and TVX 3236). The aim of the study was to determine the developmental response of the larvae as an indication of antibiotic resistance of the genotypes. Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed with respect to fertility, larval development, adult longevity, life span, multiplication rate and intrinsic rate of increase. KANANNADO and TVX 3236 show minimum antibiotic effects while a landrace SAKA BABBA SATA shows relatively high antibiotic effects. This result further reveals the potential of SAKA BABBA SATA as a resistance source to aphid. The reaction of IT84S-2246-4, a hitherto aphid resistant genotype, which supported higher levels of survival of the larvae relative to other known susceptible genotype IAR-48, may be an indication of the presence of a new biotype of Aphis craccivora endemic to Zaria environs, or that of the ability of insects to overcome hindrances to their survival including various forms of resistance.

  2. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  3. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Mohammad Rouhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L. shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using them, insecticidal solutions of different concentrations were prepared and tested on A. nerii. For comparison purposes, imidacloprid was also used as a conventional insecticide. In the experiments, the LC50 value for imidacloprid, Ag and Ag-Zn nanoparticles were calculated to be 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, and 539.46 mg mL-1, respectively. The result showed that Ag nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of A. nerii. Additionally, the study showed that imidacloprid at 1 μL mL-1 and nanoparticles at 700 mg mL-1 had the highest insect mortality effect.El áfido de la adelfa, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, es una de las plagas más comunes de plantas ornamentales en las familias Apocynaceae y Sclepiadaceae y tiene distribución mundial, ha sido responsable de la mortalidad de un gran número de arbustos de adelfa (Nerium oleander L. cada ano. En este estudio se investigó la actividad insecticida de nanopartículas de Ag contra A. nerii. Nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn fueron sintetizadas a través de un método solvotérmico, y con ellas se prepararon soluciones insecticidas de diferentes concentraciones y se probaron contra A. nerii. Con fines de comparación, también se usó imidacloprid como un insecticida convencional. En los experimentos, el valor LC50 para imidacloprid, nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn se calculó como 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, y 539.46 mg mL-1, respectivamente. El resultado mostró que nanopart

  4. 马齿苋提取物对枸杞蚜虫毒杀和拒食活性的研究%Study on the Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity of Extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. on Aphis sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永锋

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment studied on insecticidal and antifeedant action of on Portulaca oleracea L. to provide theoretical basis for developing a new botanical insecticide by taking Portulaca oleracea L. as a raw material. [Method] The insecticidal activities of the ethanol extracts and 5 kinds of extracts with petroleum ether , chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol ,water from Portulaca oleracea L..against Aphis sp. was studied;Leaves are using drug treatments of 5 extracts anti-feedant activity of Aphis sp. [Result] The results showed that 95% ethanol extract displayed high contact activity to Aphis sp. The corrected mortality after 48 h reached 95.4 % under the concentration of 50.00 mg·ml-1 and the insecticidal activities of 5 extracts against Aphis sp. was in the order that petroleum ether > chloroform > n-butanol > ethyl acetate >water. Five kinds of anti-feeding activity in the extract of the order for the water> ethyl acetate> n-butanol > chloroform >petroleum ether. [Conclusion] The extract from Portulaca oleracea L. has a strong contact toxicity of pesticide active on Aphis sp. substances and for a small polar compounds, the strong anti-feeding activity is a kind of larger polar compounds.

  5. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J; McCarville, Michael T; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America.

  6. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of soluble trehalase gene in Aphis glycines, a migratory pest of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    In insects, the enzyme trehalase plays a crucial role in energy metabolism, chitin synthesis and possibly during plant-insect interactions. We have characterized a soluble trehalase gene (Tre-1) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, a serious migratory pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of Tre-1 in A. glycines (AyTre-1) was 2550 bp long with an open reading frame of 1770 bp that encoded for a 589 amino acid residues protein. Sequence assessment and phylogenetic analysis of the putative protein suggested that the selected cDNA belongs to soluble trehalase group. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in different tissues and developmental stages revealed peak mRNA levels of AyTre-1 in the gut (compared with other tissues assayed) and highest expression in the second instar compared with the other developmental stages assayed. Interestingly, a significantly increased expression of AyTre-1 (1.9-fold, P < 0.05) was observed in the alate morphs compared with that in apterate morphs. However, there was no significant difference in AyTre-1 expression in A. glycines-nymphs fed with resistant and susceptible plants. Expression patterns identified in this study provide a platform to investigate the role of AyTre-1 in physiological activities such as flight and feeding in A. glycines. The characterization of soluble trehalase gene may help to develop novel strategies to manage A. glycines using trehalase inhibitors and using RNA interference for knock-down of AyTre-1 expression.

  7. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes.

  8. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  9. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  10. BIOEFFICACY OF CYANTRANILIPROLE 10% OD-AN ANTHRANILIC DIAMIDE INSECTICIDE AGAINST SUCKING PESTS OF COTTON

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    R. D. PATEL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 in order to evaluate the field bio-efficacy of a newer molecule cyantraniliprole 10% OD (Cyazypyr @ 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 g a.i./ ha along with indoxacarb 14.5 SC (Avaunt @ 75 g a.i./ha and endosulfan 35 EC (Thiodan @ 350 g a.i./ha as standard checks against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover; thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. The two higher doses of cyantraniliprole 10% OD i.e. 90 and 105 g a.i./ha was found highly effective in managing the population of aphid, thrips and whitefly during both the year compared to endosulfan and indoxacarb. The seed cotton yield was recorded significantly higher in treatments cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 (31.97 q/ha and 105 (33.33 q/ha g a.i./ha with an increase of 50.80 and 52.81 per cent over untreated control, respectively. Considering the bio-efficacy and yield, cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 g a.i./ha is recommended for effective control of sucking pests in cotton ecosystem.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  12. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  13. Organic fertilization affecting pests and production of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L.D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of four levels of organic fertilization (0, 3, 6 and 9 kg m-2 to produce the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea and its pests. A higher number of red mite Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychiidae was observed on the abaxial face of the median and basal leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. On the other hand, the smallest number of this mite was noted in control (0 kg m-2. L. sidoides cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization produced a greater quantity of essential oil. The highest number of mealy bug Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was observed on the apical leaves (both leaf surfaces of L. sidoides plants with nine and ten weeks of age cultivated with 3 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. No significant effect of the organic fertilization on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae was detected. However, a greater number of this aphid and of its predator Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae was observed on the abaxial face of the bottom leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age. The dose of organic fertilization recommended for the production of essential oil of L. Sidoides is 6 kg m-2, however, one must pay attention to the fact this dosage favors the attack by Tetranychus sp.. And, when needed, pulverization must always be directed to the lower surface of the leaf.

  14. Studies on Selective Toxicity of Actara WG Between Cotton aphid and Ladybirds%阿克泰等杀虫剂对棉蚜和瓢虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永生; 赵芳; 冯宏祖; 张萍

    2008-01-01

    在室内分别测定了阿克泰、赛丹和功夫3种杀虫剂对棉蚜Aphis gossypii (Glover)、十一星瓢虫Coccinella undecimpanctata(linnaceus)和多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegate(Goeze)的毒力;比较了药剂在两种瓢虫和棉蚜间的选择毒力比(STR),以及两种药剂之间选择性差异.结果表明:阿克泰对棉蚜的毒力较高.LC50为6.5426mg/L,阿克泰在十一星瓢虫和棉蚜之间、多异瓢虫和棉蚜之间的选择毒力比(STR)值分别是154.28和105.98,表现出显著的毒力选择性.而功夫STR值均较小(4.39-4.69),表明对两种瓢虫有较低的选择性.由此证明,阿克泰不仅对棉蚜毒力高,对两种天敌瓢虫杀伤力较小,具有较高的安全性.

  15. Studies on the Host Biotypes and Its Cause of Cotton Aphid in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-dong; ZHAI Bao-ping; ZHANG Xiao-xi

    2002-01-01

    The fitness of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on different host plants was studied. The results showed that the cotton aphid population in Nanjing formed host preference bio-types on cucumber and cotton. The aphids from cotton and cucumber could not inter-transplant successfully between the two host plants. The apterous and alate offspring of stem mother from hibiscus could not survive, reproduce and form population normally when they were transplanted to cucumber and water melon, but they could form normally when transplanted to cotton and muskmelon. There was no significant difference between the stylet length of cotton aphids from cucumber and cotton, so the stylet length was not the cause of the host preference. When the aphids originated on hibiscus were transplanted to cotton, water melon and muskmelon, the stylet could reach host phloem to absorb host plant's nutrients, but it couldn't when transplanted to cucumber. Cotton aphid can feed on muskmelon without secretion of water-soluble saliva. It could be concluded that the two host biotypes of cotton aphid came from different winter host plants.

  16. Energy budgets of the Chinese green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and its potential for biological control of the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GAO; XIANG-HUI LIU; FENG GE

    2007-01-01

    Energy budgets of larval stages of the Chinese green lacewing, Chrysopa sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were determined under laboratory conditions at photoperiod of 14:10 L:D, 27±1℃ and 75%±2% RH. The energy used as ingestion,assimilation, respiration, productivity and feces was constructed for each developmental stage. In addition, under these experimental conditions, the potential of C.sinica as a biological control agent was evaluated according to the ingestion by this predator and the energy content of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The larval stage of C. sinica was able to consume 1281.4 1-day-old aphids, 1018.7 2-day-old aphids,626.9 3-day-old aphids, 393.5 4-day-old aphids, 312.1 5-day-old aphids or 203.5 9-day-old aphids, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the estimated number of aphids consumed by the lacewings using energetic methods and the actual number of aphids consumed by the lacewings in this experiment. Our results showed that C. sinica is an important natural enemy of the cotton aphid, and energetic methods are very useful to quantify biological control efficacy of natural enemies.

  17. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

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    John Scott Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  18. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE O FUNGO colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE INCUBATION ON THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypi SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura de incubação sobre o crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e morfologia da colônia do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa, em substrato de batata + dextrose + agar, pH 5,6. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados e as temperaturas variaram de 12 a 33°C, a intervalos de 3° C. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de incubação afeta notavelmente o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a morfologia da colônia do fungo. Temperaturas acima da faixa ótima provocaram modificações mais acentuadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspecto morfológico, do que temperaturas baixas. Conídios produzidos em temperaturas extremas, 12 a 33°C, mostraram-se mais curtos que os dos demais tratamentos. A incubação à temperatura de 27°C é a mais recomendável para produção de inóculos em quantidade.

    In this work, the effect of temperature of incubation on the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of the fungus colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa in substrate containing potato + dextrose + agar pH 5.6, was studied. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, with temperatures varying from 12 to 33 degrees centigrades, at intervals of 3°C. It was concluded that the temperature of incubation notably affects the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of this fungus. Temperatures above the optimum range caused greater changes in mycelial, sporulation an morphology of the colony than temperatures below this range. Conidia produced at l2 and 33°C were shown to be shorter than those in other treatments. The temperature of incubation recommended for inocule production was 27°C.

  19. Toxicity of Synergistic Imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch%增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀玲; 李艳波; 刘月; 冷阳; 张一宾

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的毒力.[方法]采用浸渍法测定了2种增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的24 h致死作用,同时以市售的35%吡虫啉悬浮剂为对照.[结果]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4防治豆蚜的效果最佳,其LC50值为5.2673 mg/L;其次为31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-1,LC50值为7.7441 mg/L;35%吡虫啉悬浮剂的LC50值为10.563 0 mg/L,豆蚜对其的敏感性相对较低.[结论]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4和SE-1是2个良好的制剂产品,具有减量同效的应用价值,可将其进一步用于田间试验.%[Aims] Toxicity of synergistic imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch was studied. [Methods] The 24 h-lethal effect of synergistic imidacloprid were determined by impregnation method, and the commercial imidacloprid 35% SC as control [Results] The results showed that synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 31 % SC had the highest control efficacy with LC50 of 5.2673 mg/L, followed by synergistic imidacloprid SE-1 31% SC with LC50 of 7.7441 mg/L. The LC^of imidacloprid 35% SC was 10.5630 mg/L, and had low toxicity to Aphis craccivora Koch. [Conclusions] The control efficacy of low-dose synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 and SE-1 31% SC were similar to that of high-dose imidacloprid 35% SC, They were good formulations and could be used in field trials.

  20. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  1. The endosymbiont Arsenophonus is widespread in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, but does not provide protection from parasitoids or a fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Wulff

    Full Text Available Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is infected with the symbiont Arsenophonus sp., which has an unknown role in its aphid host. Our research goals were to document the infection frequency and diversity of the symbiont in field-collected soybean aphids, and to determine whether Arsenophonus is defending soybean aphid against natural enemies. We performed diagnostic PCR and sequenced four Arsenophonus genes in soybean aphids from their native and introduced range to estimate infection frequency and genetic diversity, and found that Arsenophonus infection is highly prevalent and genetically uniform. To evaluate the defensive role of Arsenophonus, we cured two aphid genotypes of their natural Arsenophonus infection through ampicillin microinjection, resulting in infected and uninfected isolines within the same genetic background. These isolines were subjected to parasitoid assays using a recently introduced biological control agent, Binodoxys communis [Braconidae], a naturally recruited parasitoid, Aphelinus certus [Aphelinidae], and a commercially available biological control agent, Aphidius colemani [Braconidae]. We also assayed the effect of the common aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere & Hennebert Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, on the same aphid isolines. We did not find differences in successful parasitism for any of the parasitoid species, nor did we find differences in P. neoaphidis infection between our treatments. Our conclusion is that Arsenophonus does not defend its soybean aphid host against these major parasitoid and fungal natural enemies.

  2. Repellent Activity of Extracts of Wild Rice Species against Panonychus citri and Aphis citricola in Associated with Esterase Isoenzyme in Insests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Shu-qing; LIU Xiang-fa; FENG Guo-zhong; PAN Da-jian

    2006-01-01

    Six species of wild rice with different ecophenotypes including Oryza grandiglumis (E6-1, E6-3 / 6-4), O. minuta (E13-9,E13-13), O. officinalis (E15-8, E15-13), O. punctata (E16-1, E16-3, E1 6-13), O. granulata (E7-4), and O. latifolia (101392, E9-1, E9-10)were extracted with methnol and the repellent activity of the extracts against the two insects Aphis citricola and Panonychus citri were studied. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 showed higher repellent rate to the two insects than those of the other species. The repellent rates of the extracts of E15-8 to P. citriand A. citricola were 83.26% and 87.86% at 5×104 μg/mL in 24 h and 87.95% and 82.43% in 48 h, respectively. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 had the effect of inhibition to the esterase of the two insects.

  3. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  4. 宁夏枸杞蚜虫发生规律及其气象等级预报%Occurrence of Aphis sp. on Lycium barbarum L. and Its Meteorological Grades Forecast in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张宗山; 马力文; 黄峰; 卫建国; 张玉兰

    2015-01-01

    根据人工气候箱内不同温度条件下2次枸杞蚜虫饲养试验,确定枸杞蚜虫发育起始温度,建立蚜虫发育速率与温度的关系方程,以5.0℃作为枸杞蚜虫发育的起点温度,利用该方程对1991-2012年宁夏枸杞蚜虫繁衍动态和全年可繁殖世代数进行推算。根据2006-2008年田间蚜虫调查的虫口密度与气象因子建立的统计关系,确定枸杞蚜虫发生程度的气象指标和为害等级预报模型,并用2012年中宁田间调查情况进行验证。结果表明,宁夏枸杞蚜虫平均起始发生期为3月27日,终止时间为10月下旬,全年可繁殖21~25代,为害高峰时段为第3~12代,干旱、晴天条件下枸杞蚜虫更易发展,多雨、高湿环境抑制枸杞蚜虫的发展。预报模型回代准确率88.2%,异地检验准确率100%,效果良好,说明模型和气象指标可用于监测、预测枸杞蚜虫的繁殖世代数和为害的气象等级。%The initial growth temperature of aphis sp. was defined according to 2 feeding experiments under different temperature treatments in the HGP ̄280H type climatic cabinet,the equation between growth rate of aphis sp. and temperature was established based on the initial growth temperature. The breeding date of each generation and annual total generations from 1991 to 2012 were estimated by using the equation,taking 5. 0℃ as aphis sp. initial growth threshold temperature. The meteorological indicators and prediction model on aphis sp. hazard grades were determined, according to the statistic relationship between population density and its meteorological factors from 2006 to 2008,and verified by using investigated data in Zhongning in 2012. The result showed that the average initial occurring date of aphis sp. was on March 27 and ending date was in later of October. Aphis sp. could breeding 21 ̄23 generations each year, of which 3 ̄12 generations was serious damaged. Drying and sunshine was

  5. Inhibitional effects of metal Zn²⁺ on the reproduction of Aphis medicaginis and its predation by Harmonia axyridis.

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    Guoqiang Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contamination, including metals, can disturb the reproductive processes of many organisms, including both prey and predatory insects. However, there is virtually no information on the effects of high level Zinc (Zn pollution on aphids and ladybirds. The high concentrations of Zn²⁺ or Zn pollution inhibit reproduction in the phytophagous aphid, Aphis medicaginis, and the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis could provide important information. RESULTS: It was observed in this study that Zn concentrations in Vicia faba (broad bean seeds and seedlings in all Zn²⁺ treatments were significantly higher than that in the control group, and increased with increasing Zn²⁺ concentrations in the solution. The rate of reproduction in A. medicaginis declined significantly (p<0.05 over time in the five groups fed on broad bean seedlings treated with different concentrations of Zn²⁺ solution compared with the control group. These results showed that higher concentrations of Zn²⁺ significantly inhibited the reproductive capacity of A. medicaginis. We also cloned and identified a gene encoding vitellogenin (Vg from A. medicaginis, which has an important role in vitellogenesis, and therefore, reproduction was affected by exposure to Zn²⁺. Expression of AmVg was reduced with increasing exposure to Zn²⁺ and also in the F1-F3 generations of aphids exposed to different Zn²⁺ concentrations. Predation by H. axyridis was also reduced in aphids exposed to high-levels of Zn²⁺. Similarly, ovipositioning by H. axyridis was also reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Zn²⁺ can significantly affect the reproductive capacity of both A. medicaginis and its predator H. axyridis, the former through effects on the expression of AmVg and the latter through avoidance of aphids containing high levels of Zn²⁺.

  6. Predators of the Alfalfa Aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, Aphis craccivora Koch, and Therioaphis trifolii (Monell (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea as Determined by the Serological Technique

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    Suzan Cunha

    2016-08-01

    Resumo. A serologia é uma técnica imunológica baseada em reações antígeno/anticorpo, em que suas principais vantagens são a alta sensibilidade e especificidade que permitem o reconhecimento biológico em nível molecular. Este trabalho avalia o uso da técnica serológica para determinar os predadores dos pulgões da alfafa, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, Aphis craccivora Koch e Therioaphis trifolii (Monell (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea. As coletas dos pulgões para a obtenção dos anticorpos e de seus possíveis predadores para serem utilizados como antígenos foram realizadas nos campos de alfafa da Unidade da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP. no período de agosto de 2011 a julho de 2012. Foram testados 2.161 artrópodes predadores, incluindo insetos e aranhas. Os anticorpos obtidos para os pulgões A. craccivora, A. pisum, e T. trifolii mostraram identidade parcial mas, ainda assim, permitiu reconhecer os predadores dos pulgões da alfafa. Dentre os insetos, sirfídeos e crisopídeos foram os que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de resultados positivos nos testes serológicos. A. craccivora foi o afídeo mais consumido pelos predadores.

