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Sample records for aphis gossypii glover

  1. Demographic parameters of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on five cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JABRAEIL RAZMJOU; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; SEYED ZIAEDDIN MIRHOSEINI

    2006-01-01

    Life table parameters of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, were estimated on five cotton cultivars ('Sealand' ,'Siokra' ,'Varamin' ,'Bakhtegan' and 'Sahel'). Demographic parameters of the cotton aphid were assessed at 27.5 ± 1 ℃, 65% ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L: D)h. The shortest developmental time for the nymphal stages was 5.5 days on 'Siokra' and the longest was 6.1 days on 'Sealand'. The highest offspring per female was 29.6 on 'Sahel' and the lowest was 15.3 on 'Sealand'. The rm values varied from 0.272 on 'Sealand' to 0.382 (day-1) on 'Varamin'. Jackknife estimates of the A.gossypii parameters on these cultivars indicated the greatest developmental rate and fecundity on 'Varamin' and the poorest on 'Sealand' cultivar.

  2. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  3. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively Ro= 205.38 and 164.08 females; rm= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  4. ESTUDIO DE Harmonia axirydis Pallas (COLEOPTERA: COCINELIDAE) COMO BIOAGENTE DE CONTROL DE Aphis gossypii Glover (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Flores Macías; Silvia Rodríguez Navarro; M. Guadalupe Ramos-Espinosa; Fidel Payán Zelaya

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre la densidad de presa y el depredador es un elemento de gran importancia en los estudios de ecología de insectos. En el presente trabajo se estudió la interacción entre el depredador Harmonia axirydis Pallas y el áfido Aphis gossypii Glover. Se evaluaron cuatro densidades de presa (75, 150, 225 y 300) y la respuesta funcional se determinó mediante regresión logística. Los parámetros de la respuesta fueron estimados utilizando el modelo de Holling y la regresión no linear iter...

  5. Efeitos de fungicidas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantas de pepino Effects of fungicides on the biological aspects of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cucumber

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    Ronelza Rodrigues da Costa Zaché

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de alguns fungicidas protetores utilizados na cultura de pepino sobre o pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em condições controladas (Temp.: 25±2º C; UR: 70±10% e fotofase de 12 h. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (fungicidas e testemunha e 45 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por um indivíduo. Os fungicidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens em g i.a.L-1, foram: enxofre 800 PM (1,6, mancozebe 800 PM (1,6 e oxicloreto de cobre 840 PM (1,49. A testemunha foi composta por água destilada. Todos os produtos avaliados não influenciaram na duração em dias da fase ninfal e adulta, períodos pré-reprodutivos e reprodutivos de A. gossypii. Houve efeito do enxofre e do oxicloreto de cobre sobre o período pós-reprodutivo desse pulgão, constatando-se um período 4,5 vezes superior àquele da testemunha e mancozebe. A fecundidade foi influenciada pelos fungicidas testados, ocorrendo aumento de 1,25 vezes na produção total de ninfas, sendo então os fungicidas testados favoráveis ao inseto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxic effects of some protecting fungicides used in cucumber crop on the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877. The experiments were conducted in controlled conditions (Temp.: 25±2º C; RH: 70±10% and 12 h photophase. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (fungicides and control and 45 replicates, each plot comprised of one individual. The used fungicides and their respective dosages in g a.i. L-1 were: sulfur 800 PM (1.6, mancozeb 800 PM (1.6 and copper oxichloride 840 PM (1.49. The control was composed of water. None of the tested products influenced the duration in days of the nymphal and adult phases, or the pre-reproductive and reproductive periods of A. gossypii. Sulfur and copper oxichloride affected the post-reproductive period of the

  6. Bioefficacy of some biorational insecticides for the control of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, (Hemiptera: Aphididae on greenhouse grown cucumber

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    Mohammad Saeed Emami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 is a serious pest of cucumber in greenhouse plantings. Biorational insecticides are an alternative of broad spectrum insecticides for aphid suppression in greenhouse. In this regards, the efficiency of some biorational insecticides including soap based on coconut oil, surfactant based on sodium sulfosuccinate and antifeeding based on potassium nicotinate were assayed on A. gossypii in the cucumber greenhouse. The trials were set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Samplings were carried out one day before spraying and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying. The data were submitted to ANOVA and the means comparison was performed using Duncan’s test. The results indicated that the highest mortality in insecticidal soap, surfactant and antifeeding treatments occurred after 3 days, with 78.47 %, 67.16 % and 60.48 % mortality, respectively. The results of the trials are discussed in terms of improving management of the populations of A. gossypii.

  7. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDE AGAINST APHID, APHIS GOSSYPII GLOVER INFESTING ISABGOL CROP

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    B. R. PATEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2008-09 to evaluate the different insecticides against aphid, Aphisgossypii Glover infesting isabgol (Plantago ovata crop under field condition at Sardarkrushinagar, S. D. A. U.,Dantiwada. The result of the field study revealed that, among all the chemical and botanical insecticides used,carbosulfan @ 0.05 per cent was found to be most effective by recording lowest population of aphid as per aphidindexing method (0.99 A. I. with the highest seed yield, 11.24 q/ha and neem oil @ 0.5 per cent was superiorthan other botanical recording (1.83 A. I. with a maximum 7.21 q/ha seed yield. Thus, from the overall resultsit can be concluded that the carbosulfan @ 0.05 and neem oil 0.5 per cent proved most effective for themanagement of aphid A. gossypii in isabgol crop.

  8. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  9. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  10. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

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    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  11. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  12. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

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    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  13. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

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    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  14. Molecular and morphological differentiation between Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae) and related species, with particular reference to the North American Midwest

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    Doris Lagos-Kutz; Colin Favret; Rosanna Giordano; David Voegtlin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii , is one of the most biologically diverse species of aphids; a polyphagous species in a family where most are host specialists. It is economically important and belongs to a group of closely related species that has challenged aphid taxonomy. The research presented here seeks to clarify the taxonomic relationships and status of species within the Aphid gossypii group in the North American Midwest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (C...

  15. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  16. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

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    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  17. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

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    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  18. Over-expression of CYP6A2 is associated with spirotetramat resistance and cross-resistance in the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii Glover.

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    Peng, Tianfei; Pan, Yiou; Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiwu; Xi, Jinghui; Wu, Yongqiang; Huang, Xiao; Zhu, E; Xin, Xuecheng; Zhan, Chao; Shang, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-selected spirotetramat-resistant strain (SR) of cotton aphid developed 579-fold and 15-fold resistance to spirotetramat in adult aphids and 3rd instar nymphs, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain (SS) [26]. The SR strain developed high-level cross-resistance to alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin and very low or no cross-resistance to the other tested insecticides. Synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) dramatically increased the toxicity of spirotetramat and alpha-cypermethrin in the resistant strain. RT-qPCR results demonstrated that the transcriptional levels of CYP6A2 increased significantly in the SR strain compared with the SS strain, which was consistent with the transcriptome results [30]. The depletion of CYP6A2 transcripts by RNAi also significantly increased the sensitivity of the resistant aphid to spirotetramat and alpha-cypermethrin. These results indicate the possible involvement of CYP6A2 in spirotetramat resistance and alpha-cypermethrin cross-resistance in the cotton aphid. These together with other cross-resistance results have implications for the successful implementation of resistance management strategies for Aphis gossypii.

  19. Identification and expression profiling of odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins between two wingless morphs and a winged morph of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii glover.

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    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insects interact with their environment and respond to the changes in host plant conditions using semiochemicals. Such ecological interactions are facilitated by the olfactory sensilla and the use of olfactory recognition proteins. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii can change its phenotype in response to ecological conditions. They reproduce mainly as wingless asexual morphs but develop wings to find mates or new plant hosts under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, plant nutrition and population density. Two groups of small soluble proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to be involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. However, the exact molecular roles that these proteins play in insect olfaction remain to be discovered. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of three asexual developmental stages (wingless spring and summer morphs and winged adults and characterised 9 OBP and 9 CSP genes. The gene structure analysis showed that the number and length of introns in these genes are much higher and this appears to be unique feature of aphid OBP and CSP genes in general. Another unique feature in aphids is a higher abundance of CSP transcripts than OBP transcripts, suggesting an important role of CSPs in aphid physiology and ecology. We showed that some of the transcripts are overexpressed in the antennae in comparison to the bodies and highly expressed in the winged aphids compared to wingless morphs, suggesting a role in host location. We examined the differential expression of these olfactory genes in ten aphid species and compared the expression profile with the RNA-seq analyses of 25 pea aphid transcriptome libraries hosted on AphidBase.

  20. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

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    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  1. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

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    Depan Cao

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs, which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.

  2. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect. PMID:24971460

  3. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  4. 瓜蚜为害对寄主植物主要营养物质和次生物质的影响%Influences of Aphis gossypii Glover feeding on the contents of main nutrients and secondary compounds in host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 常静

    2013-01-01

    为明确瓜蚜Aphis gossypii Glover与其寄主植物相互作用关系及其机理,本文采用蒽酮比色法、考马斯亮蓝法、磷钼酸-磷钨酸比色法及索氏回流法,分别测定了瓜蚜为害对黄瓜、哈密瓜、南瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜等5种寄主植物叶片内可溶性总糖、可溶性蛋白质、单宁及黄酮含量的影响.结果表明,瓜蚜为害后,供试寄主植物叶片中可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量显著降低,而单宁和黄酮的含量明显上升.说明瓜蚜为害导致寄主植物营养质量下降,而次生代谢物质含量上升,从而对植食者产生诱导抗性.%In order to investigate the interaction between Aphis gossypii Glover and its host plants, it was determined how the aphid feeding affected the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, tannin and flavone in the leaves of its five host plants ( Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo var. saccharinus, Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis, Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa) , using anthrone colorimetric method, Coomassie brilliant blue staining, phosphor - molybdenum acid -phosphor - tungstenic acid colorimetry and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein in the leaves of its host plants decreased while the contents of tannin and flavone increased after the host plants were fed by the aphids. This indicated that the aphid feeding caused the decrease of host plant' s nutrition quality while the increase of harmful secondary metabolite contents, and therefore, induced the resistance to herbivores.

  5. Why the aphid Aphis spiraecola is more abundant on clementine tree than Aphis gossypii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostefaoui, Houda; Allal-Benfekih, Leila; Djazouli, Zahr-Eddine; Petit, Daniel; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2014-02-01

    Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii cause harmful damages on clementine tree orchards. Weekly surveys measured the abundance of aphids (larvae, winged and wingless adults) as well as of auxiliary insects and parameters of energy metabolism. Correlatively, soluble carbohydrates, total free amino acids, free proline and condensed tannins were quantified in control and infested leaves. Both aphid species showed parallel temporal variations, but A. spiraecola was consistently more abundant regardless of the stage. Amino acids had a positive effect on both aphid species abundance, but neither condensed tannins nor auxiliary insects seemed to modulate aphid populations. Interestingly, the leaf carbohydrate content was positively correlated with the abundance of A. spiraecola, but not with that of A. gossypii. Moreover, A. gossypii's abundance was significantly down-regulated by high proline concentrations. Thus, the higher abundance of A. spiraecola could be explained by a better tolerance to high proline contents and a better conversion of foliar energy metabolites.

  6. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

  7. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded.

  8. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  9. A new active piggyBac-like element in Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guana-Hua Luo; Min Wu; Xiao-Fang Wang; Wei Zhang; Zhao-Jun Han

    2011-01-01

    Nine piggyBac-like elements (PLEs) were identified from the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover.All the PLEs shared high sequence similarity with each other.However,eight of the nine PLEs were unlikely to encode functional transposase due to the existence of disruptive mutations within the coding regions.The other one PLE contained major characteristics of members in the piggyBac family,including TTAA target site duplications,inverted terminal repeats (ITRs),and an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a transposase with a putative DDD domain.This one with an intact transposase ORF was named AgoPLE1.1.The predicted transposase shared 47% similarity with that of Trichoplusia ni piggyBac IFP2.Phylogenetic analyses showed that AgoPLE1.1 was most related to the Heliothis virescens PLEl.1 (HvPLEl.1) element,with 45% and 60% similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.A functional assay demonstrated that AgoPLEl.1 encoded a functional transposase and was able to cause precise excision in cell cultures.On the other hand,few genomic insertion polymorphisms of AgoPLE1 were observed in the genome of the cotton aphid.These observations suggested that AgoPLEl.1 was a PLE that invaded the cotton aphid genome in recent periods and retained its activity.

  10. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  11. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures that ca...

  12. [Relationships between Aphis gossypii and its natural enemies in megranate field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunding; Li, Lei; Bi, Shoudong; Lou, Zhi; Ding, Chengcheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Li, Changgen

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the relevancy of Aphis gossypii with its natural enemies was studied by using grey systematic analysis. The results showed that the major natural enemies of Aphis gossypii were Tetragnathidae (0.8607), Therdion octomaculatum (0.8058), Therdion octomaculatum (0.7989), Haramonia aiyridis (0.7881) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7758). As for the daily total predation, the natural enemies which highly associated with the ideal dominant natural enemies were Erigonidium graminicola (0.8975), Tromobidiidae (0.8132), Propylacea japonica (0.7806) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7669); while for the quantity, Erigonidium graminicola (0.8482), Chrysopa sinica (0.7533), Tetragnathidae (0.7532), Therdion octomaculatum (0.7411) and Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.7716) were the major natural enemies. According to the relational grade of the individuals between various natural enemies and ideal dominant natural enemies, the major natural enemies were Erigonidium graminicola (0.8461), Tromobidiidae (0.7325), Propylacea japonica (0.6983), Chrysopa sepetempunctata (0.6815) and Chrysopa sinica (0.6757). The species having >0.9567 horizontal and vertical niche overlaps with Aphis gossyppii were Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata and Tetragnathidae, while the temporal niche overlaps between Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata, tetragnathidae and Aphis gossyppii were >0.4020. It could be concluded that the main natural enemies of Aphis gossyppii were Erigonidium graminicola, Chrysopa sepetempunctata and Tetragnathidae.

  13. [Effects of host plants on the life table parameters of experimental populations of Aphis gossypii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping; Chang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the life table parameters of Aphis gossypii reared on five host plant species at (25 +/- 1) degrees C in laboratory. There existed significant differences in the durations of various developmental stages, adult longevity, mean offspring number per day, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, and population doubling time for the A. gossypii populations reared on the host plants. For the aphids on Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate, they needed the longest time (5.84 days) to complete one generation, but for those on the other four plants, no significant differences were observed, with the time needed ranged from 5.24 to 5.45 days. The adult longevity was the longest (20.04 days) on Cucumis sativus, but had no significant differences on the other four host plants, being from 14.76 to 16.03 days. The populations' survival curves on all test host plants were of Deevey I, i. e., the death mainly occurred during late period. The survival rate on C. sativus was higher than those on the other four host plants. Based on the intrinsic rates of increase of A. gossypii, its host suitability was in the order of Cucumis melo var. saccharinus > Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate > Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis > Cucumis sativus > Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa.

  14. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  15. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  16. Cycloxaprid: A novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide to control imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Qi, Haoliang; Yang, Daibin; Yuan, Huizhu; Rui, Changhui

    2016-09-01

    Imidacloprid is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with potent insecticidal activity. However, resistance to imidacloprid is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species. Cycloxaprid with cis-configuration is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, which shows high activity against imidacloprid-resistant pests. The LC50 of imidacloprid against the resistant Aphis gossypii was 14.33mgL(-1) while it was only 0.70mgL(-1) for the susceptible population, giving a resistance ratio of 20.47. In this imidacloprid-resistant population, a point mutation (R81T) located in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit was found out. But this point mutation did not decrease the activity of cycloxaprid against A. gossypii. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 1.05 and 1.36mgL(-1) for the imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant populations, respectively. In addition, cycloxaprid provided better efficacies against resistant A. gossypii than imidacloprid in the fields. Although cycloxaprid was highly toxic to A. gossypii, it showed high selective activity between A. gossypii and its predominant natural enemies, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla sinica. These results demonstrate that cycloxaprid is a promising insecticide against imidacloprid-resistant A. gossypii and suitable for the integrated pest management. PMID:27521919

  17. Differential mRNA expression levels and gene sequences of carboxylesterase in both deltamethrin resistant and susceptible strains of the cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Wang Cao; Jing Zhang; Xi-Wu Gao; Pei Liang; Hui-Lin Guo

    2008-01-01

    Extensive use of insecticides on cotton has prompted resistance development in the cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in China.A deltamethrin-selected population of cotton aphids from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China with 228.59-fold higher resistance to deltamethrin was used to examine how carboxylesterase conferred resistance to this pyrethroid insecticide.The carboxylesterase activity in the deltamethrin-resistant strain was 3.67-,2.02- and 1.16-fold of the susceptible strain when using α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA),β-naphthyl acetate (β-NA) and α-naphthyl butyrate (α-NB) as substrates,respectively.Carboxylesterase eDNA was cloned and sequenced from both deltamethrinresistant and susceptible strains.The eDNA contained 1581 bp open reading frames (ORFs)coding a 526 amino acid protein.Only one amino acid substitution (Va187-Ala) was observed between deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible strains but it is not genetically linked to resistance by the catalytic triad and signature motif analysis.The real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the resistant strain had a 6.61-fold higher level of carboxylesterase mRNA than the susceptible strain.The results revealed that up-regulation of the carboxylesterase gene,not modified gene structure,may be responsible for the development of resistance in cotton aphids to deltamethrin.

  18. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  19. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  20. Comparative efficacy of emulsifiable-oil, wettable-powder, and unformulated-powder preparations of Beauveria bassiana against the melon aphid Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphicidal efficacy of two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA conidia, an emulsifiable-paraffinic oil dispersion (OD) and a clay-based wettable powder (WP), were compared to unformulated conidia in laboratory tests with adult melon aphids (Aphis gossypii). For the initial 24 hou...

  1. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  2. Toxicities of several insecticides and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in Aphis gossypii%几种常用杀虫剂对瓜蚜的毒力和对乙酰胆碱酯酶的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永成; 刁青云; 李海平

    2011-01-01

    The toxicities of 4 common insecticides to Aphis gossypii Glover on cucumber plants were studied in the greenhouses using leave-dipping method. The results showed that A. gossypii was most sensitive to imidacloprid in the insecticides tested, and LC50 was 4. 203 mg/L. The LC50 values for omethoate, phoxim and triazophos were 21.70, 38.86 and 43.30 mg/L, respectively. It was shown that 3OP insecticides tested could significantly inhibit the activity of AChE in A. gossypii, and their inhibition activities increased over time. The I50 values of omethoate, phoxim and triazophos to AChE were 9.6× 10-6 , 11.4× 10-6 and 17.1 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively.%用叶片药膜法测定了4种常用杀虫剂氧乐果、辛硫磷、三唑磷、吡虫啉对呼和浩特市郊蔬菜基地温室黄瓜上发生的瓜蚜的毒力.结果表明,瓜蚜对吡虫啉最敏感,LC仅为4.203 mg/L,氧乐果、辛硫磷、三唑磷对瓜蚜的LC分别为21.70、38.86、43.30 mg/L.研究明确了3种有机磷杀虫剂对瓜蚜体内乙酰胆碱酯酶AChE均有明显的抑制作用,并随着抑制时间的延长,抑制率增加.I值分别为氧乐果9.6×10mol/L,辛硫磷11.4×10mol/L,三唑磷17.1×10mol/L.

  3. Cloning of Partial Sodium Channel Gene From Strains of Fenvalerate-Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Aphid(Aphis gossypii Glover)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-juan; GAO Xi-wu; ZHENG Bing-zong

    2003-01-01

    The strain of fenvalerate-resistant cotton aphids was selected using fenvalerate insecticide in the laboratory, the resistance factor of the strain was 199.54. Three degenerate primers were designed and used to perform PCR amplification. A cDNA encoding partial sodium channel gene was cloned from the fenvalerate-resistant and -susceptible strains. There were two nucleotide acid differences between fenvalerate-resistant strain and -susceptible strain, resulting in an amino acid mutation, Met→Leu. It is predicted that the mutation is related to the cotton aphid resistance to fenvalerate.

  4. The neotype barcode of the cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877) and a proposal for type barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type barcode is a DNA barcode unequivocally tied to an authoritatively identified specimen, preferably the primary type specimen. Type barcodes are analogous, albeit subordinate, to type specimens, providing a stable reference to which other barcodes can be compared. We here designate and describe...

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza; Renato Almeida Sarmento; Madelaine Venzon; Gil Rodrigues dos Santos; Marcela Cristina Agustini C. da Silveira; Paulo Henrique Tschoeke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin) at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were expos...

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  7. A Study on the Effect of Natural Enemies on Cotton Aphid Aphis gossypii in Turupan Cotton Fields in Xinjiang%新疆吐鲁番棉区自然天敌对棉蚜的控制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and its natural enemies were investigated in self-controlled and insecticide-controlled cotton fields in Turupan, Xinjiang during seedling - ball opening period of cotton, and the data were analyzed by project pursuit regression method. The results indicated that Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae as primary natural enemies of Aphis gossypii significantly reduced the aphid population in self-controlled cotton field. In the insecticide-controlled cotton field the insecticides not only caused a rapid reduction of the aphid population but also severely suppressed its natural enemies. It was concluded that using the conventional insecticide is not promising choice for effective aphid control.%调查了新疆吐鲁番地区棉花苗期至吐絮期施药棉田和不施药棉田中棉蚜及其主要天敌发生动态,结合投影寻踪回归分析结果评价棉田中自然天敌对棉蚜的控制作用。结果表明,不施药棉田中草蛉和瓢虫对棉蚜有着良好的自然控制能力;施药棉田中常用的化学杀虫剂虽能短期控制棉蚜种群数量,但同时也严重杀伤了其天敌,不能达到长期控制蚜害虫的目的。

  8. Influence of Incubation Periods and Dosage on the Bioefficacy of Cow Urine against Melon Aphids (Aphis gossypii and Pickleworms (Diaphania hyalinata in Watermelon Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Burubai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubated cow urine and its application rates against melon aphids (Aphis gossypii and Pickleworms (Diaphania hyalinata was investigated. Incubation periods of 7, 14 and 21 days at doses 5, 10 and 15% were tried in a randomized block design with three replications. Results from analysis of variance (Anova show that all treatments significantly reduced the incidence of both pests. However, a post hoc analysis using Turkeys HSD reveals that 14 days incubation at the various dosage levels proved superior to other treatments. Maximum fruit yields of 79816, 78178 and 54109 kg/ha were also recorded for 14 days incubation at 10, 15 and 5%, respectively. Therefore, 14 days incubation time is recommended for cow urine FOR adoption in pest control on watermelon.

  9. Development of controlled release formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid and their bioefficacy evaluation against aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, N A; Khan, M A; Malik, Kamlesh; Walia, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid were prepared employing polyvinyl chloride and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and their bioefficacy was evaluated against the aphid, Aphis gossypii and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on potato crop. The CR formulations of carbofuran and imidacloprid provided better or equal control of the pests than commercial formulations. CMC-based formulation provided a superior control of both the pests. The Imida-CMC, which showed the lowest population of leaf hopper (10.50 leafhopper/100 cl), provided significantly superior control among all treatments after 35 days after germination (DAG). The residue of carbofuran and imidacloprid in potato tuber and soils were not detectable at the time of harvesting in any one of the formulations.

  10. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  11. 7种农药对瓜蚜的室内毒力测定%Toxicities of Seven Types of Pesticide to the Melon Aphid Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫亚军; 石宝才; 康总江; 王泽华; 朱亮; 魏书军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]采用浸叶法测定7种药剂对瓜蚜的毒力.[结果]结果表明:阿维菌素活性最高,LC50值为8.2728 mg/L,其次为甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐,LC50值为23.2278 mg/L,啶虫脒的LC50值为29.2927 mg/L,吡虫啉和毒死蜱的敏感性最低,LC50值分别为46.0487、48.9797 mg/L.螺虫乙酯各测试质量浓度处理后48、72 h时的平均死亡率仅为8.9%、11.2%,高效氯氰菊酯测试质量浓度达2000mg/L时,24 h校正死亡率仅为37.97%.[结论]7种药剂对瓜蚜的毒力排序为阿维菌素>甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐>啶虫脒>吡虫啉>毒死蜱>高效氯氰菊酯>螺虫乙酯.%[Aims] The toxicities of seven insecticides to melon aphid Aphis gossypii were studied by leaf-dipping method. [Results] The results showed that abamectin had the highest toxicity with LC50 of 8.2728 mg/L, next was the emamectin benzoate with LC50 of 23.2278 mg/L. The LC50of acetamiprid, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos were 29.2927, 46.0487 and 48.9797 mg/L respectively. The average mortality was 8.9 and 11.2% under the treatment of spirotetramat after 48 and 72 h. The corrected average mortality was 37.97% under the treatment of beta-cypermethrin with concentration of 2000 mg/L after 24 h. [Conclusions] The toxicity of the seven pesticides to the Aphis gossypii from high to low is abamectin>emamectin benzoate>acetamiprid>imidacloprid>chlorpyrifos>beta-cypermethrin>spirotetramat.