  7. 不同杀虫剂对花生蚜毒力及拌种控制效果研究%Toxicities and Control Effects of Clothianidin and Other Insectcides to Aphis craccivora by the Seed Dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丹; 刘磊; 渠成; 薛明

    2015-01-01

    To define the toxicity of clothianidin and other 8 insectcides to Aphis craccivora , the toxicities to Aphis craccivora were detected using the insect-dip bioassay method.The effects of pot and field experiment to Aphis craccivora were also studied.The results showed that the toxicities of clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam against Aphis craccivora were 49.2, 40.7, 26.6 and 26.1 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.Followed by imidacloprid, beta-cyper-methrin, cyfluthrin were 7.5, 6.7 and 6.4 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.And the toxic-itiy of pyridaben was 3.9 times of chlorpyrifos.Pot test results showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were all over 89% when given the dose of 240g /100kg 50 days later.The results of field efficacy showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid were all up to 100% 25 days later, and were 87.07%~92.67% 45 days later.Clothiani-din had the best control effect to Aphis craccivora , while the control effect of chlorpyrifos was very poor.Clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid had excellent control effects to Aphis craccivora with seed dressing, and could control underground pests and protect the natural enemy effectively.%为明确噻虫胺等9种杀虫剂对花生蚜虫的毒力和拌种处理对花生蚜虫的控制效果,采用浸渍法进行了室内毒力测定,并进行了盆栽和田间药剂拌种防治试验。结果表明,以新烟碱类噻虫胺、吡虫啉、啶虫脒和噻虫嗪对蚜虫的毒力最高,其毒力分别是毒死蜱的49.2、40.7、26.6和26.1倍;其次是吡蚜酮、高效氯氰菊酯和氯氟氰菊酯,哒螨灵的毒力是毒死蜱的3.9倍。盆栽药剂拌种处理后50d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对花生蚜的防效达仍在89%以上。田间拌种处理后25d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对蚜虫的防效均达100%,药后45d 防效达87.07%~92.67%,其中以噻虫胺防效

  8. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

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    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant

  9. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

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    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  10. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  11. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

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    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  12. Nutrientes afetando as mudas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e seus artrópodes Nutrients affecting "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides Cham. seedlings and their arthropods

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    F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da omissão de nutrientes nas mudas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae e seu possível efeito sobre os seus artrópodes, sendo os tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 completo 1 adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, e Zn + calagem (C1; 3 completo 2: C1 sem calagem + Ca e Mg como sulfato (C2; 4 C1 sem calagem; 5 C1 sem N; 6 C1 sem P; 7 C1 sem K; 8 C1 sem S; 9 C1 sem B; 10 C1 sem Cu; 11 C1 sem Zn; 12 C2 sem Ca e 13 C2 sem Mg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. O Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae atacou mais os tratamentos 3, 6, 9 e 13 e os maiores danos nos tratamentos 6 e 13. A maior população de Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae foi encontrada nos tratamentos 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13, colonizando preferencialmente o tratamento 4. O Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae foi encontrado em maior número nos tratamentos 4 e 9 e Insignorthezia insignis (Browne (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae em 13. Foram mais notados adultos de Bemisa tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae nos tratamentos 5, 7, 8 e 13 e ninfas nos três últimos tratamentos. Em geral, os tratamentos 1, 5 e 10 são os menos atacados por artrópodes. Dirigir a pulverização, quando necessário, sempre para a face inferior da folha.The aim of this work was to evaluate nutrient omission effect on Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea seedlings, as well as its possible effect on their arthropods. Treatments were: 1 control; 2 complete 1: fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, and Zn + lime (C1; 3 complete 2: C1 without lime + Ca and Mg as sulphate (C2; 4 C1 without lime; 5 C1 without N; 6 C1 without P; 7 C1 without K; 8 C1 without S; 9 C1 without B; 10 C1 without Cu; 11 C1 without Zn; 12 C2 without Ca; and 13 C2 without Mg. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae predominantly attacked treatments 3, 6, 9 and 13, and the greatest damages were detected

  13. Presence of the Aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on Strawberry in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia CÉDOLA; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this ...

  14. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  15. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

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    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  16. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  17. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

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    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  18. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  19. Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens.

  20. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andja Vucetic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  1. Growth,development and adult fecundity of Chrysoperla carnea feeding on different larval diets%猎物对普通草蛉发育和繁殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提·亚生; 阿克旦·吾外士; 牙生·沙力; 刘建; 阿孜古丽·热依木; 丁瑞丰

    2015-01-01

    为探讨不同猎物对普通草蛉[Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)]幼虫生长发育和成虫繁殖能力的影响,研究了普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)、萝卜蚜[Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)]、榆长斑蚜[Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky)]、截形叶螨(Tetranychus truncatus Ehara)、枸杞木虱(Poratrioza sinica Yang & Li)和麦蛾[Si-totroga cerealella (Olivier)]卵共6种食物时的生长发育和成虫繁殖能力。结果表明:幼虫取食棉蚜发育历期最短,为(9.66±0.13)d、取食麦蛾卵发育历期最长,为(11.35±0.26)d;取食麦蛾卵时蛹期最短,为(7.33±0.16)d、取食萝卜蚜时蛹期最长,为(8.85±0.25)d;幼虫取食棉蚜死亡率最低,为(20.05±0.2)%、取食萝卜蚜时死亡率最高,为(31.25±0.52)%;幼虫取食截形叶螨不能完成幼虫期生长发育;幼虫取食棉蚜时蛹最重,为(8.27±0.20)mg,取食枸杞木虱时蛹最轻,为(7.28±0.18)mg;幼虫取食枸杞木虱时羽化率最低,为(69.29±0.79)%、取食萝卜蚜时羽化率最高,为(77.25±1.94)%;幼虫取食麦蛾卵时雌虫寿命最长,为(71.54±1.87)d、取食榆长斑蚜时雌虫寿命最短,为(57.35±3.66)d。幼虫取食不同食物对普通草蛉成虫产卵前期和产卵量无显著影响。幼虫食物是影响普通草蛉生长发育和繁殖能力的重要因素之一,普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜最适合其生长发育和繁殖。%In order to explore the influences of different larval diets on the growth and reproductive capacity of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens),the growth,development and adult fecundity of the lacewing C .car-nea were investigated by feeding the lacewing larvae with the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach),Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky),Tetranychus truncatus ,Poratrioza sinica Yang

  2. Toxicity of fifteen strains of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis glycines%球孢白僵菌对大豆蚜毒力的室内生物学测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴磊; 张正坤; 徐文静; 刘影; 王金刚; 李启云

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of fifteen strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ( Bals. ) Vuill. To Aphis glycines Matsumura was determined. All tested strains were toxic to A. Glycines and obvious differences in the mortality rates achieved by the different strains were positively correlated with spore concentration and treatment time. Strain S14 - X - 1 had the highest amount of toxic isolates.%对来源于吉林省不同地区的15株球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana( Bals.) Vuill.菌种对大豆蚜Aphisglycines Matsumura毒力进行了室内生物学测定.所有供试菌株对大豆蚜虫均有一定的致病性,杀虫效率差异明显,杀虫效率与孢子浓度和作用时间均呈正相关.通过对大豆蚜毒力室内生物学测定结果的综合分析,菌株S14-X-1为毒力较高菌株,具有进一步研究应用价值.

  3. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  4. Effect of 3 Kinds of Low-toxicity Insecticides to Aphis glycines and Its Security to Ladybug%3种药剂对大豆蚜的防治效果及其天敌瓢虫的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 王芊

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 3 kinds of low-toxicity insecticides to Aphis glycines, and its security to ladybug, were tested under laboratory and field cage conditions. The results showed that Imidaclopridv, Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax all had excellent effect on Aphis glycines. Two different concentration of Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax almost showed harmless to ladybug, but two concentration of Imidaclopridv were all harmful to ladybug to some extent. Based on the security and toxicity of 3 insecticides to ladybug and Aphis glycines, Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax are the best insecticides to be used, especially when ladybugs are abundant in the fields or cooperating with releasing ladybugs artificially.%通过室内和田间罩网试验,测试了吡虫啉、吡蚜酮和矿物油3种低毒药剂对大豆蚜的防治效果及其天敌瓢虫的安全性。研究结果表明,3种药剂对大豆蚜的速杀效果都很好,但是吡虫啉的2种选用浓度对瓢虫表现出一定的有害性,而吡蚜酮和矿物油所用浓度对瓢虫均无明显危害。根据3种药剂对大豆蚜的防效和瓢虫的安全性,吡蚜酮和矿物油的选择毒性最好,推荐需在天敌瓢虫多的季节或配合人工释放天敌瓢虫联合使用。

  5. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  6. Adaptation of the dwarf forms of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines to environment and impact on soybean yield%大豆蚜对环境的适应及对大豆产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国庆; 陈彦; 王兴亚; 刘培斌; 徐蕾; 赵彤华

    2011-01-01

    The population dynamics of the dwarf form of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was investigated in 2009 and 2010 in Xiuyan County, eastern Liaoning, one of the main soybean production areas in China. Fungal parasitism of this pest by Verticillium lecanii( Zimmerman) Viegas and Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall and predation on it by Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) were also investigated. In addition, research was conducted on the effect on this species of rainfall, and on its impact on soybean yield. The results indicate that the earliest damage to soybean plants occurred in mid-June. Heavy infestations of aphids occurred in late July and early August with densities of up to 80 722 aphids per hundred plants. Normal aphids excreted significantly more honey-dew than dwarf forms. Dwarf forms had a lower incidence of parasitism by V. Lecanii than normal forms. However, normal forms had a higher incidence of parasitism by L fabarum(43. 41% ) than dwarf forms(0. 58% ) . The 3rd larval stage of H. Axyriiis had a predation rate on normal and dwarf aphids of 80. 24% and 36. 36% respectively. Dwarf forms were less affected by rainfall than normal forms. Moreover, a One-Way ANOVA indicated no significant relationship between the number of dwarf aphids per plant and yield(F = 0.378; df/=7,l; P>0.05).%2009-2010年,以辽东山区大豆主产区岫岩县作为试验点,系统调查了大豆蚜Aphis glycines Matsumura 正常型蚜和小型蚜的种群动态,研究了蜡蚧轮枝菌Verticillium lecanii( Zimmerman) Viegas、豆柄瘤蚜茧蜂Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis( Pallas)对大豆蚜正常型蚜和小型蚜的寄生与捕食作用;另外,也研究了降雨对小型蚜和正常型蚜的冲刷作用,以及小型蚜对大豆产量的影响等.研究结果表明,7月上中旬为大豆蚜小型蚜发生初期,7月下旬-8月上旬为小型蚜发生高峰期,2010年小型蚜平均蚜量达10000头/百株以上.此外,通过比较大豆蚜正常

  7. A BRIEF REVIEW ON ABUNDANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF BRINJAL ( SOLANUM MELONGENA L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Omprakash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (SolanummelongenaL. occupies a distinct place in the realm of vegetable crops. It is a bushy plant, commonly known as egg plant. It is one of the most popular and important vegetable crops grown in India and many parts of the world. It is native of Indian sub-continent, with India as the probable centre of origin (Gleddieet al., 1986. In the world, brinjal occupies an area of 1.72 m ha with a production of 43.17 m MT with an average productivity of 25 MT per ha (FAOSTAT, 2011. In India brinjal is grown throughout the year in almost all parts of the country. Although brinjal is widely grown, it is subjected to severe damage by different insect pests leading to significant loss in yield. There are 26 insect pests species and few non insect pest species infesting brinjal of which the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis(Guen.; whitefly, Bemisiatabaci(Genn.; leafhopper, Amarascadevastans(Distant; epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.; aphid, Aphis gossypii(Glover.; mealy bug, Centroccocusinsolitus(Guen.; lace wing bug, Urentiushystricellus(Richt. and non insect pest, red spider mite, Tetranichusmacfurlanei(Andrecause severe damage, necessitating initiation of control measures quite frequently(Vevai,1970. Infestation due to leafhopper, whitefly and shoot and fruit borer results in about 70-92 per cent loss in yield of brinjal (Rosaiah, 2001. Dhankaret al.1997 recorded 63 per cent yield loss due to shoot and fruit borer alone.As brinjal is a vegetable crop and harvesting of fruits is done at regular short intervals, safer and effective insecticides are needed for controlling the insect pest complex. At present synthetic pyrethroids are regularly used for the control of shoot and fruit borer and their indiscriminate use, leading to whitefly, aphid and mite resurgence is well documented (Reddy and Srinivas, 2005. The present day need emphasizes not only the use of different groups of chemicals that are eco-friendly but

  8. Toxicity of cycloxaprid toAphis craccivora (Koch) and its effects on detoxification enzymes%环氧虫啶对苜蓿蚜的毒力及对其体内解毒酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇超; 须志平; 邵旭升; 程家高; 李忠

    2016-01-01

    为研究桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜的影响,以吡虫啉为对照药剂,采用带虫浸叶法测定了环氧虫啶等桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜的毒力及对其体内解毒酶活性的影响。结果表明:以环氧虫啶为代表的七元桥环新烟碱类化合物对苜蓿蚜具有较好的杀虫活性,其中,环氧虫啶的 LC50值为3.454 mg/L,高于八元桥环新烟碱化合物。酶抑制剂顺丁烯二乙酯(DEM)和胡椒基丁醚(PBO)对环氧虫啶均具有显著的增效作用,增效比分别为4.02和3.22;而对照药剂吡虫啉仅 PBO对其具有明显增效作用。与空白对照组相比,经 LC50浓度环氧虫啶和吡虫啉处理后,存活苜蓿蚜体内谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和细胞色素 P450s活力均显著升高(P <0.05),其中,环氧虫啶处理组 GSTs和 P450s活力分别达到(2.730±0.012)和(0.239±0.009)μmol/(mg pro.·min),诱导能力弱于吡虫啉;而苜蓿蚜体内羧酸酯酶(CarE)活性则无明显变化。研究显示,在苜蓿蚜对环氧虫啶的解毒代谢过程中,GSTs和细胞色素 P450s可能发挥着主要作用。%To investigate the effects of bridged-neonicotinoid compounds onAphis craccivora (Koch), the toxicity of cycloxaprid and the other three bridged-neonicotinoid compounds onA. craccivora and its effects on detoxification enzymes were determined by leaf dipping method using imidacloprid as the control. The results showed that cycloxaprid and other seven-membered bridged neonicotinoid compounds displayed high insecticidal activities againstA. craccivora. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 3.454 mg/L, which is higher than that of the eight-membered bridged neonicotinoid compounds. The synergistic ratios of enzyme inhibitors DEM and PBO were 4.02 and 3.22, respectively. Both compounds showed remarkable synergistic effects on the toxicity of cycloxaprid, whereas only PBO could significantly enhance the toxicity of imidacloprid. Further enzyme activity

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansuêmia Alves Couto de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the inheritance of the resistance to cotton ramulosis. For thispurpose, two groups of lines with contrasting performance for the evaluated trait were crossed. The disease-susceptibleparents were Delta Opal, CNPA 999 and CNPA 2161, and those with resistance BRS Facual, CNPA 2043 and CNPA 2984,resulting in nine crosses, always of one resistant and one susceptible parent, totalizing 42 treatments. The experiment was setup in a randomized complete block design with three replications. It was verified that the genetic control of ramulosisresistance is predominantly oligogenic, and the number of genes involved depends on the parents that participate in eachcross, due to the possibility of differential loci fixation. Evidence of partial dominance in the sense of increasing diseaseresistance was found, but there were also indications that dominance is not unidirectional.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15920-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 358938 ) Schizaphis graminum elongation factor 1 alpha gen... 44 10.0 1 ( EU358933 ) Myzus persicae elongati...44 10.0 1 ( EU019868 ) Aphis gossypii from Hibiscus mutabilis elongation... 44 10.0 1 ( EF660855 ) Myzus persicae... isolate F001 lineage (green) elong... 44 10.0 1 ( EF660854 ) Myzus persicae isolate G006 lineage (gree...n) elong... 44 10.0 1 ( EF660853 ) Myzus persicae isolate USDA tobacco adapted li...his craccivora isolate Nanjing population elong... 44 10.0 1 ( EF419315 ) Myzus persicae isolate Fuzhou popu

  11. Identificación y evaluación de hongos entomopatógenos en insectos plaga de tomate y pimiento en las provincias de Guayas, Santa Elena y Manabí

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Villón, Héctor Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Los cultivos hortícolas en especial tomate y pimiento son afectados por varios insectos plaga. En tomate los principalmente Prodiplosis longifila, Bemisia tabaci, Tuta absoluta y trips palmi; en pimiento Myzus persicae y Aphis gossypii, para su manejo los productores utilizan productos de categorías extremada y altamente tóxicos, los aplican hasta 23 ciclos por cultivo. El presente estudio estuvo relacionado con la búsqueda de agentes biológicos para disminuir el uso de estos agroquímicos…...

  12. Influences of climate warming on co-occurrence of Aphis glycines (Matsumura) and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on different soybean strains in cold area of China%气候变暖对寒地大豆作物两种害虫发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 郝操; 牛琳琳; 赵佳男; 付雪; 叶乐夫; 赵奎军

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] To investigate the effects of temperature increase on the occurrence of phytophagous arthropod pests, and their interspecific interactions, on soybean crops in cold areas of China in order to improve the long term prediction and forecasting of multiple local arthropod pest species. [Methods] We simulated climate warming in an artificial climatic chamber and investigated the effects of both high and low temperatures on the co-occurrence and interspecific interactions of Aphis glycines and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, we tested interactions between these two arthropod pest species on“leaf discs”from different soybean strains. [Results] The results of our experiments suggest that relatively low temperatures will benefit aphid populations but higher temperatures will benefit tetranychid mites. At higher temperatures the interspecific competition coefficient is predicted to decrease, that is to say, the environmental carrying capacity will increase significantly. Under current temperature conditions, the interaction between these two arthropod pest species should be defined as “commensalism”, i.e., they are likely to co-occur in the field, and the soybean aphid especially is more likely to outbreak while co-existing with the mite on local, pest-sensitive, soybean strains. In other words, there is a substantial difference in the resistance of different local soybean strains to arthropod pests. [Conclusion] These results suggest that:Although not currently an issue, there is a high risk of future outbreaks of several arthropod pests on soybean crops in cold areas of China. We need to prepare some management measures for the future, such as selecting pest resistant strains that are suitable for local cultivation.%【目的】研究温度上升对中国寒地大豆作物上植食性害虫种群发生及种间关系的影响,有利于做好田间多种害虫发生的长期预测预报。【方法】本研究在人工气候

  13. Analysis of genetic differentiation among different geographic populations of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera:Aphididae) based on mtDNA COⅡ gene sequences%基于线粒体 COⅡ基因的大豆蚜不同地理种群遗传分化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉; 韩岚岚; 王红; 赵奎军; 莽逸伦; 张红玉; 樊东

    2015-01-01

    【目的】大豆蚜 Aphis glycines 逐渐成为栽培大豆上的世界性重要害虫,为明确大豆蚜不同地理种群的遗传分化及遗传多样性,本研究探讨其在中国的种群遗传变异。【方法】测定了采自7个省共14个地理种群339头大豆蚜的线粒体 COⅡ基因的673 bp 序列,利用 DnaSP 5.0、Arlequin 3.5.1.2、Network 4.6.1.3等软件对地理种群间的大豆蚜的遗传多样性、遗传分化程度及分子变异进行分析,并建立了单倍型网络图及单倍型系统进化树。【结果】在所分析的339个 COⅡ序列中,共检测出7个单倍型,其中 H1为各种群所共享。种群内遗传多样性较低(Hd=0.479±0.030,Pi=0.00166±0.00018),种群内遗传分化相对较大(Fst=0.1985),基因流水平较高(Nm=2.019)。中性检验结果不显著(Tajima’s D=﹣0.931,P>0.10, Fu’s Fs=0.220,P>0.10),说明中国地区大豆蚜在较近的历史时期内没有出现种群扩张现象。分子变异分析(AMOVA)结果表明,大豆蚜遗传变异主要来自种群内部(80.15%),而种群间未发生明显的遗传分化。根据各地理种群的单倍型建立的系统发育树、单倍型网络图表明,各单倍型散布在不同的地理种群中,无明显的地理分布格局。【结论】大豆蚜不同地理种群的遗传多样性不高,各种群的遗传距离与地理距离之间没有显著线性相关性,各种群间的基因交流并未受到地理距离的影响。%[Objectives] To investigate genetic variation among different geographic populations of soybean aphids, Aphis glycines, in China. [Methods] The genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and molecular variance of 339 individual soybean aphids from 14 geographic populations in 7 Chinese provinces were analyzed based on 673 bp segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅱ (COⅡ) gene using DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.5.1.2 and Network 4.6.1.3. Phylogenetic

  14. Ocorrência de afídeos causando danos em mangueira (Mangifera indica L., no Vale do São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA RACHEL GONÇALVES

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaram-se em pomares de mangueiras (Mangifera indica L., no semi-árido nordestino, altas infestações de afídeos causando danos às folhas novas e brotações da planta. Diversas amostras foram coletadas, tendo sido identificadas três espécies: Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii e Toxoptera aurantii. As duas primeiras espécies estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez como pragas, em mangueiras, no Brasil. Espécimens de referência encontram-se depositados no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa Semi-Árido, localizada em Petrolina-PE.

  15. 9 CFR 124.10 - APHIS liaison with PTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after the product was approved for marketing or use; and (4) Providing such other information as may be..., 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC, between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through... the product was subject to a regulatory review period before its commercial marketing or use;...