  12. Insight into the durability of plant resistance to aphids from a demo-genetic study of Aphis gossypii in melon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sophie; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Mistral, Pascale; Loiseau, Anne; Boissot, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Resistance breakdown has been observed following the deployment of plant cultivars resistant to pests. Assessing the durability of a resistance requires long-term experiments at least at a regional scale. We collected such data for melon resistance conferred by the Vat gene cluster to melon aphids. We examined landscape-level populations of Aphis gossypii collected in 2004-2015, from melon-producing regions with and without the deployment of Vat resistance and with different climates. We conducted demo-genetic analyses of the aphid populations on Vat and non-Vat plants during the cropping seasons. The Vat resistance decreased the density of aphid populations in all areas and changed the genetic structure and composition of these populations. Two bottlenecks were identified in the dynamics of adapted clones, due to the low levels of production of dispersal morphs and winter extinction. Our results suggest that (i) Vat resistance will not be durable in the Lesser Antilles, where no bottleneck affected the dynamics of adapted clones, (ii) Vat resistance will be durable in south-west France, where both bottlenecks affected the dynamics of adapted clones and (iii) Vat resistance will be less durable in south-east France, where only one of the two bottlenecks was observed. PMID:27330552

  13. Characterization of acetylcholinesterases, and their genes, from the hemipteran species Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii (Glover), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, N; Viner, R; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Devonshire, A L; Moores, G D

    2003-12-01

    Gene sequences encoding putative acetylcholinesterases have been reported for four hemipteran insect species. Although acetylcholinesterase insensitivity occurs in insecticide-resistant populations of each of these species, no mutations were detected in the gene sequences from the resistant insects. This, coupled with a series of experiments using novel reversible inhibitors to compare the biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterase from a range of insect species, showed that the cloned cDNA fragments are unlikely to encode the hemipteran synaptic acetylcholinesterases, and there is likely to be a second ace locus.

  14. Bioactivity of Camphor to Aphids (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach, Myzus persicae Sulzer and Aphis gossypii Glover)%莰酮对蚜虫生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤丽梅; 李保同

    2002-01-01

    进行了樟树(Cinnanomum camphora L.)中的莰酮(Camphor C10H160)对蚜虫的触杀、熏蒸毒力和拒食活性研究.结果表明,处理后24 h莰酮对菜缢管蚜、桃蚜和棉蚜触杀作用的LD50分别为3.12×10-3,2.04x10-3,0.68×10-3ng/头,熏蒸作用的LC50分别为3.44,2.56,1.06mg/L,拒食作用的AFC50分别为3.34,2.98,1.32mg/L.经回归和相关分析,处理浓度与作用效果相关性均达到极显著或显著水平.莰酮在田间防治菜缢管蚜的效果显著.

  15. N′-硝基缩氨基胍类化合物对蚜虫的室内毒力测定及相关酶活性的影响%Toxicity of N′-nitrohydrazinecarboximidamides to several aphids and the influence on the activities of related enzymes in Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖; 曹亚琴; 崔丽; 覃兆海; 马永强; 芮昌辉

    2015-01-01

    Su50 ( N′-nitro-1-isopropyl-2-( 4-nitrobenzenemethene ) aminoguanidine ) and Su56 ( N′-nitro-1-allyl-2-n-propyl-aminoguanidine ) were compounds with the feature of neonicotinoid and semicarbazone that were synthesized by splicing the active substructure. In order to determine the insecticidal activity and mechanism against aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, Myzus persicae, Aphis citricola and Hyalopterus amygdali were chosen as the target and leaf-dip method was used. The influence of Su56 on carboxylesterase ( CarE) , acetylcholinesterase ( AChE) , glutathione S-transferase ( GSTs) and multifunction oxidase ( MFO ) was investigated at sub lethal concentration ( LC10 and LC25 ) . The results showed that Su50 and Su56 had insecticidal activity against the 4 kinds of aphids, howerve, the difference was not significant. For A. gossypii, M. Persicae, H. amygdale and A. ciricola, the LC50 values of Su50 were 13. 0, 24. 2, 62. 6 and 14. 3 mg/L and the LC50 values of Su56 were 30. 3, 30. 2, 101 and 3. 23 mg/L, respectively. The two compounds also showed antifeedant activities against A. gossypii. The LC10 and LC25 of Su56 had no significant effects on CarE, GSTs and MFO activities of A. gossypii. However, AChE was inhibited significantly treated by LC10 of Su56.%Su50[N′-硝基-1-异丙基-2-(4-硝基苯亚甲基)氨基胍]和Su56(N′-硝基-1-烯丙基-2-正丙基氨基胍)是利用活性亚结构拼接原理合成的具有新烟碱类和缩氨基脲类杀虫剂共同结构特征的硝基缩氨基胍类化合物。为了解Su50和Su56对蚜虫的生物活性及作用机理,采用叶片浸渍法测定了其对多种蚜虫的杀虫活性,用棉叶涂抹药液后接入棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover测定了其对棉蚜的拒食活性,并采用生化方法测定了不同亚致死浓度( LC10、LC25) Su56对棉蚜羧酸酯酶( CarE)、乙酰胆碱酯酶( AChE)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶( GSTs)和多功能氧化酶( MFO)的酶活性的影响。结果表明:Su50和Su56

  16. Behavioral responses of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) to volatiles from plants infested by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphidae) and analysis of volatile components%多异瓢虫对瓜蚜为害后植物挥发物的行为反应及挥发物成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 韩海斌; 闫锋

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the roles of volatiles from host plants in the process of Hippodamia variegata ( Goeze) searching for preys, the behavioral responses of the lady beetle adults to volatiles from Aphis gossypii Glover, intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants were observed with a Y-tube olfactometer. The results showed that the adults were significantly attracted to volatiles from high-density (≥700 individuals/L) aphids, aphid-plant complex, and aphid-infested Cucumis sativus plants (aphid density≥400 individuals/pot) and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa plants (aphid density ≥200 individuals/pot) , while not to volatiles from low-density ( ≤500 individuals/L) aphids and the intact plants. Dynamic headspace collection was used to extract volatiles from the intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants, respectively, and the extracted volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight, twelve and eighteen components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. sativus, respectively. The main components include 1-octadecene, [ E ]-5-eicosene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are p-xylene, 1, 2-dimethy-benzene, tridecane, 1-tetradecene, a-farnesene, cedrol, octadecane, hexacosane and other seven unknown components. Eleven, eighteen and twenty components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. pepo var. medullosa, respectively. The main components include a-caryophyllene, 1-octadecene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, a-pinene, tetradecane, longifolene, a-caryophyllene and other two unknown components. The results lay a necessary foundation for further research on the effective components to attract lady beetles.%为明确寄主植物挥发物在多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata

  17. 多异瓢虫食物消耗与利用与其猎物棉蚜的寄主植物种类相关%Food consumption and utilization of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is related to host plant species of its prey, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 段文昌; 庞保平

    2015-01-01

    [目的]猎物质量和类型在捕食者食物选择、消耗及营养转化过程中起着重要作用,植物的营养质量影响植食者的营养质量,进而植食者作为捕食者猎物的营养质量.为进一步了解植物-猎物-捕食者三营养层的相互作用,研究了寄主植物对捕食者食物消耗与利用的影响.[方法]在室内评价了多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)4龄幼虫和雌成虫取食和利用5种不同葫芦科植物上的棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover的效率.[结果]多异瓢虫4龄幼虫和成虫均对南瓜Cucurbita moschata var.melonaeformis上的蚜虫取食量最高,而对瓢葫芦Lagenaria siceraria var.gourda上的蚜虫取食量最低.4龄幼虫取食哈密瓜Cucumis melo var.cantalupensis上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率、食物利用率和食物转化率均达到最大,而雌成虫在取食黄瓜Cucumis sativus和搅瓜Cucurbita pepo var.medullosa上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率不存在显著差异,在取食黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的蚜虫时,其食物利用率和食物转化率也不存在显著差异.因此,哈密瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为多异瓢虫4龄幼虫的猎物,而黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为成虫的猎物.[结论]寄主植物种类与多异瓢虫对棉蚜的捕食效率相关,该结论为进一步利用昆虫的食性对害虫进行控制奠定理论基础.

  18. 新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物抗棉铃虫与棉蚜的特性研究%The Study on Resistance of Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to Cotton Bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera ) and Cotton Aphid ( Aphis gossypii )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海; 黄丽; 张学涛; 张雷; 李芬; 刘小宁

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] This research can be a foundation for the development of new pollution - free botanical insecticides. [Method] Two types of coarse solutions from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua were extracted with 97% ethanol, and toxicities of the two extracts to cotton bollworm and cotton aphid were determined, and expellent effect of Artemisia rupestris to laying eggs of cotton bollworms in both the laboratory and the field were also studied. [Result] The results showed: (1) The LC50 of extracts from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to cotton bollworm are 0 .956 and 2.047 4 g/1OOmL; (2) The LC50 of extracts from Artemisia rupestris and Artemisia annua to cotton aphid are 0.956 and 2.047 4 g/1OOmL; (3) The repellency of extracts of Artemisia rupestris on laying eggs of cotton bollworm in the laboratory and in the field are 28.39% and 80. 68% . [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that the extracting coarse solutions from Artemisia rupestris are better than that from Artemisia annua as to the killing effect on cotton bollworm and cotton aphid, and it had an expellent effect on laying eggs of cotton bollworms in both the laboratory and the field .%[目的]为利用新疆一枝蒿研制新型无公害植物杀虫药剂奠定基础.[方法]采用97%乙醇对新疆一枝蒿(Artemisia rupestris)和黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)进行了总提,将所得粗提物对棉花重要害虫-棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)与棉蚜(Aphis gossypii)进行了生物活性测定,同时还使用新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫开展了室内、室外的驱避实验.[结果](1)新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物对棉铃虫半致死浓度LC50分别为3.515 7与4.781 1 mL/100g;(2)新疆一枝蒿与黄花蒿粗提物对棉蚜半致死浓度LC50分别为0.956与2.047 4g/100mL;(3)新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫室内室外趋避率分别为28.39%与80.68%.[结论]新疆一枝蒿粗提物对棉铃虫与棉蚜的毒杀作用较好并高于黄花蒿粗提物,且新

  19. Engineering Ashbya gossypii for efficient biolipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin. Indeed, engineered strains are currently used for the industrial production of riboflavin, replacing the chemical synthesis processes formerly used. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications affords significant advantages that involve low-cost media use and cheap downstream processing for some applications. Although A. gossypii cannot be considered a bona fide oleaginous microorganism, the accumulation of lipid droplets within hyphae has been described. In view of the genomic and molecular tools available for its manipulation, the metabolism of A. gossypii was engineered aiming to increase total lipid accumulation. Blocking the β-oxidation pathway through the knock-out of the AgPOX1 gene was sufficient to obtain strains with high lipid yields, comparable to those of the best oleaginous microorganisms. Thus, the poxΔ strain of A. gossypii constitutes a novel promising tool for the production of microbial oils in forthcoming modified A. gossypii strains. PMID:25625436

  20. Riboflavin production by Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2012-04-01

    Riboflavin is an important nutrient for humans and animals. Industrial production has shifted completely from chemical synthesis to microbial fermentation. First generation riboflavin production was improved by a combination of traditional mutagenesis and genetic engineering, and isolated strains have been used in industry. As the DNA genome of riboflavin producers has the potential to reveal new technologies, DNA microarray, proteomic and metabolic analyses have been applied to the analysis of hyper-riboflavin producers. In this review, disparity mutagenesis technology is introduced as a means of improving riboflavin production by Ashbya gossypii. DNA microarray, proteomic and metabolic analyses of this high riboflavin producer are discussed, as well as recent riboflavin production trends, costs and future improvements. PMID:22187081

  1. Infection process of Phakopsora gossypii in cotton leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Araujo; Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra; Paulo Geraldo Berger; Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical rust caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora gossypii is an emerging disease in cotton that has caused significant yield losses of crop/cotton cultivated in Brazil. Considering the current importance of tropical rust and the need to obtain additional basic information about its causal agent to better control this disease, the present study aimed to determine the infection process of P. gossypii in cotton leaves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty-day-old plan...

  2. Genome scale metabolic modeling of the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Revuelta, José Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, or vitamin B2. Advances in genetic and metabolic engineering of A. gossypii have permitted the switch from industrial chemical synthesis to the current biotechnological production of this vitamin. Additionally, A. gossypii is a model organism with one of the smallest eukaryote genomes being phylogenetically close to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has therefore been used to study evolutionary aspects of bakers' yeast. We here reconstructed the first genome scale metabolic model of A. gossypii, iRL766. The model was validated by biomass growth, riboflavin production and substrate utilization predictions. Gene essentiality analysis of the A. gossypii model in comparison with the S. cerevisiae model demonstrated how the whole-genome duplication event that separates the two species has led to an even spread of paralogs among all metabolic pathways. Additionally, iRL766 was used to integrate transcriptomics data from two different growth stages of A. gossypii, comparing exponential growth to riboflavin production stages. Both reporter metabolite analysis and in silico identification of transcriptionally regulated enzymes demonstrated the important involvement of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in riboflavin production. PMID:24374726

  3. Metabolic engineering of riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii through pathway optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation of flavinogenic microorganisms and Ashbya gossypii is the main industrial producer of the vitamin. Accordingly, bioengineering strategies aimed at increasing riboflavin production in A. gossypii are highly valuable for industry. Results We analyze the contribution of all the RIB genes to the production of riboflavin in A. gossypii. Two important metabolic rate-limiting steps that limit the overprodu...

  4. A Survey of the Insect Pests and Farmers' Practices in the Cropping of Tomato in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umeh, VC.; Kuku, FO.; Nwanguma, EI.; Adebayo, OS.; Manga, AA.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of some tomato producing areas of Nigeria indicated that the major insects attacking tomato included the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L., the whitefly Bemisia tabacci Gennadius, and various species of aphids, mostly Aphis gossypii Glover. Interviews conducted to assess farmers' practices which contribute to insect damage showed that inappropriate application of insecticides and the use of wrong dosages may have contributed to insect co...

  5. Kohut and Glover. The role of subjectivity in psychoanalytic theory and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, F

    1998-01-01

    The role of conflictual elements in the genesis of a new theory and in relation to the use of theory in a psychoanalytic controversy will be explored in two "case" studies. In the first, a close reading of Kohut's "The Two Analyses of Mr. Z" and in the second, a detailed examination of Glover's shifting allegiances toward Kleinian theory will reflect the role of transference and of idealization as powerful motivating elements.

  6. Hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. Cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro Growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. Gossypii var. Cephalosporioides on cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações sobre o hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro, inoculadas artificialmente e incubadas a 20-22°C durante cinco a sete dias, evidenciaram as seguintes características: (a em raízes: acérvulos isolados ou em grupos, massa conidial cor branco-suja, alaranjada ou salmão (mais freqüente, setas marrom-escuras, muitas vezes encobertas pela matriz gelatinosa; conídios produzidos também no micélio aéreo ou nas extremidades das setas, onde ficam aderidos, formando pequenos aglomerados; (b na superfície das sementes: conídios produzidos nos ápices de setas que emergem diretamente do tegumento, ficando aderidos uns aos outros, formando cachos, semelhantes a cadeias, que são vistos brilhantes sob a luz, em estereomicroscópio. As setas férteis são formadas também no micélio aéreo que recobre as sementes, geralmente após cinco dias de incubação. Os acérvulos com massa conidial raramente são visíveis, exceto em sementes danificadas ou mortas. Como característica de C. gossypii, observou-se que as sementes exibem, de modo geral, uma coloração rosada, em decorrência da abundante esporulação; a ausência ou escassez de micélio aéreo e as setas curtas resultam em um crescimento rente ao tegumento e aspecto compacto. Comparativamente, nas sementes com C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides, as setas são mais longas e menos densas; o micélio aéreo com setas férteis ocorre com mais freqüência, conferindo às sementes tonalidades acinzentadas e aspecto solto. A constatação de setas férteis em lesões foliares de ramulose evidencia que, no campo, essas estruturas podem funcionar como autênticos conidióforos, desempenhando um importante papel epidemiológico, ao possibilitar a disseminação dos esporos pelos ventos, a longas distâncias.The growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides on artificially

  7. Carrier-mediated transport of riboflavin in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, C; Revuelta, J L; Krämer, R

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii is used for industrial riboflavin production. We examined riboflavin uptake and excretion at the plasma membrane using riboflavin auxotrophic and overproducing mutants. The riboflavin uptake system had low activity [Vmax = 20 +/- 4 nmol min(-1) g(-1) mycelial dry weight (dw)] and high affinity (KM = 40 +/- 12 microM). Inhibitor studies with the analogs FMN and FAD revealed high specificity of the uptake system. Excretion of riboflavin was not the consequence of non-specific permeability of the plasma membrane. Excretion rates in the mid-production phase were determined to be 2.5 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dw for wild-type cells and 66.7 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dw for an overproducing mutant, respectively. Inhibition of the reverse reaction, riboflavin uptake, led to an increase in apparent riboflavin efflux in the early production phase, indicating the presence of a separate excretion carrier. Riboflavin accumulation in A. gossypii vacuoles leading to product retention was found to be a secondary transport process. To address the question of whether a flux from the vacuoles back into the cytoplasm is present, we characterized efflux in hyphae in which the plasma membrane was permeabilized with digitonin. Efflux kinetics across the vacuolar membrane were unaffected by the lack of vacuolar H+ATPase activity and ATP, suggesting a passive mechanism. Based on the characterization of riboflavin transport processes in this study, the design of new production strains with improved riboflavin excretion may be possible. PMID:11234964

  8. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. R...

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of an invertase secreted by Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Dinis, Cláudia; Magalhães, Frederico; Oliveira, Carla Cristina Marques de; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    The repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes natively secreted by the filamentous fungus Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii has been poorly explored. Here, an invertase secreted by this flavinogenic fungus was for the first time molecularly and functionally characterized. Invertase activity was detected in A. gossypii culture supernatants and cell-associated fractions. Extracellular invertase migrated in a native polyacrylamide gel as diffuse protein bands, indicating the occurrence of at least two inver...

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of an invertase secreted by Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Dinis, Cláudia; Magalhães, Frederico; Oliveira, Carla; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-06-01

    The repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes natively secreted by the filamentous fungus Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii has been poorly explored. Here, an invertase secreted by this flavinogenic fungus was for the first time molecularly and functionally characterized. Invertase activity was detected in A. gossypii culture supernatants and cell-associated fractions. Extracellular invertase migrated in a native polyacrylamide gel as diffuse protein bands, indicating the occurrence of at least two invertase isoforms. Hydrolytic activity toward sucrose was approximately 10 times higher than toward raffinose. Inulin and levan were not hydrolyzed. Production of invertase by A. gossypii was repressed by the presence of glucose in the culture medium. The A. gossypii invertase was demonstrated to be encoded by the AFR529W (AgSUC2) gene, which is highly homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 (ScSUC2) gene. Agsuc2 null mutants were unable to hydrolyze sucrose, proving that invertase is encoded by a single gene in A. gossypii. This mutation was functionally complemented by the ScSUC2 and AgSUC2 genes, when expressed from a 2-μm-plasmid. The signal sequences of both AgSuc2p and ScSuc2p were able to direct the secretion of invertase into the culture medium in A. gossypii. PMID:24452331

  11. Growth stress triggers riboflavin overproduction in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Thomas; Wiesenburg, Andreas; Gätgens, Cornelia; Funke, Andreas; Viets, Ulrike; Vijayalakshmi, Swaminathan; Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is used for riboflavin biosynthesis on an industrial scale, but even the wild type displays overproduction. Because riboflavin overproduction was known to start at the transition between growth and stationary phase, it was suspected that overproduction was induced at low growth rates. However, chemostatic cultivations performed at different growth rates did not result in any detectable riboflavin formation. In this study, we report that it was not the final growth rate that triggered riboflavin overproduction but a decline in growth rate. Therefore, continuous fermenter cultivations with dilution rate shifts were performed. Peaks of riboflavin overproduction were observed in the wild type and in a RIB3placZ reporter strain after downshifts in dilution rate. Accumulation of riboflavin correlated with an increased expression of lacZ reporter activity. The step size of the downshifts corresponded to the peak size of riboflavin formation and reporter activity. Expression of further RIB genes encoding riboflavin biosynthetic enzymes was analyzed by RT-PCR. RIB mRNA levels of the ribulose-5-phosphate branch of the divided riboflavin biosynthesis pathway (RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5) were found to increase in the riboflavin production phase, whereas the RIB2 and RIB7 mRNA levels belonging to the GTP branch remained constant. We propose that a decline in growth rate triggers the increased expression of RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5 resulting in riboflavin overproduction. Because although a reduction in oxygen supply, temperature increase or decrease, or salt stress did affect growth, but neither did lead to riboflavin overproduction nor did induce RIB3 reporter expression, we conclude that declining nutrition must be the stress stimulus. Because about half of the cells in the hyphae of Ashbya gossypii did not accumulate riboflavin, the regulatory response on the cellular level can be estimated to be at least twice as great in comparison to what we

  12. 7 CFR 372.6 - Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES § 372.6 Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities. Each prospective... environmental documentation is encouraged to contact, at the earliest opportunity, APHIS' program staff....

  13. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: A historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation of A. gossypii as an industrial riboflavin producer. Although there is still room for optimizing riboflavin production, the recent years have seen an abundant advance in the exploration of A. gossypii for other biotechnological applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins, single cell oil and flavour compounds. Here, we will address the biotechnological potential of A. gossypii beyond riboflavin production by presenting (a) a physiological and metabolic perspective over this fungus; (b) the molecular toolbox available for its manipulation; and (c) commercial and emerging biotechnological applications for this industrially important fungus, together with the approaches adopted for its engineering. PMID:26456510

  14. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta José L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C. We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

  15. 棉蚜对12种杀虫剂的敏感性测定%Determination of Sensitivity of Aphis gossypii to 12 Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建伟; 张东海; 陈晋忠; 魏立强; 刘小宁; 张学涛

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] This experiments aimed to clear the sensitivity of cotton aphid in northern Xinjiang to insecticides used commonly in production and market. [Methods] The sensitivity of cotton aphid collected from 147 farm and Xinhu farm population were determined to twelve insecticides of four types by filter paper diffusion method respectively. [Results] The results showed that the sensitivity of two cotton aphid populations was the same to insecticides with the same type, and different to different types of insecticides, and high sensitivity to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, avermectin, and lower sensitivity to pyrethroid and organophosphorus compounds. [Conclusions] According to the results, insecticide types, dosages and application frequency should be controlled strictly, in order to delay the resistance development of cotton aphid, and different insecticides should be applied alternately and mixed reasonably.%[目的]为探明新疆北部棉区棉蚜种群对市场上和生产中常用药剂的敏感性程度.[方法]采用滤纸药膜法分别测定了147团和新湖农场棉蚜种群对4大类杀虫剂中的12种常用药剂的敏感性.[结果]2个棉蚜种群对同类杀虫剂的敏感度基本一致,对不同杀虫剂敏感性有较大差异.对吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、阿维菌素敏感性高,对菊酯类和有机磷类药剂敏感性低.[结论]根据测定结果,生产中应严格控制用药种类以及施药量和施药次数,选用不同类型杀虫剂轮用或混用,以延缓棉蚜抗性发展.

  16. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  17. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Service Agency, APHIS' Wildlife Services, or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  18. The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii as a competitive industrial inosine producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Rubén M; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside with growing biotechnological interest due to its recently attributed beneficial health effects and as a convenient precursor of the umami flavor. At present, most of the industrial inosine production relies on bacterial fermentations. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii to obtain strains able to excrete high amounts of inosine to the culture medium. We report that the disruption of only two key genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway efficiently redirect the metabolic flux, increasing 200-fold the excretion of inosine with respect to the wild type, up to 2.2 g/L. These results allow us to propose A. gossypii as a convenient candidate for large-scale nucleoside production, especially in view of the several advantages that Ashbya has with respect to the bacterial systems used at present for the industrial production of this food additive. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2060-2063. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; de Pereda, José María; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Herein, we report the functional and structural characterization of the IMPDH enzyme from the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. Our data show that the overexpression of the IMPDH gene increases the metabolic flux through the guanine pathway and ultimately enhances 40 % riboflavin production with respect to the wild type. Also, IMPDH disruption results in a 100-fold increase of inosine excretion to the culture media. Our results contribute to the developing metabolic engineering toolbox aiming at improving the production of metabolites with biotechnological interest in A. gossypii. PMID:26150243

  20. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: a historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Silva, R.; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation o...

  1. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta José L; Santos María A; Jiménez Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the c...

  2. Strain Design of Ashbya gossypii for Single-Cell Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Santos, María A.; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell oil (SCO) represents a sustainable alternative for the oil industry. Accordingly, the identification of microorganisms with either higher lipidogenic ability or novel capacities for the transformation of raw materials constitutes a major challenge for the field of oil biotechnology. With this in mind, here, we were prompted to address the lipidogenic profile of the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii, which is currently used for the microbial production of vitamins. We foun...

  3. Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Colletotrichum gossypii do algodoeiro Genetic variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum gossypii of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro é atacado por Colletotrichum gossypii (CG e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Ambos os patógenos são transmitidos pela semente e sua distinção morfológica é extremamente difícil e inconsistente. Tentativas foram feitas no presente trabalho para verificar a variabilidade genética entre CG e CGC através de RAPD-PCR, ERIC- e REP-PCR e PCR-RFLP da região ITS rDNA. Foram utilizados 53 isolados coletados de sementes e folhas de plantas de diferentes cultivares nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, e Paraiba, entre 1999 e 2003. Baseado em testes de patogenicidade, vinte e um isolados foram classificados como CG e 32 como CGC. Os resultados obtidos por RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se oito primers, revelaram dois grupos distintos sendo que o primeiro foi formado por 94% dos isolados de sementes e o segundo por 95% dos isolados de folhas. Na análise de ERIC- e REP-PCR, resultados semelhantes a RAPD foram obtidos, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi formado por 93% dos isolados provenientes das sementes e o segundo por 78% dos isolados provenientes das folhas. Quando o produto de amplificação da região ITS rDNA foi digerido com oito enzimas de restrição, um perfil de bandas semelhante para todos os isolados foi obtido. Resultados de RAPD, ERIC- e REP-PCR demonstraram que existem diferenças genéticas entre os isolados provenientes das sementes e aqueles provenientes de parte aérea, e esses dois grupos foram claramente distintos. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados utilizando outras técnicas moleculares para a obtenção de marcadores capazes de distinguir entre isolados de CG e CGC.Cotton is attacked by Colletotrichum gossypii (CG and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Both the pathogens are transmitted by seed and their morphological distinction is extremely difficult and inconsistent. In the present study, attempts were made to verify the genetic variability among 53 isolates of CG and CGC using

  4. PREFACE: First International Meeting on Applied Physics (APHYS-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vilas, A.; Chacón, R.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the 1st International Meeting on Applied Physics (APHYS-2003), held in Badajoz (Spain), from 13th to 18th October 2003, and more specifically, selected papers presented during the conference sessions mainly on Applied Optics, Laser Physics, Ultrafast Phenomena, Optical Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Optoelectronics, Quantum Electronics and Applied Solid State Physics-Chemistry. APHYS-2003 was born as an attempt to create a new international forum on Applied Physics in Europe. Since Applied Physics is not really a branch of Physics, but the application of all the branches of Physics to the broad realms of practical problems in Science, Engineering and Industry, this conference was a truly multi and inter-disciplinary event. The organizers called for papers relating Physics with other sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, Information Science, Medicine, etc, or relating different Physics areas, and aimed at solving practical problems. In other words, the Conference was specifically interested in reports applying the techniques, the training, and the culture of Physics to research areas usually associated with other scientific and engineering disciplines. It was extremely rewarding that over 800 researchers, from over 65 countries, attended the conference, where more than 1000 research papers were presented. We feel really proud of this excellent response obtained (in number and quality), for this first edition of the conference. We are very grateful to all the members of the Organizing Committee, for the hard work done for the preparation of the Conference (which began one year before the conference start), and to the members of the International Advisory Committee, for the valuable contribution to the evaluation of submitted works. Also thank to the referees for the excellent work done in the revision of submitted papers. Finally, we would like to thank the Department of Physics of the

  5. Three biotechnical processes using Ashbya gossypii, Candida famata, or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, K P; Revuelta, J L; Seulberger, H

    2000-05-01

    Chemical riboflavin production, successfully used for decades, is in the course of being replaced by microbial processes. These promise to save half the costs, reduce waste and energy requirements, and use renewable resources like sugar or plant oil. Three microorganisms are currently in use for industrial riboflavin production. The hemiascomycetes Ashbya gossypii, a filamentous fungus, and Candida famata, a yeast, are naturally occurring overproducers of this vitamin. To obtain riboflavin production with the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis requires at least the deregulation of purine synthesis and a mutation in a flavokinase/FAD-synthetase. It is common to all three organisms that riboflavin production is recognizable by the yellow color of the colonies. This is an important tool for the screening of improved mutants. Antimetabolites like itaconate, which inhibits the isocitrate lyase in A. gossypii, tubercidin, which inhibits purine biosynthesis in C. famata, or roseoflavin, a structural analog of riboflavin used for B. subtilis, have been applied successfully for mutant selections. The production of riboflavin by the two fungi seems to be limited by precursor supply, as was concluded from feeding and gene-overexpression experiments. Although flux studies in B. subtilis revealed an increase both in maintenance metabolism and in the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, the major limitation there seems to be the riboflavin pathway. Multiple copies of the rib genes and promoter replacements are necessary to achieve competitive productivity. PMID:10855708

  6. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-04-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. PMID:24031850

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production.

  8. A developmental stage of hyphal cells shows riboflavin overproduction instead of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2013-12-01

    The hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii develops a mycelium. Nutritional stress leads to its differentiation into sporangia. These generate spores. In parallel, the yellow pigment riboflavin is produced. Intracellularly accumulated riboflavin, made visible as a bright green fluorescence, was observed in only 60% of the hyphal cells. For the remaining 40%, it was unclear whether these cells simply export riboflavin or its biosynthesis remains down-regulated in contrast to the accumulating cells. The approach followed in this work was to convert the hyphae into protoplasts by enzymatic degradation of the cell wall. Afterwards, the protoplasts were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of riboflavin accumulation. When a reporter strain expressing lacZ under the control of the most important riboflavin biosynthesis promoter, RIB3, was used, green protoplasts were found to have more than tenfold greater reporter activity than hyaline protoplasts. This was true on the basis of total protein as well as on the basis of hexokinase specific activity, a marker for constitutive expression. These results allow the conclusion that hyphal cells of A. gossypii differ in phenotype regarding riboflavin overproduction and accumulation. PMID:24092010

  9. The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii as a competitive industrial inosine producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Rubén M; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside with growing biotechnological interest due to its recently attributed beneficial health effects and as a convenient precursor of the umami flavor. At present, most of the industrial inosine production relies on bacterial fermentations. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii to obtain strains able to excrete high amounts of inosine to the culture medium. We report that the disruption of only two key genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway efficiently redirect the metabolic flux, increasing 200-fold the excretion of inosine with respect to the wild type, up to 2.2 g/L. These results allow us to propose A. gossypii as a convenient candidate for large-scale nucleoside production, especially in view of the several advantages that Ashbya has with respect to the bacterial systems used at present for the industrial production of this food additive. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2060-2063. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26927228

  10. Cotton resistance to ramulose and variability of Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides Resistência do algodoeiro a ramulose e variabilidade de Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fernandes do Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cultivars and 21 lines of cotton were evaluated for resistance to ramulose (Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides in a field where the disease is endemic. The seeds of each genotype were planted in 5 x 5 m plots with three replications. The lines CNPA 94-101 and 'CNPA Precoce 2'were used as standard susceptible and resistant references, respectively. The disease incidence (DI was calculated from the proportion of diseased plants in the plot. The disease index (DIn was calculated from the disease severity using a 1 to 9 scale, and was evaluated at weekly intervals starting 107 days after emergence. The data collected was used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. In general, the DIn increased linearly with time and varied from 20.0 to 57.1 and AUDPC from 567 to 1627 among the genotypes which could be clustered in to two distinct groups. The susceptible group contained two cultivars and nine lines and the resistant group contained one cultivar and 12 lines. The relationship between disease index and evaluation times was linear for the 25 genotypes tested. The line CNPA 94-101, used as susceptible standard, was the most susceptible with an average DI = 83.4, DIn = 57.1 and AUDPC = 1627.7. The line CNPA 96-08 with DI = 37.8, DIn = 20.0 and AUDPC = 567.7 was the most resistant one. Among the commercial cultivars 'IAC 22' was the most susceptible and 'CNPA Precoce 2', used as resistant standard was the most resistant. The variability in virulence of the pathogen was studied by spray inoculating nine genotypes with conidial suspensions (10(5/mL of either of the 10 isolates. The disease severity was evaluated 30 days later using a scale of 1 to 5. The virulence of the isolate was expressed by DIn. All the isolates were highly virulent but their virulence avaried for several genotypes and could be clustered in two distinct groups of less and more virulent isolates. The isolate MTRM 14 from Mato Grosso was the least

  11. 9 CFR 72.9 - Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.9 Interstate... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required. 72.9 Section 72.9 Animals and Animal...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from...

  13. Note: Aphis vitalbae Ferrari, 1872 (Hemiptera: Aphididae): new finding on ornamental Clematis spp. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Hałaj, Roman; Osiadacz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Aphis vitalbae Ferrari is reported from Poland for the first time on ornamental clematis (Clematis spp.). The distribution of this aphid in Europe and its possible expansion route are presented with a key to identifying the aphids infesting Clematis plants in Europe. Barbara Osiadacz

  14. Teor de glicoalcalóides em Solanum americanum infestado por Aphis fabae solanella Glycoalkaloid content in Solanum americanum infested by Aphis fabae solanella

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Teixeira Zullo; João Paulo Feijão Teixeira; Dayse Soave Spoladore; André Luiz Lourenção; Condorcet Aranha

    1984-01-01

    Solanum americanum Miller, uma fonte conhecida de glicosídios de solassodina, foi encontrada infestada por Aphis fabae solanela Theob. Uma vez que esses glicosídios são matérias-primas potenciais para a síntese de outras substâncias esteroídicas, tornou-se de interesse verificar o efeito de infestação sobre o teor destes glicoalcalóides. Plantas fortemente, moderadamente e não infestadas pelo pulgão foram colhidas no campo, determinando-se o teor de glicoalcalóides esteroídicos nos caules, fo...

  15. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct. PMID:19716523

  16. Isolation of an oxalate-resistant Ashbya gossypii strain and its improved riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Morimoto, Aki; Nariyama, Masashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    An oxalate-resistant strain of Ashbya gossypii was naturally isolated from spores grown on an oxalate-containing medium, and its medium was optimized to improve riboflavin production. Riboflavin production by the resistant strain was three-fold higher than that by the wild-type organism when grown in flask cultures. Medium optimization increased the riboflavin production by the resistant strain to 5 g l(-1), which was five-fold higher than that obtained by the wild-type strain. The productivity was reproduced in a 3-l bioreactor. During the early growth phase, the specific activity of isocitrate lyase in the oxalate-resistant strain was slightly higher than that in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the oxalate-resistant strain revealed that the expression of aldose reductase and cobalamin-independent methionine synthase decreased significantly. This is the first report that describes the natural isolation of a riboflavin producer using an antimetabolite-containing medium to enhance the riboflavin production level. This method should also be useful for improving the productivity of other bioproducts since it does not require any mutations or genetic modifications of the microorganism. PMID:19826846

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually...... reproducing ascomycete Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a well-defined sexual cycle, in which diploid cells can undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores in response to nutrient starvation. The diploid state is a requirement for meiosis and results from fusion of two haploid cells of the opposite mating type...... negatively instead of controlling mating. In line with this, a mating partner might not be required since the multinucleate compartments could still enable nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and meiosis. The presence of karyogamy is supported by our results that deletion of the A. gossypii homologs Kar3 and Kar4...

  18. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gao, Lingling; Singh, Karam B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Researc...

  19. Toxicity of Three Insecticides to Lysiphlebus fabarum, a Parasitoid of the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Sabahi, Qodratollah; Rasekh, Arash; Michaud, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of three insecticides to Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a parasitoid of Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was investigated using IOBC/wprs protocols. Abamectin 1.8 EC, imidacloprid 350 SC, and pymetrozine 25 WP were tested under laboratory conditions at recommended field rates. Immature stages of the parasitoid were exposed to materials by briefly dipping mummified aphids into insecticide solutions/suspensions or water (controls). ...

  20. Efektivitas Cendawan Entomopatogen (Fusarium sp.) terhadap Aphis glycines dan Empoasca terminalis pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Fatahuddin, Fatahuddin; BUMBUNGAN, JATORO

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in soybean growers??? field in Soppeng District, South Sulawesi, Indoensia,from June 2009 to August 2009, to assess the effectiveness of a fungal entomopathogen,Fusarium sp., in suppressing the populations of Aphis glycines and Empoasca (Distantasca) terminalis. The study consisted of four treatments: Application of Fusarium sp., application of a deltamehtrin insecticide, alternate weekly application of Fusarium sp. and deltamethrin, and an untereated control...

  1. Diversidade de afídeos na cultura do algodoeiro no município de Campo Verde (MT Aphids diversity on cotton field in Campo Verde, Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a diversidade de afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphididae na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. no município de Campo Verde (MT. Os afídeos foram amostrados diretamente nas plantas e através de armadilhas tipo Moericke. As amostragens foram realizadas a cada dois dias, até 60 dias após a germinação das plantas. A espécie Aphis gossypii Glover prevaleceu nas amostragens realizadas sobre as plantas. Formas aladas, de ocorrência acidental na cultura, tais como Aphis spiraecola Patch e Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus também foram observadas. Com as armadilhas tipo Moericke foram capturados 2280 afídeos alados, pertencentes a 13 espécies: R. padi (52,6% do total, A. spiraecola (26,4%, A. gossypii (8,9%, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch (5,3%, Geopemphigus floccosus (Moreira (3,1%, Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas (1,5%, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki (1,3%, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (0,4%, Sipha flava (Forbes (0,3%, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel, Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (Sasaki, Lizerius melanocallis (Quednau e Toxoptera citricidus (Kirkaldy (0,1% cada uma. Nas amostragens diretamente sobre as plantas foram observados ápteros e alados de A. gossypii e alados de A. spiraecola e R. padi. Nas armadilhas tipo Moericke, as principais espécies capturadas foram R. padi, A. spiraecola, A. gossypii e R. maidis.This work was carried out in Campo Verde, Mato Grosso State, Brasil, and its objective was to determine the occurrence of aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cotton field (Gossypium hirsutum L.. The aphids were sampled both directly on plants and with Moericke's traps. The samplings were accomplished every other day during 60 days. Aphis gossypii Glover prevailed on cotton plants. Winged forms accidental as Aphis spiraecola Patch and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus also occurred. In the water-pan traps 2280 winged aphids were trapped, which are from 13 species: R. padi (52.6% of total, A. spiraecola

  2. 河西走廊棉区棉蚜和棉叶螨防治技术探析%Discussion and analysis on the preventing and curing techniques of Aphis gossypii and Cotton spider mites in Gansu Corridor cotton region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南宏宇

    2010-01-01

    @@ 棉蚜和棉叶螨是河西走廊棉区两种主要虫害,在棉花整个生育期均造成为害,防治过程中化学药剂广泛持续的使用,使害虫抗性增加,为害逐年加重,造成的损失和防治成本呈逐年加大的趋势,致使植棉户植棉效益下降.文中通过对两种主要虫害防治技术影响因素的比较和分析,总结了经济有效的防治方法,从而为实际生产中高效防治棉蚜和棉叶螨提供依据.

  3. Oxidation of rapeseed oil in waste activated bleaching earth and its effect on riboflavin production in culture of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Enoch Y; Ming, Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Long-term behavior of rapeseed oil in waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) and the effect of this oil on riboflavin production in the culture of Ashbya gossypii were investigated. Waste ABE with 40% (w/w) rapeseed oil was stored for 80 d, and the extent of oxidation of rapeseed oil was measured by several analytical methods to determine the chemical properties of the oil at different stages of the oil deterioration process:peroxide value, acid value, concentrations of organic acids, acetaldehyde and unsaturated fatty acid, and content of polymerized triglycerides. Peroxide value, acid value, and concentrations of organic acids and acetaldehyde did not affect riboflavin production. However, the content of polymerized triglycerides markedly increased the viscosity of rapeseed oil and was the main reason for the exponential decrease in riboflavin production. A good correlation between the polymerized triglyceride content or viscosity and riboflavin production in the culture of A. gossypii using rapeseed oil as the sole carbon source was found. PMID:16233590

  4. Oxidative stress protection and glutathione metabolism in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione in riboflavinogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Chandra, T S

    2014-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a plant pathogen and a natural overproducer of riboflavin and is used for industrial riboflavin production. A few literature reports depict a link between riboflavin overproduction and stress in this fungus. However, the stress protection mechanisms and glutathione metabolism are not much explored in A. gossypii. In the present study, an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione. The lipid peroxide and membrane lipid peroxide levels were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating oxidative damage. The glutathione metabolism was altered with a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the presence of H2O2 and menadione. Expression of the genes involved in stress mechanism was analyzed in response to the stressors by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CTT1, SOD1, GSH1, YAP1, and RIB3 were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating the effect of stress at the transcriptional level. A preliminary bioinformatics study for the presence of stress response elements (STRE)/Yap response elements (YRE) depicted that the glutathione metabolic genes, stress genes, and the RIB genes hosted either STRE/YRE, which may enable induction of these genes during stress. PMID:25178419

  5. Possibility of diacetyl and related compounds as the 4-carbon compound necessary for the formation of riboflavin in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Mitsuda, H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various compounds (0.5%) involved in the butanediol and the glycolytic pathways on riboflavin formation in whole cells of Ashbya gossypii at rest were examined. The addition of acetate, glycerol and diacetyl inhibited riboflavin formation, while the addition of acetoin had no effect on it, and the addition of ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, pyruvic acid and glucose accelerated it. The relation of diacetyl and acetoin to riboflavin formation during resting cell incubation in the presence of 0.5% ethanol and various concentrations of 2,3-butanediol was examined. The results quantitatively revealed a precursor-product relation between riboflavin formation and the formation of diacetyl and acetoin. The results obtained provide evidence that a high flavinogenic agent, ethanol, was converted to acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, acetoin and diacetyl in this order, that a week flavinogenic agent, 2,3-butanediol, was transferred to diacetyl through acetoin, and that the diacetyl produced can be utilized as the 4-carbon compound for riboflavin formation in the flavinogenic mold, Ashbya gossypii. It remains obscure whether diacetyl is enzymatically involved in riboflavin formation. PMID:6534171

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (GLOVTH00410023) on Town Highway 41, crossing Sherburne Brook, Glover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure GLOVTH00410023 on Town Highway 41 crossing Sherburne Brook, Glover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in northern Vermont. The 2.57-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is primarily forest with small areas of lawn and a home on the right overbank and a gravel roadway along the upstream left bank. In the study area, Sherburne Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 33 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 57.3 mm (0.188 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 24, 1994, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 41 crossing of Sherburne Brook is a 24-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 21-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 4, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 20.3 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, granite block abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 55 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. One foot

  7. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  8. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  9. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  10. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  11. A Survey of the Insect Pests and Farmers' Practices in the Cropping of Tomato in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeh, VC.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of some tomato producing areas of Nigeria indicated that the major insects attacking tomato included the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L., the whitefly Bemisia tabacci Gennadius, and various species of aphids, mostly Aphis gossypii Glover. Interviews conducted to assess farmers' practices which contribute to insect damage showed that inappropriate application of insecticides and the use of wrong dosages may have contributed to insect control failures. Intercropping tomato with crops such as cereals tubers and other vegetables reduced infestation in some areas. However, most farmers' practices did not affect insect pest abundance. Insect populations and percentages of infestation were, in most cases, found to be significantly higher in Oyo state (in the rain forest agro-ecological zone than in other surveyed states located in the savannah agro-ecological zones.

  12. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  13. Teor de glicoalcalóides em Solanum americanum infestado por Aphis fabae solanella Glycoalkaloid content in Solanum americanum infested by Aphis fabae solanella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Teixeira Zullo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum americanum Miller, uma fonte conhecida de glicosídios de solassodina, foi encontrada infestada por Aphis fabae solanela Theob. Uma vez que esses glicosídios são matérias-primas potenciais para a síntese de outras substâncias esteroídicas, tornou-se de interesse verificar o efeito de infestação sobre o teor destes glicoalcalóides. Plantas fortemente, moderadamente e não infestadas pelo pulgão foram colhidas no campo, determinando-se o teor de glicoalcalóides esteroídicos nos caules, folhas e frutos. Verificou-se que esse teor de glicoalcalóides esteroídicos é dependente do órgão da planta e da fitossanidade do material vegetal. O teor médio de glicoalcalóides em plantas não infestadas é sempre maior que em plantas infestadas, tanto na planta como um todo como em cada órgão examinado. Esses resultados não asseguram que o teor de glicoalcalóides seja responsável pela resistência à infestação, porém que há uma boa correlação entre teor de glicoalcolóides e fitossanidade do material vegetal.Solanum americanum Mill, a known source of solasodina glycosides, was found to be infested by the aphids Aphis fabae solanella Theob. Since these glycosides are potential raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs, it is important to know the effect of infestation on the yield of solasodine glycosides. Plants heavily, moderately and uninfested by the aphids were collected in the field, and the glycoalkaloid content of the stems, leaves, and fruits were determined. It was found that the glycoalkaloid content is dependent on the different parts of the plant and phytosanity of the plant material. The average yield of glycoalkaloids in uninfested plants was always higher than in infested plants, both in the whole plant or in each part of the plant examined. These results cannot assure that the glycoalkaloid content is responsible for the resistance, but that there is a close relationship between glycoalkaloid

  14. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e o consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 tendo Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 como presa, bem como seu comportamento de oviposição em duas cultivares de crisântemo. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas do predador com até 24 horas de idade foram colocadas individualmente em placas de petri (5 cm contendo 20 ninfas de A. gossypii (1º, 2º e 3º ínstares, as quais estavam posicionadas sobre disco foliar (4 cm de cada cultivar ('White Reagan' e'Yellow Snowdon' em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em 'White Reagan' e 'Yellow Snowdon', respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (PThis work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as weel as its oviposition behavior on two crysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25±1ºC, RH 70±10% and 12h photophase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individualy in petri dishes (5cm with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (1st, 2nd and 3rt instars on leaf disc (4cm of each cultivar ("White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon" in a layer of agar-water (1%. Petiole of each crysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. The predador complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively

  15. Reciprocal interactions between native and introduced populations of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and the specialist aphid, Aphis nerii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Agrawal, A.A.; Roge, C.; Bezemer, T.M.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Following its introduction into Europe (EU), the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) has been free of most specialist herbivores that are present in its native North American (NA) range, except for the oleander aphid Aphis nerii. We compared EU and NA populations of A. nerii on EU and NA milkweed po

  16. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals...

  17. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  18. The harmfulness of Aphis fabae Scop. feeding on the flowers of park rose (Rosa sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999 - 2001 in the green area of the Lublin city in the street (A and park (B sites. The purpose of the studies was to determine the dynamics of the bean aphid population (Aphis fabae Scop. and the effect of its feeding on the blooming of park roses (Rosa sp.. The presence of dwarf specimens of A. fabae was observed only on the crown petals and the sepals. Their feeding significantly affected the decorative character of roses, since the crown petals inhabited by them were faster to dry out and fall down. The presence of aphids on the shrubs was found throughout the period of about two months, and the aphids were more numerous in the street site.

  19. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se observar o efeito de diversas substâncias nitrogenadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspectos morfológicos das colônias do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa em substrato sólido. Usou-se um substrato sintético como meio-básico e a este se adicionou peptona, metionina, asparagina, nitrato de sódio ou salicilato de amônia, conforme o tratamento. A testemunha não recebeu qualquer fonte de nitrogênio. Concluiu-se que a peptona foi o melhor tratamento para esporulação e crescimento miceliano, seguindo-se a asparagina que foi eficiente na indução da esporulação. O salicilato de amônia exerceu efeito inibidor do crescimento vegetativo e da esporulação do fungo. Para produção de inóculo, a curto prazo, recomenda-se o uso da peptona como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram observadas diferenças na pigmentação, bordos e densidade das colônias. A esporulação, embora abundante em substratos contendo peptona e asparagina, ocorreu em forma de verdadeiras massas localizadas de conídios na primeira, e como conídios dispersos na segunda.

    In this experiment, the effect of different nitrogenous substances on the mycelium growth, sporulation and morphological aspects of the colonies of the fungus Colletotrichum gossypii  South Var. cephalosporoides Costa planted in a solid substrate were observed. A synthetic substrate was used as a basic medium, and to this was added peptone metionine, asparagine, sodium nitrate or ammonium salicylate, according to the treatment. The control (group received no nitrogen whatsover. It was concluded that peptone was the best treatment for sporulation and mycelium growth, and that the next best was asparagine which was helpfull in inducing sporulation. Ammonium salicylate inhibited the vegetative growth

  20. The endosymbiont Arsenophonus is widespread in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, but does not provide protection from parasitoids or a fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is infected with the symbiont, Arsenophonus sp., ...

  1. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rouhani; Mohammad Amin Samih; Salma Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L.) shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using the...

  2. Further contributions to the tritrophic plant-aphid-parasitoid associations in Malta with special reference to Aphis nerii (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) as a prevalent refugium of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Zammit, Mark; Stary, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Four species of aphid parasitoids, namely Aphidius colemani, Binodoxys angelicae, Lysiphlebus fabarum and Lysiphlebus testaceipes were reared from Aphis nerii on Nerium oleander and/or Stephanotis floribunda in Malta. Aphidius colemani was the most abundant, occurring in different habitat types. Binodoxys angelicae represents a confirmation of a doubtful past record, while Lysiphlebus testaceipes is a new record for Malta. Aphis nerii is evaluated as a refugium of several aphid parasitoids in...

  3. Effects of elevated CO2 and plant genotype on interactions among cotton, aphids and parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Sun; Li Feng; Feng Gao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Effects of CO2 level (ambient vs.elevated) on the interactions among three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) genotypes,the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover),and its hymenoptera parasitoid (Lysiphlebiajaponica Ashrnead) were quantified.It was hypothesized that aphid-parasitoid interactions in crop systems may be altered by elevated CO2,and that the degree of change is influenced by plant genotype.The cotton genotypes had high (M9101),medium (HZ401) and low (ZMS 13) gossypol contents,and the response to elevated CO2 was genotype-specific.Elevated CO2 increased the ratio of total non-structural carbohydrates to nitrogen (TNC:N) in the high-gossypol genotype and the mediumgossypol genotype.For all three genotypes,elevated CO2 had no effect on concentrations of gossypol and condensed tannins.A.gossypii fitness declined when aphids were reared on the high-gossypol genotype versus the low-gossypol genotype under elevated CO2.Furthermore,elevated CO2 decreased the developmental time of L.japonica associated with the high-gossypol genotype and the low-gossypol genotype,but did not affect parasitism or emergence rates.Our study suggests that the abundance of A.gossypii on cotton will not be directly affected by increases in atmospheric CO2.We speculate that A.gossypii may diminish in pest status in elevated CO2 and high-gossypol genotype environments because of reduced fitness to the high-gossypol genotype and shorter developmental time of L.japonica.