  16. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  17. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  18. 嗜热多拟青霉发酵产物杀虫活性的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Insecticidal Activity of Zymotic Metabolites from Polypaecilum thermophilum D.M.Wang et D.C.Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2011-01-01

    以纯化的嗜热多拟青霉液体发酵培养,测定其代谢产物对棉蚜和温室白粉虱的毒杀效果.用水培棉苗法培养棉蚜,盆栽番茄培养温室白粉虱,采用菌株发酵产物浸渍法进行生物测定.结果表明:该代谢产物表现出较高的毒杀作用,室内生物测定72 h对棉蚜和温室白粉虱的校正死亡率分别为80.5%和66.3%.%The purifided Polypaecilum thermophilum D. M. Wang et D. C. Li was cultured by fermenta tion , and the effects of its zymotic metabolites on Aphis gossypii raised on water - planting cotton seedlings and Trialeurodes vaporariorum raised on potted tomato plants were studied. The bioassay was conducted through dipping leaves in fungi zymotic metabolites. The results showed that the zymotic metabolites had higher toxicity to Aphis gossypii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum with adjusted mortality of 80.5% and 66.3% respectively after bioassay for 72 hours.

  19. Aphid honeydew quality as a food source for parasitoids is maintained in Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance.

  20. Aphid honeydew quality as a food source for parasitoids is maintained in Bt cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hagenbucher

    Full Text Available Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance.

  1. The mortality and repellency effect of a formulation of spearmint essential oil on the cotton-melon aphid under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of essential oils derived from aromatic plants has been considered as low-risk insecticides. These compounds have repellency, insecticidal and growth-reducing effects on immature stages of a variety of insects. Since it is not possible to use pure essential oils in agricultural fields and greenhouses, development of commercial formulations essential-oils is necessary. In this study, the insecticidal activity and repellency effect of essential oil from spearmint (Mentha spicata and its formulation was tested against the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, which is one of the key pests of greenhouse crops. The LC50 values of fumigation bioassay of the essential oil against the first instar nymph, third instar nymph and adult of A. gossypii were 2.70, 3.41 and 5.24 µl/L, respectively. For contact toxicity bioassay, based on preliminary tests, a formulation of essential oil from spearmint was used in four concentrations (8000, 12500, 16000 and 25000 mg/L. Results revealed that spearmint essential-oil formulation caused 88.7% adult mortality when applied at a concentration of 25000 mg/L. The repellency index was calculated when aphids were exposed for 24 h to LC20 concentration. This index was -10%. These results showed that formulation of spearmint essential oil could be used as a commercial substitute for chemical insecticides to control A. gossypii under greenhouse conditions.

  2. Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Li, Mei-Xia; Chang, Hai-Jing; Mao, Yun; Zhang, Han-Ying; Lu, Li-Xia; Yan, Shuai-Guo; Lang, Ming-Lin; Liu, Li; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carboxylesterases underwent two divergent evolutionary events: (1) quantitative mechanism characterized by the overproduction of carboxylesterase protein; and (2) qualitative mechanism caused by changes in enzymatic properties because of mutation from glycine/alanine to aspartate at the 151 site (G/A151D) or from tryptophan to leucine at the 271 site (W271L), following the numbering of Drosophila melanogaster AChE. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. In this study, wild-type, G/A151D and W271L mutant carboxylesterases from Culex pipiens and Aphis gossypii were subjected to germline transformation and then transferred to D. melanogaster. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. This result indicated that G/A151D or W271L mutation disrupted the original activities of the enzyme. Less than 1.5-fold OP resistance was only observed in flies expressing A. gossypii mutant carboxylesterases compared with those expressing A. gossypii wild-type carboxylesterase. However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. gossypii W271L mutant esterase exhibited 1.5-fold resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide compared with non-transgenic flies. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change.

  3. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  4. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Glovers Point Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    watershed of the Mississippi River drains 41 percent of the contiguous United States and includes waters from several major river systems, including the...The hydraulic pipeline cutterhead suction dredge … is equipped with a rotating cutter apparatus surrounding the intake end of the suction pipe, it...functions of pipeline discharge velocity for dredges ranging from 8 to 30 in.” Table 10. Suction dredge pipeline discharge rates (cfs)(a) [taken

  5. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  6. Vat, an Amazing Gene Conferring Resistance to Aphids and Viruses They Carry: From Molecular Structure to Field Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissot, Nathalie; Schoeny, Alexandra; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie

    2016-01-01

    We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant/aphid interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly) with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction). Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local. Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops serving as

  7. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  8. ACTI- FEEDANT ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUAL. ON SOME INSECT PESTS%黄花蒿粗提物对几种害虫拒食性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬; 雷朝亮; 王健

    2003-01-01

    以黄花蒿为原料进行浸提,经生物活性测定,结果表明黄花蒿Artenisia annua L粗提物对供试的6种害虫均具有拒食性.其中对黑翅土白蚁Odontotermes formnosanus Shiraki、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum Herbst、谷蠹Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius拒食性极强,对棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover、棉红蜘蛛Tetranychus urticae Koch及豇豆荚螟Etiella zinckenella Treitschke也具有较强的巨食性.使用黄花蒿粗提物时,以稀释500倍和800倍效果最好,处理与对照之间有极显著差异.

  9. Assessment of the biological control capability of Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) using functional response experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madadi, Hossein; Parizi, Emad Mohajeri; Allahyari, Hossein;

    2011-01-01

    responses towards cotton aphids, except for third instars which in the three-dimensional set-up reduced their search rate and increased their handling time. Fourth instars reacted in the same way to both Aphis gossypii and Acyrthosiphon pisum whereas the functional response parameters for third instars......Lady beetles are among the most successful predators of aphids in different environments. The functional responses of different life stages of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) towards cotton aphidswere examined in two different set-ups, a two-dimensional Petri dish set-up with detached leaves...... and a three-dimensional set-up with whole plants. In addition, the functional responses in two-dimensional set-ups towards cotton aphids and the pea aphids were compared. H. variegata exhibited a functional type II response to both cotton aphids and pea aphids irrespective of life stage and spatial scale...

  10. miRNA-mediated auxin signalling repression during Vat-mediated aphid resistance in Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Thompson, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Resistance to Aphis gossypii in melon is attributed to the presence of the single dominant R gene virus aphid transmission (Vat), which is biologically expressed as antibiosis, antixenosis and tolerance. However, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood at the molecular level. Aphid-induced transcriptional changes, including differentially expressed miRNA profiles that correspond to resistance interaction have been reported in melon. The potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in Vat-mediated aphid resistance were further revealed by identifying the specific miRNA degradation targets. A total of 70 miRNA:target pairs, including 28 novel miRNA:target pairs, for the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified: 11 were associated with phytohormone regulation, including six miRNAs that potentially regulate auxin interactions. A model for a redundant regulatory system of miRNA-mediated auxin insensitivity is proposed that incorporates auxin perception, auxin modification and auxin-regulated transcription. Chemically inhibiting the transport inhibitor response-1 (TIR-1) auxin receptor in susceptible melon tissues provides in vivo support for the model of auxin-mediated impacts on A. gossypii resistance.

  11. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Rondoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Intraguild predation (IGP can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2 Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3 C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall. Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars reduces the likelihood of predation. (4 To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  12. Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Tang, Changqing; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Linxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B. cereus strain HL12. The vip1Ac1 and vip2Ae3 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 by vector pCOLADuet-1. The binary toxin showed activity only against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera), but not for Coleptera (Tenebrio molitor, Holotrichia oblita), Lepidoptera (Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Chilo suppressalis), Diptera (Culex quinquefasciatus). The LC(50) of this binary toxin for A. gossypii is 87.5 (34.2-145.3) ng mL(-1) . This is probably only the second report that Vip1 and Vip2 binary toxin shows toxicity against homopteran pests. The PCR-RFLP method developed could be very useful for identifying novel Vip1-Vip2-type binary toxins, and the novel binary toxins, Vip1Ac1 and Vip2Ae3, identified in this study may have applications in biological control of insects, thus avoiding potential problems of resistance.

  13. Sun Xi-miao in T he Biogr aphy of T he Avatamsaka - Sutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Hyun- Sook

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to introduce and examine the biography of Sun Xi-miao(孫思邈581-682 which I found in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經傳記, that Fazang(法藏643-712 wrote in 692 A.D. This document was neglected to understand Sun who was the famous medical writer of the collection of prescriptions, the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方. His life is rather well documented, because he has his own biographies in Jiu Tang shu and Xin Tang shu(新唐書 which cited from Da Tang sin yu(大唐新語, published in 807. But I found several new informations about Sun in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra, such as he use to be a military medicine in the troops of Li Yuan(李淵 who became the first emperor Kao Tsu(高祖 of Tang dynasty and treat Sun with great favour. This document let us know that the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方 was dedicated to Kao Tsu, known as published in 652 A.D. MY CONCLUSIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: First, it was written by Fazang in 692 A.D, who was the real establisher of the fraternity of the Avatamsaka in China, for the purpose of encouraging to copy the Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經. According to this biography, Sun made 750 copies to persuade the monks and the peoples, and that's the reason Fazang wrote his biography.Secondly, it was not conveyed to posterity, such as Sun was good looking, tall and use to be the medicine of Kao Tsu and dedicated his medical book to the first emperor. It might be left out for Tai Tsung(太宗's sake in the official records, who murdered his brother, the heir apparent to the throne and became the second emperor by himself. On the contrary, it was written in Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang shu that Sun made a prediction that his collection of prescriptions would help the holyman after 50 years from Xuan Di(宣帝578-579 of Northern Chou(北周 Dynasty. Holyman meant Tai Tsung. It shows that Sun's biographies in the Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang Shu were based on the documents that might be fabricated and embellished for Tai Tsung. Thirdly, this biography let us know that Sun wote the Bei ji qian jin yao fang under the circumstances that the epidemic disease was spreaded in Changan at 618 A.D. and the population of Kao Tsu era(618-626 was decreased rapidly. I think that's why he wrote down the medical morals as the first chapter, and the prescriptions about the gynecology and pediatrics as the second chapter.

  14. 11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜根区土壤的释放分布及在西瓜中的残留量分析%Release and distribution of 11 . 1% imidacloprid in root zone of watermelon field soil with applicaton of sustained release tablet formulation and its residue in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓静; 吴迪; 周春江; 恽友兰; 李松林; 田晓莉

    2014-01-01

    为了评价11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果和安全性,于2012-2013年通过田间试验于西瓜移栽时施药,研究了11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果,及其在瓜秧、果实和土壤中的残留量。结果表明:西瓜苗移栽时将11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂(吡虫啉有效成分0.08 g/株)施入其根部下方,施药后42 d对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果为83.3%,基本可满足全生育期防治的需要。2012和2013年,11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜采收期(药后/移栽后60 d)的累积释放率分别为15%和32%。与吡虫啉原药处理相比,片剂中的吡虫啉在土壤中的迁移范围较小,药后30 d,施药点下方10 cm外、水平方向6 cm外的吡虫啉残留量低于0.2 mg/kg。此外,施药点下方2~4 cm处、水平方向2~4 cm处土壤中吡虫啉的残留动态基本呈单峰曲线变化,峰值均出现在药后30 d,分别为1.91和0.10 mg/kg;药后120 d 分别为0.17和0.03 mg/kg。基部瓜秧中(2012年:0~30 cm;2013年:1~3节)吡虫啉的含量于药后14 d检出,其余时期均未检出;2年试验中,西瓜果实中的吡虫啉残留量均低于最低检测浓度(LOQ)0.05 mg/kg,也低于食品法典委员会( CAC)规定的西瓜中最大残留限量( MRL)0.2 mg/kg。%In order to evaluate the control effect of 11. 1% sustained release tablet ( SRT ) of imidacloprid on melon aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover ) in watermelon and its application safety to watermelon and environment, the experiments were conducted in open field during growing season of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) at Beijing in 2012 -2013 . The 11. 1% sustained release tablets of imidacloprid ( equivalent to 0. 08 g imidacloprid per plant) were applied under the roots of watermelon seedlings while transplanting. The results indicated that the control effect of imidacloprid SRT on melon aphid basically covered the whole growing season ( 60 d ) of watermelon

  15. Vat, an amazing gene conferring resistance to aphids and viruses they carry: from molecular structure to field effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Boissot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant aphid/interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction. Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local.Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops

  16. Septin Phosphorylation and Coiled-Coil Domains Function in Cell and Septin Ring Morphology in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Meseroll, Rebecca A.; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Septins are a class of GTP-binding proteins conserved throughout many eukaryotes. Individual septin subunits associate with one another and assemble into heteromeric complexes that form filaments and higher-order structures in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the assembly and maintenance of higher-order structures in cells remain poorly understood. Septins in several organisms have been shown to be phosphorylated, although precisely how septin phosphorylation may be contributing to the formati...

  17. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  18. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  19. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in aere (in air from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kent Morgan

    Full Text Available Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid, Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter, Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug, and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale. Examination of in āere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in āere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in āere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.

  20. 9 CFR 72.16 - Designated dipping stations to be approved by the Administrator, APHIS on recommendations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated dipping stations to...

  1. The effect of flowering calendula and cuphea plants on Orius insidiosus survival and predation of Aphis glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering oilseed crops have the potential to diversify agroecosystems currently dominated by corn and soybeans and improve the provision of ecosystem services such as pest control. Nectar and pollen feeding may increase natural enemy fitness and searching behavior, increasing their survival and pre...

  2. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  3. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1993 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum discussing the plan for disease sampling of coyotes in July and August 1993 as part of the disease study associated with the...

  4. 78 FR 689 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., veterinary medicine, plant pathology, and agribusiness. The program allows participants to live on a college... also become a matter of public record. Done in Washington, DC, this 13th day of December 2012....

  5. Cucumis melo microRNA expression profile during aphid herbivory in a resistant and susceptible interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Song, Yan; Anstead, James A; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Thompson, Gary A

    2012-06-01

    Aphis gossypii resistance in melon (Cucumis melo) is due to the presence of a single dominant virus aphid transmission (Vat) gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes. Significant transcriptional reprogramming occurs in Vat(+) plants during aphid infestation as metabolism shifts to respond to this biotic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of many biotic stress responses. The role of miRNAs was investigated in response to aphid herbivory during both resistant and susceptible interactions. Small RNA (smRNA) libraries were constructed from bulked leaf tissues of a Vat(+) melon line following early and late aphid infestations. Sequence analysis indicated that the expression profiles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs were altered during different stages of aphid herbivory. These results were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments in both resistant Vat(+) and susceptible Vat(-) interactions. The comparative analyses revealed that most of the conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated during the early stages of aphid infestation in the resistant and susceptible interactions. Along with the conserved miRNA families, 18 cucurbit-specific miRNAs were expressed during the different stages of aphid herbivory. The comparison of the miRNA profiles in the resistant and susceptible interactions provides insight into the miRNA-dependent post-transcriptional gene regulation in Vat-mediated resistance.

  6. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan M Haldhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1 against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica, hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in which the lowest incidence was recorded as compared to other modules. The organic IPM module-III comprised of growing resistant genotype (RM-50, spray of neem oil at 20 DAS, installation of pheromone trap (10/ hectare at 42 DAS, spray of tumba fruit extract (TFE 5% at 50 DAS and spray of spinosad 46 SC at 60 DAS was the most effective. The conventional I (farmer’s practices was the second most effective system against major pests during both years. The benefit-cost ratio of the tested muskmelon production systems in the control of insect-pests decreased in the following order: module-III (B: C ratio 8.80:1> module-I (B: C ratio 7.74:1> module-IV (B: C ratio 6.60:1> module-II (B: C ratio 3.56:1.

  7. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi for aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van Hanh; Hong, Suk Il; Kim, Keun

    2007-12-01

    Twelve strains of entomopathogenic fungi such as Lecanicillium lecanii, Paecilomyces farinosus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps scarabaeicola, and Nomuraea rileyi were screened for aphid control. At 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity (RH), among tested entomopathogenic fungi, L. lecanii 41185 showed the highest virulent pathogenicity for both Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii, and their control values were both nearly 100% 5 and 2 d after treatment, respectively. Moreover, at an RH of 45% and in a wide temperature range (20-30 degrees C), L. lecanii 41185 also exhibited the highest virulence to M. persicae. The control value of M. persicae and the 50% lethal time (LT50) decreased significantly as the applied conidial concentration increased. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the conidial suspension of this fungus was determined to be 6.55x10(5) conidia/ml. The control values of M. persicae resulting from the application of 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) conidia/ml were nearly the same and were significantly higher than that of 1x10(6) conidia/ml. The tested entomopathogenic fungi grew in a broad temperature range (15-30 degrees C). Lecanicillium strains showed optimum growth at 25 degrees C. The aerial conidia of Lecanicillium strains also could germinate in a broad temperature range (15-30 degrees C) and L. lecanii 41185 was the only strain with conidial germination at 35 degrees C.

  8. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  9. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  10. Comparative transcriptional analysis of asexual and sexual morphs reveals possible mechanisms in reproductive polyphenism of the cotton aphid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Liu

    Full Text Available Aphids, the destructive insect pests in the agriculture, horticulture and forestry, are capable of reproducing asexually and sexually upon environmental change. However, the molecular basis of aphid reproductive mode switch remains an enigma. Here we report a comparative analysis of differential gene expression profiling among parthenogenetic females, gynoparae and sexual females of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii, using the RNA-seq approach with next-generation sequencing platforms, followed by RT-qPCR. At the cutoff criteria of fold change ≥2 and P<0.01, we identified 741 up- and 879 down-regulated genes in gynoparae versus parthenogenetic females, 2,101 up- and 2,210 down-regulated genes in sexual females compared to gynoparae, and 1,614 up- and 2,238 down-regulated genes in sexual females relative to parthenogenetic females. Gene ontology category and KEGG pathway analysis suggest the involvement of differentially expressed genes in multiple cellular signaling pathways into the reproductive mode transition, including phototransduction, cuticle composition, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and endocrine regulation. This study forms a basis for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the shift from asexual to sexual reproduction in the cotton aphid. It also provides valuable resources for future studies on this host-alternating aphid species, and the insight into the understanding of reproductive mode plasticity in different aphid species.

  11. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Viñuela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV, transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed.

  13. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Gug-Seoun

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  14. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  15. Predator efficiency reconsidered for a ladybird-aphid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eKindlmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments indicate that ladybirds can significantly suppress aphid abundance. For example, exclusion of predators by caging aphid-infested plants repeatedly results in higher aphid populations and faster aphid population growth rates. However, aphidophagous ladybirds have never proved effective in controlling aphid populations in the field, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction that long-lived predators cannot be effective in controlling a short-lived prey (the generation time ratio hypothesis, GTR. To resolve this paradox, field experiments, involving two species of ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata bruckii and Harmonia axyridis were used to determine their efficiency in suppressing populations of the aphid, Aphis gossypii, on small shrubs of Hibiscus syriacus under natural conditions. Instead of by caging, the effect of each ladybird species on aphid population dynamics was determined by removing all the eggs of C. septempunctata from 8 shrubs, those of H. axyridis from a further 8 shrubs, all those of both species from an additional 12 shrubs and leaving the eggs on 6 control shrubs. These predators did not have a negative effect on the peak numbers of the aphids. Thus one should be cautious when interpreting the results of cage experiments, used to assess the efficiency of predators in reducing the abundance of their prey.

  16. Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-05-30

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3' end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons.

  17. CO2浓度变化下蚜茧蜂胁迫作用对多世代棉蚜适合度的影响%Response of three successive generations of aphids to stress from Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead under ambient CO2 and elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姣; 龙大彬; 肖铁光

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two levels of CO2 (375 μL/L VS 750 μL/L) on the cotton-Aphis gossypii-Lysiphlebiajaponica system were studied using OTCs.We evaluated the influence of direct and indirect stress from L.japonica on the fitness response of aphids to changing CO2 for three successive generations.We wished to show whether CO2 levels,generation and L.japonica-stress markedly determined the fecundity,net reproduction,mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase in cotton aphids,and whether interactions between these variables also had a notable impact on the fecundity,net reproduction,and intrinsic rate of increase of aphids.Our results suggest that the stress induced by exposure to caged L.japonica had greater impact on the fitness and population dynamics of successive generations of A.gossypii under elevated CO2,resulting in a lower aphid-population.%本文以蚜茧蜂Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead与棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover系统为研究对象,以内禀增长率rm作为适合度指标,通过开顶式动态CO2气室(OTC),重点比较了目前大气CO2浓度与未来加倍的大气CO2浓度下(375 μL/L VS 750 μL/L)直接放入蚜茧蜂、笼罩间接放入蚜茧蜂的胁迫作用对不同世代和3个连续世代棉蚜适合度的影响.结果表明:CO2浓度变化、世代之间、寄生胁迫方式对棉蚜净繁殖率R0、平均世代时间T和内禀增长率rm均存在着极显著的影响;CO2浓度变化和寄生胁迫方式之间、CO2浓度变化和棉蚜发生世代之间的交互作用对棉蚜净繁殖率R0和内禀增长率rm也存在着极显著的影响.结果提示:大气CO2浓度将通过影响寄生蜂的间接干扰作用,从而影响棉蚜的适合度和种群动态,使棉蚜种群有下降的趋势.