  4. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  5. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina Aphididae (Hemiptera en plantas ornamentales de Córdoba (Argentina

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    Alfonsina Szpeiner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In 30 surveys across Cordoba city and surroundings (Argentina I recorded, from November 2001 to May 2002, a total of 109 ornamental plants infested with aphid colonies. Surveys were conducted in the local botanical garden as well as homestead gardens and nurseries. Seventeen species of aphids were identified, 4 of which are new species in the area, from 47 ornamental plants. In a total of 59 plant/aphid associations, 38 new associations were found. I present the first record of aphids colonizing Cactaceae in Argentina. Most aphid colonies were medium and a high proportion (more than 40% showed alate individuals. The most frequent aphid species, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch were especially associated with the most frequent damages: curled leaves or buds and necrosis, respectively. More than 30% of aphid colonies were attended by ants. Camponotus Mayr and Prenolepis Mayr were the ant genus attending the highest number of aphid species.En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de

  6. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  7. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  8. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species. PMID:22606830

  9. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  10. Effects of various metabolites (sugars, carboxylic acids and alcohols) on riboflavin formation in non-growing cells of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, H; Nakajima, K; Ikeda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The effects of various sugars and sugar derivatives on flavinogenesis were examined using non-growing cells of a high flavinogenic mold, Ashbya gossypii. Glucose, fructose and galactose were found to be the most stimulative. Glycerol and glucono-delta-lactone were less stimulative; next in order were n-propanol, n-butanol, glycols and butanediols, which were likewise effective; acetate, lactate and pyruvate were slightly stimulative. In contrast, ribose, xylose, arabinose, ribitol, citrate, succinate, oxaloacetate, glyoxylate and malate were rather inhibitory, in additions at 1.0%. Among these compounds, ethanol (1%) greatly stimulated riboflavin formation. Maximum flavinogenesis with the above stimulants was attained by the additions of 1% ethanol, 1.25--3.0% glucose, 1.25% glycerol, 4.0--6.0% propane and butanediols, 1.0% pyruvate and 0.9% acetate after 37 hr incubation, respectively. These compounds inhibited flavinogenesis with increasing concentrations above their optimum concentrations. The stimulation effect of ethanol far exceeded those of other stimulants but ethanol had almost no effect on growth and pH values during incubation. With the addition of ethanol (1%) during incubation, maximum formation (1,776 microgram/g wet mycelia) of riboflavin was achieved when added at the start of incubation and the most effective utilization was observed when added at the logarithmic phase of flavinogenesis, although the maximum formation of riboflavin in the latter case was much lower than in the former case. The relation of sugar metabolism, especially ethanol metabolism, to flavinogenesis was discussed with the flavinogenic activities of these additives. PMID:27596

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis in Aphis glycines Mutsumura under lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui; Pan, Yiou; Shang, Qingli; Peng, Tianfei; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Shang; Xin, Xuecheng; Liu, Yan; Xi, Jinghui

    2016-09-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin is now widely used in China to control the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. To dissect the resistance mechanism, a laboratory-selected resistant soybean aphid strain (CRR) was established with a 43.42-fold resistance ratio to λ-cyhalothrin than the susceptible strain (CSS) in adult aphids. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis between the CRR and CSS strains revealed important differences between the susceptible and resistant strains of soybean aphids for λ-cyhalothrin. Approximately 493 protein spots were detected in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Thirty-six protein spots displayed differential expression of >2-fold in the CRR strain compared to the CSS strain. Out of these 36 protein spots, 21 had elevated and 15 had decreased expression. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF MS/MS and categorized into the functional groups cytoskeleton-related protein, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein folding, antioxidant system, and nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Function analysis showed that cytoskeleton-related proteins and energy metabolism proteins have been associated with the λ-cyhalothrin resistance of A. glycines. The differential expression of λ-cyhalothrin responsive proteins reflected the overall change in cellular structure and metabolism after insecticide treatment in aphids. In summary, our studies improve understanding of the molecular mechanism resistance of soybean aphid to lambda-cyhalothrin, which will facilitate the development of rational approaches to improve the management of this pest and to improve the yield of soybean. PMID:27395796

  12. Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines

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    Raman Bansal, M. A. Rouf Mian, Omprakash Mittapalli, Andy P. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument; however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut. Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®, a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

  13. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula

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    Kamphuis Lars G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n = 150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

  14. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  15. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  16. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  17. BIOLOGÍA DEL ÁFIDO NEGRO (Aphis craccivora: APHIDIDAE) SOBRE FRÍJOL CAUPI (Vigna unguiculata, FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nataly DE LA PAVA S; Paula Andrea SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del pulgón negro, Aphis craccivora Koch, sobre fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.)), bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los insectos se criaron sobre plántulas individualizadas a una temperatura promedio de 28 °C, humedad relativa de 70 % y fotoperiodo de 12 horas. Los parámetros medidos fueron periodo ninfal, fecundidad, supervivencia, periodo pre-reproductivo y aspectos relativos a la tasa de crecimiento del áfido. La tasa...

  18. LIME GREEN LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE EQUIPPED YELLOW STICKY CARD TRAPS FOR MONITORING WHITEFLIES, APHIDS AND FUNGUS GNATS IN GREENHOUSES%应用附加绿黄色光二极管的黄色胶片监测温室中的粉虱、蚜虫和蕈蚊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌祺; Alvin M. Simmons; 陈天业; Patrick J. Alexander; Thomas J. Henneerry

    2004-01-01

    绿黄色光二极管(LED)附加在塑胶杯和胶片捕捉器可增加捕捉实验室和温室中昆虫的数量.附加有530nm绿黄色LED的塑胶杯捕捉器比没有附加的捕捉到更多的Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood)和Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)B生态型.在温室中昆虫笼以四季豆和棉花试验,附加有530nm绿黄色LED的黄色胶片(YC)和透明塑胶片(CS)分别缩写为LED-YC和LED-CS)比每一种没有附加的捕捉器捕捉到更多的T. vaporariorum,B.tabaci B生态型,Ahis gossypii(Glover)和Bradysia coprophila(Lintner)成虫.绿黄色LED-YC在温室中有用为监测和控制的潜在性.%Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were attached to plastic cup and sticky card traps to improve Pest insect catches in the laboratory and in greenhouses. Plastic cup traps equipped with 530 nm lime green LEDs caught more adult Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B compared with plastic cup traps alone. Yellow sticky card (YC) and clear plastic sticky card (CS) traps equipped with lime green LEDs (LED-YC and LED-CS, respectively) caught more adult T. vaporariorum, B. tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover) and Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) compared with unlit traps of each type in greenhouse cage studies with shell beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). The lime green LED equipped YC traps have potential for use in greenhouses for insect detection,monitoring, and control.

  19. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Zhang, Hao; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini. PMID:27314587

  20. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini.

  1. Leaf temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)population growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bridget F. O'Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; Clare Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; May R. Berenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) experience physiological changes that influence their suitability as food for insects.To determine the effects of living on soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under elevated CO2,population growth of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) was determined at the SoyFACE research site at the University of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign,Illinois,USA,grown under elevated (550μL/L) and ambient (370μL/L) levels of CO2.Growth of aphid populations under elevated CO2 was significantly greater after 1 week,with populations attaining twice the size of those on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.Soybean leaves grown under elevated levels of CO2 were previously demonstrated at SoyFACE to have increased leaf temperature caused by reduced stomatal conductance.To separate the increased leaf temperature from other effects of elevated CO2,air temperature was lowered while the CO2 level was increased,which lowered overall leaf temperatures to those measured for leaves grown under ambient levels of CO2.Aphid population growth on plants grown under elevated CO2 and reduced air temperature was not significantly greater than on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.By increasing Glycine max leaf temperature,elevated CO2 may increase populations of Aphis glycines and their impact on crop productivity.

  2. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  3. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina SZPEINER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de especies de áfidos.

  4. Potential exposure of a classical biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, on non-target aphids in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In summer 2007, the Asian parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released in North America for control of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae). Despite its comparatively narrow host range, releases of B. communis may still constitute a risk to native a...

  5. Fitofagi di recente introduzione nelle colture agrumicole della Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Delrio, Gavino; Ortu, Salvatore; Prota, Romolo

    1981-01-01

    In addition to the 23 species known to be present for some ti me in Sardinian citrus grove biocoenoses recent investigations revealed 16 additional phytophages, namely Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.), Aphis citricola v.d.G., Aphis gossypii Glov., Aphis craccivora Koch, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Macrosyphum euphorbiae (Thomasl), Aulacorthum solani (Kalt.), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.), Pseudococcus longispinus Targ., Prays citri Mill., Myelois cera...

  6. Purine biosynthesis, riboflavin production, and trophic-phase span are controlled by a Myb-related transcription factor in the fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Laura; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L; Santos, María A

    2006-07-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a natural riboflavin overproducer used in the industrial production of the vitamin. We have isolated an insertional mutant exhibiting higher levels of riboflavin production than the wild type. DNA analysis of the targeted locus in the mutant strain revealed that a syntenic homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 gene, a member of the Myb family of transcription factors, was inactivated. Directed gene disruption of AgBAS1 confirmed the phenotype observed for the insertional mutant, and the Deltabas1 mutant also showed auxotrophy for adenine and several growth defects, such as a delay in the germination of the spores and an abnormally prolonged trophic phase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the DNA-binding domain of AgBas1p is able to bind to the Bas1-binding motifs in the AgADE4 promoter; we also show a clear nuclear localization of a green fluorescent protein-Bas1 fusion protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses comparing the wild type and the Deltabas1 mutant revealed that AgBAS1 was responsible for the adenine-mediated regulation of the purine and glycine pathways, since the transcription of the ADE4 and SHM2 genes was virtually abolished in the Deltabas1 mutant. Furthermore, the transcription of ADE4 and SHM2 in the Deltabas1 mutant did not diminish during the transition from the trophic to the productive phase did not diminish, in contrast to what occurred in the wild-type strain. A C-terminal deletion in the AgBAS1 gene, comprising a hypothetical regulatory domain, caused constitutive activation of the purine and glycine pathways, enhanced riboflavin overproduction, and prolonged the trophic phase. Taking these results together, we propose that in A. gossypii, AgBAS1 is an important transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, such as purine and glycine biosynthesis, riboflavin overproduction, and growth. PMID:16820505

  7. 闽南番石榴树冠节肢动物群落的结构和动态%The Structure and Dynamic of Arthropod Communities of Guava Orchards in South Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梅香; 傅建炜; 占志雄; 李建宇; 张莉; 邱良妙; 刘长明

    2011-01-01

    2006年8月至2007年8月对惠安番石榴园树冠节肢动物群落结构特征及群落特征的时序动态进行了研究.结果表明,树冠节肢动物共采集到2纲、16目、100科总计218种,其中害虫116种、天敌61种、中性昆虫41种.害虫优势种为桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)和棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover,天敌优势种为细纹猫蛛Oxyopes macilentus L.Koch和大草蛉Chrysopa septempunctata Wesmael.节肢动物群落的物种丰富度、个体丰盛度、多样性指数、均匀度指数和优势集中性指数等特征随季节的更替发生波动.%The arthropod community structure and dynamics of guava orchards were studied in Huian County,Fujian Province from August 2006 to August 2007. The results showed that 218 arthropod species of tree crown were recorded, which belonged to 100 families of 16 orders in Insecta and Arachnoidea. Of them, 116 species of pests, 61 species of natural enemies and 41 species of neutral insects were included. The dominant pests were Bactrocera dorsalis and Aphis gossypii, and the dominant natural enemies were Oxyopes macilentas and Chrysopa septempunctata The richness, individual, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration of arthropod community index fluctuated with the change of season.

  8. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

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    Adriana Daniela BACIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.. The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6 and the largest one on C. officinalis LDA (16.4. The average number of flowers per plant ranged from 98.0 (C. suffruticosa Valh. to 2.0 (C. officinalis UK. From among all genotypes, aphids (Aphis fabae have attacked 19 (42.2%, and the results showed that AD% (Attack Degree depend significantly on genotypes. RAPD analysis and phylogenetic dendrogram illustrated the relationship between genotypes and DNA polymorphism exists between the six species. Were found not only close phylogenetic links among cultivars apart of the same specie, but also between different species. C. officinalis A., C. alata UK and C. suffruticosa formed a subgroup similar to the molecular level, but also confirming some phenotypic similarities, these species having the smallest number of petals in the corolla and the highest sensitivity to Aphis fabae attack. The large variability identified in Calendula genotypes allows the selection of potential genitors for new breeding works, with appropriate decorative characteristics and resistance to aphids attack. RAPD analyses and phenotypic study allows hypothesis regarding the success of intra- and inter-specific hybridization, thus facilitating Calendula breeding processes.

  9. 几种蚜虫对吡虫啉抗药性的研究%Studies on Resistance of 3 Species of Aphids to Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文亮; 党志红; 高占林; 贾海民; 张克锦

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity of Aphis gossypii, A. spiraeccla and Macrosi phum avenae in various places of Hebei province to imidacloprid were determine d. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the sensitiv ity of Aphis gossypii and Macrosiphum avenae to the insecticide among th e various places, but the sensitivity of A. spiraeccla in Xinji Changli and Qingyuan were 2.02~4.13 times lower than that in Yixian. It suggests a possiblil ity of imidacloprid-resistance of A. spiraeccla in some places. A strain of Aphis gossypii was selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for 7 months, a nd its sensitivity was 4.5 times reduced .

  10. Weed Host Specificity of the Aphid, Aphis spiraecola: Developmental and Reproductive Performance of Aphids in Relation to Plant Growth and Leaf Chemicals of the Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala, B. K.; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid ...

  11. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled condit...

  12. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis Lars G; Gao Lingling; Singh Karam B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australia...

  13. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  14. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. PMID:26313961

  15. 龟纹瓢虫在棉株上对棉蚜的搜索与捕食行为%Behaviors of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in searching and preying cotton aphid Aphis gossypii (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the cotton plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱三荣; 高峰; 刘向辉; 康乐; 戈峰

    2006-01-01

    研究了龟纹瓢虫在棉花上对不同密度、不同空间分布、不同来源棉蚜的搜索与捕食行为.结果表明,龟纹瓢虫对棉蚜的搜索活动随棉蚜密度增加而下降;当棉花上有充足的棉蚜时,瓢虫主要搜索和捕食棉花上部的棉蚜,很少捕食棉花中部的棉蚜,极少捕食下部的棉蚜;瓢虫对棉花不同部位上分布的2种不同来源的棉蚜捕食量没有差异;但当棉花上部主要为美9101棉花棉蚜时,瓢虫的搜索活动明显下降.龟纹瓢虫的捕食行为与蚜虫密度和空间分布密切相关.

  16. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rouhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L. shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using them, insecticidal solutions of different concentrations were prepared and tested on A. nerii. For comparison purposes, imidacloprid was also used as a conventional insecticide. In the experiments, the LC50 value for imidacloprid, Ag and Ag-Zn nanoparticles were calculated to be 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, and 539.46 mg mL-1, respectively. The result showed that Ag nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of A. nerii. Additionally, the study showed that imidacloprid at 1 μL mL-1 and nanoparticles at 700 mg mL-1 had the highest insect mortality effect.El áfido de la adelfa, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, es una de las plagas más comunes de plantas ornamentales en las familias Apocynaceae y Sclepiadaceae y tiene distribución mundial, ha sido responsable de la mortalidad de un gran número de arbustos de adelfa (Nerium oleander L. cada ano. En este estudio se investigó la actividad insecticida de nanopartículas de Ag contra A. nerii. Nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn fueron sintetizadas a través de un método solvotérmico, y con ellas se prepararon soluciones insecticidas de diferentes concentraciones y se probaron contra A. nerii. Con fines de comparación, también se usó imidacloprid como un insecticida convencional. En los experimentos, el valor LC50 para imidacloprid, nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn se calculó como 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, y 539.46 mg mL-1, respectivamente. El resultado mostró que nanopart

  17. Preference black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, to genotypes of cowpea = Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, a genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being attacked by various insects, among these, the black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference of black aphid, to different cowpea genotypes. Two experiments were conducted in cages (3.0 x 1.6 x 2.0 m, with free choice and no-choice, a randomized block and completely randomized design, respectively, with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of one plant per plastic pot. The followed 15 cowpea genotypes were evaluated in the study: BRS Guariba, Pretinho Precoce 1, Apiaú, Sempre Verde, Cara-preta, BRS Mazagão, BRS Cauamé, BR 17 Gurguéia, Iracema, BRS Aracê, BRS Itaim, BRS Xiquexique, BRS Marataoã, BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Juruá. In the free-choice test, a potted plant infested with aphids was placed in the center of the cage with 15 pots of each genotype randomly distributed in a circle. After 24, 48 and 96 h were counted the number of adults and nymphs per plant. In the no-choice test, five females adult were placed in plants trapped in cages attached to the plants, being counted after 96 h, the number of live and dead females, and the number of nymphs. Cowpea genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e BRS Aracê showed feeding non-preference resistance and negatively interfere with the nymph’s production per female of A. craccivora. The genotypes Apiaú, BR 17 Gurguéia e BRS Mazagão are succeptible to A. craccivora. = O feijão-caupi está amplamente distribuído nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo, sendo atacado por diversos insetos, dentre esses, o pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a preferência de pulgão-preto a genótipos de feijão-caupi a partir de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Foram realizados experimentos em gaiolas (3,0 x 1,6 x 2,0 m, com e sem chance de escolha, utilizando delineamento

  18. 马齿苋提取物对枸杞蚜虫毒杀和拒食活性的研究%Study on the Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity of Extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. on Aphis sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永锋

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment studied on insecticidal and antifeedant action of on Portulaca oleracea L. to provide theoretical basis for developing a new botanical insecticide by taking Portulaca oleracea L. as a raw material. [Method] The insecticidal activities of the ethanol extracts and 5 kinds of extracts with petroleum ether , chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol ,water from Portulaca oleracea L..against Aphis sp. was studied;Leaves are using drug treatments of 5 extracts anti-feedant activity of Aphis sp. [Result] The results showed that 95% ethanol extract displayed high contact activity to Aphis sp. The corrected mortality after 48 h reached 95.4 % under the concentration of 50.00 mg·ml-1 and the insecticidal activities of 5 extracts against Aphis sp. was in the order that petroleum ether > chloroform > n-butanol > ethyl acetate >water. Five kinds of anti-feeding activity in the extract of the order for the water> ethyl acetate> n-butanol > chloroform >petroleum ether. [Conclusion] The extract from Portulaca oleracea L. has a strong contact toxicity of pesticide active on Aphis sp. substances and for a small polar compounds, the strong anti-feeding activity is a kind of larger polar compounds.

  19. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  20. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes.

  1. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  2. Energy budgets of the Chinese green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and its potential for biological control of the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GAO; XIANG-HUI LIU; FENG GE

    2007-01-01

    Energy budgets of larval stages of the Chinese green lacewing, Chrysopa sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were determined under laboratory conditions at photoperiod of 14:10 L:D, 27±1℃ and 75%±2% RH. The energy used as ingestion,assimilation, respiration, productivity and feces was constructed for each developmental stage. In addition, under these experimental conditions, the potential of C.sinica as a biological control agent was evaluated according to the ingestion by this predator and the energy content of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The larval stage of C. sinica was able to consume 1281.4 1-day-old aphids, 1018.7 2-day-old aphids,626.9 3-day-old aphids, 393.5 4-day-old aphids, 312.1 5-day-old aphids or 203.5 9-day-old aphids, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the estimated number of aphids consumed by the lacewings using energetic methods and the actual number of aphids consumed by the lacewings in this experiment. Our results showed that C. sinica is an important natural enemy of the cotton aphid, and energetic methods are very useful to quantify biological control efficacy of natural enemies.

  3. Studies on the Host Biotypes and Its Cause of Cotton Aphid in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-dong; ZHAI Bao-ping; ZHANG Xiao-xi

    2002-01-01

    The fitness of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on different host plants was studied. The results showed that the cotton aphid population in Nanjing formed host preference bio-types on cucumber and cotton. The aphids from cotton and cucumber could not inter-transplant successfully between the two host plants. The apterous and alate offspring of stem mother from hibiscus could not survive, reproduce and form population normally when they were transplanted to cucumber and water melon, but they could form normally when transplanted to cotton and muskmelon. There was no significant difference between the stylet length of cotton aphids from cucumber and cotton, so the stylet length was not the cause of the host preference. When the aphids originated on hibiscus were transplanted to cotton, water melon and muskmelon, the stylet could reach host phloem to absorb host plant's nutrients, but it couldn't when transplanted to cucumber. Cotton aphid can feed on muskmelon without secretion of water-soluble saliva. It could be concluded that the two host biotypes of cotton aphid came from different winter host plants.

  4. Organic fertilization affecting pests and production of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea

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    G.L.D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of four levels of organic fertilization (0, 3, 6 and 9 kg m-2 to produce the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea and its pests. A higher number of red mite Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychiidae was observed on the abaxial face of the median and basal leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. On the other hand, the smallest number of this mite was noted in control (0 kg m-2. L. sidoides cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization produced a greater quantity of essential oil. The highest number of mealy bug Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was observed on the apical leaves (both leaf surfaces of L. sidoides plants with nine and ten weeks of age cultivated with 3 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. No significant effect of the organic fertilization on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae was detected. However, a greater number of this aphid and of its predator Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae was observed on the abaxial face of the bottom leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age. The dose of organic fertilization recommended for the production of essential oil of L. Sidoides is 6 kg m-2, however, one must pay attention to the fact this dosage favors the attack by Tetranychus sp.. And, when needed, pulverization must always be directed to the lower surface of the leaf.

  5. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  6. Controlling Effect of Field Release of Camtylomma Chinensis on Insect Pests%田间释放中华微刺盲蝽的防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘铭均; 吴珍泉; 何明忠

    2002-01-01

    @@ 中华微刺盲蝽(Camtylomma chinensis Schuh)是一种有效的天敌昆虫,它可以取食南黄蓟马(Thrips palmi Karny)、棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)和神泽叶螨(Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida)(Schun 1984;王清玲,1994).1999年我们在莆田龙眼园内发现中华微刺盲蝽可大量捕食龙眼角颊木虱(Cornegenapsylla sinica Yang et Li)卵、爻纹细蛾(Conopomorpha sinesis Bradley)卵、荔枝尖细蛾卵,也可捕食尺蛾卵、卷叶蛾卵(吴珍泉,1999).深入研究还发现,它可捕食柑桔木虱(Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)卵及若虫、橄榄星室木虱(Psendophacopteron canarium)卵及若虫.

  7. BIOEFFICACY OF CYANTRANILIPROLE 10% OD-AN ANTHRANILIC DIAMIDE INSECTICIDE AGAINST SUCKING PESTS OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. PATEL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 in order to evaluate the field bio-efficacy of a newer molecule cyantraniliprole 10% OD (Cyazypyr @ 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 g a.i./ ha along with indoxacarb 14.5 SC (Avaunt @ 75 g a.i./ha and endosulfan 35 EC (Thiodan @ 350 g a.i./ha as standard checks against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover; thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. The two higher doses of cyantraniliprole 10% OD i.e. 90 and 105 g a.i./ha was found highly effective in managing the population of aphid, thrips and whitefly during both the year compared to endosulfan and indoxacarb. The seed cotton yield was recorded significantly higher in treatments cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 (31.97 q/ha and 105 (33.33 q/ha g a.i./ha with an increase of 50.80 and 52.81 per cent over untreated control, respectively. Considering the bio-efficacy and yield, cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 g a.i./ha is recommended for effective control of sucking pests in cotton ecosystem.

  8. Toxicity Determination of Four Insecticides on Aphis glycines Matsumura%4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴海英; 张礼凤; 王彩洁; 李伟; 徐冉

    2013-01-01

    In order to explicit the control effects of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and py-metrozine on Aphis glycines Matsumura, indoor toxicity determination was carried out using dipping method. The results showed that the toxicity of acetamiprid was the strongest with the LC50 of 7. 026 μg/g, and then was imidacloprid, nitenpyram and pymetrozine in order with the LC50 of 9.484, 15.247 and 43.734 μg/g respectively. All of them had better control effects on Aphis glycines.%为明确啶虫脒、吡虫啉、烯啶虫胺和吡蚜酮等杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的毒力和防治效果,采用浸渍法进行了4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的室内毒力测定.结果表明,4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫都有较高的毒力,以啶虫脒对大豆蚜虫的毒力最高,LC50为7.026 μg/g.,其余3种杀虫剂的毒力大小依次为吡虫啉、烯啶虫胺、吡蚜酮,LC50分别为9.484、15.247和43.734 μg/g,对大豆蚜虫均有较好的防治效果.

  9. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  10. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  11. Toxicity of Synergistic Imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch%增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀玲; 李艳波; 刘月; 冷阳; 张一宾

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的毒力.[方法]采用浸渍法测定了2种增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的24 h致死作用,同时以市售的35%吡虫啉悬浮剂为对照.[结果]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4防治豆蚜的效果最佳,其LC50值为5.2673 mg/L;其次为31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-1,LC50值为7.7441 mg/L;35%吡虫啉悬浮剂的LC50值为10.563 0 mg/L,豆蚜对其的敏感性相对较低.[结论]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4和SE-1是2个良好的制剂产品,具有减量同效的应用价值,可将其进一步用于田间试验.%[Aims] Toxicity of synergistic imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch was studied. [Methods] The 24 h-lethal effect of synergistic imidacloprid were determined by impregnation method, and the commercial imidacloprid 35% SC as control [Results] The results showed that synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 31 % SC had the highest control efficacy with LC50 of 5.2673 mg/L, followed by synergistic imidacloprid SE-1 31% SC with LC50 of 7.7441 mg/L. The LC^of imidacloprid 35% SC was 10.5630 mg/L, and had low toxicity to Aphis craccivora Koch. [Conclusions] The control efficacy of low-dose synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 and SE-1 31% SC were similar to that of high-dose imidacloprid 35% SC, They were good formulations and could be used in field trials.

  12. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE O FUNGO colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE INCUBATION ON THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypi SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura de incubação sobre o crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e morfologia da colônia do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa, em substrato de batata + dextrose + agar, pH 5,6. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados e as temperaturas variaram de 12 a 33°C, a intervalos de 3° C. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de incubação afeta notavelmente o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a morfologia da colônia do fungo. Temperaturas acima da faixa ótima provocaram modificações mais acentuadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspecto morfológico, do que temperaturas baixas. Conídios produzidos em temperaturas extremas, 12 a 33°C, mostraram-se mais curtos que os dos demais tratamentos. A incubação à temperatura de 27°C é a mais recomendável para produção de inóculos em quantidade.

    In this work, the effect of temperature of incubation on the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of the fungus colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa in substrate containing potato + dextrose + agar pH 5.6, was studied. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, with temperatures varying from 12 to 33 degrees centigrades, at intervals of 3°C. It was concluded that the temperature of incubation notably affects the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of this fungus. Temperatures above the optimum range caused greater changes in mycelial, sporulation an morphology of the colony than temperatures below this range. Conidia produced at l2 and 33°C were shown to be shorter than those in other treatments. The temperature of incubation recommended for inocule production was 27°C.

  13. Weed host specificity of the aphid, Aphis spiraecola: developmental and reproductive performance of aphids in relation to plant growth and leaf chemicals of the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid tropical parts of northeast and southern India. Variations in developmental and reproductive performances in apterous viviparous female aphids were recorded in relation to differences in leaf chemicals in different growth stages of C. odorata. Aphids reproduced at higher rates in the vegetative stage of C. odorata when developmental time was shortest, and fecundity was higher in a longer reproductive time. Intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were also recorded to be higher in the vegetative stage of the weed host. In the vegetative stage, leaves contained higher quantity of proteins and nitrogen, which are vital for insect reproduction. Results of this study have demonstrated that A spiraecola showed synchronization of its developmental and reproductive performances to growth stages of C. odorata, which occur in high abundance in the study area. PMID:22950746

  14. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  15. Repellent Activity of Extracts of Wild Rice Species against Panonychus citri and Aphis citricola in Associated with Esterase Isoenzyme in Insests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Shu-qing; LIU Xiang-fa; FENG Guo-zhong; PAN Da-jian

    2006-01-01

    Six species of wild rice with different ecophenotypes including Oryza grandiglumis (E6-1, E6-3 / 6-4), O. minuta (E13-9,E13-13), O. officinalis (E15-8, E15-13), O. punctata (E16-1, E16-3, E1 6-13), O. granulata (E7-4), and O. latifolia (101392, E9-1, E9-10)were extracted with methnol and the repellent activity of the extracts against the two insects Aphis citricola and Panonychus citri were studied. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 showed higher repellent rate to the two insects than those of the other species. The repellent rates of the extracts of E15-8 to P. citriand A. citricola were 83.26% and 87.86% at 5×104 μg/mL in 24 h and 87.95% and 82.43% in 48 h, respectively. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 had the effect of inhibition to the esterase of the two insects.

  16. Inhibitional effects of metal Zn²⁺ on the reproduction of Aphis medicaginis and its predation by Harmonia axyridis.

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    Guoqiang Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contamination, including metals, can disturb the reproductive processes of many organisms, including both prey and predatory insects. However, there is virtually no information on the effects of high level Zinc (Zn pollution on aphids and ladybirds. The high concentrations of Zn²⁺ or Zn pollution inhibit reproduction in the phytophagous aphid, Aphis medicaginis, and the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis could provide important information. RESULTS: It was observed in this study that Zn concentrations in Vicia faba (broad bean seeds and seedlings in all Zn²⁺ treatments were significantly higher than that in the control group, and increased with increasing Zn²⁺ concentrations in the solution. The rate of reproduction in A. medicaginis declined significantly (p<0.05 over time in the five groups fed on broad bean seedlings treated with different concentrations of Zn²⁺ solution compared with the control group. These results showed that higher concentrations of Zn²⁺ significantly inhibited the reproductive capacity of A. medicaginis. We also cloned and identified a gene encoding vitellogenin (Vg from A. medicaginis, which has an important role in vitellogenesis, and therefore, reproduction was affected by exposure to Zn²⁺. Expression of AmVg was reduced with increasing exposure to Zn²⁺ and also in the F1-F3 generations of aphids exposed to different Zn²⁺ concentrations. Predation by H. axyridis was also reduced in aphids exposed to high-levels of Zn²⁺. Similarly, ovipositioning by H. axyridis was also reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Zn²⁺ can significantly affect the reproductive capacity of both A. medicaginis and its predator H. axyridis, the former through effects on the expression of AmVg and the latter through avoidance of aphids containing high levels of Zn²⁺.

  17. 不同杀虫剂对花生蚜毒力及拌种控制效果研究%Toxicities and Control Effects of Clothianidin and Other Insectcides to Aphis craccivora by the Seed Dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丹; 刘磊; 渠成; 薛明

    2015-01-01

    为明确噻虫胺等9种杀虫剂对花生蚜虫的毒力和拌种处理对花生蚜虫的控制效果,采用浸渍法进行了室内毒力测定,并进行了盆栽和田间药剂拌种防治试验。结果表明,以新烟碱类噻虫胺、吡虫啉、啶虫脒和噻虫嗪对蚜虫的毒力最高,其毒力分别是毒死蜱的49.2、40.7、26.6和26.1倍;其次是吡蚜酮、高效氯氰菊酯和氯氟氰菊酯,哒螨灵的毒力是毒死蜱的3.9倍。盆栽药剂拌种处理后50d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对花生蚜的防效达仍在89%以上。田间拌种处理后25d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对蚜虫的防效均达100%,药后45d 防效达87.07%~92.67%,其中以噻虫胺防效最高,而对照药剂毒死蜱几乎无控制效果。采用新烟碱类药剂噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉拌种,对花生苗期蚜虫控制效果优异,并可有效控制地下害虫,且对天敌保护作用强。%To define the toxicity of clothianidin and other 8 insectcides to Aphis craccivora , the toxicities to Aphis craccivora were detected using the insect-dip bioassay method.The effects of pot and field experiment to Aphis craccivora were also studied.The results showed that the toxicities of clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam against Aphis craccivora were 49.2, 40.7, 26.6 and 26.1 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.Followed by imidacloprid, beta-cyper-methrin, cyfluthrin were 7.5, 6.7 and 6.4 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.And the toxic-itiy of pyridaben was 3.9 times of chlorpyrifos.Pot test results showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were all over 89% when given the dose of 240g /100kg 50 days later.The results of field efficacy showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid were all up to 100% 25 days later, and were 87.07%~92.67% 45 days later.Clothiani-din had the best control effect to Aphis craccivora , while the control effect of

  18. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant

  19. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

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    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  20. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em crisântemo de corte em casa de vegetação Occurrence and population fluctuation of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum in greenhouse

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    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os pulgões e os tripes são importantes pragas em cultivo de crisântemo em casas de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em cultivares de crisântemo de corte ('White Reagan', 'Yellow Snowdon' e 'Sunny Reagan' em casa de vegetação comercial. A amostragem de tripes foi realizada através de batidas nas plantas ("tapping method" e a de pulgões a partir de coletas diretas nas plantas. Das espécies de tripes amostradas, mais de 90% foram identificadas como Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, e o restante incluíram F. gemina (Bagnall, Frankliniella sp., Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin. Foi observado maior número de tripes/planta no cultivar White Reagan se comparado com 'Yellow Snowdon'. Aphis gossypii Glover foi a espécie de pulgão mais comum (> 80%, sendo também coletados Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Dysaphis sp. Maior número de pulgões foi verificado na cultivar White Reagan, quando comparada com 'Sunny Reagan'. Orius insidiosus (Say foi o único predador encontrado associado aos tripes, sendo verificada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a população de tripes e a desse predador. Dentre os inimigos naturais relacionados aos pulgões, foram observados parasitóides (Aphidius colemani Viereck e Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson e predadores (Chrysoperla sp., Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus e Scymnus sp.. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o crescimento populacional de pulgões e desses predadores e parasitóides nas cultivares White Reagan e Sunny Reagan. Inimigos naturais podem ocorrer naturalmente em casas de vegetação e influenciar as populações de pragas.Aphids and thrips play an important role on chrysanthemum crops in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence and population densities of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum cultivars

  1. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  2. Nutrientes afetando as mudas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e seus artrópodes Nutrients affecting "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides Cham. seedlings and their arthropods

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    F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da omissão de nutrientes nas mudas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae e seu possível efeito sobre os seus artrópodes, sendo os tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 completo 1 adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, e Zn + calagem (C1; 3 completo 2: C1 sem calagem + Ca e Mg como sulfato (C2; 4 C1 sem calagem; 5 C1 sem N; 6 C1 sem P; 7 C1 sem K; 8 C1 sem S; 9 C1 sem B; 10 C1 sem Cu; 11 C1 sem Zn; 12 C2 sem Ca e 13 C2 sem Mg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. O Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae atacou mais os tratamentos 3, 6, 9 e 13 e os maiores danos nos tratamentos 6 e 13. A maior população de Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae foi encontrada nos tratamentos 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13, colonizando preferencialmente o tratamento 4. O Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae foi encontrado em maior número nos tratamentos 4 e 9 e Insignorthezia insignis (Browne (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae em 13. Foram mais notados adultos de Bemisa tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae nos tratamentos 5, 7, 8 e 13 e ninfas nos três últimos tratamentos. Em geral, os tratamentos 1, 5 e 10 são os menos atacados por artrópodes. Dirigir a pulverização, quando necessário, sempre para a face inferior da folha.The aim of this work was to evaluate nutrient omission effect on Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea seedlings, as well as its possible effect on their arthropods. Treatments were: 1 control; 2 complete 1: fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, and Zn + lime (C1; 3 complete 2: C1 without lime + Ca and Mg as sulphate (C2; 4 C1 without lime; 5 C1 without N; 6 C1 without P; 7 C1 without K; 8 C1 without S; 9 C1 without B; 10 C1 without Cu; 11 C1 without Zn; 12 C2 without Ca; and 13 C2 without Mg. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae predominantly attacked treatments 3, 6, 9 and 13, and the greatest damages were detected

  3. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

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    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  4. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

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    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  6. Control Effects of Bacillus subtilis BL03 Strain on Alternaria alternata and Colltotrichum gossypii in Field%枯草芽孢杆菌BL03对苹果霉心病和棉苗病害田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉成

    2000-01-01

    @@ 枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)BL03菌株,是作者从苹果树体上分离得到的拮抗菌株之一.室内测定对苹果霉心病菌(Alternaria alternata)、炭疽病菌(Colltotrichum gossypii)、红霉病菌(Trichothecium roseum)和镰刀菌(Fusarium sp.)等10种病原菌的抑制效果均为100%.本文报道枯草芽孢杆菌BL03菌液对苹果霉心病和棉花苗期病害的田间防治效果.

  7. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

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    Andja Vucetic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  8. Growth,development and adult fecundity of Chrysoperla carnea feeding on different larval diets%猎物对普通草蛉发育和繁殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提·亚生; 阿克旦·吾外士; 牙生·沙力; 刘建; 阿孜古丽·热依木; 丁瑞丰

    2015-01-01

    为探讨不同猎物对普通草蛉[Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)]幼虫生长发育和成虫繁殖能力的影响,研究了普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)、萝卜蚜[Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)]、榆长斑蚜[Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky)]、截形叶螨(Tetranychus truncatus Ehara)、枸杞木虱(Poratrioza sinica Yang & Li)和麦蛾[Si-totroga cerealella (Olivier)]卵共6种食物时的生长发育和成虫繁殖能力。结果表明:幼虫取食棉蚜发育历期最短,为(9.66±0.13)d、取食麦蛾卵发育历期最长,为(11.35±0.26)d;取食麦蛾卵时蛹期最短,为(7.33±0.16)d、取食萝卜蚜时蛹期最长,为(8.85±0.25)d;幼虫取食棉蚜死亡率最低,为(20.05±0.2)%、取食萝卜蚜时死亡率最高,为(31.25±0.52)%;幼虫取食截形叶螨不能完成幼虫期生长发育;幼虫取食棉蚜时蛹最重,为(8.27±0.20)mg,取食枸杞木虱时蛹最轻,为(7.28±0.18)mg;幼虫取食枸杞木虱时羽化率最低,为(69.29±0.79)%、取食萝卜蚜时羽化率最高,为(77.25±1.94)%;幼虫取食麦蛾卵时雌虫寿命最长,为(71.54±1.87)d、取食榆长斑蚜时雌虫寿命最短,为(57.35±3.66)d。幼虫取食不同食物对普通草蛉成虫产卵前期和产卵量无显著影响。幼虫食物是影响普通草蛉生长发育和繁殖能力的重要因素之一,普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜最适合其生长发育和繁殖。%In order to explore the influences of different larval diets on the growth and reproductive capacity of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens),the growth,development and adult fecundity of the lacewing C .car-nea were investigated by feeding the lacewing larvae with the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach),Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky),Tetranychus truncatus ,Poratrioza sinica Yang

  9. Toxicity of fifteen strains of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis glycines%球孢白僵菌对大豆蚜毒力的室内生物学测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴磊; 张正坤; 徐文静; 刘影; 王金刚; 李启云

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of fifteen strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ( Bals. ) Vuill. To Aphis glycines Matsumura was determined. All tested strains were toxic to A. Glycines and obvious differences in the mortality rates achieved by the different strains were positively correlated with spore concentration and treatment time. Strain S14 - X - 1 had the highest amount of toxic isolates.%对来源于吉林省不同地区的15株球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana( Bals.) Vuill.菌种对大豆蚜Aphisglycines Matsumura毒力进行了室内生物学测定.所有供试菌株对大豆蚜虫均有一定的致病性,杀虫效率差异明显,杀虫效率与孢子浓度和作用时间均呈正相关.通过对大豆蚜毒力室内生物学测定结果的综合分析,菌株S14-X-1为毒力较高菌株,具有进一步研究应用价值.

  10. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  11. Effect of 3 Kinds of Low-toxicity Insecticides to Aphis glycines and Its Security to Ladybug%3种药剂对大豆蚜的防治效果及其天敌瓢虫的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 王芊

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 3 kinds of low-toxicity insecticides to Aphis glycines, and its security to ladybug, were tested under laboratory and field cage conditions. The results showed that Imidaclopridv, Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax all had excellent effect on Aphis glycines. Two different concentration of Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax almost showed harmless to ladybug, but two concentration of Imidaclopridv were all harmful to ladybug to some extent. Based on the security and toxicity of 3 insecticides to ladybug and Aphis glycines, Pymetrozine and Paraffin wax are the best insecticides to be used, especially when ladybugs are abundant in the fields or cooperating with releasing ladybugs artificially.%通过室内和田间罩网试验,测试了吡虫啉、吡蚜酮和矿物油3种低毒药剂对大豆蚜的防治效果及其天敌瓢虫的安全性。研究结果表明,3种药剂对大豆蚜的速杀效果都很好,但是吡虫啉的2种选用浓度对瓢虫表现出一定的有害性,而吡蚜酮和矿物油所用浓度对瓢虫均无明显危害。根据3种药剂对大豆蚜的防效和瓢虫的安全性,吡蚜酮和矿物油的选择毒性最好,推荐需在天敌瓢虫多的季节或配合人工释放天敌瓢虫联合使用。

  12. A BRIEF REVIEW ON ABUNDANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF BRINJAL ( SOLANUM MELONGENA L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Omprakash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (SolanummelongenaL. occupies a distinct place in the realm of vegetable crops. It is a bushy plant, commonly known as egg plant. It is one of the most popular and important vegetable crops grown in India and many parts of the world. It is native of Indian sub-continent, with India as the probable centre of origin (Gleddieet al., 1986. In the world, brinjal occupies an area of 1.72 m ha with a production of 43.17 m MT with an average productivity of 25 MT per ha (FAOSTAT, 2011. In India brinjal is grown throughout the year in almost all parts of the country. Although brinjal is widely grown, it is subjected to severe damage by different insect pests leading to significant loss in yield. There are 26 insect pests species and few non insect pest species infesting brinjal of which the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis(Guen.; whitefly, Bemisiatabaci(Genn.; leafhopper, Amarascadevastans(Distant; epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.; aphid, Aphis gossypii(Glover.; mealy bug, Centroccocusinsolitus(Guen.; lace wing bug, Urentiushystricellus(Richt. and non insect pest, red spider mite, Tetranichusmacfurlanei(Andrecause severe damage, necessitating initiation of control measures quite frequently(Vevai,1970. Infestation due to leafhopper, whitefly and shoot and fruit borer results in about 70-92 per cent loss in yield of brinjal (Rosaiah, 2001. Dhankaret al.1997 recorded 63 per cent yield loss due to shoot and fruit borer alone.As brinjal is a vegetable crop and harvesting of fruits is done at regular short intervals, safer and effective insecticides are needed for controlling the insect pest complex. At present synthetic pyrethroids are regularly used for the control of shoot and fruit borer and their indiscriminate use, leading to whitefly, aphid and mite resurgence is well documented (Reddy and Srinivas, 2005. The present day need emphasizes not only the use of different groups of chemicals that are eco-friendly but

  13. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm) module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shravan M Haldhar; Choudhary B R; Bhargava R; Sharma S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM) were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1) against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii), leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica), hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata) and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in ...

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Ridhi; Ranjan, Alok; Idris, Asif; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Bag, Sumit K; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Pandey, Kapil Deo; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Sawant, Samir V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for ...

  15. Introduced sap-feeding insect pests of crop plants in the Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Watson, Gillian W.

    1999-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects within Hemiptera and Thysanoptera are some of the most important crop pests world-wide. Apart from the loss of yield they cause by sap depletion, saliva toxicity and soiling of the leaves, some species transmit serious plant virus diseases. Important sap-feeding species that have been introduced to the Maltese Islands include the whitefly Bemisia tabaci; the scale insects Pseudococcus longispinus, Planococcus citri and Icerya purchasi; the aphids Aphis gossypii...

  16. Fatores que afetam artrópodes associados a cinco acessos de ginseng-brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata) em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais = Factors affecting arthropods associated with five accessions of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata) in Montes Claros, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Mayra Pimenta; Péricles Leonardo Fernandes; Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Ernane Ronnie Martins

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar artrópodes associados a cinco acessos ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' e 'GSD1') de Pfaffia glomerata, bem como o efeito de clima, dossel, face foliar, tricomas e inimigos naturais sobre a entomofauna. Dos artrópodes observados, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) apresentaram maior densidade populacional. Dos inimigos naturais observados, ácaros predadores est...

  17. Resource Provisioning as a Habitat Manipulation Tactic to Enhance the Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), and the Plant-Mediated Effects of a Systemic Insecticide, Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Charles-Tollerup, Jennifer Jean

    2012-01-01

    Resource provisioning as a habitat manipulation tactic to control the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, by the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani, was investigated in the ornamental, potted-plant nursery using the shrub Photinia x fraseri as a plant host. Floral food resources from an invasive, Conium maculatum, an ornamental, P. x fraseri, and a native, Salvia apiana considerably improved the longevity and fecundity of A. colemani in laboratory experiments. Additionally, floral nec...

  18. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande; Roni Paulo Fortunato; Paulo Rogério Beltramin da Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete ...

  19. 不同杀虫剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力及复配研究%Toxicity test of different pesticides and their mixed formulation against Aphis citricola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庾琴; 王振; 封云涛; 刘中芳; 张润祥

    2013-01-01

    In order to select effective single and mixed pesticides for the control of Aphis citricola van der Goot,toxicity of acetamiprid,imidacloprid,beta-cypermethrin,bifenthrin,abamectin,fenvalerate,phoxim,malathion and their mixtures were tested by insect-soaking method.The results showed that A.citricola was sensitive to acetamiprid,followed by imidacloprid,bifenthrin and abamectin.The toxicity of malathion was the lowest.Among all formula,the synergistic effect of the mixture of acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 2∶1 was the best,the second was acetamiprid and beta-cypermethrin at the proportion of 1 ∶4,followed by acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 1 ∶ 4 and 4 ∶ 1,acetamiprid and fenvalerate at the proportion of 1∶ 4,acetamiprid and bifenthrin at the proportion of 1∶ 2.Field experiments also indicated that control efficiency of the mixture of acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 2∶1 on A.citricola was better than that of their each single.%采用浸虫法测定不同药剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力,并对不同药剂进行复配,测定复配药剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力和复配效果.结果表明:苹果黄蚜对啶虫脒最敏感,其次是吡虫啉、联苯菊酯、阿维菌素,对高效氯氰菊酯、氰戊菊酯敏感度较低,对马拉硫磷基本无敏感性.不同药剂复配以啶虫脒与阿维菌素配合效果最好,5种不同比例配合均表现为增效作用,其中啶虫脒与阿维菌素质量配比为2∶1时增效作用最明显,其余依次为啶虫脒与阿维菌素(1∶4)和(4∶1)、啶虫脒与高效氯氰菊酯(1∶4)、啶虫脒与氰戊菊酯(1∶4)、啶虫脒与联苯菊酯(1∶2),其共毒系数均高于400.田间试验同样表明:啶虫脒与阿维菌素(2∶1)桶混处理效果明显好于单剂.

  20. Engineering osmotic stress tolerance in the riboflavin producer Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rui Miguel Correia da; Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide scenario of strong investment in biodiesel production brings new economical and environmental concerns that need to be addressed. Among them, the most prominent lies on the accumulation of large amounts of a main by-product of the process, crude glycerol. Valorization of this biodiesel waste through its microbial conversion into high-value products is one of the most attractive and sustainable applications explored. Crude glycerol contains several impurities such ...

  1. Inheritance of resistance to Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansuêmia Alves Couto de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the inheritance of the resistance to cotton ramulosis. For thispurpose, two groups of lines with contrasting performance for the evaluated trait were crossed. The disease-susceptibleparents were Delta Opal, CNPA 999 and CNPA 2161, and those with resistance BRS Facual, CNPA 2043 and CNPA 2984,resulting in nine crosses, always of one resistant and one susceptible parent, totalizing 42 treatments. The experiment was setup in a randomized complete block design with three replications. It was verified that the genetic control of ramulosisresistance is predominantly oligogenic, and the number of genes involved depends on the parents that participate in eachcross, due to the possibility of differential loci fixation. Evidence of partial dominance in the sense of increasing diseaseresistance was found, but there were also indications that dominance is not unidirectional.