  18. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF PREDACEOUS ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS DIVERSIDADE E ABUNDÂNCIA DE ARTRÓPODES PREDADORES ASSOCIADOS A DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of studying the abundance and diversity of predaceous arthropods associated with cotton crop, and analyze the influence of meteorological factors, interactions between natural enemies and population dynamics of coccinellids associated with their principal prey, the aphid Aphis gossypii, an experiment was carried out in the region of Ipameri, Goiás State, Brazil, at the Universidade Estadual de Goiás campus. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments, consisting of the DeltaOPAL, FMX 966, FMX 993, FMX 910, and NuOPAL cultivars, in four replications. Among the arthropods sampled in the cotton crop, the coccinellids and spiders were the most abundant ones in the cultivars evaluated. Spiders occurred throughout the cotton cycle, while the coccinellids population increased gradually until 55 DAE, showing a population peak at 34 DAE, coinciding with the population peak of aphids (Aphis gossypii. Among the coccinellids observed in the cultivars under study, Scymnus spp. was the most abundant in cotton. The pentatomid and forficulid occurred from 99 to 128 days after the emergence of cotton, which corresponds to the highest density of target pest insects. It was not found influence of meteorological factors or negative interactions among predaceous arthropods.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium hirsutum; natural enemies, coccinellids.

    Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  19. Mating behaviour of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of the cotton aphid%寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜的交配行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    Variation in host use and flight ability in the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Clover is such that some biotypes can be regarded as cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory and sedentary. However, it is not known whether cotton-specialized and cucurbits-specialized biotypes, or migratory (M) and sedentary (S) biotypes, interbreed. The sexual forms of cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory, and sedentary biotypes were induced under reduced temperature and short photoperiod and their mating behavior was investigated. The results indicate that migratory and sedentary biotypes interbred, and the number of males that completed copulation within three hours did not significantly differ between inter-biotype and intra-biotype mating. However, it took significantly longer for males to find a mate of another biotype than one of their own biotype. The duration of copulation of M 9 X S S was also significantly longer than that of M ♀ x M ♂ and S ♀ ×M♂. Mating was more likely to occur when the male and female were of the same biotype than when they were from different biotypes. There was a trend towards assortative mating between migratory and sedentary biotypes. Interbreeding occurred between cotton-specialized (Co) and cucurbits-specialized (Cu) biotypes, and the time required for males to find a mate and complete copulation were similar between Co ♀ × Cu ♂ cross and Cu ♀ × Co ♂ cross.%棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover种群存在寄主利用和迁飞能力上的明显分化,有棉花型和瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型之分.但是,棉花型与瓜型之间,以及迁飞型与滞留型之间是否能发生交配行为,尚无研究报道.本文在低温和短光照条件下分别诱导棉花型、瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型棉蚜的性蚜,并进行性蚜间的交配行为观察.结果表明,迁飞型和滞留型性蚜间可以发生交配行为,杂交时发生交配行为的个体比率与自交时无显著差异,但是杂交时雄蚜寻

  1. Vermelhão do algodoeiro Cotton "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma moléstia do algodoeiro associada à infestação pelo pulgão Aphis gossypii, é descrita. É proposto que o nome vermelhão fique restrito a essa moléstia e que quando esta designação for usada em associação com outras moléstias, seja qualificada em seu emprêgo. São apontadas algumas diferenças que permitem distinguir o vermelhão do afídio de outras condições em que a coloração das fôlhas do algodoeiro é mais ou menos semelhante. Foi verificado que, quando afídios coletados de plantas com vermelhão eram alimentados em algodoeiros novos por 48 horas apenas, os sintomas da moléstia se manifestavam dentro de 12 a 30 dias. Infestações com um afídio por planta foram suficientes para reproduzir a moléstia em alguns casos ; com cinco afídios por planta conseguiu-se reproduzir a moléstia com maior freqüência ; com 25 afídios, em praticamente todos os casos. Insetos da mesma espécie, coletados de plantas de pepino, não produziram o vermelhão quando colocados sobre algodoeiros. Reprodução de vermelhão foi obtida por enxertia, passando os sintomas a se manifestar nos cavalos ; houve também perpetuação dos sintomas por enxertia em terceira reprodução vegetativa. A evidência obtida nos ensaios de reprodução da moléstia é discutida, sendo apontado que tudo indica ser um vírus a causa primária da moléstia e não toxina do inseto ou deficiência de elementos. Outras hipóteses alternativas são mencionadas.A disease associated with the infestation of cotton plants by the cotton or melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov. is described under the name of "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis. Symptoms of the disease resemble those resulting from magnesium deficiency. Aphids collected from diseased plants reproduced the disease when fed on cotton seedlings for 48 hours. Symptoms usually appeared from 12 to 30 days after inoculation, as chlorotic areas or spots that later turned reddish or purplish under strong light conditions

  2. Interação entre inseticidas e umidade do solo no controle do pulgão e da mosca-branca em algodoeiro Interaction between insecticides and soil moisture in the control of whitefly and aphid in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Braz Torres

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle exercido por tiametoxam e pimetrozine, em aplicação foliar ou ao solo, sobre Bemisia tabaci e Aphis gossypii, em algodoeiro, e determinar a interação entre formas de aplicação e a umidade do solo, em diferentes intervalos após a aplicação. Foram aplicados inseticidas via pulverização ou esguicho ao solo, em plantas de algodoeiro submetidas a três faixas de umidade do solo. Os inseticidas foram testados separadamente, em arranjos fatoriais, com formas de aplicação (tiametoxam, pragas (pimetrozine e teores de umidade no solo como fatores de variação, com as avaliações repetidas no tempo. Foram realizadas avaliações após 3 horas e aos 3, 6, 12, 24 e 32 dias após a aplicação. Os inseticidas, em pulverização, apresentaram controle superior a 80%, até 6 dias depois da aplicação, para mosca-branca e pulgão. O uso de tiametoxam com esguicho, na menor faixa de umidade, propiciou controle inferior a 60%, no dia da aplicação, superior a 90%, aos 3 e 6 dias, e superior a 80%, aos 12 dias após aplicação. O grau de estresse hídrico em que se encontra a planta é importante para a escolha do inseticida e da modalidade de aplicação mais adequados ao controle das pragas avaliadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the control, in cotton plants, of Bemisia tabaci and Aphis gossypii by thiamethoxam and pymetrozine, with foliar or soil drench applications, and to determine the interaction between application method and soil humidity, in different intervals after insecticide application. Insecticide application consisted of foliar spray and soil drench, using cotton plants submitted to three levels of soil moisture. The insecticides were tested separately, in factorial arrangements, with application methods (thiamethoxam, pest species (pymetrozine and soil moisture levels, as treatments, with repeated measures on time. Evaluations were carried out after 3 hours, and at 3

  3. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  4. 虫霉防治大豆蚜虫效果及其评价%Effect and evaluation of Entomophthora spp. on controlling Aphis glycines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春杰; 许艳丽; 刘长仲; 司兆胜; 温广月

    2006-01-01

    2002年和2003年应用虫霉防治大豆蚜虫,盆栽试验结果表明,喷施10ml/L虫霉的处理对大豆蚜虫校正防效最高,两年分别为100%和99.3%,虫霉浓度为6.7ml/L则校正防效分别为93.5%和95.6%.2003年采用虫霉浓度为10ml/L和6.7ml/L的处理其校正防效与化学农药氧化乐果的校正防效差异不显著.2004年田间小区试验结果表明,虫霉浓度为10ml/L对大豆蚜虫校正防治效果达100%,6.7ml/L的校正防治效果为98.6%;田间大区试验的校正防效分别为62.3%和50.4%,所以建议使用10ml/L的虫霉防治大豆蚜虫.

  5. Pyridine derivatives as insecticides. Part 1: synthesis and toxicity of some pyridine derivatives against cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhite, Etify A; Abd-Ella, Aly A; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A; Abdel-Raheem, Shaban A A

    2014-10-15

    Five pyridine derivatives, namely, N-morpholinium 7,7-dimethyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-2-thiolate (1), sodium 5-acetyl-3-amino-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylthieno[2,3-b] pyridine-2-carboxylate (2), piperidinium 3,5-dicyano-2-oxo-4-spirocyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate (3), piperidinium 5-acetyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylpyridine-2-thiolate (4), and piperidinium 5-acetyl-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-6-methyl-pyridine-2-thiolate (5) were prepared in pure state and subjected to the title study. The bioassay results indicated that the insecticidal activity of compound 1 is about 4-fold that of acetamiprid insecticide. The rest of the tested compounds possess moderate to strong aphidicidal activities.

  6. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  7. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in cotton seedlings by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiuju; SHI Xueyan; LIANG Pei; GAO Xiwu

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that infestation of plants causes increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes in the phenolic compounds synthesis pathway and the octadecanoid pathway, respectively. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the infestation of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii ) and mechanical wound can cause the induction of PAL and LOX activities in cotton seedlings, and whether the induction occurs in healthy seedlings growing nearby the attacked ones. The specific activities of PAL and LOX were measured using spectrophotometric method after aphid infestation and mechanical wounding. Result indicated that PAL activity and LOX activity were greatly induced by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation in cotton seedlings. The induction of PAL and LOX occurred not only in wounded and infested seedlings but also in intact healthy seedlings growing nearby. After exposed to the aphid infestation-induced volatiles, the specific activity of PAL in cotton seedlings increased by 6 % at 24 h, 80 % at 48 h, 235 % at 72 h compared to the control, and the specific activity of LOX increased by 18 % at 24 h, 34 % at 48 h,24 % at 72 h, respectively. In comparison, the specific activity of PAL in unwounded seedlings exposed to wound-induced volatiles increased by 0.0 at 24 h, 200% at 48 h, 164% at 72 h, respectively and the specific activity of LOX increased by 28% at 24 h, 37% at 48 h, 8 % at 72 h, respectively. It suggests that the induced volatiles are involved in plant-plant communication as airborne transferred signals.

  8. An implicit approach to model plant infestation by insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christelle; Spataro, Thierry; Doursat, Christophe; Lapchin, Laurent; Arditi, Roger

    2007-09-07

    Various spatial approaches were developed to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on population dynamics. We present in this paper a flux-based model to describe an aphid-parasitoid system in a closed and spatially structured environment, i.e. a greenhouse. Derived from previous work and adapted to host-parasitoid interactions, our model represents the level of plant infestation as a continuous variable corresponding to the number of plants bearing a given density of pests at a given time. The variation of this variable is described by a partial differential equation. It is coupled to an ordinary differential equation and a delay-differential equation that describe the parasitized host population and the parasitoid population, respectively. We have applied our approach to the pest Aphis gossypii and to one of its parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, in a melon greenhouse. Numerical simulations showed that, regardless of the number and distribution of hosts in the greenhouse, the aphid population is slightly larger if parasitoids display a type III rather than a type II functional response. However, the population dynamics depend on the initial distribution of hosts and the initial density of parasitoids released, which is interesting for biological control strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the delay in the parasitoid equation and the growth rate of the pest population are crucial parameters for predicting the dynamics. We demonstrate here that such a flux-based approach generates relevant predictions with a more synthetic formalism than a common plant-by-plant model. We also explain how this approach can be better adapted to test different management strategies and to manage crops of several greenhouses.

  9. How does atmospheric elevated CO2 affect crop pests and their natural enemies? Case histories from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Sun; Jin Yin; Fa-Jun Chen; Gang Wu; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations have risen rapidly since the Industrial Revolution and are considered as a primary factor in climate change.The effects of elevated CO2 on herbivore insects were found to be primarily through the CO2-induced changes occurring in their host plants,which then possibly affect the intensity and frequency of pest outbreaks on crops.This paper reviews several ongoing research models using primary pests of crops (cotton bollworm,whitefly,aphids) and their natural enemies (ladybeetles,parasitoids) in China to examine insect responses to elevated CO2.It is generally indicated that elevated CO2 prolonged the development of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera,a chewing insect,by decreasing the foliar nitrogen of host plants.In contrast,the phloemsucking aphid and whitefly insects had species-specific responses to elevated CO2 because of complex interactions that occur in the phloem sieve elements of plants.Some aphid species,such as cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii and wheat aphid,Sitobion avenae,were considered to represent the only feeding guild to respond positively to elevated CO2 conditions.Although whitefly,Bemisia tabaci,a major vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus,had neutral response to elevated CO2,the plants became less vulnerable to the virus infection under elevated CO2.The predator and parasitoid response to elevated CO2 were frequently idiosyncratic.These documents from Chinese scientists suggested that elevated CO2 initially affects the crop plant and then cascades to a higher trophic level through the food chain to encompass herbivores (pests),their natural enemies,pathogens and underground nematodes,which disrupt the natural balance observed previously in agricultural ecosystems.

  10. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  11. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  12. Concours annuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yearly competitions. Pour améliorer le rendement agricole, on est amené à établir des programmes de fertilisation des sols et de protection phytosanitaire souvent basés essentiellement sur l'utilisation des intrants chimiques. Cependant, l'utilisation des engrais chimiques peut entraîner la dégradation des sols et favoriser le développement des insectes ravageurs piqueurs-suceurs. Il est donc nécessaire de rechercher des méthodes de fertilisation alternatives qui permettraient de limiter la prolifération des insectes. La rhizobactérie Bacillus amyloliquefaciens est connue comme bio-fertilisant. Le présent travail vise à évaluer la dynamique des populations du puceron A. gossypii Glover sur le cotonnier en fonction du matériel de fertilisation utilisé, à savoir la souche de B. amyloliquefaciens FZB 42 et l'engrais minéral (NPKSMgB: 21-17-10-4,5-3,5-0,75. A cet effet, trois variantes ont été testées: trempage des semences dans la suspension de la rhizobactérie, application de NPKSMgB et un témoin (sans apport de fertilisant. Les résultats ont montré que les cotonniers fertilisés avec de l'engrais minéral ont de façon significative attiré plus de pucerons que les plantes fertilisées avec B. amyloliquefaciens. Sur la base de ces résultats et de données obtenues dans d'autres essais menés en plein champ qui montraient un effet positif de l'application de B. amyloliquefaciens sur le rendement du cotonnier, on peut conclure que l'utilisation de cette rhizobactérie peut constituer une solution intéressante pour la fertilisation du cotonnier.

  13. Resumen de tesis. Optimización de la producción de riboflavina en Ashbya gossypii basada en el análisis funcional de las rutas de recuperación de nucleobases de purina

    OpenAIRE

    Uña Álvarez, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La biosíntesis de riboflavina o vitamina B2 es un proceso biológico de interés industrial. En la naturaleza, sólo microorganismos y plantas son capaces de sintetizarla, siendo para el hombre y el resto de vertebrados un factor de crecimiento que han de tomar en su dieta. Además de su valor nutritivo, la riboflavina aporta beneficios a las funciones fisiológicas del organismo humano, actuando así como un compuesto nutraceútico. La función que la riboflavina ejerce en el mantenimiento de l...

  14. 75 FR 69913 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...; vaccination history; and certifications from both the owner and the veterinarian that all information is true... provide APHIS with critical information concerning a shipment's history, which in turn enables APHIS...

  15. 76 FR 13892 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... an APHIS-approved protein bait, would have to be placed inside the pest-exclusionary structures at a.... (1) Inside the pest-exclusionary structures. APHIS-approved traps with an APHIS-approved protein bait... traps with an approved protein bait must be placed in a 500-meter-wide buffer area around the...

  16. 75 FR 57864 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Register (74 FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117) a proposal\\1\\ to authorize the importation of... Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) that, among other things... FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117), as follows: PART 319--FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES 0...

  17. 75 FR 75957 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    .... APHIS-2010-0109, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit..., NCIE, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39, Riverdale MD 20737; (301) 734-0819. For copies of more... authorities; foreign government officials; transporters; hobby farm operators; non-profit...

  18. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... FR 21311. On November 12, 2010, APHIS issued an EA that evaluated a range of alternatives and... 15, 2010. See 76 FR 8708. These documents are posted on the APHIS Web site at: http://www.aphis.usda... Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...

  19. Use Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science for Comprehensive Citation Tracking. A review of: Bakkalbasi, Nisa, Kathleen Bauer, Janis Glover and Lei Wang. “Three Options for Citation Tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 3.7 (2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether three competing citation tracking services result in differing citation counts for a known set of articles, and to assess the extent of any differences.Design – Citation analysis, observational study.Setting – Three citation tracking databases: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Subjects – Citations from eleven journals each from the disciplines of oncology and condensed matter physics for the years 1993 and 2003.Methods – The researchers selected eleven journals each from the list of journals from Journal Citation Reports 2004 for the categories “Oncology” and “Condensed Matter Physics” using a systematic sampling technique to ensure journals with vary ingimpact factors were included. All references from these 22 journals were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003 by searching three databases: Web of Science, INSPEC, and PubMed. Only research articles were included for the purpose of the study. From these, a stratified random sample was created to proportionally represent the content of each journal (oncology 1993: 234 references, 2003: 259 references; condensed matter physics 1993: 358 references, 2003: 364 references. In November of 2005, citations counts were obtained for all articles from Web of Science, Scopus and GoogleScholar. Due to the small sample size and skewed distribution of data, non‐parametric tests were conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between sets.Main Results – For 1993, mean citation counts were highest in Web of Science for both oncology (mean = 45.3, SD = 77.4 and condensed matter physics (mean = 22.5, SD= 32.5. For 2003, mean citation counts were higher in Scopus for oncology (mean = 8.9,SD = 12.0, and in Web of Science for condensed matter physics (mean = 3.0, SD =4.0. There was not enough data for the set of citations from Scopus for condensed matter physics for 1993 and it was therefore excluded from analysis. A Friedman test to measure for differences between all remaining groups suggested a significant difference existed, and so pairwise post‐hoc comparisons were performed. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranked tests demonstrated significant differences “in citation counts between all pairs (p Conclusion – The study does not confirm the authors’ hypothesis that differing scholarly coverage would result in different citation counts from the three databases. While there were significant differences in mean citation rates between all pairs of databases except for Google Scholar and Scopus in condensed matter physics for 2003, no one database performed better overall. Different databases performed better for different subjects, as well as for different years, especially Scopus, which only includes references starting in 1996. The results of this study suggest that the best citation database will depend on the years being searched as well as the subject area. For a complete picture of citation behaviour, the authors suggest all three be used.

  20. Effect of plant alcohol extracts on vegetable aphids and their parasitoids%植物乙醇提取物对蔬菜蚜虫和蚜茧蜂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼; 梁广文

    2003-01-01

    用药膜法测定8种常见植物的乙醇提取物对桃蚜(Myzus persicae)、瓜蚜(Aphis gossypii)和萝卜蚜(Lipaphis erysimi)的忌避和控制作用,以及对蚜虫重要天敌--菜蚜茧蜂(Aphidius gifuensis)和菜少脉蚜茧蜂(Diaeretiella rapae)存活的影响.结果表明,供试的8种植物乙醇提取物对3种蚜虫都有一定的忌避作用,其中效果最好的是白花非洲山毛豆(Tephrosia vogelli)和樟树(Cinnamomum camphora),对桃蚜、瓜蚜和萝卜蚜的忌避率分别达0.414、0.729、0.547和0.549、0.690、0.729;除黄素馨(Jasminum mesnyi)和草胡椒(Peperomia pellucida)外,其余6种植物乙醇提取物对桃蚜、瓜蚜、萝卜蚜都有较好的控制作用,其中山毛豆、樟树对蚜虫的控制效果最佳,鸡矢藤(Paederia scandena)和芒箕(Dicranopteris dichotoma)仅次于前2种植物,白兰花(Michelia alba)对瓜蚜和萝卜蚜也有较好的控制作用;鱼藤精稀释1000倍对萝卜蚜效果很好,对桃蚜控制作用较差.8种提取物中,山毛豆对蚜茧蜂有较强的毒性,4 h死亡率达63.33%,仅次于鱼藤酮精稀释1000倍(4 h的死亡率达80%),而樟树、羊蹄甲(Bauhinia variegata)、黄素馨、白兰花和草胡椒的乙醇提取物与对照没有差异,对蚜茧蜂安全、无毒.

  1. 越南棉花蓝病害研究进展%Researches on Cotton Blue Disease in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琨泰檀宾

    2001-01-01

    棉花蓝病害(blue disease,BD)于20世纪80年代初期在越南首次发生,10多年后即成为棉花主要病害.罹病棉株表现为发育迟缓、矮小、叶片向下卷曲,产量和品质严重下降.蓝病害在越南产棉省宁城、平顺、平福的发病最重.该病为棉蚜携带病毒,其转主寄主有黄花稔(Sida acuta)、白背黄花稔(Sida rhombifolia)和玫瑰茄(Hibiscussabdariffa)等.这些转主寄主和滞留在田间的棉杆残体等是病害的传染源.单项防治措施有清洁棉田,适时播种,与绿豆或玉米轮作,叶面喷药,用"高巧"进行种子包衣等.综合防治措施为:每公斤种子用70水剂高巧5g(imidachloride有效剂量3.5g@kg-1)包衣并与绿豆轮作,及所有措施同时应用.%Blue disease (BD) occurred in Vietnam in the early 1980's and has become the most economic important disease of cotton since late 80's. Infected plant is stunt and its leaves curl downwards, yield and quality of fiber reduced. Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan and Binh Phuoc provinces are cotton-grown areas that the most suffered from BD. It's caused by virus and transmitted by cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) in persistent manner and by grafting. Sida acuta,Sida rhornbifolia and Hibiscus sabdariffa are alternate hosts of BD. They and cotton residues are the main reservoir of BD infection. Single practices such as field sanitation, compact sowing dates, cotton inter-crop with mung bean and maize, chemical foliar spray and seedcoating with Gaucho are effective in reduction of BD infection. The most effective in controlling BD is the complex of cotton inter-crop with mung bean and seed-coating with Gaucho 70WS 5g @ kg-1 of seed (Imidachloprid 3.5g (a. i. ) @kg-1). But only the applications of all measures together can obtain success in diminishing blue disease incidence and loss of yield at very low level.

  2. 罗汉果花叶病病原病毒鉴定%Virus Identification of Luohanguo Mosaic Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 余玉冰; 刘志明

    2001-01-01

    从典型病株上分离到1种大小为12nm×(600~800)nm的线状病毒;该病毒可通过汁液摩擦和棉蚜(Aphis gossypii)传播,人工接种可侵染罗汉果(Siraitia grosvenorii)、西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo)、南瓜(C.moschata)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)、毛节瓜(Citrullus vulgaria)和瓠瓜(Lagenariasiceraria)等葫芦科植物引起花叶症状,侵染苋色藜(Chenopodium amaranticolor)引起局部褪绿斑点,接种番木瓜(Carica papaya)、普通烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)、心叶烟(N.glutinosa)、曼陀罗(Datura stramomum)、洋酸浆(Physalis floridana)、番杏(Tetragoniatetragonioides)、豇豆(Vigna sinensis)未见有任何症状;病毒的致死温度为55 ℃~60 ℃,稀释终点为10-3~10-4,在17 ℃~25 ℃下放置10 d还有侵染活力;ELISA测定结果表明,该病毒与西瓜花叶病毒2(WMV-2)有密切的血清学关系.上述结果表明,引起广西罗汉果花叶病的病原病毒是WMV-2的一个株系.本研究还表明,罗汉果花叶病毒与番木瓜环斑病毒(PRSV)、马铃薯Y病毒(PVY)、烟草蚀纹病毒(TEV)、大豆花叶病毒(SMV)及莴苣花叶病毒(LMV)均有较密切的血清学关系.

  3. 气相色谱法测定三类氢化油脂反式脂肪酸的含量%Determination of the trans- fatty acids in three kinds of hydrogenated fat by gas chromatogr aphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫强; 刘立萍; 严家俊; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    通过气相色谱法对市售三类氢化油脂的反式脂肪酸含量进行了测定,方法的重复性好,最低检出限能够满足要求。结果表明,三类氢化油脂反式脂肪酸的平均含量方别为:人造奶油(0.70g/100g),植物奶油(0.36g/100g)和(1.12g/100g)。所测定的样品中,以C18为主的反式脂肪酸中一烯酸和二烯酸含量较高,而三烯酸的反式甚微。%Trans- fatty acids(TFA) in three kinds of commer-cially available hydrogenated fat was determined by gas chromatog-raphy. The method had high precision with requisite minimum de-tection limit. The results showed that the average TFA content of them were as follows: margarine(0.70g/100g), vegetable cream (0.36g/100g), and shortening(6.2%). The major TFA in the sam-ples were trans C18, among which, trans C18:1 and C18:2 exhibited the more content, followed by small amounts of trans C18:3.

  4. 七星瓢虫对刺槐蚜和绣线菊蚜的功能反应%Functional Responses of Ladybirds (Coccinella Septempunctata L. ) to the Aphids:Aphis robiniae macchiati and a citricola vander goot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进忠; 王熠; 孙淑玲

    1999-01-01

    试验研究了七星瓢虫对刺槐蚜和绣线菊蚜的捕食功能反应.捕食者与猎物的功能反应均属于HollingⅡ型,经X2测验,其理论值与观察值很接近,说明模拟后的各方程可用来描述瓢虫的功能反应.七星瓢虫对刺槐蚜和绣线菊蚜的理论最大捕食量,三、四龄幼虫明显大于一、二龄幼虫.而且七星瓢虫对不同蚜虫的捕食量有一定的差异.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1320 - Identification of Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Provisions of the incorporated reform rule relating to the Clean Unit Exemption, Pollution Control Projects..., Glover, MO Settlement Agreement 10/31/03 10/29/04, 69 FR 63072 (23) Grossman Iron and Steel...

  6. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  7. Effect of two single mutations on malathion degradation by insect carboxylesterases%两个单点突变对昆虫羧酸酯酶降解马拉硫磷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳平; 姚淑敏; 林哲; 崔峰

    2013-01-01

    马拉硫磷是一种高效低毒的有机磷杀虫剂,分子量大且结构特殊,广泛用于农业害虫的防治.羧酸酯酶突变是昆虫对有机磷类杀虫剂产生代谢抗性的重要机制之一.本实验室前期已从棉蚜Aphis gossypii、褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens、斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura、家蚕Bombyx mori、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum和西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera中各克隆了一个非特异性羧酸酯酶基因,通过体外定点突变构建了G/A151D和W271L两种突变体,并进行了原核细胞表达和纯化.本实验在体外测定了这7种昆虫野生型和两种突变型羧酸酯酶对马拉硫磷的降解.结果显示:棉蚜、西方蜜蜂、斜纹夜蛾、赤拟谷盗的野生型羧酸酯酶能够降解马拉硫磷,两个突变并不能提高它们的降解活性,而家蚕、异色瓢虫和褐飞虱的野生型羧酸酯酶不能降解马拉硫磷,G/A151D和/或W271L突变能使这些酯酶获得马拉硫磷羧酸酯酶(MCE)的活性,有可能使这些昆虫对马拉硫磷产生抗性.不同物种的MCE活性相差较大,斜纹夜蛾的MCE活性最高,其kcat/Km值为1.8~1.9 L/μmol·min,其次是赤拟谷盗,其Kcat/Km值为0.87 ~0.95 L/μmol·min,其他昆虫的MCE活性相对较低,相差可高达10倍.%Malathion is an efficient but low toxic organophosphate insecticide with a large molecular weight and a special structure.It is widely used in the prevention and control of various agricultural pests.Mutation in carboxylesterases is one of important metabolic resistance mechanisms to organophosphate insecticides in insects.In a previous study,seven non-specific carboxylesterase genes from Aphis gossypii,Nilaparvata lugens,Spodoptera litura,Bombyx mori,Harmonia axyridis,Tribolium castaneum and Apis mellifera,respectively,were cloned,mutated at position 151 or 271 and expressed in Escherichia coli.In this experiment,the hydrolysis of the purified recombinant proteins of the seven

  8. Gclust Server: 18750 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18750 SCE_YIL156W-B Cluster Sequences - 73 Putative protein of unknown function, original... protein of unknown function, originally identified based on homology to Ashbya gossypii and other related y

  9. 7 CFR 318.47 - Notice of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) and the cotton blister mite (Eriophyes gossypii Banks), insect pests new to..., meal, and other cottonseed products, except oil; cotton waste; and all other unmanufactured parts...

  10. Molecular Nanoparks for CWAs, TICs, and TIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    within Porous Meta-Organic Frameworks, Inorganic Chemistry , (07 2010): 6387. doi: 10.1021/ic100652x 10/07/2011 2.00 T. Grant Glover, Gregory W... Organometallic Complexes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, (07 2010): 0. doi: 10.1021/ja103016y 12/04/2012 4.00 Christian J. Doonan, David J...Tranchemontagne, T. Grant Glover, Joseph R. Hunt, Omar M. Yaghi. Exceptional ammonia uptake by a covalent organic framework, Nature Chemistry , (02

  11. Local Purchasing of Journals is Required in Addition to a Nationally Purchased Collection to Meet the Information Needs of NHS Staff. A review of: Glover, Steven William, John Addison, Colette Gleghorn, and John Bramwell. “Journal Usage in NHS Hospitals: A Comparison Report of Total Usage at an Acute NHS Trust and a Specialist NHS Trust in the North West of England.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007: 193‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Kelson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To compare journal usage between an acute National Health Service (NHS Trust and a specialist NHS Trust located in North West England to provide some evidence as to how well the National Core Content Collection (provided by ProQuest meets the needs of staff in these settings.Design ‐ Comparative studySetting ‐ An acute NHS Trust, comprising four hospital sites, and a cancer specialist NHS Trust based on a single site. Both Trusts are located in North West England. The cancer specialist NHS Trust is a teaching hospital with undergraduate nurses, medical students, and student radiographers. This Trust is also closely associated with an adjoining cancer research institute. The acute NHS Trust has a large number of healthcare staff in training and was not described as a teaching hospital.Subjects ‐ Staff of the respective NHS Trusts. The staff numbers for each organisation were not provided.Methods ‐ COUNTER usage statistics of online journals, obtained from publisher administration tools, were collected for one year covering the period 1 December 2005 to 30 November 2006. Where available, the number of photocopies made from print journals during the same period by library users for their own use was also included. All full‐text downloads of journal articles were counted as part of this study, hence the possibility of double counting if a single article was requested in both HTML and PDF versions. Details of free or open access articles accessed without the need for a username and password were not included in the study. To encourage use of the electronic journals, library services at both Trusts implemented a number of initiatives to maximize publicity. These included direct e‐mails to staff, posters, and presentations to staff. Athens registration, required for access to the electronic journal collections, was promoted as part of the induction process for new library users. Staff members were encouraged to apply for the electronic table of contents alert for journals in their area of specialty. An A‐Z list of journals was accessible via the Trusts’ intranet and internet sites, and direct links to electronic journals were added to the NHS Dialog/Datastar databases and on PubMed.Main results ‐ The libraries at both Trusts in the study provide the majority of their journals in electronic‐only format. In addition to the National Core Content titles, the cancer specialist Trust provides access to an additional five journal collections: Science Direct Health Sciences, Blackwell Synergy Medical and Nursing collection, five journals selected from Nature Publishing Group, selected society journals via HighWire Press and Oxford University Press titles. Staff members of the acute Trust have access to an additional three journal collections: Science Direct Health Sciences, the BMJ Publishing Group (BMJPG collection and 16 LWW titles via Ovid. During the study period, a total of 93,376 articles were downloaded or copied. Of these, 47,079 articles were downloaded or copied by staff of the cancer specialist NHS Trust and 46,297 articles were downloaded or copied by staff of the acute NHS Trust. The usage of each of the journal collections during the study period for each Trust is shown in the table below with the most used resource shown in bold. (See article for table General information regarding some of the commonly used journal titles by staff of each Trust was included in the commentary, but levels of use were not enumerated. Staff of the cancer specialist NHS Trust favoured cancer‐related titles, whilst staff of the acute NHS Trust accessed journal titles over a greater range of subject areas. Details of the top titles accessed from the National Core Content collection were not provided for either Trust. A possible reason given for the lower usage level of the National Core Content collection by the cancer specialist NHS Trust compared to the acute NHS Trust was the presence of embargoes on many cancer‐related titles within the National Core Content collection. Information about training offered to staff, their level of access to computer facilities,or familiarity with accessing electronic journal collections was not provided.Conclusion ‐ Staff of both Trusts in the study recorded a high level of journal use, with a total of 93,376 articles downloaded or photocopied during the study period. There was a marked difference in the usage patterns of the National Core Content journals between the two Trusts studied with the acute NHS Trust showing a higher proportion of usage (29.9%compared with the cancer specialist Trust(4.5%. Staff members of the acute NHS Trust accessed a greater range of subject areas, while staff those at the cancer specialist NHS Trust favoured cancer related titles.The results indicated that the National Core Content collection did not meet the information needs of the specialist cancer Trust as well as it met the needs of the more generalist acute Trust. The National Core Content collection appears insufficient to meet the diverse information needs of all NHS staff. Local purchasing of journals, in addition to national level provision, is therefore required to ensure that the needs of local specialties are adequately supported.

  12. 75 FR 49454 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... vesicular disease, African swine fever, bovine fever, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and contagious bovine pleuropneuomia. APHIS will collect the exporter's name, address, the name and address of...

  13. 76 FR 65164 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Hawaiian and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Collection; Hawaiian and Territorial Quarantine Notices AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0096, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A... and Territorial Quarantine Notices. OMB Number: 0579-0198. Type of Request: Extension of approval...

  14. 77 FR 29313 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) amended the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Quarantine... Protection and Quarantine, a program within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),...

  15. 9 CFR 130.51 - Penalties for nonpayment or late payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any user fee due under 7 CFR chapter III or chapter I of this title, then: (1) Subsequent user fee... health certificate, APHIS will not release the certificate. (3) Veterinary diagnostics. If an APHIS user... accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3717. Administrative charges will be assessed at $20.00 per dishonored payment...

  16. 7 CFR 371.5 - Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration (GIPSA), and other APHIS, AMS, and GIPSA officials in the planning and formulation of MRP policies... functions for APHIS and designated functions for other MRP agencies, including finance, personnel, and... development, training, recruitment, and employee development programs for MRP agencies. (11)...

  17. 78 FR 27864 - Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2012-0089, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS... customs and navigation laws in force. Under this proposal, paragraph (h)(5)(ii) would lay out a number of... are off-loaded from containers in a safeguarded environment and at no time would the articles...

  18. 76 FR 50991 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; User Fee Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    .../Commercial Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0083, Regulatory Analysis and Development... upon which they are premised, were transferred from APHIS to the Customs and Border Protection (CBP... information contained in each request identifies the specific service requested and the time in which...

  19. 7 CFR 301.92-12 - Testing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing protocols. 301.92-12 Section 301.92-12... protocols. Samples must be analyzed using a methodology approved by APHIS at a laboratory approved by APHIS... on positive results of any approved test. Positive PCR or other molecular tests do not...

  20. 78 FR 18307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ..., veterinary medicine, and plant pathology. The objective(s) of the APHIS Student Outreach Program is to: (1... APHIS programs including veterinary medicine, animal science, plant pathology; and (4) increase... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments regarding...

  1. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval must agree to pay the costs of all APHIS services associated with APHIS' evaluation of the... responsibly connected with the business of the facility is or has been convicted of any crime under any law... with the business of the facility is or has been convicted of a crime involving fraud,...

  2. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant... regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status... regulated under 7 CFR part 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer...

  3. An airborne pushbroom hyperspectral imager with wide field of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peixin Hu; Qirnin Lu; Rong Shu; Jianyu Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ An airborne pushbroom hyperspectral imager (APHI) with wide field (42° field of view) is presented.It is composed of two 22°field of view (FOV) imagers and can provide 1304 pixels in spatial dimension,124 bands in spectral dimension in one frame. APHI has a bandwidth ranging from 400 to 900 nm.

  4. 75 FR 2845 - ArborGen, LLC; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Controlled Release of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Internet at ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Biotechnology Regulatory... Register (74 FR 26648-26649, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0059) announcing the availability of an environmental..., 2.80, and 371.3. Done in Washington, DC, this 6\\th\\ day of January 2010. Cindy Smith...

  5. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the...-2323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to...

  6. 78 FR 44092 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... authority. APHIS has import restrictions at title 9, parts 92 through 98, of the CFR. Sections 93.900... or treatments for the virus. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS has developed import requirements... from imports of finfish or their gametes infected with SVC virus. Description of Respondents:...

  7. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047] Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG... a supplemental petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) and KWS SAAT AG (KWS) requesting...=DocketDetail&d=APHIS-2010-0047 . The supplemental petition is related to a petition submitted by...

  8. 9 CFR 11.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the records of any horse show, horse exhibition, horse sale or horse auction. APHIS Show Veterinarian means the APHIS Doctor of Veterinary Medicine responsible for the immediate supervision and conduct of... otherwise inspect horses and any records pertaining to such horses for the purposes of enforcing the...

  9. 77 FR 58088 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... certification statement that must be completed by Mexican veterinary authorities prior to export and three APHIS... Burden Hours: 630. Title: Importation of Papaya from Colombia and Ecuador. OMB Control Number: 0579-0358... Colombia and Ecuador in the continental United States. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS requires...

  10. 78 FR 17181 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... pest including fruit flies, the mango seed weevil, and others. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS... number of pests and disease of concern, including Asian Longhorn Beetle (ALB), emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle, and citrus greening, to name a few. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)...

  11. 77 FR 13257 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... and diagnostic data that are used to define foreign animal diseases (FAD) and their risk factors. The... database for reporting investigations of suspected FAD occurrences. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS... disease. APHIS uses the collected information to effectively prevent FAD occurrences and protect...

  12. The EU needs more anticipatory funding of health and environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-01-01

    In recent months, there have been several attacks on the Precautionary Principle and how the principle has been used in the EU. For example, the scientific advisor to the President of the European Commission, Ann Glover, has accused Commissioners of having “crazy ideas” about the safety of nanote......In recent months, there have been several attacks on the Precautionary Principle and how the principle has been used in the EU. For example, the scientific advisor to the President of the European Commission, Ann Glover, has accused Commissioners of having “crazy ideas” about the safety...

  13. The Effect of the Muller-Lyer Illusion on the Planning and Control of Manual Aiming Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jocelyn E.; Elliott, Digby; Meegan, Daniel V.; Lyons, James L.; Welsh, Timothy N.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments used Muller-Lyer stimuli to test the predictions of the planning-control model (S. Glover, 2002) for aiming movements. In Experiment 1, participants aimed to stimuli that either remained the same or changed upon movement initiation. Experiment 2 was identical except that the duration of visual feedback for online control was…

  14. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    14, 2008. Gulf Asphalt Contractor (GAC), Panama City, FL, provided all labor , material (with the exception of pelletized asphalt) and equipment for...produced. Benefits include: reduced transportation, traffic disruption, operating costs, and labor costs, while increased productivity and... Mercado , E. A., A. Epps Martin, E. S. Park, C. Spiegelman, and C. J. Glover, “Factors Affecting Binder Properties between Production and Construction

  15. Utilizing Spectrum Efficiently (USE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    and transmission rates to maximize the expected values of forward progress [3,5,21,33] as well as trans- port capacity [18,27] over a Nakagami -m channel...2009. [27] T. D. Goswami, J. M. Shea, T. F. Wong, M. Rao, and J. Glover, “Maximizing Transport Capacity for Geographic Transmission on Nakagami -m

  16. Team Building through Physical Challenges in Gender-Segregated Classes and Student Self-Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L.; Ebbeck, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    It was of interest to determine if earlier research findings, where female students were particularly advantaged by the Team Building Through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover & Midura, 1992) program in a coeducational setting, would still be observed in gender-segregated physical education classes. A total of 260 female (n = 127) and male (n…

  17. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    AAPM 48th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 2006 Zhang X, Cao F, Cai W, Schreibmann E, Wu Y, Wu JC, Xing L, Chen X. 18F-Labeled Bombesin...147– 155 . 3. Chung DH, Evers BM, Beauchamp RD, et al. Bombesin stimulates growth of human gastrinoma. Surgery. 1992;112:1059–1065. 4. Glover SC

  18. Background and Source Term Identification in Active Neutron Interrogation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    2000. 10. Spitz, Henry , Bingjing Su, Samuel Glover, James Petrosky , and David Smith. “Design of a Novel, Multi-Element Scintillation Detector...James C. Petrosky , PhD (Member) Date iv AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M01 Abstract The detection and tracking

  19. A Century Long Pursuit of Alternative Fuels and Feedstocks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Retrieved January 3, 2011, from JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/3742604 Glover, B., & Mattingly, J. (2009). Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a...the Rise of the German Synthetic Fuel Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from JSTOR : http://www.jstor.org/stable/232411 Stranges, A. N. (2003

  20. 78 FR 4462 - Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Freedman, Senior Assistant General Counsel Matthew Glover, Associate Counsel to the Inspector General... criminal defendants in tribal courts Mark Freedman, Senior Assistant General Counsel Public comment on this... Freedman, Senior Assistant General Counsel Public comment on this request to initiate rulemaking...