  2. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  3. A genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfer, Mark; Girardot, Gregory; Fénéant, Lucie; Ben Tamarzizt, Hana; Verdin, Eric; Moury, Benoît; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated CMV-Rom, was isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near Avignon, France. Laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical CMV isolates, CMV-Rom has a particularly narrow host range. It could be transmitted by aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical CMV isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the CMV-Rom genomic RNAs shows that this isolate does not belong to any of the previously described CMV subgroups, IA, IB, II or III. PMID:27138549

  4. Influences of climate warming on co-occurrence of Aphis glycines (Matsumura) and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on different soybean strains in cold area of China%气候变暖对寒地大豆作物两种害虫发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 郝操; 牛琳琳; 赵佳男; 付雪; 叶乐夫; 赵奎军

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] To investigate the effects of temperature increase on the occurrence of phytophagous arthropod pests, and their interspecific interactions, on soybean crops in cold areas of China in order to improve the long term prediction and forecasting of multiple local arthropod pest species. [Methods] We simulated climate warming in an artificial climatic chamber and investigated the effects of both high and low temperatures on the co-occurrence and interspecific interactions of Aphis glycines and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, we tested interactions between these two arthropod pest species on“leaf discs”from different soybean strains. [Results] The results of our experiments suggest that relatively low temperatures will benefit aphid populations but higher temperatures will benefit tetranychid mites. At higher temperatures the interspecific competition coefficient is predicted to decrease, that is to say, the environmental carrying capacity will increase significantly. Under current temperature conditions, the interaction between these two arthropod pest species should be defined as “commensalism”, i.e., they are likely to co-occur in the field, and the soybean aphid especially is more likely to outbreak while co-existing with the mite on local, pest-sensitive, soybean strains. In other words, there is a substantial difference in the resistance of different local soybean strains to arthropod pests. [Conclusion] These results suggest that:Although not currently an issue, there is a high risk of future outbreaks of several arthropod pests on soybean crops in cold areas of China. We need to prepare some management measures for the future, such as selecting pest resistant strains that are suitable for local cultivation.%【目的】研究温度上升对中国寒地大豆作物上植食性害虫种群发生及种间关系的影响,有利于做好田间多种害虫发生的长期预测预报。【方法】本研究在人工气候

  5. DEF对大豆蚜羧酸酯酶活性的抑制及其增效作用%The effects of pretreatment with S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on carboxylesterase activity and susceptibility to eight kinds of insecticides in the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正堂; 肖达; 卢延; 李锦钰; 董金锦; 宋敦伦; 高希武

    2011-01-01

    The effects of exposing aphids to S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate ( DEF) on the effectiveness of eight kinds of insecticides and on aphid carboxylesterase activity, were investigated in Aphis glycines (Matsumura). Aphids were collected in the field and reared on soybean seedlings in a laboratory for more than 30 generations. The results show that beta-cypermethrin had the highest insecticidal activity on soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The carboxylesterase activity of soybean aphids decreased gradually after exposure to DEF for 2 h, and reached its lowest level, 69. 6% , after 10 h. Activity gradually recovered after 24 h. The LC,0 values of eight insecticides with three treatments; exposure to DEF, pesticides mixed with DEF and pesticides without DEF, were as follows; beta-cypermethrin ( 0. 294, 0. 613, 0. 814 mg · L-1), deltamethrin (0. 047, 0. 181, 0. 340 mg · L-1), omethoate (91. 025, 144. 882, 107. 999 mg ·L-1), malathion (78.212, 147.546, 141.912 mg · L-1), imidacloprid (1.778, 7.689, 11.876 mg · L-1), acetamiprid (0.814, 5.931, 9.581 mg· L-1), methomyl (7.120, 19.559, 37.335 mg · L-1) and carbofuran (11.298, 20.957 , 23.927 mg · L-1). The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DEF on carboxylesterase was significantly greater in soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The pretreatment of soybean aphids with DEF may enhance insecticide activity compared to either using insecticides without such pretreatment, or applying a mixture of insecticide and DEF. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the chemical control of soybean aphids in thefield.%对采自田间的大豆蚜Aphis glycines Matsumura在室内不接触任何药剂的情况下连续饲养30代以上作为被测虫源,研究DEF(1,2,4-三丁基三硫磷酸酯)不同时间处理大豆蚜后对高效氯氰菊酯等8种药剂的增效作用,以及大豆蚜体内羧酸酯酶的活性变化.结果显示,高效氯氰菊酯对经DEF处理10 h的大

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 - 31 May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii. PMID:21565124

  7. 异色瓢虫法国种群对豆蚜的捕食效应%A comparison of predatory function response in different search spaces of a French non-flying form Harmonia axyridis ( Coleoptera: Coccinellidae ) to Aphis carvines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王甦; 吴迪; 张帆; 刘长仲

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory study was a comparison among predation functional responses of different development stages (immature stages and adult) of the French non - flying form Harmonia axyridis to Aphis canines. The results showed that the predation functional responses of each development stages all fitted as Holling II model. After chi - square test, the results showed there were not significant differences between theoretic values and the observational values. The differences of predatory capacity of same development stage in different space levels were significant. In bigger space treatment ( glass jar) , the maximum theoretic predatory amount of 1th-~4 instar larvae, female and male adults were: 4.51, 83. 33, 111. 12, 166. 67, 190 and 200, "a" were:3th instar>4th instar >male adult >female adult > 2th instar > 1th instar, Th: the longest of treating duration " Th" was showed in 1" instar larvae (0. 2225). Similarly in smaller space treatment (Petri dish) , the maximum theoretic predatory amount of 1th -4th instar larvae, female and female adults were: 6.17, 19.23, 45.45, 100, 142.86, 111. 11. The parameters "a" were: 2th instar >3th instar > male adult >4th instar > 1th instar >female a-dult and the longest of treating duration "Th" was showed in 4th instar larvae (0. 1624).%异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis(Pallas)的法国种群具有飞行能力较低的特点,在生物防治方面可能更具利用价值.为了使其更好的在田间应用,本文进行了异色瓢虫的法国种群各龄幼虫及雌、雄成虫对豆蚜的捕食功能比较研究.结果表明:各龄幼虫及雌、雄成虫对豆蚜捕食功能反应符合Holling Ⅱ模型,检验各圆盘方程理论值和实测值拟合较好.同一虫态在不同空间水平对蚜虫的捕食能力有显著差异,在广口瓶处理中(较大空间),1~4龄幼虫及雌、雄成虫的最大理论捕食量分别为4.51、83.33、111.12、166.67、190及200头;不同虫期及成虫的瞬间攻击率a为3龄>4

  8. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yovkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses. The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts, Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts.The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species. Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species.Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  9. The mortality and repellency effect of a formulation of spearmint essential oil on the cotton-melon aphid under greenhouse conditions

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    M. Riazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of essential oils derived from aromatic plants has been considered as low-risk insecticides. These compounds have repellency, insecticidal and growth-reducing effects on immature stages of a variety of insects. Since it is not possible to use pure essential oils in agricultural fields and greenhouses, development of commercial formulations essential-oils is necessary. In this study, the insecticidal activity and repellency effect of essential oil from spearmint (Mentha spicata and its formulation was tested against the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, which is one of the key pests of greenhouse crops. The LC50 values of fumigation bioassay of the essential oil against the first instar nymph, third instar nymph and adult of A. gossypii were 2.70, 3.41 and 5.24 µl/L, respectively. For contact toxicity bioassay, based on preliminary tests, a formulation of essential oil from spearmint was used in four concentrations (8000, 12500, 16000 and 25000 mg/L. Results revealed that spearmint essential-oil formulation caused 88.7% adult mortality when applied at a concentration of 25000 mg/L. The repellency index was calculated when aphids were exposed for 24 h to LC20 concentration. This index was -10%. These results showed that formulation of spearmint essential oil could be used as a commercial substitute for chemical insecticides to control A. gossypii under greenhouse conditions.

  10. 嗜热多拟青霉发酵产物杀虫活性的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Insecticidal Activity of Zymotic Metabolites from Polypaecilum thermophilum D.M.Wang et D.C.Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2011-01-01

    以纯化的嗜热多拟青霉液体发酵培养,测定其代谢产物对棉蚜和温室白粉虱的毒杀效果.用水培棉苗法培养棉蚜,盆栽番茄培养温室白粉虱,采用菌株发酵产物浸渍法进行生物测定.结果表明:该代谢产物表现出较高的毒杀作用,室内生物测定72 h对棉蚜和温室白粉虱的校正死亡率分别为80.5%和66.3%.%The purifided Polypaecilum thermophilum D. M. Wang et D. C. Li was cultured by fermenta tion , and the effects of its zymotic metabolites on Aphis gossypii raised on water - planting cotton seedlings and Trialeurodes vaporariorum raised on potted tomato plants were studied. The bioassay was conducted through dipping leaves in fungi zymotic metabolites. The results showed that the zymotic metabolites had higher toxicity to Aphis gossypii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum with adjusted mortality of 80.5% and 66.3% respectively after bioassay for 72 hours.

  11. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

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    Paulo Eduardo Degrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete design with seven treatments and five replicates, consisting of: test without insecticide spraying, without insecticide spraying with rain, flonicamid spraying with simulate rain of 15 mm after 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours after spraying. Equivalent insecticide was sprayed 75 g of flonicamid by hectare. The efficiency evaluation was accomplished through the individuals of A. gossypii count which started from an artificial infestation 6 days before the application of the treatments. The results were: a 15-mm precipitation during the first four hours after flonicamid spraying interfered negatively in the control of A. gossypii.O cultivo do algodoeiro no Brasil concentra-se na Região do Cerrado, caracterizada por chuvas freqüentes que interferem na eficácia das pulverizações necessárias durante seu ciclo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar chuva simulada de 15 mm nas 4h iniciais após pulverização no controle de A. gossypii com inseticida flonicamid. Plantas de Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas em vasos contendo solo como substrato em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições, consistindo de: testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida, testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida com presença de chuva e pulverização de flonicamid com chuva simulada de 15 mm aos 30 min., 1, 2 e 4h após aplica

  12. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

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    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  13. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

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    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  14. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Buey, Ruben M.; Ledesma Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; Revuelta Doval, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Her...

  15. Vat, an Amazing Gene Conferring Resistance to Aphids and Viruses They Carry: From Molecular Structure to Field Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissot, Nathalie; Schoeny, Alexandra; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie

    2016-01-01

    We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant/aphid interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly) with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction). Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local. Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops serving as

  16. ACTI- FEEDANT ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUAL. ON SOME INSECT PESTS%黄花蒿粗提物对几种害虫拒食性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬; 雷朝亮; 王健

    2003-01-01

    以黄花蒿为原料进行浸提,经生物活性测定,结果表明黄花蒿Artenisia annua L粗提物对供试的6种害虫均具有拒食性.其中对黑翅土白蚁Odontotermes formnosanus Shiraki、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum Herbst、谷蠹Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius拒食性极强,对棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover、棉红蜘蛛Tetranychus urticae Koch及豇豆荚螟Etiella zinckenella Treitschke也具有较强的巨食性.使用黄花蒿粗提物时,以稀释500倍和800倍效果最好,处理与对照之间有极显著差异.

  17. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

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    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  18. Moléstias de vírus do algodoeiro Virus diseases of the cotton plant in the state of São Paulo

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    A. S. Costa

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Das quatro moléstias de vírus encontradas até agora nos plantações de algodoeiros no Estado de São Paulo - o mosaico comum (mosaico do Abutilon, o mosaico das nervuras, o mosaico causado pelo virus da necrose branca do fumo e o vermelhão ou antocianose, só a última é de importância econômica. Medidas de controle para esta, baseadas na destruição do inseto vector - o pulgão do algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii - são preconizadas.Four virus diseases can be encountered in. cotton plantings (Gossypimn hirsutum in the state of São Paulo: (a common yellow mosaic due to the Abutilon mosaic virus; (b vein mosaic due to an unidentified virus; (c green mosaic induced by the Brazilian tobacco streak virus and (d cotton anthocyanosis due to o persistent virus transmitted by the cotton or melon aphid, Aphis gossypii. Cotton yellow mosaic occurs in all plantings, but the percentage of infected plants is usually low; vein mosaic is of rare occurrence; percentage of infection with green mosaic can be high late in the season. The theree types of mosaic are of minor importance under most conditions, no control measure being necessary. Cotton anthocyanosis is at present the most important virus disease of this plant in São Paulo. Late in the season practically all plants become infected. Seed treatment with systemic insecticides and field spraying after the effect of the seed treatment wears off are recommended to reduce aphid infestation and therefore minimize secondary spread of the disease.

  19. Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Tang, Changqing; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Linxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B. cereus strain HL12. The vip1Ac1 and vip2Ae3 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 by vector pCOLADuet-1. The binary toxin showed activity only against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera), but not for Coleptera (Tenebrio molitor, Holotrichia oblita), Lepidoptera (Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Chilo suppressalis), Diptera (Culex quinquefasciatus). The LC(50) of this binary toxin for A. gossypii is 87.5 (34.2-145.3) ng mL(-1) . This is probably only the second report that Vip1 and Vip2 binary toxin shows toxicity against homopteran pests. The PCR-RFLP method developed could be very useful for identifying novel Vip1-Vip2-type binary toxins, and the novel binary toxins, Vip1Ac1 and Vip2Ae3, identified in this study may have applications in biological control of insects, thus avoiding potential problems of resistance.

  20. Sun Xi-miao in T he Biogr aphy of T he Avatamsaka - Sutra

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    LEE Hyun- Sook

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to introduce and examine the biography of Sun Xi-miao(孫思邈581-682 which I found in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經傳記, that Fazang(法藏643-712 wrote in 692 A.D. This document was neglected to understand Sun who was the famous medical writer of the collection of prescriptions, the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方. His life is rather well documented, because he has his own biographies in Jiu Tang shu and Xin Tang shu(新唐書 which cited from Da Tang sin yu(大唐新語, published in 807. But I found several new informations about Sun in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra, such as he use to be a military medicine in the troops of Li Yuan(李淵 who became the first emperor Kao Tsu(高祖 of Tang dynasty and treat Sun with great favour. This document let us know that the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方 was dedicated to Kao Tsu, known as published in 652 A.D. MY CONCLUSIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: First, it was written by Fazang in 692 A.D, who was the real establisher of the fraternity of the Avatamsaka in China, for the purpose of encouraging to copy the Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經. According to this biography, Sun made 750 copies to persuade the monks and the peoples, and that's the reason Fazang wrote his biography.Secondly, it was not conveyed to posterity, such as Sun was good looking, tall and use to be the medicine of Kao Tsu and dedicated his medical book to the first emperor. It might be left out for Tai Tsung(太宗's sake in the official records, who murdered his brother, the heir apparent to the throne and became the second emperor by himself. On the contrary, it was written in Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang shu that Sun made a prediction that his collection of prescriptions would help the holyman after 50 years from Xuan Di(宣帝578-579 of Northern Chou(北周 Dynasty. Holyman meant Tai Tsung. It shows that Sun's biographies in the Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang Shu were based on the documents that might be fabricated and embellished for Tai Tsung. Thirdly, this biography let us know that Sun wote the Bei ji qian jin yao fang under the circumstances that the epidemic disease was spreaded in Changan at 618 A.D. and the population of Kao Tsu era(618-626 was decreased rapidly. I think that's why he wrote down the medical morals as the first chapter, and the prescriptions about the gynecology and pediatrics as the second chapter.

  1. 7 CFR 322.15 - APHIS review of permit applications; denial or cancellation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an exotic bee disease or parasite, or an undesirable species or subspecies of honeybee. Danger of... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS... charge of research or regulatory programs relative to bees; and any other qualified governmental...

  2. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  3. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

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    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  4. Aphid populations (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea depend of mulching in watermelon production in the Mediterranean region of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Winged morphs of aphids were investigated under field conditions during 2008, 2010 and 2011 in the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Field experiments were conducted to record aphid diversity and compare polyethylene black mulch to straw mulch and bare soil in terms of their attractiveness to aphid species in a watermelon crop. Aphids were collected weekly using yellow water metal traps from May to July. During the study, 44 species in 31 genera were detected; 36 species in 24 genera were identified in 2008, 18 species in 15 genera were identified in 2010, and 34 species in 25 genera were identified in 2011. The overall seasonal percentage composition showed that Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were consistently eudominant species, whereas Acyrtosiphon pisum (Harris was consistently dominant. Cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L. was determined as the dominant species in 2008 and as eudominant species in 2011. Additionally, Macrosiphum rosae (L. was twice recorded as the dominant species, whereas Aphis gossipii Glover was dominant once, and Phorodon humuli (Schrank was eudominant once. Our study also demonstrated that mulching sporadically affected the abundance of individual species. The attractiveness of mulching for aphid species differed between the treatments. It was found that bare soil was attractive to A. pisum and M. rosae, black mulch was attractive to B. helichrysi and P. humuli, and straw mulch was attractive to four aphid species, of which two were eudominant, A. fabae and M. persicae. The presented species are mostly polyphagous, and their preference for certain mulches can be used in crop protection management.

  5. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in aere (in air from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kent Morgan

    Full Text Available Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid, Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter, Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug, and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale. Examination of in āere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in āere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in āere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.

  6. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Daniela BACIU; Lucica MIHALTE; Adriana F. SESTRAS; Radu E. SESTRAS

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz) cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.). The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6) and the large...

  7. 78 FR 689 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority, filing of petitions and applications and..., parental release form, and a health history/emergency medical information form. Ag-Discovery was... the student application, parental release form, student contract, and letter of...

  8. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1993 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum discussing the plan for disease sampling of coyotes in July and August 1993 as part of the disease study associated with the...

  9. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  10. 9 CFR 72.16 - Designated dipping stations to be approved by the Administrator, APHIS on recommendations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated dipping stations to...

  11. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) and 94.10(a) of this chapter as one in which classical swine fever is known to exist, except for the... because of the detection of classical swine fever in domestic swine, from the time of detection until the... classical swine fever in wild boar, from the time of detection until the designation of the zone as...

  12. Outcomes of co-infection by two potyviruses: implications for the evolution of manipulative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaudon, Lucie; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have documented effects of plant viruses on host plants that appear to enhance transmission by insect vectors. But, almost no empirical work has explored the implications of such apparent manipulation for interactions among co-infecting pathogens. We examined single and mixed infections of two potyviruses, watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), that frequently co-occur in cucurbitaceae populations and share the same aphid vectors. We found that ZYMV isolates replicated at similar rates in single and mixed infections, whereas WMV strains accumulated to significantly lower levels in the presence of ZYMV. Furthermore, ZYMV induced changes in leaf colour and volatile emissions that enhanced aphid (Aphis gossypii) recruitment to infected plants. By contrast, WMV did not elicit strong effects on plant-aphid interactions. Nevertheless, WMV was still readily transmitted from mixed infections, despite fairing poorly in in-plant competition. These findings suggest that pathogen effects on host-vector interactions may well influence competition among co-infecting pathogens. For example, if non-manipulative pathogens benefit from the increased vector traffic elicited by manipulative competitors, their costs of competition may be mitigated to some extent. Conversely, the benefits of manipulation may be limited by free-rider effects in systems where there is strong competition among pathogens for host resources and/or access to vectors. PMID:23407835

  13. Biological and serological characterization of viruses of summer squash crops in Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Nataša M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on summer squash open field crops was carried out during 2000 and 2001 in order to identify the major viruses infecting these crops in different localities. Plants showed different types of symptoms: mild mosaic, chlorotic spotting, distinctive mosaic, blistering of leaf lamina leaf yellowing, deformation of leaf lamina, knobbed fruits and stunting of plants. The symptoms were very variable but showed the viral nature of the investigated summer squash diseases. The collected samples were tested by bioassay and by two serological methods ELISA and EBIA using cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV, zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2, zucchini yellow flack potyvirus (ZYFV watermelon mosaic potyvirus 1 (WMV-1, squash mosaic comovirus (SqMV and cucurbit aphid-borne yellows polerovirus (CABYV polyclonal antisera. In all tested samples single or mixed infection with ZYMV, CMV and WMV-2 was detected. The most prevalent virus infecting summer squash was ZYMV. This is the first report of ZYMV, the most destructive virus infecting cucurbits, in Yugoslavia. It was also proven that the identified viruses are transmissible by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent manner, but possible role of seed in virus transmission was not confirmed.

  14. Predator efficiency reconsidered for a ladybird-aphid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eKindlmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments indicate that ladybirds can significantly suppress aphid abundance. For example, exclusion of predators by caging aphid-infested plants repeatedly results in higher aphid populations and faster aphid population growth rates. However, aphidophagous ladybirds have never proved effective in controlling aphid populations in the field, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction that long-lived predators cannot be effective in controlling a short-lived prey (the generation time ratio hypothesis, GTR. To resolve this paradox, field experiments, involving two species of ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata bruckii and Harmonia axyridis were used to determine their efficiency in suppressing populations of the aphid, Aphis gossypii, on small shrubs of Hibiscus syriacus under natural conditions. Instead of by caging, the effect of each ladybird species on aphid population dynamics was determined by removing all the eggs of C. septempunctata from 8 shrubs, those of H. axyridis from a further 8 shrubs, all those of both species from an additional 12 shrubs and leaving the eggs on 6 control shrubs. These predators did not have a negative effect on the peak numbers of the aphids. Thus one should be cautious when interpreting the results of cage experiments, used to assess the efficiency of predators in reducing the abundance of their prey.

  15. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  16. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  17. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan M Haldhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1 against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica, hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in which the lowest incidence was recorded as compared to other modules. The organic IPM module-III comprised of growing resistant genotype (RM-50, spray of neem oil at 20 DAS, installation of pheromone trap (10/ hectare at 42 DAS, spray of tumba fruit extract (TFE 5% at 50 DAS and spray of spinosad 46 SC at 60 DAS was the most effective. The conventional I (farmer’s practices was the second most effective system against major pests during both years. The benefit-cost ratio of the tested muskmelon production systems in the control of insect-pests decreased in the following order: module-III (B: C ratio 8.80:1> module-I (B: C ratio 7.74:1> module-IV (B: C ratio 6.60:1> module-II (B: C ratio 3.56:1.

  18. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  19. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  20. The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum negatively affects both above- and belowground herbivores in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqing; Starr, James L; Krumm, Janice L; Sword, Gregory A

    2016-10-01

    Mutualistic plant-endophyte symbioses can benefit plants by increasing host fitness through reductions in herbivory. The fungus, Chaetomium globosum strain TAMU 520, was previously isolated as an endophyte from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and can be re-inoculated to systemically colonize cotton plants via seed treatment. We evaluated the potential impacts of the endophyte in cotton on plant parasitic nematodes belowground, along with piercing-sucking and chewing insects aboveground. Endophytic C. globosum inhibited root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection and reduced female reproduction belowground. To confirm the endophytic effect of C. globosum on root-knot nematode, a contact fungicide was applied to remove soil-borne and epiphytic C. globosum Consistent inhibition of nematode activity was observed post-fungicide treatment, with positive C. globosum colonization confirmed within plant tissues. Aboveground, endophytic C. globosum also negatively affected the fecundity of both cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) and beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua). Faster development rates and smaller head capsule of beet armyworm larvae were observed when fed Chaetomium-colonized plants. However, no larval weight difference was found between Chaetomium-colonized and control plants. No consistent effect on plant performance was found across experiments. Our findings illustrate how a single facultative fungal endophyte can increase plant systemic resistance against a range of invertebrate herbivores in a major crop. PMID:27451418

  1. CO2浓度变化下蚜茧蜂胁迫作用对多世代棉蚜适合度的影响%Response of three successive generations of aphids to stress from Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead under ambient CO2 and elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姣; 龙大彬; 肖铁光

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two levels of CO2 (375 μL/L VS 750 μL/L) on the cotton-Aphis gossypii-Lysiphlebiajaponica system were studied using OTCs.We evaluated the influence of direct and indirect stress from L.japonica on the fitness response of aphids to changing CO2 for three successive generations.We wished to show whether CO2 levels,generation and L.japonica-stress markedly determined the fecundity,net reproduction,mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase in cotton aphids,and whether interactions between these variables also had a notable impact on the fecundity,net reproduction,and intrinsic rate of increase of aphids.Our results suggest that the stress induced by exposure to caged L.japonica had greater impact on the fitness and population dynamics of successive generations of A.gossypii under elevated CO2,resulting in a lower aphid-population.%本文以蚜茧蜂Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead与棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover系统为研究对象,以内禀增长率rm作为适合度指标,通过开顶式动态CO2气室(OTC),重点比较了目前大气CO2浓度与未来加倍的大气CO2浓度下(375 μL/L VS 750 μL/L)直接放入蚜茧蜂、笼罩间接放入蚜茧蜂的胁迫作用对不同世代和3个连续世代棉蚜适合度的影响.结果表明:CO2浓度变化、世代之间、寄生胁迫方式对棉蚜净繁殖率R0、平均世代时间T和内禀增长率rm均存在着极显著的影响;CO2浓度变化和寄生胁迫方式之间、CO2浓度变化和棉蚜发生世代之间的交互作用对棉蚜净繁殖率R0和内禀增长率rm也存在着极显著的影响.结果提示:大气CO2浓度将通过影响寄生蜂的间接干扰作用,从而影响棉蚜的适合度和种群动态,使棉蚜种群有下降的趋势.

  2. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF PREDACEOUS ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS DIVERSIDADE E ABUNDÂNCIA DE ARTRÓPODES PREDADORES ASSOCIADOS A DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of studying the abundance and diversity of predaceous arthropods associated with cotton crop, and analyze the influence of meteorological factors, interactions between natural enemies and population dynamics of coccinellids associated with their principal prey, the aphid Aphis gossypii, an experiment was carried out in the region of Ipameri, Goiás State, Brazil, at the Universidade Estadual de Goiás campus. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments, consisting of the DeltaOPAL, FMX 966, FMX 993, FMX 910, and NuOPAL cultivars, in four replications. Among the arthropods sampled in the cotton crop, the coccinellids and spiders were the most abundant ones in the cultivars evaluated. Spiders occurred throughout the cotton cycle, while the coccinellids population increased gradually until 55 DAE, showing a population peak at 34 DAE, coinciding with the population peak of aphids (Aphis gossypii. Among the coccinellids observed in the cultivars under study, Scymnus spp. was the most abundant in cotton. The pentatomid and forficulid occurred from 99 to 128 days after the emergence of cotton, which corresponds to the highest density of target pest insects. It was not found influence of meteorological factors or negative interactions among predaceous arthropods.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium hirsutum; natural enemies, coccinellids.

    Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučetić, Andja; Vukov, Tanja; Jovičić, Ivana; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris), Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Gloverand Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach). The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato. PMID:24039529

  3. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... State who is authorized to issue the foreign meat inspection certificate required by § 327.4 of this... been met. 19 19 The certification required may be placed on the foreign meat inspection...