  1. Why It's Good to Go to Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In the author's fourth year of undergraduate studies at the University of Waterloo he had the opportunity to explore the benefits attained by children attending a summer camp by way of an academic literature review. The author worked with Dr. Troy Glover who has been commissioned by a group of camping associations to perform a study on the…

  2. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  3. Jet Fuel from Shale Oil - 1981 Technology Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    PA 18105 Inc. Waverly Glover ASD/PMRSA WPAFB, OH 45433 Timothy N. Gootee AFWAL/POFF WPAFB, OH 45433 Dr. Shri K. Goya ! Amoco Oil Co. - R&D...Engineering Box 3965 San Francisco , CA 94119 Barry E. McMillen WPAFB - AFWAL/POFF 9578 Lower Valley Pk. Medway, OH 45341 Warren K. McOmber

  4. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer...

  5. Modeling and Control for Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenis, Joel

    Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain scheduled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

  6. A review and critical analysis of how cognitive neuroscientific investigations using dance can contribute to sport psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Acquah, D.; Ramsey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether watching Michael Jackson moonwalk or Savion Glover tap dance, it is striking how skilfully some people can move their bodies. The emerging field of cognitive neuroscience has produced important advances in understanding the control and perception of complex action. Here we outline the merits

  7. Impacts of the Fleet Response Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Plan on Surface Combatant Maintenance Roland J. Yardley, Raj Raman, Jessie Riposo, James Chiesa, John F. Schank Prepared for the United States Navy...Command; CDR Robert Johnson, Kevin Alexander, and LCDR Tony Glover of Commander, Naval Surface Forces Atlantic; and CAPT Larry Olsen and Steve Reynolds

  8. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning Government Property. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 76...) 501-1448 or email curtis.glover@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Property, as used...

  9. 76 FR 37704 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Documenting Contractor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... and business ethics; and (7) Business-like concern for the interest of the customer. (b) All past.../or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis E. Glover... businesses. Therefore, an Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis has not been performed. DoD, GSA, and...

  10. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

  11. 75 FR 61413 - Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management... has developed an audit standard for its biotechnology compliance assistance program. The audit... Assistance Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 91, Riverdale, MD...

  12. 9 CFR 51.26 - Record of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.26 Record of tests. An APHIS representative,...

  13. 9 CFR 51.33 - Multiple indemnity payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.33 Multiple indemnity payments. APHIS has indemnity... destroyed because of brucellosis, no other claims for indemnity will be paid for the same animals....

  14. 78 FR 58267 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...: For information on the export of poultry and hatching eggs from the United States, contact Dr. Antonio Ramirez, Senior Staff Veterinarian, NCIE, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 40, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301)...

  15. 78 FR 45169 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13. Comments regarding (a) Whether the... livestock. APHIS' regulations govern cooperative programs to control and eradicate communicable diseases of... animal identification number manufacturers and managers; cooperative agreements; cooperative...

  16. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... meeting in person, it will be streamed on the Internet as a live Webcast. To view the Webcast, go to http://www.aphis.usda.gov/stakeholders/ and follow the instructions to access the streaming video and...

  17. 75 FR 1749 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and... Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as transformation event....aphis.usda.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Subray Hegde, Biotechnology Regulatory...

  18. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  19. 77 FR 68802 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... end report and a discussion on the impact of trade enforcement and trade intelligence initiatives. The... the July 2012 USDA/Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and CBP Joint Stakeholder...

  20. 77 FR 22284 - Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder... Inspection Service (APHIS) has established a Veterinary Services (VS) Stakeholder Registry, an...

  1. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Service stakeholder registry. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Hallie Zimmers, Advisor for State and Stakeholder Relations, Legislative and Public Affairs, APHIS, room 1147, 1400 Independence Avenue...

  2. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, winter 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This special use permit allows USDA Animal Damage Control (APHIS) to collect up to 50 coyote, red fox or badger by aerial gunning as part of the disease study...

  3. 75 FR 6026 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...-5701. EIS No. 20100027, Draft EIS, USFS, CA, Big Grizzly Fuels Reduction and Forest Health Project... Number. EIS No. 20090435, Draft EIS, APHIS, 00, Glyphosate-Tolerant Alfalfa Events J101 and J163:...

  4. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...) is soliciting letters of interest to participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management System Program is a voluntary ] compliance...

  5. 78 FR 36506 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ....'' However, on May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006... provides the requirements for the importation of Pelargonium spp. plants from the Canary Islands,...

  6. 78 FR 66892 - BASF Plant Science LP; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... herbicide drift, management of herbicide-resistant weeds, and human health considerations from exposure to... a new herbicide-resistant product. APHIS has evaluated the issues raised during the comment...

  7. 9 CFR 56.4 - Determination of indemnity amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorities agree, by either an APHIS official appraiser or a State official appraiser alone. For laying hens, the appraised value should include the hen's projected future egg production. Appraisals of...

  8. USDA for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dairy labs, cows, and dairy products through fun games and puzzles. Sci4Kids Sci4Kids is a series of ... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Beetle Busters Freeze & Collect Game Interactive online game using your magnifying glass to ...

  9. 76 FR 44570 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Nomination Request Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... this mission, the Veterinary Services (VS) program of APHIS provides vital training to State, Tribal... approval. All comments will also become a matter of public record. Done in Washington, DC, this 20th day...

  10. 78 FR 61321 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., Senior Staff Veterinary Medical Officer, TTS, NCIE, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 40, Riverdale, MD.... All comments will also become a matter of public record. Done in Washington, DC, this 26th day...

  11. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of... obtained from the National Animal Health Programs, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  12. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and post-mortem veterinary inspections, paying particular attention to the head and feet, at the... States. (j) An authorized veterinary official of the Government of Uruguay certifies on the foreign meat..., records, and operations by an APHIS representative....

  13. 78 FR 54617 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Credit Account Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to... customers who request that APHIS bill them. The Agency needs to collect certain information to conduct...

  14. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Ecuador, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Liechtenstein... production site until such time when APHIS and the NPPO of the exporting country, can agree that...

  15. 7 CFR 372.5 - Classification of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with the issues at hand are seldom new or untested. Alternative means of dealing with those issues are...) Rehabilitation of facilities. Rehabilitation of existing laboratories and other APHIS facilities,...

  16. 78 FR 1824 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... information collection associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the... Staff Veterinarian, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301)...

  17. 78 FR 13309 - ArborGen Inc.; Availability of Petition, Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Programs, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238... States Department of Energy considers eucalyptus as a candidate bioenergy feedstock. The United States... February 2013. Michael Gregoire, Deputy Administrator, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, Animal and...

  18. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand

  19. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    lenses (Nikon) in combination with a heated stage (Delta T Open Dish System, Bioptechs), as described by Roth et al. [45] with modifications...ED. Dynamics of microtubule depolymerization in monocytes. J Cell Biol. 1986; 102:2023–2032. 28. Roth DM, Moseley GW, Glover D, Pouton CW, Jans DA. A...microtubule-facilitated nuclear import pathway for cancer regulatory proteins. Traffic. 2007; 8:673–686. 29. Roth DM, Moseley GW, Pouton CW, Jans DA

  20. Computational Studies of Energetic Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-27

    1986]. They are hypothetical chemical processes in which the number of bonds of each formal type remains the same on each side of the equation , but...Politzer, Abrahmsen, Sjoberg, and Laurence, 1983; Politzer, Bar- Adon and Miller, 1987; Politzer, Jayasuriya and Zilles , 1985; Politzer...Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis." J. Org. Chem. 42, 4201. 38 Sharma, J., Hoffsomer, J. C., Glover, D. J., Coffey, C. S., Santiago, F

  1. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report (ER-200742) Open Burn/Open Detonation (OBOD) Area Management Using Lime for Explosives Transformation and Metals Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    implementing the technology include site-specific soil and pore water geochemistry characteristics such as the presence of a high CEC, high...Soil and Pore Water Geochemistry : The presence of a high CEC, high buffering capacity, or low pH, may require higher lime dosages.  Management...Glover. 1977. Kinetic isotope effects and intermediate formation for the aqueous alkaline homogeneous hydrolysis of 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5

  2. Open Burn/Open Detonation (OBOD) Area Management Using Lime For Explosives Transformation And Metals Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    drivers Cost drivers that should be considered when implementing the technology include site-specific soil and pore water geochemistry characteristics... Geochemistry : The presence of a high CEC, high buffering capacity, or low pH, may require higher lime dosages; and • Management Goals: More...Chemosphere 61:888–894. Hoffsommer, J. C., D. A. Kubose, and D. J. Glover. 1977. Kinetic isotope effects and inter- mediate formation for the aqueous

  3. Artificial Inhomogeneous Tapered Impedance Sheet Characterization and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    properties of the φ-dependent impedance sheet. iv Acknowledgements I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my advisor Dr. Michael Havrilla ...and future. Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on, 51(1):78–100, Feb. 2009. [2] B. Glover, K. Whites, M. Hyde, and M. Havrilla ...2008. [3] M.W. Hyde, M.J. Havrilla , and P.E. Crittenden. A novel method for deter- mining the r-card sheet impedance using the transmission coefficient

  4. Estimation and Identification for Modeling Dynamic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol. AC-20, pp. 775- 782, December 1975. [2] J.M. Mendel...Diego, California, Septer 1975. [3) J.M. Mendel, "Extension of Friedland’s Bias Filtering Technique to a Class of Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...Time Linear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , April 1980. [8] M.S. Grewal and K. Glover, "Relationships

  5. AcEST: BP919991 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 33 1.3 sp|Q4KAD4|DNAE2_PSEF5 Error-prone DNA polymerase OS=Pseudomonas ... 32 1.7 sp|A6VAU7|DNAE2_PSEA7 Error...rin subunit B OS=Ashbya gossypii GN... 32 1.7 sp|A4XTN0|DNAE2_PSEMY Error-prone DNA polymerase OS=Pseudomona

  6. Ingeniería Metabólica de Sistemas en el hongo industrial Ashbya gosypii: impulsando la producción de riboflavina, lípidos y nucleósidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Amaro, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    [EN]Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus used by the industry to produce riboflavin. During the last years, the natural capability of this microorganism to produce the vitamin has been increased by different metabolic engineering approaches. Since this fungus presents general industrial advantages in upstream, downstream and the fermentation processes it has been recently proposed for other large scale applications such as recombinant proteins, bioethanol and folic acid production. The ...

  7. Plant genotype shapes ant-aphid interactions: implications for community structure and indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which plant genotype shapes arthropod community structure. In a field experiment, we measured the effects of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) genotype and ants on milkweed arthropods. Populations of the ant-tended aphid Aphis asclepiadis and the untended aphid Myzocallis asclepiadis varied eight- to 18-fold among milkweed genotypes, depending on aphid species and whether ants were present. There was no milkweed effect on predatory arthropods. Ants increased Aphis abundance 59%, decreased Myzocallis abundance 52%, and decreased predator abundance 56%. Milkweed genotype indirectly influenced ants via direct effects on Aphis and Myzocallis abundance. Milkweed genotype also modified ant-aphid interactions, influencing the number of ants attracted per Aphis and Myzocallis. While ant effects on Myzocallis were consistently negative, effects on Aphis ranged from antagonistic to mutualistic among milkweed genotypes. As a consequence of milkweed effects on ant-aphid interactions, ant abundance varied 13-fold among milkweed genotypes, and monarch caterpillar survival was negatively correlated with genetic variation in ant abundance. We speculate that heritable variation in milkweed phloem sap drives these effects on aphids, ants, and caterpillars. In summary, milkweed exerts genetic control over the interactions between aphids and an ant that provides defense against foliage-feeding caterpillars.

  8. Heterogeneity in mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential is independent of the nuclear division cycle in multinucleate fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenberger, John P; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2012-03-01

    In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influence the adjacent cytoplasm, we tested whether local mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in A. gossypii are associated with the division state of a nearby nucleus. We found that mitochondria exhibit substantial heterogeneity in both morphology and membrane potential within a single multinucleated cell. Notably, differences in mitochondrial morphology or potential are not associated with a specific nuclear division state. Heterokaryon mutants with a mixture of nuclei with deletions of and wild type for the mitochondrial fusion/fission genes DNM1 and FZO1 exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology and severe growth and sporulation defects. This dominant effect suggests that the gene products may be required locally near their expression site rather than diffusing widely in the cell. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics are essential in these large syncytial cells, yet morphology and membrane potential are independent of nuclear cycle state.

  9. 中国蚜科一新纪录属四新纪录种(同翅目,蚜总科)%ONE NEW RECORD GENUS AND FOUR NEW RECORD SPECIES OF CHINESE APHIDIDAE (HOMOPTERA, APHIDOIDEA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔格侠; 姜立云

    2005-01-01

    研究了中国蚜科Aphididae 1新纪录属4新纪录种,包括蚜亚科Aphidinae蚜属Aphis 2新纪录种:番樱桃蚜Aphis eugeniae van der Goot,1917和粉蚜居梨亚种Aphis farinosa yanagicola Matsumura,1917;长管蚜亚科Macrosiphinae 1新纪录属:微小瘤蚜属Micromyzella Eastop,1955;2新纪录种:犹太微小瘤蚜Micromyzella judenkoi (Carver,1965)和香蕉交脉蚜卡拉第亚种Pentalonia nigronervosa caladii van der Goot,1917.提供了形态记述、寄主植物、分布及形态特征图.研究标本保存在英国自然历史博物馆.

  10. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  11. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from...... of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible...

  13. 78 FR 4122 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... an Information Collection; Importation of Fruit From Thailand into the United States AGENCY: Animal... fruit from Thailand. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before March 19, 2013... http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2012-0101-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial...

  14. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  15. 9 CFR 93.400 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture (APHIS or Service). Animals. Cattle, sheep, goats, other.... A region listed in § 94.18(a)(3) of this subchapter. Brucellosis certified free herd. A herd in which all eligible cattle in the herd were negative to brucellosis tests under the Canadian...

  16. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31 Disinfecting... brucellosis, must be properly cleaned and disinfected in accordance with recommendations of the APHIS or State... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the...

  17. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 11071-11072, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0020) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  19. 78 FR 23209 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ..., widely known and referred to as systems approaches. The commenter stated that integrated measures... noxious weed that is of potential economic importance to the United States and not yet present in the... the importation of plants for planting. First, APHIS should overhaul the permit system to allow...

  20. 77 FR 75968 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... surveillance mission. They are used routinely when specimens (such as blood, milk, tissue, or urine) from any animal (including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and poultry) are submitted to APHIS' National... information needed for the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. This information identifies the...

  1. 78 FR 60245 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; LabWare Laboratory Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act Systems of Records; LabWare Laboratory Information Management System... is the LabWare Laboratory Information Management System, USDA-APHIS-19. This notice is necessary to... (USDA) is proposing to add a new system of records, entitled LabWare Laboratory Information...

  2. Quality of fresh-cut 'Kent' mango slices prepared from hot water or non hot water treated fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quarantine heat treatment consisting of exposure to 46°C water for 65 to 110 minutes (depending on cultivar and fruit size) is mandated by USDA-APHIS for all mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) entering the United States. Heat treatments may affect ripening processes and induce resistance to chilling in...

  3. 9 CFR 98.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (APHIS). Approved artificial insemination center. A facility approved or licensed by the national... government of the region in which the facility is located for the artificial insemination of donor dams or for conception as a result of artificial breeding by a donor sire and for collecting and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/fruit_flies/index.shtml. The description of the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-6 - Trust fund agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-6 Trust fund... the exportation of fruits or vegetables and APHIS services are to be funded by the national...

  6. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketers. Orchard owners eligible for compensation under this paragraph who market all fruit they produce...) Direct marketers. Owners of commercial stone fruit orchards who APHIS has determined meet the eligibility... marketers. The completed application must be accompanied by: (i) A copy of the emergency action...

  7. 76 FR 27301 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for cotton..., Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 734-5720,...

  8. 75 FR 62498 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    .... Sec. 301.76 through 301.76-11). Citrus greening, also known as Huanglonghing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS... in the United States. The regulations in ``Subpart-Citrus Fruit'' (7 CFR 319.28) allow...

  9. 76 FR 39376 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Avocado from Michoac n Mexico. OMB Control Number: 0579-0129. Summary of Collection: Under the Plant... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulations allow fresh Hass Avocado fruit grown in approved orchards... Plants or Plant Products,'' to ensure that fresh Hass Avocados from Mexico do not harbor insect...

  10. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  11. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... plan to demonstrate place of production freedom from Medfly. The NPPO of Colombia would have to keep... Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, OMB, Attention: Desk Officer for APHIS, Washington, DC... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; e.g., permitting electronic submission...

  12. to the Scientific Opinion on a quantitative pathway analysis of the likelihood of Tilletia indica M. introduction into EU with importation of US wheat of EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The EFSA Plant Health Unit asked the Assessment Methodology Unit to recalculate and update the Quantitative Pathway Analysis of the exposure of the EU wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores provided by USDA APHIS. Simulations were computed, for importations of US wheat into EU ...... Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (EFSA 2010...

  13. Scientific opinion on a quantitative pathway analysis of the likelihood ofTilletia indica M. introduction into EU with importation of US wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the USDA APHIS quantitative pathway analysis on likelihood of Karnal bunt introduction with importation of US wheat for grain into EU and desert durum wheat for grain into Italy. EFSA was also requested to indicate whether ...

  14. 76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... evaluation being requested; Veterinary control and oversight; Disease history and vaccination practices... history and vaccination practices. This factor would require sufficient information to enable APHIS to..., revisions to those measures as applicable, and the vaccination status and history in the region....

  15. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Act that are used for teaching, testing, and experimentation. This information is used by APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...

  16. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...: Effective on September 21, 2012, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 77 FR 5381... February 3, 2012 (77 FR 5381-5385, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0004), we amended the plum pox regulations to... rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 77 FR 5381-5385 on February 3, 2012. Done...

  17. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  18. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on APHIS... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically...

  19. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The species, size, and number of the poultry to be destroyed; (2) The environment in which the poultry... virus; (6) Any hazard the method could pose to the environment; (7) The degree of bird control and... Cooperating State Agency and APHIS and may include one or more of the following: Burial,...

  20. 75 FR 52304 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... No. APHIS-2010-0061] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that... plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of guavas from Hawaii. We are making the...

  1. 75 FR 52302 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0074] Notice of Availability of Pest... have prepared three pest risk analyses that evaluate, respectively, the risks associated with the... sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via...

  2. Measuring the Impact of Military Family Programs on the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    1hen Dar. Entared) I USAWC MILITAlY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPIR KEASUkING ThE DIPACT OF MILITARY FAMILT PROGRAMS ON THE APHY An Indiviesal Study by... business to take care of your family and not an Army concern. however, today, that atti- tude has changed. Geographic mobility, changing family

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis, D. grandiosella, and Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) is increasingly being used to disinfest horticultural commodities of invasive quarantine pests. Most disinfestation is done with generic treatments, where one dose is scheduled for a group of pests and/or commodities. The current generic treatment that USDA-APHIS uses...

  4. 78 FR 64908 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Pathogenic Avian Influenza, All Subtypes, and Newcastle Disease; Additional Restrictions. OMB Control Number... Newcastle Disease are extremely infectious and often fatal disease affecting all types of birds and poultry... Newcastle Disease, APHIS requires the use of several information collection activities, including an...

  5. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  6. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  7. 76 FR 77475 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... permits and compliance agreements to prevent the spread of PCN and to ensure that regulated articles can be moved safely from the quarantined area without spreading PCN. If APHIS did not collect this information, the spread of PCN in the United States could result in a loss of domestic or foreign markets...

  8. 77 FR 27771 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... . Supplementary Information: EPA is seeking agencies to participate in its e-NEPA electronic EIS submission pilot... in the pilot, register at: https://cdx.epa.gov . EIS No. 20120136, Final Supplement, APHIS, NY, Bird... Fighter Wing, California National Guard, To Convert the Unit from the F-16 Fighting Falcon Aircraft...

  9. Maintaining genetic diversity and population panmixia through dispersal and not gene flow in a Holocyclic heteroecious aphid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heteroecious holocyclic aphids alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction on primary and secondary hosts, respectively. Most of these aphids are generalists, but the aphid specialist Aphis glycines survives only on the primary host buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.) and the secondary host soybean (Gly...