  4. Pyridine derivatives as insecticides. Part 1: synthesis and toxicity of some pyridine derivatives against cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhite, Etify A; Abd-Ella, Aly A; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A; Abdel-Raheem, Shaban A A

    2014-10-15

    Five pyridine derivatives, namely, N-morpholinium 7,7-dimethyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-2-thiolate (1), sodium 5-acetyl-3-amino-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylthieno[2,3-b] pyridine-2-carboxylate (2), piperidinium 3,5-dicyano-2-oxo-4-spirocyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate (3), piperidinium 5-acetyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylpyridine-2-thiolate (4), and piperidinium 5-acetyl-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-6-methyl-pyridine-2-thiolate (5) were prepared in pure state and subjected to the title study. The bioassay results indicated that the insecticidal activity of compound 1 is about 4-fold that of acetamiprid insecticide. The rest of the tested compounds possess moderate to strong aphidicidal activities.

  5. 呼和浩特地区马铃薯田蚜虫的种群动态%Population dynamics of aphids in potato fields in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜庆国; 庞保平; 张若芳; 孙清华

    2013-01-01

    A field survey was conducted on the population dynamics of aphids in potato fields in Hohhot, aimed to provide indispensable foundation for the monitoring and control of the aphids in potato fields.The main aphids in the potato fields in Hohhot were green peach aphid ( Myzus per-sicae) and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), and their spatial patterns were of aggregated. The bas-ic components of the aggregated distribution were colonies, and the aggregation intensity de-creased with the increase of the population density. By using the optimal segmentation method, the population dynamics could be divided into four periods: (1) colonization period: in early-middle June, with the increasing of air temperature and the growth of potato seedlings, alate aphids began to immigrate into potato fields, and the aphids only distributed on seldom plants, with lower quantity but higher aggregation intensity. (2) slow-increase period: from late June to middle July, with the reproduction of aphids, the aphid density had a slow increase, and the aphids diffused gradually with a higher aggregation intensity. (3) quick increase period: from late July to middle August, due to the rapid reproduction of aphids, the aphid density increased sharply, and the aphids distributed over the whole field with a decrease of aggregation intensity, and (4) eclipse period: after late August, with the decreasing of air temperature and the aging and withering of potato plants, many alate aphids emigrated from potato fields, the aphid density declined quickly, and the aphids only distributed on seldom remained living plants with the ag-gregation intensity somewhat increased again.%为了给马铃薯田蚜虫种群监测及防治提供必要的基础,田间实地调查了呼和浩特地区马铃薯田蚜虫的种群动态.结果表明:呼和浩特地区马铃薯田中的蚜虫主要为桃蚜(Myzus persicae)和棉蚜(Aphis gossypii),其在田间的空间格局为聚集分布,分布的基本成分为个体群,

  6. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  7. Mating behaviour of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of the cotton aphid%寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜的交配行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    Variation in host use and flight ability in the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Clover is such that some biotypes can be regarded as cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory and sedentary. However, it is not known whether cotton-specialized and cucurbits-specialized biotypes, or migratory (M) and sedentary (S) biotypes, interbreed. The sexual forms of cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory, and sedentary biotypes were induced under reduced temperature and short photoperiod and their mating behavior was investigated. The results indicate that migratory and sedentary biotypes interbred, and the number of males that completed copulation within three hours did not significantly differ between inter-biotype and intra-biotype mating. However, it took significantly longer for males to find a mate of another biotype than one of their own biotype. The duration of copulation of M 9 X S S was also significantly longer than that of M ♀ x M ♂ and S ♀ ×M♂. Mating was more likely to occur when the male and female were of the same biotype than when they were from different biotypes. There was a trend towards assortative mating between migratory and sedentary biotypes. Interbreeding occurred between cotton-specialized (Co) and cucurbits-specialized (Cu) biotypes, and the time required for males to find a mate and complete copulation were similar between Co ♀ × Cu ♂ cross and Cu ♀ × Co ♂ cross.%棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover种群存在寄主利用和迁飞能力上的明显分化,有棉花型和瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型之分.但是,棉花型与瓜型之间,以及迁飞型与滞留型之间是否能发生交配行为,尚无研究报道.本文在低温和短光照条件下分别诱导棉花型、瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型棉蚜的性蚜,并进行性蚜间的交配行为观察.结果表明,迁飞型和滞留型性蚜间可以发生交配行为,杂交时发生交配行为的个体比率与自交时无显著差异,但是杂交时雄蚜寻

  8. Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-09-01

    Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests. PMID:21952370

  9. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 10 field experiments were done at Kununurra, Carnarvon or Medina in Western Australia (WA) which have tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates, respectively. These experiments investigated the effectiveness of cultural control measures in limiting ZYMV spread in pumpkin, and single-gene resistance in commercial cultivars of pumpkin, zucchini and cucumber. Melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) colonised field experiments at Kununurra; migrant green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) visited but did not colonise at Carnarvon and Medina. Cultural control measures that diminished ZYMV spread in pumpkin included manipulation of planting date to avoid exposing young plants to peak aphid vector populations, deploying tall non-host barriers (millet, Pennisetum glaucum) to protect against incoming aphid vectors and planting upwind of infection sources. Clustering of ZYMV-infected pumpkin plants was greater without a 25m wide non-host barrier between the infection source and the pumpkin plants than when one was present, and downwind compared with upwind of an infection source. Host resistance gene zym was effective against ZYMV isolate Knx-1 from Kununurra in five cultivars of cucumber. In zucchini, host resistance gene Zym delayed spread of infection (partial resistance) in 2 of 14 cultivars but otherwise did not diminish final ZYMV incidence. Zucchini cultivars carrying Zym often developed severe fruit symptoms (8/14), and only the two cultivars in which spread was delayed and one that was tolerant produced sufficiently high marketable yields to be recommended when ZYMV epidemics are anticipated. In three pumpkin cultivars with Zym, this gene was effective against isolate Cvn-1 from Carnarvon under low inoculum pressure, but not against isolate Knx-1 under high inoculum pressure, although symptoms were milder and marketable yields greater in them than in cultivars without Zym. These findings allowed additional cultural control recommendations to be added

  10. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  11. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in cotton seedlings by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiuju; SHI Xueyan; LIANG Pei; GAO Xiwu

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that infestation of plants causes increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes in the phenolic compounds synthesis pathway and the octadecanoid pathway, respectively. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the infestation of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii ) and mechanical wound can cause the induction of PAL and LOX activities in cotton seedlings, and whether the induction occurs in healthy seedlings growing nearby the attacked ones. The specific activities of PAL and LOX were measured using spectrophotometric method after aphid infestation and mechanical wounding. Result indicated that PAL activity and LOX activity were greatly induced by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation in cotton seedlings. The induction of PAL and LOX occurred not only in wounded and infested seedlings but also in intact healthy seedlings growing nearby. After exposed to the aphid infestation-induced volatiles, the specific activity of PAL in cotton seedlings increased by 6 % at 24 h, 80 % at 48 h, 235 % at 72 h compared to the control, and the specific activity of LOX increased by 18 % at 24 h, 34 % at 48 h,24 % at 72 h, respectively. In comparison, the specific activity of PAL in unwounded seedlings exposed to wound-induced volatiles increased by 0.0 at 24 h, 200% at 48 h, 164% at 72 h, respectively and the specific activity of LOX increased by 28% at 24 h, 37% at 48 h, 8 % at 72 h, respectively. It suggests that the induced volatiles are involved in plant-plant communication as airborne transferred signals.

  12. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  13. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  14. How does atmospheric elevated CO2 affect crop pests and their natural enemies? Case histories from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Sun; Jin Yin; Fa-Jun Chen; Gang Wu; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations have risen rapidly since the Industrial Revolution and are considered as a primary factor in climate change.The effects of elevated CO2 on herbivore insects were found to be primarily through the CO2-induced changes occurring in their host plants,which then possibly affect the intensity and frequency of pest outbreaks on crops.This paper reviews several ongoing research models using primary pests of crops (cotton bollworm,whitefly,aphids) and their natural enemies (ladybeetles,parasitoids) in China to examine insect responses to elevated CO2.It is generally indicated that elevated CO2 prolonged the development of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera,a chewing insect,by decreasing the foliar nitrogen of host plants.In contrast,the phloemsucking aphid and whitefly insects had species-specific responses to elevated CO2 because of complex interactions that occur in the phloem sieve elements of plants.Some aphid species,such as cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii and wheat aphid,Sitobion avenae,were considered to represent the only feeding guild to respond positively to elevated CO2 conditions.Although whitefly,Bemisia tabaci,a major vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus,had neutral response to elevated CO2,the plants became less vulnerable to the virus infection under elevated CO2.The predator and parasitoid response to elevated CO2 were frequently idiosyncratic.These documents from Chinese scientists suggested that elevated CO2 initially affects the crop plant and then cascades to a higher trophic level through the food chain to encompass herbivores (pests),their natural enemies,pathogens and underground nematodes,which disrupt the natural balance observed previously in agricultural ecosystems.

  15. Concours annuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yearly competitions. Pour améliorer le rendement agricole, on est amené à établir des programmes de fertilisation des sols et de protection phytosanitaire souvent basés essentiellement sur l'utilisation des intrants chimiques. Cependant, l'utilisation des engrais chimiques peut entraîner la dégradation des sols et favoriser le développement des insectes ravageurs piqueurs-suceurs. Il est donc nécessaire de rechercher des méthodes de fertilisation alternatives qui permettraient de limiter la prolifération des insectes. La rhizobactérie Bacillus amyloliquefaciens est connue comme bio-fertilisant. Le présent travail vise à évaluer la dynamique des populations du puceron A. gossypii Glover sur le cotonnier en fonction du matériel de fertilisation utilisé, à savoir la souche de B. amyloliquefaciens FZB 42 et l'engrais minéral (NPKSMgB: 21-17-10-4,5-3,5-0,75. A cet effet, trois variantes ont été testées: trempage des semences dans la suspension de la rhizobactérie, application de NPKSMgB et un témoin (sans apport de fertilisant. Les résultats ont montré que les cotonniers fertilisés avec de l'engrais minéral ont de façon significative attiré plus de pucerons que les plantes fertilisées avec B. amyloliquefaciens. Sur la base de ces résultats et de données obtenues dans d'autres essais menés en plein champ qui montraient un effet positif de l'application de B. amyloliquefaciens sur le rendement du cotonnier, on peut conclure que l'utilisation de cette rhizobactérie peut constituer une solution intéressante pour la fertilisation du cotonnier.

  16. 78 FR 12755 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Schedules for Construction Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Register at 77 FR 73659, on December 11, 2012. One respondent submitted comments. DATES: Submit comments on.... Glover, Sr., Procurement Analyst, Office of Acquisition Policy, (202) 501-1448 or email curtis.glover@gsa..., within five days after work commences on the contract or another period of time determined by...

  17. Use Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science for Comprehensive Citation Tracking. A review of: Bakkalbasi, Nisa, Kathleen Bauer, Janis Glover and Lei Wang. “Three Options for Citation Tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 3.7 (2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether three competing citation tracking services result in differing citation counts for a known set of articles, and to assess the extent of any differences.Design – Citation analysis, observational study.Setting – Three citation tracking databases: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Subjects – Citations from eleven journals each from the disciplines of oncology and condensed matter physics for the years 1993 and 2003.Methods – The researchers selected eleven journals each from the list of journals from Journal Citation Reports 2004 for the categories “Oncology” and “Condensed Matter Physics” using a systematic sampling technique to ensure journals with vary ingimpact factors were included. All references from these 22 journals were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003 by searching three databases: Web of Science, INSPEC, and PubMed. Only research articles were included for the purpose of the study. From these, a stratified random sample was created to proportionally represent the content of each journal (oncology 1993: 234 references, 2003: 259 references; condensed matter physics 1993: 358 references, 2003: 364 references. In November of 2005, citations counts were obtained for all articles from Web of Science, Scopus and GoogleScholar. Due to the small sample size and skewed distribution of data, non‐parametric tests were conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between sets.Main Results – For 1993, mean citation counts were highest in Web of Science for both oncology (mean = 45.3, SD = 77.4 and condensed matter physics (mean = 22.5, SD= 32.5. For 2003, mean citation counts were higher in Scopus for oncology (mean = 8.9,SD = 12.0, and in Web of Science for condensed matter physics (mean = 3.0, SD =4.0. There was not enough data for the set of citations from Scopus for condensed matter physics for 1993 and it was therefore excluded from analysis. A Friedman test to measure for differences between all remaining groups suggested a significant difference existed, and so pairwise post‐hoc comparisons were performed. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranked tests demonstrated significant differences “in citation counts between all pairs (p Conclusion – The study does not confirm the authors’ hypothesis that differing scholarly coverage would result in different citation counts from the three databases. While there were significant differences in mean citation rates between all pairs of databases except for Google Scholar and Scopus in condensed matter physics for 2003, no one database performed better overall. Different databases performed better for different subjects, as well as for different years, especially Scopus, which only includes references starting in 1996. The results of this study suggest that the best citation database will depend on the years being searched as well as the subject area. For a complete picture of citation behaviour, the authors suggest all three be used.

  18. 76 FR 13892 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... an APHIS-approved protein bait, would have to be placed inside the pest-exclusionary structures at a.... (1) Inside the pest-exclusionary structures. APHIS-approved traps with an APHIS-approved protein bait... traps with an approved protein bait must be placed in a 500-meter-wide buffer area around the...

  19. 75 FR 57864 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Register (74 FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117) a proposal\\1\\ to authorize the importation of... Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) that, among other things... FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117), as follows: PART 319--FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES 0...

  1. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... FR 21311. On November 12, 2010, APHIS issued an EA that evaluated a range of alternatives and... 15, 2010. See 76 FR 8708. These documents are posted on the APHIS Web site at: http://www.aphis.usda... Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...

  2. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, ] (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020), APHIS... petition. \\1\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment...

  3. 75 FR 75957 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    .... APHIS-2010-0109, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit..., NCIE, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39, Riverdale MD 20737; (301) 734-0819. For copies of more... authorities; foreign government officials; transporters; hobby farm operators; non-profit...

  4. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... APHIS-2013-0022, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit... Wilds, Trade Director, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 140, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851- 2275. For... information collection activities, including box labeling, a phytosanitary certificate with an...

  5. 77 FR 61055 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 44724-44725, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070) an advance... the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070) a proposal\\2\\ regarding our... published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2011 (76 FR 77914, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0070)....

  6. 76 FR 31499 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...-0035, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... approved by APHIS to receive stallions or mares over 731 days of age that are imported under specified..., rulemaking is required whenever APHIS approves a State to receive stallions or mares over 731 days of...

  7. 越南棉花蓝病害研究进展%Researches on Cotton Blue Disease in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琨泰檀宾

    2001-01-01

    棉花蓝病害(blue disease,BD)于20世纪80年代初期在越南首次发生,10多年后即成为棉花主要病害.罹病棉株表现为发育迟缓、矮小、叶片向下卷曲,产量和品质严重下降.蓝病害在越南产棉省宁城、平顺、平福的发病最重.该病为棉蚜携带病毒,其转主寄主有黄花稔(Sida acuta)、白背黄花稔(Sida rhombifolia)和玫瑰茄(Hibiscussabdariffa)等.这些转主寄主和滞留在田间的棉杆残体等是病害的传染源.单项防治措施有清洁棉田,适时播种,与绿豆或玉米轮作,叶面喷药,用"高巧"进行种子包衣等.综合防治措施为:每公斤种子用70水剂高巧5g(imidachloride有效剂量3.5g@kg-1)包衣并与绿豆轮作,及所有措施同时应用.%Blue disease (BD) occurred in Vietnam in the early 1980's and has become the most economic important disease of cotton since late 80's. Infected plant is stunt and its leaves curl downwards, yield and quality of fiber reduced. Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan and Binh Phuoc provinces are cotton-grown areas that the most suffered from BD. It's caused by virus and transmitted by cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) in persistent manner and by grafting. Sida acuta,Sida rhornbifolia and Hibiscus sabdariffa are alternate hosts of BD. They and cotton residues are the main reservoir of BD infection. Single practices such as field sanitation, compact sowing dates, cotton inter-crop with mung bean and maize, chemical foliar spray and seedcoating with Gaucho are effective in reduction of BD infection. The most effective in controlling BD is the complex of cotton inter-crop with mung bean and seed-coating with Gaucho 70WS 5g @ kg-1 of seed (Imidachloprid 3.5g (a. i. ) @kg-1). But only the applications of all measures together can obtain success in diminishing blue disease incidence and loss of yield at very low level.

  8. 罗汉果花叶病病原病毒鉴定%Virus Identification of Luohanguo Mosaic Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 余玉冰; 刘志明

    2001-01-01

    从典型病株上分离到1种大小为12nm×(600~800)nm的线状病毒;该病毒可通过汁液摩擦和棉蚜(Aphis gossypii)传播,人工接种可侵染罗汉果(Siraitia grosvenorii)、西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo)、南瓜(C.moschata)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)、毛节瓜(Citrullus vulgaria)和瓠瓜(Lagenariasiceraria)等葫芦科植物引起花叶症状,侵染苋色藜(Chenopodium amaranticolor)引起局部褪绿斑点,接种番木瓜(Carica papaya)、普通烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)、心叶烟(N.glutinosa)、曼陀罗(Datura stramomum)、洋酸浆(Physalis floridana)、番杏(Tetragoniatetragonioides)、豇豆(Vigna sinensis)未见有任何症状;病毒的致死温度为55 ℃~60 ℃,稀释终点为10-3~10-4,在17 ℃~25 ℃下放置10 d还有侵染活力;ELISA测定结果表明,该病毒与西瓜花叶病毒2(WMV-2)有密切的血清学关系.上述结果表明,引起广西罗汉果花叶病的病原病毒是WMV-2的一个株系.本研究还表明,罗汉果花叶病毒与番木瓜环斑病毒(PRSV)、马铃薯Y病毒(PVY)、烟草蚀纹病毒(TEV)、大豆花叶病毒(SMV)及莴苣花叶病毒(LMV)均有较密切的血清学关系.

  9. 气相色谱法测定三类氢化油脂反式脂肪酸的含量%Determination of the trans- fatty acids in three kinds of hydrogenated fat by gas chromatogr aphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫强; 刘立萍; 严家俊; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    通过气相色谱法对市售三类氢化油脂的反式脂肪酸含量进行了测定,方法的重复性好,最低检出限能够满足要求。结果表明,三类氢化油脂反式脂肪酸的平均含量方别为:人造奶油(0.70g/100g),植物奶油(0.36g/100g)和(1.12g/100g)。所测定的样品中,以C18为主的反式脂肪酸中一烯酸和二烯酸含量较高,而三烯酸的反式甚微。%Trans- fatty acids(TFA) in three kinds of commer-cially available hydrogenated fat was determined by gas chromatog-raphy. The method had high precision with requisite minimum de-tection limit. The results showed that the average TFA content of them were as follows: margarine(0.70g/100g), vegetable cream (0.36g/100g), and shortening(6.2%). The major TFA in the sam-ples were trans C18, among which, trans C18:1 and C18:2 exhibited the more content, followed by small amounts of trans C18:3.

  10. Gclust Server: 18750 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18750 SCE_YIL156W-B Cluster Sequences - 73 Putative protein of unknown function, original... protein of unknown function, originally identified based on homology to Ashbya gossypii and other related y

  11. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  12. Effect of two single mutations on malathion degradation by insect carboxylesterases%两个单点突变对昆虫羧酸酯酶降解马拉硫磷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳平; 姚淑敏; 林哲; 崔峰

    2013-01-01

    马拉硫磷是一种高效低毒的有机磷杀虫剂,分子量大且结构特殊,广泛用于农业害虫的防治.羧酸酯酶突变是昆虫对有机磷类杀虫剂产生代谢抗性的重要机制之一.本实验室前期已从棉蚜Aphis gossypii、褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens、斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura、家蚕Bombyx mori、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum和西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera中各克隆了一个非特异性羧酸酯酶基因,通过体外定点突变构建了G/A151D和W271L两种突变体,并进行了原核细胞表达和纯化.本实验在体外测定了这7种昆虫野生型和两种突变型羧酸酯酶对马拉硫磷的降解.结果显示:棉蚜、西方蜜蜂、斜纹夜蛾、赤拟谷盗的野生型羧酸酯酶能够降解马拉硫磷,两个突变并不能提高它们的降解活性,而家蚕、异色瓢虫和褐飞虱的野生型羧酸酯酶不能降解马拉硫磷,G/A151D和/或W271L突变能使这些酯酶获得马拉硫磷羧酸酯酶(MCE)的活性,有可能使这些昆虫对马拉硫磷产生抗性.不同物种的MCE活性相差较大,斜纹夜蛾的MCE活性最高,其kcat/Km值为1.8~1.9 L/μmol·min,其次是赤拟谷盗,其Kcat/Km值为0.87 ~0.95 L/μmol·min,其他昆虫的MCE活性相对较低,相差可高达10倍.%Malathion is an efficient but low toxic organophosphate insecticide with a large molecular weight and a special structure.It is widely used in the prevention and control of various agricultural pests.Mutation in carboxylesterases is one of important metabolic resistance mechanisms to organophosphate insecticides in insects.In a previous study,seven non-specific carboxylesterase genes from Aphis gossypii,Nilaparvata lugens,Spodoptera litura,Bombyx mori,Harmonia axyridis,Tribolium castaneum and Apis mellifera,respectively,were cloned,mutated at position 151 or 271 and expressed in Escherichia coli.In this experiment,the hydrolysis of the purified recombinant proteins of the seven

  13. Local Purchasing of Journals is Required in Addition to a Nationally Purchased Collection to Meet the Information Needs of NHS Staff. A review of: Glover, Steven William, John Addison, Colette Gleghorn, and John Bramwell. “Journal Usage in NHS Hospitals: A Comparison Report of Total Usage at an Acute NHS Trust and a Specialist NHS Trust in the North West of England.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007): 193‐9.

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie Kelson

    2008-01-01

    Objective ‐ To compare journal usage between an acute National Health Service (NHS) Trust and a specialist NHS Trust located in North West England to provide some evidence as to how well the National Core Content Collection (provided by ProQuest) meets the needs of staff in these settings.Design ‐ Comparative studySetting ‐ An acute NHS Trust, comprising four hospital sites, and a cancer specialist NHS Trust based on a single site. Both Trusts are located in North West England. The cancer spe...

  14. Transgenic Trees: Implementation and Outcomes of the Plant Protection Act

    OpenAIRE

    Sedjo, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The responsibility for protecting U.S. agriculture from pests and diseases is assigned by the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture. The Plant Protection Act (Title 7 U.S.C. Sections 7701 et seq.) gives Aphis statutory authority over genetically modified organisms (GMO), in effect assigning to APHIS a related responsibility of determining whether a genetically altered plant, crop, or tree is likely to pose unac...

  15. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... interest (if practiced); the extent of an active disease control program; movement controls and biosecurity... emergency response capacity. In response to Switzerland's request, APHIS evaluated the risk of...

  16. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the...-2323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to...

  17. 7 CFR 371.5 - Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration (GIPSA), and other APHIS, AMS, and GIPSA officials in the planning and formulation of MRP policies... functions for APHIS and designated functions for other MRP agencies, including finance, personnel, and... development, training, recruitment, and employee development programs for MRP agencies. (11)...

  18. 76 FR 63149 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    .... (1) Inside the pest-exclusionary structures. APHIS-approved traps with an APHIS-approved protein bait... traps with an approved protein bait must be placed in a 500-meter-wide buffer area around the registered... dissemination of plant pests. On March 15, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13892-13896,...

  19. 75 FR 26708 - ArborGen, LLC; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... pertinent scientific information, and considering comments provided by the public, APHIS has concluded that.../fdmspublic/component/main?main=DocketDetail&d=APHIS-2008-0059 ). Other Information: Additional information... INFORMATION CONTACT: To obtain copies of the EA, FONSI, and response to comments, contact Ms. Cynthia Eck...

  20. 75 FR 2845 - ArborGen, LLC; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Controlled Release of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Internet at ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Biotechnology Regulatory... Register (74 FR 26648-26649, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0059) announcing the availability of an environmental..., 2.80, and 371.3. Done in Washington, DC, this 6\\th\\ day of January 2010. Cindy Smith...

  1. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... (74 FR 12055-12058, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0124), we amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by... (74 FR 12055-12058, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0124). DATES: Effective Date: March 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations;...

  2. 76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on October 10, 2008 (73 FR 60099-60102, Docket No. APHIS... published in the Federal Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60586-60588, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0097), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and...

  3. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 81404-81408, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0158) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... where the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy is neither negligible nor controlled. He stated that... that foreign country, stating that multinational meat packers might lobby APHIS to conduct...

  4. 9 CFR 130.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry outside of normal business hours. 2 2 Normal business hours at the APHIS Animal Import Centers are... including poultry. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). The Animal and Plant Health... receipt and handling of restricted import animal products or byproducts under 9 CFR chapter I,...

  5. 77 FR 22465 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... condition of entry, the pitaya fruit must be produced in accordance with a systems approach that includes..., Import Specialist, Regulatory Coordination and Compliance, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30036- 30040, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0113) a...

  6. 75 FR 20560 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... the Federal Register on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 1749-1751, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0072), APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as transformation event MIR162, which has...

  7. 78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Register on July 13, 2012 (77 FR 41366-41367, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0024), APHIS announced the availability... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by the Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as event SYN-05307-1, which has been...

  8. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 83-84, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041), APHIS announced the availability of the Pioneer... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated as event...