  10. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the... irradiation facilities have been built in the currently approved locations in Southern States. Under the Plant... concur with the proposed facility location, APHIS and the State will agree on a strategy to resolve...

  11. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... rabies from sources in Mexico, the successful control of gray fox rabies virus variant in western Texas... and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0046] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  12. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...) recommendations and sound science. APHIS regulations specify that animals infected by or exposed to foot-and mouth... composting (on- or off-site), rendering, landfills compliant with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.... Agricultural lands. Industries and the economy. Public perception. Cultural and historic resources. Effects...

  13. 75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone... request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and....aphis.usda.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alecia Naugle, Coordinator, National...

  14. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2011-30 september 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procon...

  15. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International,...

  16. 76 FR 72672 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Animal... (USDA), to regulate the humane care and handling of dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, and... laboratory animals. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Animal Care (AC) has...

  17. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... American cactus moth has been discovered in other parts of Florida, as well as in Alabama, Georgia..., encouraging the growth of other plants in degraded areas. In addition, many species of birds, mammals... Service (APHIS) established regulations quarantining the States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,...

  18. 78 FR 28798 - Dow AgroSciences LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... possible selection for and spread of weeds resistant to the herbicide 2,4-D combined with resistance to... herbicides, APHIS has identified the potential selection of herbicide resistant weeds as a potential... a comprehensive environmental analysis of the potential selection of 2,4-D resistant weeds and...

  19. 78 FR 13286 - Sharing Certain Business Information Regarding the Introduction of Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... material within brackets and appropriate versions are automatically generated for State distribution with... APHIS. Permit and notification review also allows States to better plan their logistics and workloads... has not identified any private entities, large or small, that would be affected by this proposed...

  20. Calculation of Volterra kernels for solutions of nonlinear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, JL; Kistler, WM; Thomas, EGF

    2000-01-01

    We consider vector-valued autonomous differential equations of the form x' = f(x) + phi with analytic f and investigate the nonanticipative solution operator phi bar right arrow A(phi) in terms of its Volterra series. We show that Volterra kernels of order > 1 occurring in the series expansion of th

  1. A novel multiplexed, probe-based quantitative PCR assay for the soybean root-rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae utilizes its transposable element

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  2. 76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0038] Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically.... SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by the Monsanto Co... Company (Monsanto) of St. Louis, MO, seeking a determination of nonregulated status for soybean...

  3. 78 FR 13301 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Spring Viremia of Carp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... regulations are contained in title 9, parts 92 through 98, of the Code of Federal Regulations. Sections 93.900... treatments for the virus. In accordance with the regulations, APHIS restricts the importation of live fish... research materials containing viable SVC virus. The regulations involve information collection...

  4. 78 FR 58514 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing of a DNA Immunostimulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ..., IA 50010; phone (515) 337-6100, fax (515) 337-6120 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the Virus-Serum... the Council on Environmental Quality for implementing the procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500- 1508), (3) USDA regulations implementing NEPA (7 CFR part 1b), and (4) APHIS' NEPA...

  5. 9 CFR 160.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., asses, mules, zebras, birds, and poultry. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The Animal and... this subchapter based on completion of an APHIS-approved orientation or training program. Regular.... Category II animals. Food and fiber animal species; horses; birds; farm-raised aquatic animals; all...

  6. 78 FR 79568 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... provisions of proposed Sec. 319.56-58 so that the reader can follow along with the proposal. We solicited... advisors. APHIS is making two changes in response to this comment. It is essential that the NPPO... consideration, we have decided to change the rule in response to this comment, according to the...

  7. Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the following organs by APHIS Veterinary Services personnel: nasal passages, trachea, larynx, epiglottis , bronchi, lungs, heart, liver, spleen and...kidneys. Sections of the nasal passages, bronchi, lungs and liver, plus the entire trachea, larynx and epiglottis , from each animal were preserved jointly

  8. 9 CFR 91.3 - General export requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communicable disease. The origin health certificate must be endorsed by an authorized APHIS veterinarian in the... accompanied from the State of origin of the export movement to the port of embarkation by an origin health... State of origin of the export movement to the border of the United States by an origin...

  9. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  10. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0023] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and... period. SUMMARY: We are reopening the comment period for a petition received from the Monsanto Company... prepare and submit comments on the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our...

  11. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... No. APHIS-2010-0047] Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation... deregulation'' or similar administrative action from the Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG for the planting... of the documents submitted to the Agency from Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG requesting a...

  12. 77 FR 41357 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking a... certain genetically engineered organisms and products. We are making the Monsanto petition available...

  13. 78 FR 23738 - Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI); Availability of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI... that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto... certain genetically engineered organisms and products. We are making the Monsanto Company and FGI...

  14. 78 FR 13308 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Dicamba and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking a... products. We are making the Monsanto petition available for review and comment to help us...

  15. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... ante-mortem and post-mortem veterinary inspections, paying particular attention to the head and feet... United States. An authorized veterinary official of the Government of Uruguay certifies on the foreign..., records, and operations by an APHIS representative. We solicited comments concerning the proposed rule...

  16. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of any signs of central nervous system disease in herd animals; maintaining records of the.... The veterinary official of Veterinary Services, APHIS, who is assigned by the Administrator to... device by the International Committee on Animal Recording. Approved State CWD Herd Certification...

  17. 75 FR 15673 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Export Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... certification must carry the USDA seal and be endorsed by an APHIS representative (e.g., a Veterinary Medical... Veterinary Services (VS) Forms 16-4 (Export Health Certificate for Animal Products) and 16- 4A (Continuation... for OMB approval. All comments will also become a matter of public record. Done in Washington,...

  18. 7 CFR 319.40-7 - Treatments and safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Heat treatment. Heat treatment must be performed only at a facility where APHIS or an inspector... paragraph. Heat treatment procedures may employ steam, hot water, kilns, exposure to microwave energy, or... regulated article by plant pests. (d) Heat treatment with moisture reduction. (1) Heat treatment...

  19. 7 CFR 319.5 - Requirements for submitting requests to change the regulations in 7 CFR part 319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required in order to complete a pest risk analysis in accordance with international standards for pest risk... implementation. (8) Existing documentation: Relevant pest risk analyses, environmental assessment(s), biological... Analysis and Operations, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 140, Riverdale, MD 20737. (d) Information....

  20. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... organizations at the State level to accommodate varying local laws and management objectives for feral swine... and organizations to meet local management objectives, which may include reducing statewide... practices (40 CFR 1502.14(d)). Under the no action alternative, current APHIS feral swine damage...

  1. 77 FR 14724 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Pork...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ..., Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 40, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-3277. For copies of more... must maintain original records (to be kept for a minimum of 2 years) that identify, for each lot of... the date the pork either began dry-curing or was cooked. These records would provide...

  2. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  3. 76 FR 13971 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fruits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...-0120, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118... Secretary determines that the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent a plant pest or noxious... conditions, from certain parts of the world. Importation of papayas from certain regions of Brazil,...

  4. 76 FR 77767 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Burden Hours: 74,386. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats... and foreign commerce, and to regulate effectively interstate commerce and foreign commerce. Scrapie is... goats to help prevent the spread of scrapie. APHIS has regulations at 9 CFR part 54 for an...

  5. 9 CFR 54.20 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF SCRAPIE Scrapie Flock Certification Program § 54.20 Administration. The Scrapie Flock Certification Program is a cooperative effort... governments. APHIS coordinates with State scrapie certification boards and State animal health agencies...

  6. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... consistent with the APHIS standards for State scrapie programs. Type of interstate movement Moved from... only if they are identified to their flock of birth.— (1) High-risk, scrapie-positive, or...

  7. 9 CFR 54.2 - Cooperative agreements and memoranda of understanding with States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASES CONTROL OF SCRAPIE § 54.2 Cooperative agreements and memoranda of understanding with States. APHIS... any State in order to cooperatively administer the Scrapie Eradication Program and the Scrapie Flock... personnel in implementing the Scrapie Eradication Program and the Scrapie Flock Certification Program....

  8. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... edition of “Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology” or the American Society for Microbiology “Manual of Clinical Microbiology”. If Master Seed Bacteria are referred to by serotype, serovar, subtype..., APHIS, Center for Veterinary Biologics-Laboratory, 1800 Dayton Road, P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010....

  9. 7 CFR 301.1-2 - Criteria for special need requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., noxious weed, or plant pest is not present in the State or political subdivision, a risk analysis or other..., may be generated by a State or a political subdivision of a State. If the request is generated by a political subdivision of a State, the request must be submitted to APHIS through the State. States may...

  10. 9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... likely to be detected, if present. (c) When APHIS adds a new species to the list of VHS-regulated species....913 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish...

  11. 9 CFR 83.6 - Testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... APHIS adds a new species to the list of VHS-regulated species after a facility has been determined to be....6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of infection in the facility. (i) Facilities with cultured fish of VHS-regulated species which...

  12. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... and auditing implementation of the systems approach. (2) The NPPO of the exporting country must... subject to a systems approach that would include requirements for monitoring and oversight, establishment... Information: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at...

  13. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 41st Biennial Conference. DATES: The..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094-5173,...

  14. 77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... to renew the charter of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094;...

  15. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 40th Biennial Conference. DATES: The.... Andrew R. Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike...

  16. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union... 25 Member States of the European Union as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and... establish requirements governing the importation of live birds and poultry, including hatching eggs,...

  17. 76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference.... SUMMARY: We are giving notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry..., Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101,...

  18. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 30303- 30305, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0002) a proposal \\1... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD16 Importation of Peppers From... peppers from Panama into the United States without treatment. Conditions of entry to which the...

  19. 76 FR 50451 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... the movement of infected seed. Need and Use of the Information: In order for APHIS to verify that the...: 600. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Pine Shoot Beetle Host Material from Canada...) have established restrictions on the importation of pine shoot beetle host material into the...

  20. 77 FR 50980 - Notice of Request for a Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... certificate of tuberculosis test was separated into two separate burden items and their combined burden was.../Commercial Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2012-0066, Regulatory Analysis and Development... applied to States and zones within States, and classify States and zones according to their...

  1. 77 FR 46016 - Notice of Determination of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... that there are about 70,000 deer and 65,000 wild pigs in Miyazaki Prefecture. The wildlife surveillance... wild pigs. Sheep and goats, and possibly deer, are the most likely species that could become infected... APHIS should explain the security measures in place to prevent wild boars, floods, earthquakes or...

  2. 77 FR 28349 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Health... in Title X, Subtitle E, Sections 10401- 18 of Public Law 107-171, May 13, 2002, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)...

  3. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., abortion of buds, and the eventual death of infested trees. Four predatory beetles have been introduced to... woolly adelgid. The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and alternatives to, the release... United States. APHIS' review and analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with...

  4. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland... to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary... Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  5. 77 FR 55795 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation... the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) allows certain types of... occasion. Total Burden Hours: 344. Title: Citrus from Peru. OMB Control Number: 0579-0289. Summary...

  6. 77 FR 65852 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... PPA, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the importation of citrus fruit...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Revision to and... Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  7. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the importation of citrus fruit from certain parts of the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu Oranges From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  8. 78 FR 52896 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is taking action to provide additional protection... not be able to allow the movement of untreated citrus to transit the United States to...

  9. 75 FR 59605 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program... National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties and to elect to.... Todd Behre, National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200,...

  10. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 91 and 162 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary... amended the National Veterinary Accreditation Program regulations, adding new provisions and reorganizing... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Todd Behre, National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River...

  11. 75 FR 29706 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... invasive species/pest introductions, impacts on air and water quality, impacts on fish and wildlife habitat, impacts on existing infrastructure (highway, rail, and barge), increased traffic at associated ports, and... Coordination and Compliance, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301)...

  12. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  13. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... be treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. The brucellosis regulations, contained in 9 CFR part 78... disease control. APHIS has announced its intention to take a new approach to managing the bovine.... (See ``A Concept Paper for a New Direction for the Bovine Brucellosis Program,'' 74 FR...

  14. 78 FR 79658 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... from Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status of apple events... No. APHIS-2012-0025] Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Apples Genetically Engineered To...

  15. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  16. Sample Set (SE): SE45 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aphy-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for h... for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.rik

  17. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0015] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European... United States of garlic from the European Union and other countries. Based on the findings of a commodity... importation of garlic from the European Union and other countries. DATES: Effective Date: July 27, 2011....

  18. 9 CFR 93.504 - Import permits for swine and for swine specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specimen will be moved only for scientific research or museum display purposes. (Signature of importer... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for swine and for swine... APHIS. 93.504 Section 93.504 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 93.404 - Import permits for ruminants and for ruminant test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or biological specimen will be moved only for scientific research or museum display purposes... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for ruminants and for... maintained by APHIS. 93.404 Section 93.404 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  1. Metaheuristics progress as real problem solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Nonobe, Koji; Yagiura, Mutsunori

    2005-01-01

    Metaheuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers is a peer-reviewed volume of eighteen current, cutting-edge papers by leading researchers in the field. Included are an invited paper by F. Glover and G. Kochenberger, which discusses the concept of Metaheuristic agent processes, and a tutorial paper by M.G.C. Resende and C.C. Ribeiro discussing GRASP with path-relinking. Other papers discuss problem-solving approaches to timetabling, automated planograms, elevators, space allocation, shift design, cutting stock, flexible shop scheduling, colorectal cancer and cartography. A final group of methodology papers clarify various aspects of Metaheuristics from the computational view point.

  2. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  3. Stochastic Pseudo-Boolean Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-31

    explicit storage of value functions in computer memory . This is why our computations are based on instances that have large number of columns and...quadratic problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 137(2):272–287, 2002. [66] F. Glover, G.A. Kochenberger, and B. Alidaee. Adaptive memory tabu...Letters, 33:312–318, 2005. [127] O.A. Prokopyev, C. Meneses , C.A.S. Oliveira, and P.M. Pardalos. On multiple-ratio hyperbolic 0–1 programming problems

  4. [An unpublished contribution of Melanie Klein "On Reassurance"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Claudia; Klein, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Melanie Klein's unpublished paper on reassurance is presented in German translation. The author shows that it was a contribution to Glover's investigation on psychoanalytic technique in the 1930s. The paper is discussed against the background of the technical discussions conducted in London at that time (e. g. M. Schmideberg, J. Strachey) and of Klein's relevant publications. Although Klein consistently considered "correct" interpretation to be the most effective means of reassurance, she occasionally also accepted a non-interpreting approach. In this respect the paper presented here goes further than any other of her writings.

  5. Osedax mucofloris (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae, a bone-eating marine worm new to Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Schander

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE The bone-eating siboglinid polychaete Osedax mucofloris Glover, Källström, Smith & Dahlgren, 2005 is reported from Norwegian waters for the first time. Dense growth was found on bovine bones deposited at 118 meters depth off western Norway. Dwarf males were observed for the first time. The two specimens sequenced were identical to haplotypes previously found at a Swedish whale fall. The possibility of finding additional species of Osedax is discussed.

  6. TSP tour domination and Hamilton cycle decompositions of regular digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a problem by Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502-510) from the context of domination analysis, where the performance of a heuristic algorithm is rated by the number of solutions that are not better than the solution found by the algorithm, rather than...... by the relative performance compared to the optimal value. In particular, we show that for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem, there is a deterministic polynomial time algorithm that finds a tour that is at least as good as the median of all tour values. Our algorithm uses an unpublished theorem...

  7. Utah Science Vol. 48 No. 3, Fall 1987

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    114 GROWING OLD IN NORTHERN UTAH: AN EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY Y. Kim. M. Wilson and S. Chiba How elderly residents of Cache and Box Elder counties view available services. 117 WILL IT PAY TO PROCESS VEGETABLES IN UTAH? D. L. Snyder. T. F. Glover. L. K. Bond. D. Bailey. J. C. Andersen. W. C. Lewis and H. H. Fullerton Economists say a multi-commodity processing facility might be economically Feasible, but it involves considerable economic risk. 124 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUN...

  8. EST Table: FS791278 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS791278 E_FL_ffbm_06E16_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/173 aa ref|NP_001093312.1| glover...in 3 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF63527.1| gloverin3 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/09 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS791278 ffbm ...

  9. Heuristiques et approche polyedrale du probleme de voyageur de commerce international

    OpenAIRE

    Bouali, Djawad

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with a generalization of the traveling salesman problem in which the nodes are partitionned into clusters which can be tought as countries and the salesman has to visit exactly one node in each cluster. The problem is to find such a solution of minimum length. We call it the international traveling salesman problem and we denote it by ITSP. First, we give some heuristic for the ITSP and a new heuristic for the TSP based on notions introduced by Glover. Then, we describe a po...

  10. Handbook of metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Potvin, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    “… an excellent book if you want to learn about a number of individual metaheuristics." (U. Aickelin, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Issue 56, 2005, on the First Edition) The first edition of the Handbook of Metaheuristics was published in 2003 under the editorship of Fred Glover and Gary A. Kochenberger. Given the numerous developments observed in the field of metaheuristics in recent years, it appeared that the time was ripe for a second edition of the Handbook. When Glover and Kochenberger were unable to prepare this second edition, they suggested that Michel Gendreau and Jean-Yves Potvin should take over the editorship, and so this important new edition is now available. Through its 21 chapters, this second edition is designed to provide a broad coverage of the concepts, implementations and applications in this important field of optimization. Original contributors either revised or updated their work, or provided entirely new chapters. The Handbook now includes updated chapters on the b...

  11. Evaluation of simplified stream-aquifer depletion models for water rights administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Koussis, Antonis; Martin, J.L.; Perkins, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of Glover's (1974) stream-aquifer analytical solutions, which are commonly used in administering water rights, and evaluate the impact of the assumed idealizations on administrative and management decisions. To achieve these objectives, we evaluate the predictive capabilities of the Glover stream-aquifer depletion model against the MODFLOW numerical standard, which, unlike the analytical model, can handle increasing hydrogeologic complexity. We rank-order and quantify the relative importance of the various assumptions on which the analytical model is based, the three most important being: (1) streambed clogging as quantified by streambed-aquifer hydraulic conductivity contrast; (2) degree of stream partial penetration; and (3) aquifer heterogeneity. These three factors relate directly to the multidimensional nature of the aquifer flow conditions. From these considerations, future efforts to reduce the uncertainty in stream depletion-related administrative decisions should primarily address these three factors in characterizing the stream-aquifer process. We also investigate the impact of progressively coarser model grid size on numerically estimating stream leakage and conclude that grid size effects are relatively minor. Therefore, when modeling is required, coarser model grids could be used thus minimizing the input data requirements.

  12. Approximations for modelling CO chemistry in GMCs: a comparison of approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, S C O

    2011-01-01

    We examine several different simplified approaches for modelling the chemistry of CO in three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent molecular clouds. We compare the different models both by looking at the behaviour of integrated quantities such as the mean CO fraction or the cloud-averaged CO-to-H2 conversion factor, and also by studying the detailed distribution of CO as a function of gas density and visual extinction. In addition, we examine the extent to which the density and temperature distributions depend on our choice of chemical model. We find that the two most complex models that we examine in this study, taken from work by Nelson & Langer (1999) and Glover et al. (2010), produce very similar results in all of our comparisons. However, the Nelson & Langer model is roughly a factor of three faster than the Glover et al. model, and thus will be the better choice for many applications. The simpler models examined in this study are even faster than the Nelson & Langer (1999) model, b...

  13. Dry entrapment of enzymes by epoxy or polyester resins hardened on different solid supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barig, Susann; Funke, Andreas; Merseburg, Andrea; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2014-06-10

    Embedding of enzymes was performed with epoxy or polyester resin by mixing in a dried enzyme preparation before polymerization was started. This fast and low-cost immobilization method produced enzymatically active layers on different solid supports. As model enzymes the well-characterized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase and a new threonine aldolase from Ashbya gossypii were used. It was shown that T. lanuginosus lipase recombinantly expressed in Aspergillus oryzae is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 34kDa, while A. gossypii threonine aldolase expressed in Escherichia coli is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate binding homotetramer with a mass of 180kDa. The enzymes were used freeze dried, in four different preparations: freely diffusing, adsorbed on octyl sepharose, as well as cross-linked enzyme aggregates or as suspensions in organic solvent. They were mixed with standard two-component resins and prepared as layers on solid supports made of different materials e.g. metal, glass, polyester. Polymerization led to encapsulated enzyme preparations showing activities comparable to literature values.

  14. Oviposição dos ácaros predadores Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari em resposta a diferentes tipos de alimento Oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari in response the different kinds of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965, both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950, and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day. Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.

  15. Nuisance Wildlife Education and Prevention Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This document outlines a plan for management of nuisance wildlife at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Nuisance wildlife management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; and law enforcement. This plan covers the following subjects: (1) roles and responsibilities of individuals, groups, and agencies; (2) the general protocol for reducing nuisance wildlife problems; and (3) species-specific methodologies for resolving nuisance wildlife management issues for mammals, birds, snakes, and insects. Achievement of the objectives of this plan will be a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA); U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)-Wildlife Services (WS); and ORNL through agreements between TWRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC; and UT-Battelle, LLC; and USDA, APHIS-WS.

  16. A mathematical form of force-free magnetosphere equation around Kerr black holes and its application to Messier effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lagrangian of the steady axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere (FFM) equation around Kerr black holes(KBHs), we find that the FFM equation can be rewritten in a new form as $f_{,rr} / (1-\\mu^{2}) + f_{,\\mu\\mu} / \\Delta + K(f(r,\\mu),r,\\mu) = 0$, where $\\mu = -\\cos\\theta$. By coordinate transformation, the form of the above equation can be given by $s_{,yy} + s_{,zz} + D(s(y,z),y,z) = 0$. Based on the form, we prove finally that the Meissner effect is not possessed by a KBH-FFM with the condition where $d\\omega/d A_{\\phi} \\leqslant 0$ and $H_{\\phi}(dH_{\\phi}/dA_{\\phi}) \\geqslant 0$, here $A_{\\phi}$ is the $\\phi$ component of the vector potential $\\vec{A}$, $\\omega$ is the angular velocity of magnetic fields and ${H_{\\phi}}$ corresponds to twice the poloidal electric current.

  17. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Derivants of 3,13-Ester Mesaconitine%3,13-酯基中乌头碱衍生物的合成及其杀虫活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 袁小红; 杨海君; 侯大斌; 王惠; 许源

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to explore the relations between structure of aconitine, aconitine derivatives and insecticide. [Method] The aconitine derivatives such as 3-acetyl mesaconitine, 3-propionyl mesaconitine, 3-acetyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine and 3-propionyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine were synthesized by mesaconitine with acetic anhydride or propionic anhydride and their insecticidal activities were also determined. [Result] When the concentration was 500 mg/L, the insecticidal activities of mesaconitine against Nilaparvata legen and Aphis were 50% and 30% respectively while the insecticidal activities of 3-acetyl mesaconitine, 3-propionyl mesaconitine, 3-acetyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine and 3-propionyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine against Aphis medicagini were 40%, 30%, 30% and 20% respectively at 500 mg/L. [Conclusion] After hydroxyl esterification, the insecticidal activity of mesaconitine was declined and the existence of hydroxyl at 3rd position in mesaconitine played very important influences on insecticidal activity.

  18. Nitenpyram analogues with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration:synthesis,insecticidal activities and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Sijia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Nitenpyram analogues(Ia-Ij with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration were designed and synthesized.Preliminary bioassays showed that most of them exhibited good insecticidal activities against Aphis medicagini and Brown rice planthopper at 500 mg/L and 100 mg/L.The analogue Ij afforded the best activity in vitro,that had 100% mortality at 4 mg/L against Brown rice planthopper and Aphis medicagin.In addition,the molecular docking simulations revealed that the structural uniqueness of these analogues may lead to a unique molecular recognition and binding mode,and the results explained the SARs observed in vitro, which shed light on the novel insecticidal mechanism of these novel nitenpyam analogues.

  19. Inspection and Quarantine Management of Animal Importation and Exportation aid Operation Proceduces at Port in the U.S.A.%美国进出口动物的检验检疫管理和口岸工作程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 美国进出口动物和动物产品检疫工作的主管部门是美国农业部动植物卫生检验局(APHIS),具体由其下属兽医处(VS)的动物进出口中心(NCIE)负责全国范围的管理工作.

  20. Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid c...

  1. Phytochromes Regulate SA and JA Signaling Pathways in Rice and Are Required for Developmentally Controlled Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Zhi Xie; Yan-Jiu Xue; Jin-Jun Zhoua; Bin Zhang; Hong Chang; Makoto Takano

    2011-01-01

    Old leaves of wild-type rice plants (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Nipponbare)are more resistant to blast fungus (Mag-naporthe grisea)than new leaves. In contrast, both old and new leaves of the rice phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyB-phyC)are susceptible to blast fungus. We demonstrate that pathogenesis-related class 1 (PR1)proteins are rapidly and strongly induced during M. Grisea infection and following exogenous jasmonate (JA)or salicylic acid (SA)exposure in the old leaves, but not in the new leaves of the wild-type. In contrast, the accumulation of PR1 proteins was significantly attenuated in old and new leaves of the phyAphyBphyC mutant. These results suggest that phytochromes are required for the induction of PR1 proteins in rice. Basal transcription levels of Prla and PRlb were substantially higher in the wild-type as compared to the phyAphyBphyC mutant, suggesting that phytochromes also are required for basal expression of PR1 genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of genes known to function in SA-or JA-dependent defense pathways were regulated by leaf age and functional phytochromes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that phytochromes are required in rice for age-related resistance to M, grisea and may indirectly increase PR1 gene expression by regulating SA-and JA-dependent defense pathways.

  2. Addendum to aphids’ fauna, feeding on flowering plants in Krasnoyarsk krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Grodnitsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on flowering plants in Krasnoyarsk region, the main part of a vast geographical province named Central or Middle Siberia, depending on terminology used by authors of literature sources. From physical geography viewpoint, the surveyed territory belongs to the Yenisey river basin. Aphids are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of insects included in 11 families of the suborder Aphidinea in insect fauna of Russian Federation and 25 families in the world’s fauna. Geographical location, dates of collection of aphid colonies are presented with identification of species-specific feeding preferences. First found in Siberia were Symydobius nanae, Euceraphis betulae, Cavariella cicutae, C. konoi, Uroleucon (Dactynotus aeneum, U. giganteum, U. nigrocampalulae, U. trachelii, Aphis agrimoniae, A. coronillae, A. mongolica, A. neothalictri, A. pruni, A. pseudocomosa, A. pulsatillae, A. sambuci, A. (Debilisiphon umbelliferarum. Collected for the first time from willow were Betacallis comes (normally feeds on birch and alder, B. quadrituberculata (common on birch, colonies of Metopeurum fuscoviride were first found on Achillea millefolium. Aphis craccivora was previously collected from plants of different families, but was never seen on Cruciferae (Capsella bursa­pastoris. Aphis frangulae was concidered to feed exclusively on buckthorn, however, it was found on Chamaenerion angustifolium. Judging on diversity of host species, some aphids may be more important for agriculture than it was previously thought. A general review of Krasnoyarsk Krai aphid fauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  3. Magnetic flux array for spontaneous magnetic reconnection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesich, A; Bonde, J; Egedal, J; Fox, W; Goodwin, R; Katz, N; Le, A

    2008-06-01

    Experimental investigation of reconnection in magnetized plasmas relies on accurate characterization of the evolving magnetic fields. In experimental configurations where the plasma dynamics are reproducible, magnetic data can be collected in multiple discharges and combined to provide spatially resolved profiles of the plasma dynamics. However, in experiments on spontaneous magnetic reconnection recently undertaken at the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT, the reconnection process is not reproducible and all information on the plasma must be collected in a single discharge. This paper describes a newly developed magnetic flux array which directly measures the toroidal component of the magnetic vector potential, A(phi). From the measured A(phi), the magnetic field geometry, current density, and reconnection rate are readily obtained, facilitating studies of the three-dimensional dynamics of spontaneous magnetic reconnection. The novel design of the probe array allows for accurate characterization of profiles of A(phi) at multiple toroidal angles using a relatively small number of signal channels and with minimal disturbance of the plasma.

  4. A 3D ocean circulation model with triply two-way nesting-technique applied in Caribbean Sea%加勒比海三重双向嵌套三维环流模型的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤立群; SHENG Jin-yu; 刘大滨

    2007-01-01

    对三重双向嵌套海洋环流三维数值模型系统(CANDIE),用尤卡坦海峡实测横断面流速和海温等值线、1990年代根据卫星跟踪漂移轨迹推求得到的15m水深处的时间平均流场、实测平均海温过程和西加勒比海体积输送流函数等资料进行了验证,结果表明所建三重双向嵌套模型系统结构与参数合理,模型能较好地模拟西加勒比海的环流特征如加勒比流、巴拿马-哥伦比亚漩涡和该地区温盐的季节性变化.模型被用来计算小模型计算域(伯利兹大陆架)珊瑚礁地区不同水深处悬浮颗粒的运动轨迹线、颗粒的保留与耗散.近表层耗散在Lighthouse Reef Atoll 和Glovers Reef Atolls以东相对较强,在内大陆架特别在Inner Channel内和South Water Cay 附近相对较低.为了测试伯里兹大陆架海表面珊瑚礁之间的水动力连接特性,计算了位于Turneffe Islands Atoll 和 Glovers Reef Atolls 珊瑚礁的上游颗粒来源区(源)和下游颗粒耗散区(汇),在30天内到达这两处环形珊瑚礁的近表面颗粒的可能来源区包括该两者周围的浅水区域、两者之间的深水区域和洪都拉斯Bay Islands 的沿岸水域,Turneffe 和 Glovers Reef Atolls 30天下游耗散区分别覆盖了伯里兹大陆架的中部和南部水域.

  5. Modeling CO Emission: I. CO as a Column Density Tracer and the X-Factor in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, Rahul; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Klessen, Ralf S

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and observational investigations have indicated that the abundance of carbon monoxide (CO) is very sensitive to intrinsic properties of the gaseous medium, such as density, metallicity, and the background UV field. In order to accurately interpret CO observations, it is thus important to understand how well CO traces the gas, which in molecular clouds (MCs) is predominantly molecular hydrogen (H2). Recent hydrodynamic simulations by Glover & Mac Low have explicitly followed the formation and destruction of molecules in model MCs under varying conditions, confirming that CO formation strongly depends on the cloud properties. Conversely, the H2 formation is primarily determined by the age of the MC. We apply radiative transfer calculations to these MC models in order to investigate the properties of CO line emission. We focus on integrated CO (J=1-0) intensities emerging from individual clouds, including its relationship to the total, H2, and CO column densities, as well as the "X factor," the r...

  6. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968.

  7. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Skaala, Øystein; Limborg, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Glover, K. A., Skaala, Ø., Limborg, M., Kvamme, C., and Torstensen, E. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2145–2151. Sprat...... (Sprattus sprattus), small pelagic shoaling fish, were sampled from the Celtic, North, and Baltic seas, and 10 Norwegian fjords. Significant overall genetic differentiation was observed among samples when analysed with eight microsatellite DNA loci (Global FST = 0.0065, p ... differences were observed between the Baltic and all other samples (largest pairwise FST = 0.043, p sample from the Celtic Sea (CEL) and the North Sea (NSEA; FST = 0.001, p = 0.16), but variable levels of genetic differentiation were...

  8. Central suboptimal mean-square H ∞ controller design for linear stochastic time-varying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basin, Michael V.; Elvira-Ceja, Santiago; Sanchez, Edgar N.

    2011-05-01

    This article designs the central finite-dimensional H ∞ controller for linear stochastic time-varying systems with integral-quadratically bounded deterministic disturbances, that is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, this article reduces the original H ∞ controller problem to the corresponding optimal H 2 controller problem, using the technique proposed in Doyle et al. (Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H ∞ Control Problems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 34, 831-847). Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the designed controller for a linear stochastic system against the central suboptimal H ∞ controller available for the corresponding deterministic system.

  9. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Antifungal activity of marigold fungicide Ⅰ and its mechanism on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum%万寿菊杀菌素Ⅰ抗菌性及其对西瓜枯萎病菌作用机理的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志宏; 郭春绒; 王金胜

    2012-01-01

    Marigold fungicide I was studied about the antifungal activity on several pathogenic fungi and the mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), synthetic analogue of extracts of Tagetes pat-ula root. The results showed that marigold fungicide I remarkably inhibited the mycelial growth of several pathogenic fungi, which possessed the content and time effects on Fusarium oxysporum schlecht. f. sp. niveum, Phytophthpra capsici Loen, Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Fulviafulva (Cookee) Ciferri, threshold effects on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici and Gibberella zeae( Schw. )Petch and content effects on Glomerella gossypii (Southw. )Edgertin. Marigold fungicide I was applied on FON and manifested the following findings; reduced the dry weight of mycelium, amplified membrane permeability, shortly increased chitinase activity, but no change of POD isozyme. The electrophoresis of total protein by SDS- PAGE showed that marigold fungicide I apparently affected the species and expression amounts of protein of FON.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05260-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synthetic construct Homo sapiens c... 38 0.11 NRL( 1AGP ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gly 12 replace...s p21 protein mutant with gly 12 replaced by arg (... 38 0.11 BC086608_1( BC08660...lagus cuniculus H-RAS PROTO-ONCO... 38 0.11 NRL( 221P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with asp 38 replaced by glu... |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremothecium ... 38 0.11 NRL( 621P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gln 61 replace..... 38 0.11 NRL( 721P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gln 61 replaced by leu (... 38 0.11 NRL( 821P ) C-h-ras

  12. Bioproduction of riboflavin: a bright yellow history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, José Luis; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Lozano-Martinez, Patricia; Díaz-Fernández, David; Buey, Rubén M; Jiménez, Alberto

    2016-09-30

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals that must be obtained from the diet. To ensure an optimal supply, riboflavin is used on a large scale as additive in the food and feed industries. Here, we describe a historical overview of the industrial process of riboflavin production starting from its discovery and the need to produce the vitamin in bulk at prices that would allow for their use in human and animal nutrition. Riboflavin was produced industrially by chemical synthesis for many decades. At present, the development of economical and eco-efficient fermentation processes, which are mainly based on Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii strains, has replaced the synthetic process at industrial scale. A detailed account is given of the development of the riboflavin overproducer strains as well as future prospects for its improvement.

  13. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  14. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26558346

  15. Diet reconstruction and resource partitioning of a Caribbean marine mesopredator using stable isotope bayesian modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tilley

    Full Text Available The trophic ecology of epibenthic mesopredators is not well understood in terms of prey partitioning with sympatric elasmobranchs or their effects on prey communities, yet the importance of omnivores in community trophic dynamics is being increasingly realised. This study used stable isotope analysis of (15N and (13C to model diet composition of wild southern stingrays Dasyatis americana and compare trophic niche space to nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum and Caribbean reef sharks Carcharhinus perezi on Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models were used to investigate prey choice as well as viable Diet-Tissue Discrimination Factors for use with stingrays. Stingray δ(15N values showed the greatest variation and a positive relationship with size, with an isotopic niche width approximately twice that of sympatric species. Shark species exhibited comparatively restricted δ(15N values and greater δ(13C variation, with very little overlap of stingray niche space. Mixing models suggest bivalves and annelids are proportionally more important prey in the stingray diet than crustaceans and teleosts at Glovers Reef, in contrast to all but one published diet study using stomach contents from other locations. Incorporating gut contents information from the literature, we suggest diet-tissue discrimination factors values of Δ(15N ≈ 2.7‰ and Δ(13C ≈ 0.9‰ for stingrays in the absence of validation experiments. The wide trophic niche and lower trophic level exhibited by stingrays compared to sympatric sharks supports their putative role as important base stabilisers in benthic systems, with the potential to absorb trophic perturbations through numerous opportunistic prey interactions.

  16. Observaciones preliminares del comportamiento agronómico de Canavalia ensiformis L en condiciones del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellar P. Nelson

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones sobre aspectos fitosanitarios, morfológicos y fenológicos, aspectos agronómicos, nodulación y componentes del rendimiento para tres distancias de siembra. La especie presenta tres hábitos de crecimiento (arbustivo determinado, arbustivo con guía corta e indeterminado con guía larga trepador. La fase vegetativa dura 69 d días y 122 días la reproductiva Los insectos con mayor potencial de daño son Corythuca gossypii, Anticarsia gemmatalis y Caryedes grammicus, este último registrado por primera vez en el mundo. Se presentaron virosis. Antracnosis, y mildeo polvoso. El virus se clasificó como Potyvirus (CMV, quinto virus a nivel mundial en esta especie. La mejor distancia de siembra fue 1 x 0.6 m, siendo el número de vainas por planta el factor que más influye en el rendimiento.The present study had as objective, to realize the prelyminar observations of the Canavalia ensiformis behaviour in the Cauca's Valley. Observations were made about phytopatologics and entomologics, morphologics and phenologics aspects, agronomic bahevior, nodulation and the yield's components for 3 distances of sowing. C. ensiformis presents 3 growth's habits: determinated shrub, shrub habit with short guide and indeterminated habit with long guide, climbing. C. ensiformis presents one vegetative of 69 days and one reproductive phase of 122 days. The pests insects with more damage's potential are: Corythuca gossypii, Anticarsia gemmatalis y Caryedes grammicus, this later the first report in the world. Virosis, anthracnosis and powdery mildew were the diseases with higher incidence. The virus was named CMV, one potyvirus, which constitute the 5 thin the world for Canavalia. The distance 1 x 0.6 m was the best treatment among the evaluated, and the number of pods for plant is the principal component of the yield.

  17. Updated check-list of iberian-balearic Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Prieto, Francisca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The check-list of species in the Tribe Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Aphidinae recorded to date from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Isles is presented, 139 species are listed. A list of the countries (Andorra, Spain and Portugal and provinces (Spanish or districts (Portuguese where each species and subspecies is known is also included. Five species are mentioned for the first time in Iberian-Balearic territory: Aphis callunae Theobald, A. comosa (Börner, A. lantanae Koch (with the subspecies A. lantanae coriaria Börner, A. erigerontis Holman and Schizaphis longicaudata Hille Ris Lambers. Nine species have been removed from the check-list: Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach, A. genistae Scopoli, A. pilosellae (Börner, A. salsolae (Börner, A. striata Hille Ris Lambers, Brachyunguis zygophylli (Nevsky, B. suaedus (Paik, Protaphis centaurea (Gómez-Menor and Schizaphis pilipes (Ossiannilsson. Aphis ruborum Börner & Schilder, 1931 is recognized as the valid name for Aphis ruborum Börner, 1932 syn. nov. and Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (Schrank for Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker. Two new combinations are established: Xerobion blascoi comb. nov. for Aphis blascoi García Prieto & Sanchís Segovia and Xerobion brutii comb. nov. for Absinthaphis brutii Barbagallo. Five binomens have been re-established: A. althaeae (Nevsky, A. ballotae Passerini, A. longirostris (Börner, A. ononidis (Schouteden and A. picridis (Börner to replace A. davletshinae Hille Ris Lambers, A. balloticola Szelegiewicz, A. longirostrata Hille Ris Lambers, A. kaltenbachi Hille Ris Lambers and A. stroyani Szelegiewicz, respectively. The life cycle of Aphis stachydis Mordvilko is given and its males and oviparous females are described. Taxonomic

  18. First results of the application of a new Neemazal powder formulation in hydroponics against different pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Edmund; Kleeberg, Hubertus

    2002-01-01

    NeemAzal PC (0.5% Azadirachtin) is a new standardised powder formulation from the seed kernels of the tropical Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with an inert carrier. First experiments with beans--as a model-system for hydroponics--show that active ingredient is taken up by the plants through the roots and is transported efficiently with the plant sap to the leaves. After application of NeemAzal PC solution (0.01-1%) to the roots sucking (Aphis fabae Hom., Aphididae) and free feeding (Heliothis armigera Lep., Noctuidae) pest insects can be controlled efficiently. The effects are concentration and time dependent.

  19. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    nociception , social interaction, the forced swim test, spontaneous locomotor activity, passive avoidance or Morris water maze performance. However...system. V.4. Technical Methods V.4.1. Pain / Distress Assessment V.4.1.1. APHIS Form 7023 Information V.4.1.1.1. Number of Animals V...4.1.1.1.1. Column C: 0 V.4.1.1.1.2. Column D: 150 V.4.1.1.1.3. Column E: 0 V.4.1.2. Pain Relief / Prevention V.4.1.2.1. Anesthesia

  20. SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN OF THE MANDARIN FISH, SINIPERCA CHUATSI WITH DEVELOPMENT OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永安; 聂品

    2002-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin from the mandarin fish, or the so-called Chinese perch, S iniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), was successfully purified using affinity chroma togr aphy. Heavy and light chains were detected on electrophoresis gel, with molecula r weights being estimated at 72 and 29 kDa, respectively. The tetrameric IgM of S. chuatsi was calculated to be 808 kDa. The rabbit polyclonal antisera against the purifed immunoglobulin were developed and tested by Western blot analysis. The antisera reacted strongly with the heavy chains of S. chuat si immunoglobulin. Humoral immune responses of the mandarin fish can then be examined using the developed polyclonal antibody.