  9. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Register on February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13312-13313, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026), APHIS announced the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event...

  10. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... copy of your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS... millimeters (approximately 0.86 to 1.4 inches) that is indigenous to Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is a serious quarantine pest of Opuntia spp., and an occasional pest of Nopalea...

  11. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0032), in which... (76 FR 51934-51935, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0032), in which we announced the availability, for review..., Argentina AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...

  12. 78 FR 44521 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Register (76 FR 8709-8710, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0100) a notice of intent to prepare an environmental... statement (DEIS) to analyze the effects that may result from installing game fencing as a barrier to keep...: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2010-0100-0001. ] Postal...

  13. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  14. 77 FR 41357 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  15. 78 FR 23738 - Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI); Availability of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI... that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the...

  16. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 62365- 62366, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing receipt of... beets (Petition 03-323-01). On October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR... public review. On March 17, 2005, we published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR...

  17. 77 FR 41354 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting public... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  18. 78 FR 18307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... APHIS programs including veterinary medicine, animal science, plant pathology; and (4) increase... of Collection: APHIS Student Outreach Program to help students learn about careers in animal science... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Animal...

  19. 77 FR 29313 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) amended the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Quarantine... Protection and Quarantine, a program within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),...

  20. 9 CFR 130.51 - Penalties for nonpayment or late payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any user fee due under 7 CFR chapter III or chapter I of this title, then: (1) Subsequent user fee... health certificate, APHIS will not release the certificate. (3) Veterinary diagnostics. If an APHIS user... accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3717. Administrative charges will be assessed at $20.00 per dishonored payment...

  1. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals removed by APHIS from a herd for testing, will be appraised by an APHIS official appraiser and a State... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of...

  2. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please state that your comment refers to Docket No. APHIS-2010..., APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133 Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-5333. For copies of more detailed..., including box labeling, phytosanitary certificates with an additional declaration, trust fund...

  3. 78 FR 32229 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-2013-0011, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118..., Section Leader, Policy, Evaluation and Licensing, CVB, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 148, Riverdale, MD... enforces requirements concerning production, packaging, labeling, and shipping of these products and...

  4. 78 FR 2039 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... (76 FR 50082-50110, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0091) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... No. APHIS-2009-0091, 76 FR 62313). We received 1,618 comments by that date. They were from cattle and... tattoos and breed registry certificates. In response to many commenters from the cattle industry, we...

  5. 77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS) published a notice in the Federal Register (71 FR 16547-16548, Docket No. APHIS... Register on January 14, 2011 (76 FR 2680, Docket No. ER-FRL-8994-6), and a notice of availability regarding the final supplemental EIS was published by EPA in the Federal Register on May 11, 2012 (77 FR...

  6. 77 FR 41351 - Bayer CropScience LP; Availability of a Finding of No Significant Impact and a Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... genetically engineered by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation utilizing vector pTDL004 containing a cry1Ab... generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation utilizing a slightly different vector (pTDL008... Federal Register on October 12, 2011 (76 FR 63278-63279, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0102), APHIS announced...

  7. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more... designated phytosanitary measures is that the fruits or vegetables are imported from a pest-free area in the... detection of a pest. Pest-free areas are subject to audit by APHIS to verify their status. APHIS...

  8. Feeding behavior of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 on soybean PI 243540, the source of Rag2 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an effective means of controlling populations of this introduced pest species in the U.S. Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes identified in soybean germplasm have been incorporated into commercial cultivars, but differenti...

  9. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chenell Drive... APHIS-WS addresses. Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the United States. On November 24, 2009, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR 61319-61321, Docket No....

  10. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to t...

  11. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  12. The EU needs more anticipatory funding of health and environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-01-01

    In recent months, there have been several attacks on the Precautionary Principle and how the principle has been used in the EU. For example, the scientific advisor to the President of the European Commission, Ann Glover, has accused Commissioners of having “crazy ideas” about the safety of nanote...

  13. 77 FR 14354 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review; U.S.-Flag Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ....gov , including any personal and/or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis Glover, Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA (202) 501-1448 or... International Air transportation Fair Competitive Practices Act of 1974 (49 U.S.C. 1517) (Fly America...

  14. 76 FR 37704 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Documenting Contractor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... and business ethics; and (7) Business-like concern for the interest of the customer. (b) All past.../or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis E. Glover... FAR Case 2006-022, Contractor Performance Information (74 FR 31557) published July 1, 2009, and...

  15. 77 FR 73659 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Schedules for Construction Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Acquisition Policy, (202) 501-1448 or email Curtis.glover@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose..., a contractor shall, within five days after work commences on the contract or another period of time... monitor progress under a Federal construction contract when other management approaches for...

  16. A review and critical analysis of how cognitive neuroscientific investigations using dance can contribute to sport psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Acquah, D.; Ramsey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether watching Michael Jackson moonwalk or Savion Glover tap dance, it is striking how skilfully some people can move their bodies. The emerging field of cognitive neuroscience has produced important advances in understanding the control and perception of complex action. Here we outline the merits

  17. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

  18. 78 FR 50022 - Environmental Impact Statement; Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To... infested areas in Massachusetts and Ohio are active eradication areas, and APHIS is still working...

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  20. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... CONTACT: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road... distance. For the Denver meeting, there will be a free hotel shuttle to and from Denver...

  1. 78 FR 45907 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... dissemination of livestock and poultry health information on a national basis are consistent with the APHIS... indirectly, would be reduced or nonexistent. Description of Respondents: Business or other for-profit....

  2. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, winter 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This special use permit allows USDA Animal Damage Control (APHIS) to collect up to 50 coyote, red fox or badger by aerial gunning as part of the disease study...

  3. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  4. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Service stakeholder registry. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Hallie Zimmers, Advisor for State and Stakeholder Relations, Legislative and Public Affairs, APHIS, room 1147, 1400 Independence Avenue...

  5. 77 FR 22284 - Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder... Inspection Service (APHIS) has established a Veterinary Services (VS) Stakeholder Registry, an...

  6. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  7. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... import regulations for agricultural products? Who enforces the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) in my area? Does APHIS hold cargo, ... permit, notification or petition? How can I find Animal Welfare Act Inspection Reports? I Want To ... Obtain a listing ...

  8. 77 FR 65854 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2012-0055... carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds,...

  9. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...) is soliciting letters of interest to participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management System Program is a voluntary ] compliance...

  10. 78 FR 36506 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ....'' However, on May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006... provides the requirements for the importation of Pelargonium spp. plants from the Canary Islands,...

  11. 75 FR 66699 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 46859-46861, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0018) a proposal to establish... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  12. 76 FR 23272 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Trichinae...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ..., treatment, and certification of animals. APHIS regulations in 9 CFR part 149 contain certification... industry. The program is intended to enhance the ability of swine producers, as well as slaughter... quality assurance affidavits, logbooks, recordkeeping, test results, documented procedures at...

  13. 75 FR 56981 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... packinghouse and found free of Brevipalpus californicus, B. phoenicus, Diaphorina citri, and Coniothecium... published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register on June 10, 2010 (75 FR 32900-32901, Docket No. APHIS-...

  14. Aphids of Java. Part V: Aphidini (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Examined material, host plants and etymology are given of 22 species, all viviparous and belonging to the genera Aphis, Brachysiphoniella, Hyalopterus, Hysteroneura, Melanaphis, Rhopalosiphum, Schizaphis and Toxoptera. Keys to the included species are given.

  15. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis po

  16. 78 FR 56129 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 8987-8992, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0008) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the... fruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa pods from Hawaii. * * * * * (Approved by the Office of...

  17. New additions and invasive aphids for Turkey’s aphidofauna (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Özhan; BEĞEN, Hayal AKYILDIRIM; Görür, Gazi; DEMİRTAŞ, Emin

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine aphid species in the Inner Western Anatolian Subregion of Turkey. Nineteen aphid species are reported as new to the Turkish aphid fauna. These species are Aphis eryngiiglomerata Bozhko, 1963; Aphis glareosae Bozhko, 1959; Capitophorus eniwanus Miyazaki, 1971; Chaitophorus indicus A.K. Ghosh, M.R. Ghosh & D.N. Raychaudhuri, 1970; Chaitophorus ramicola (Börner, 1949); Cinara indica Verma, 1970; Cinara juniperensis (Gillette & Palmer, 1925...

  18. New Additions and Invasive Aphids for Turkey’s Aphidofauna (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Özhan; Akyıldırım, Hayal; Görür, Gazi; Demirtaş, Emin

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine aphid species in the Inner Western Anatolian Subregion of Turkey. Nineteen aphid species are reported as new to the Turkish aphid fauna. These species are Aphis eryngiiglomerata Bozhko, 1963; Aphis glareosae Bozhko, 1959; Capitophorus eniwanus Miyazaki, 1971; Chaitophorus indicus A.K. Ghosh, M.R. Ghosh & D.N. Raychaudhuri, 1970; Chaitophorus ramicola (Börner, 1949); Cinara indica Verma, 1970; Cinara juniperensis (Gillette & Palmer, 1925); Cinar...

  19. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  20. Community Gardening, Motivation and Health Benefits.

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigan, Noelle

    2011-01-01

    community gardens have been described as locally organized initiatives where land is used to produce food, flowers or both in an urban environment (Glover, 2003)' community gardens are diverse and may vary enornously in what they offer, according to local needs and circumstance (Ferris, Norman & Sempik, 2001)' Garden size is dependant on many factors, including location, land available gardening, demand, physical and time limitations of the gardeners and thus standard community garden size ex...

  1. Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C

    2008-04-01

    Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929

  2. 棉田非靶标害虫发生丰度与气象因子的关联性分析%Correlation between meteorological factors and abundance of non-target pests in cotton fields in Anyang, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒珺瑜; 张帅; 王春义; 吕丽敏; 朱香镇; 李春花; 崔金杰

    2015-01-01

    【背景】近年来,全球气候条件不断变化,其对农田生态系统和病虫草害发生的影响较大。【方法】于2009~2013年在河南安阳田间小区系统调查了转基因棉田和非转基因棉田主要害虫种群丰度,结合5年间本地气象因素,分段分析了影响棉田主要害虫发生的关键气象因子及其关键影响时期。【结果】不同害虫发生危害的关键气象因子及其关键影响时期不同,且不同害虫种群丰度与气象因子及其影响时期有不同的相关性。影响棉蚜的关键性气象因子是1~8月的平均气温,与相对湿度和降雨量相关性较低;影响棉叶蝉的关键气象因子是1~4月的降雨量,其次是1~8月的相对湿度,而平均气温与其相关性很低;5~8月降雨量对烟粉虱有一定的抑制作用,平均气温和相对湿度对其无显著影响;影响棉蓟马的关键气象因子是平均气温,其次是5~8月相对湿度,降雨量与棉蓟马丰度相关性较低;平均气温、相对湿度和降雨量与盲蝽种群丰度的相关性很低,其发生危害可能是多种气象因子协同作用的结果。【结论与意义】本研究结果可为气候变化条件下棉田主要害虫的预测预报和防御提供理论依据。%Background]In recent years, global climate change continually, and it has a great influence on the farmland ecosystem and insect pests. [Method]How climate factors ( average temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) in January to August from 2009 to 2013 affect population densities of non-target pest species in the two kinds cotton fields were systematically determined in field plot at Anyang, Henan Province. [Result]For the cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii) , the average populatin density was correlated with temperature from January to August but not relevance with relative humidity and total rainfall. For the cotton leafhopper ( Em-poasca biguttula) , the population density positively

  3. Purine Biosynthesis, Riboflavin Production, and Trophic-Phase Span Are Controlled by a Myb-Related Transcription Factor in the Fungus Ashbya gossypii†

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, Laura; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L; Santos, María A.

    2006-01-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a natural riboflavin overproducer used in the industrial production of the vitamin. We have isolated an insertional mutant exhibiting higher levels of riboflavin production than the wild type. DNA analysis of the targeted locus in the mutant strain revealed that a syntenic homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 gene, a member of the Myb family of transcription factors, was inactivated. Directed gene disruption of AgBAS1 confirmed the phenotype observed for the inserti...

  4. Ingeniería Metabólica de Sistemas en el hongo industrial Ashbya gosypii: impulsando la producción de riboflavina, lípidos y nucleósidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Amaro, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    [EN]Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus used by the industry to produce riboflavin. During the last years, the natural capability of this microorganism to produce the vitamin has been increased by different metabolic engineering approaches. Since this fungus presents general industrial advantages in upstream, downstream and the fermentation processes it has been recently proposed for other large scale applications such as recombinant proteins, bioethanol and folic acid production. The ...

  5. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Boretsky, Yuriy R.; Pynyaha, Yuriy V.; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y.; Fedorovych, Dariya V.; Fayura, Lyubov R.; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C.; Andriy A Sibirny

    2011-01-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and F...

  6. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  7. Avaliação de equações de drenagem para regime não permanente em condições de laboratório Evaluation of drainage equations for non permanent state in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio N. Duarte

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Na drenagem agrícola, os drenos são instalados, geralmente, sobre a camada impermeável ou a certa distância acima desta. A profundidade de instalação dos drenos e a do perfil, a condutividade hidráulica e a porosidade drenável são parâmetros de importância no cálculo do espaçamento de drenos. Diversas equações são sugeridas para o cálculo deste espaçamento, porém não há uma única equação que se adapte bem a todas as situações. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz/USP", utilizando-se um modelo reduzido para simulações, preenchido com areia, com o objetivo de definir a equação mais apropriada quando os drenos são instalados em duas situações distintas, ou seja, sobre uma camada impermeável ou acima desta. A partir de ensaios de vazão e de carga hidráulica em condições de regime permanente, pode-se estimar a condutividade hidráulica pela fórmula de Ernst. Em uma segunda fase e se medindo o volume de água drenado, determinou-se a porosidade drenável. Posteriormente, realizando-se ensaios sob condições de regime não-permanente, compararam-se os dados medidos com os estimados pelas fórmulas de Boussinesq-Glover, Schilfgaarde, Glover-Dumm, Terzidis, Hammad, Kirkham e Glover, cujos resultados indicaram que a melhor fórmula a ser utilizada na condição em que os drenos se localizam sobre a camada impermeável, é a de Boussinesq-Glover; já para o caso em que estes estão instalados acima da camada impermeável, a equação de Schilfgaarde, seguida pela equação de Glover-Dumm, foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho.In drainage for agriculture the field drains are usually located over the impermeable layer, or at a certain distance above it when the layer is at a great depth. The depth of installation of the drains, the depth of the profile, the hydraulic conductivity and the drainable porosity are parameters of fundamental

  8. Equações obtidas a partir das leis de conservação para dimensionamento de drenos subterrâneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do C. P. de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se obteve uma expressão algébrica para o modelo de Dumm através do qual se descrevem suas soluções por meio de algoritmo geométrico. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de identificação de padrões potenciais, hiperbólicos, lineares e exponenciais, por intermédio de representações em gráficos monolog e dilog visando definir estratégias de ajuste pela técnica dos mínimos quadrados, sentido em que foram analisados diversos modelos e se identificou que os modelos do tipo linear e potencial ajustam muito bem a razão entre os níveis do lençol freático inicial e após t dias decorridos; além disto, a identificação de que modelos potenciais podem ajustar bem o processo, possibilitou gerar, com o uso do Solver, Office Excel da Microsoft. Inc., modelos simplificados para o problema, razão pela qual se propõe, neste estudo, o ajuste com equações empíricas do tipo potencial para representá-lo com o uso das variáveis: condutividade hidráulica, profundidade e tempo para determinar a distância entre drenos permitindo, inclusive, a descrição dessa distância sob os mesmos parâmetros que o modelo de Glover-Dumm. As soluções encontradas têm pequenas diferenças porém não significativas quanto aos modelos de Glover, Dumm e Glover-Dumm.

  9. Metaheuristics progress as real problem solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Nonobe, Koji; Yagiura, Mutsunori

    2005-01-01

    Metaheuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers is a peer-reviewed volume of eighteen current, cutting-edge papers by leading researchers in the field. Included are an invited paper by F. Glover and G. Kochenberger, which discusses the concept of Metaheuristic agent processes, and a tutorial paper by M.G.C. Resende and C.C. Ribeiro discussing GRASP with path-relinking. Other papers discuss problem-solving approaches to timetabling, automated planograms, elevators, space allocation, shift design, cutting stock, flexible shop scheduling, colorectal cancer and cartography. A final group of methodology papers clarify various aspects of Metaheuristics from the computational view point.

  10. Osedax mucofloris (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae, a bone-eating marine worm new to Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Schander

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE The bone-eating siboglinid polychaete Osedax mucofloris Glover, Källström, Smith & Dahlgren, 2005 is reported from Norwegian waters for the first time. Dense growth was found on bovine bones deposited at 118 meters depth off western Norway. Dwarf males were observed for the first time. The two specimens sequenced were identical to haplotypes previously found at a Swedish whale fall. The possibility of finding additional species of Osedax is discussed.

  11. Modelling temporal stability of EPI time series using magnitude images acquired with multi-channel receiver coils.

    OpenAIRE

    Chloe Hutton; Evelyne Balteau; Antoine Lutti; Oliver Josephs; Nikolaus Weiskopf

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Krueger and Glover introduced a model describing the temporal SNR (tSNR) of an EPI time series as a function of image SNR (SNR(0)). This model has been used to study physiological noise in fMRI, to optimize fMRI acquisition parameters, and to estimate maximum attainable tSNR for a given set of MR image acquisition and processing parameters. In its current form, this noise model requires the accurate estimation of image SNR. For multi-channel receiver coils, this is not straightforwar...

  12. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    ~ek and Thorlacius-Ussing 1988). Earlier studies have correlated this selenium accumulation in the anterior pituitary to endocrine dysfunction in selenium-intoxicated animals (Jensen 1975; Glover et al. 1979). Recent results from our laboratory have demonstrated a substantial decrease in growth hormone secretion...... in the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc (Danscher 1984...

  13. EST Table: FS791278 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS791278 E_FL_ffbm_06E16_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/173 aa ref|NP_001093312.1| glover...in 3 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF63527.1| gloverin3 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/09 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS791278 ffbm ...

  14. [An unpublished contribution of Melanie Klein "On Reassurance"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Claudia; Klein, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Melanie Klein's unpublished paper on reassurance is presented in German translation. The author shows that it was a contribution to Glover's investigation on psychoanalytic technique in the 1930s. The paper is discussed against the background of the technical discussions conducted in London at that time (e. g. M. Schmideberg, J. Strachey) and of Klein's relevant publications. Although Klein consistently considered "correct" interpretation to be the most effective means of reassurance, she occasionally also accepted a non-interpreting approach. In this respect the paper presented here goes further than any other of her writings.

  15. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  16. 9 CFR 147.5 - The microagglutination test for pullorum-typhoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 200, Conyers, GA...) Seal each plate with a plastic sealer or place unsealed in a tight incubation box as described in...) Seal each plate with a plastic sealer or place the unsealed microplates in a tight incubation box...

  17. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...,” available from the National Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA, 1498 Klondike Road... place the chick papers immediately into large plastic bags and seal the bags. (B) Place the plastic bags... plastic bags do not require refrigeration. (iii) The laboratory must follow the procedure set forth...

  18. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Federal Register on December 27, 2010 (75 FR 81087-81089, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0089), we amended the... 7 CFR part 301 that was published at 75 FR 81087-81089 on December 27, 2010, is adopted as a final... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  19. 75 FR 69851 - Changes in Disease Status of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina With Regard to Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... animals from Santa Catarina. Other commenters questioned the adequacy of Brazil's food ] safety standards... analysis discusses and references information on the size of the cattle industry in Brazil. As discussed in...\\ (75 FR 19915-19920, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) to amend the regulations by adding Santa Catarina...

  20. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) a final rule that, among... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 68327-68331) on November 14, 2013, and effective on November 29... in Brazil AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  1. 77 FR 46016 - Notice of Determination of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ..., many of the biosecurity measures employed during the emergency are now required by law. Standards of... rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431- 65432... restore Japan to the list of regions APHIS considers free of FMD. On July 26, 2011 (76 FR...

  2. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15279-15280, Docket No. APHIS-2011..., the EU and other countries refers to Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  3. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  4. Proposed draft permit guidance for genetically modified animal disease organisms and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of proposed draft guidance and represents the author's opinions only. They are presented below solely for the purpose of open discussion and comments on the subject of genetically modified arthropod regulations and should not be construed as representing actual or current regulations or opinions of the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). (author)

  5. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 42595-42602, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094) a proposal \\2\\ to amend the regulations... protein and phenylalanine at residue 117, which is the N-terminus of the F1 protein. The term ``multiple... deduction) at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine at residue 117, which is the N-terminus...

  6. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Service relative to a proposed biological control program for Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The... A. donax management options include herbicides, prescribed fires, biomass removal, and other control... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69396, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0108) a notice \\1\\ announcing...

  7. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....25 Fumigation. Fumigation may be used for sanitizing eggs and hatchery equipment or rooms as a part of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  8. 7 CFR 305.27 - Forced hot air treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and T103-d-2. (1)Temperature sensors must be inserted into the centers of the largest fruits. The number of sensors must be approved in advance by APHIS. Sensors must be physically placed in various... trays, bulk bins, or ventilated boxes) must be loaded into the treatment chamber, and sensors must...

  9. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1 Requests should be submitted in writing to Phytosanitary Issues Management, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River..., Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending...

  10. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 13972, Docket No. APHIS-2011- 0013), in which we announced the availability, for review and... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based...

  11. 76 FR 21854 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Rambutan Fruit From Malaysia and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78207-78208, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0104), in which we announced the availability... Importation of Fresh Rambutan Fruit From Malaysia and Vietnam AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... importation into the continental United States of fresh rambutan fruit (Nephelium lappaceum) from Malaysia...

  12. 78 FR 30842 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... of Management and Budget (OMB), New Executive Office Building, 725-17th Street, NW., Washington, DC...: 7 CFR 340; Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering... (APHIS) is charged with preventing the introduction of plant pest into the United States or...

  13. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Register (72 FR 62798-62802, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0168) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... indicate that the equine is able to bear weight on all four limbs, is able to walk unassisted, is not...

  14. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ..., agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority, filing of petitions and applications and... engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate should not be listed as a Federal noxious weed and... tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate, as Federal noxious weeds. On May 13, 2003, APHIS responded to...

  15. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... and animal pests and diseases. On January 19, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 2845... (75 FR 29706, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172) a notice announcing the availability of a final... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal...

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-6 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the territories into or through the continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... obtained from PPQ Permit Services or at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/transit.shtml... change will not significantly increase the risk of plant pests or diseases in the United States,...

  17. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ..., 2011, however, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 15225-15228, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0018) a... action requested by the commenter. For greater clarity, we are making a change in this final rule to the..., sprinkled with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with water at high pressure, and washed with...

  18. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 65988-65991, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0040) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... scientific literature, information from Australian scientists, and/or State records, to establish that the... CFR part 305. The prescribed 400-gray approved dose for this class of pests was necessary...

  19. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  20. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  1. 75 FR 28187 - Importation of Tomatoes From Souss-Massa-Draa, Morocco; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Register on November 2, 2009 (74 FR 56523-56526, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0017), and effective on December 2...; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: In a final rule published in the Federal Register on November 2, 2009, and effective...

  2. 76 FR 28886 - Importation of Swine Hides and Skins, Bird Trophies, and Ruminant Hides and Skins; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 66222-66227, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0113), and effective on January 14, 2010, we amended the... Skins, Bird Trophies, and Ruminant Hides and Skins; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: In a final rule that...

  3. 78 FR 2363 - Notification of Deletion of a System of Records; Automated Trust Funds Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Agriculture (USDA) published in the Federal Register (73 FR 23414- 23416, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0026) a system of records notice establishing the Automated Trust Funds (ATF) database system of records. The...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notification of Deletion of a System of Records;...

  4. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... and agricultural uses. The rooting characteristics of Opuntia spp. reduce wind and rain erosion... and economic damage. In a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2009 (74 FR 27071... effective on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037), we added Louisiana to the...

  5. 77 FR 1388 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Federal Register (Docket No. APHIS-2009-0035, 76 FR 31499-31507) to remove the lists of States approved to..., Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and poultry products, Reporting and recordkeeping... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY:...

  6. 77 FR 5012 - Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ....309(c) and 2.308(h)(2) will be shared with the Department of Human Services (HHS) and the U.S... AGENCY Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of... office of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Biotechnology Regulatory Services (APHIS/BRS)...

  7. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including pest control equipment and supplies and cleaning and disinfecting equipment with adequate capacity to disinfect the facility and equipment. (B) Separately maintained sanitation and pest control... technical services to ensure the biological security of the facility, if approved. APHIS will...

  8. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  9. Two new species of Aphidini Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjadze, Shalva; Özdemir, Işil; Blackman, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Apterous and alate viviparous females of Protaphis kvavadzei sp. n. on Eryngium campestre (Apiaceae) and Aphis matricariae sp. n. on Matricaria sp. (Asteraceae) from Turkey are described. The new species are differentiated from other aphids colonising these host plants and from species with similar morphology. PMID:25544215

  10. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands must enter into a compliance agreement with APHIS in... plastic tarpaulins, including while in transit to the packinghouse and while awaiting packaging. If fruits... must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or...

  11. 78 FR 33799 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference.... SUMMARY: We are giving notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry... Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094; (770)...

  12. 76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference.... SUMMARY: We are giving notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry..., Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101,...

  13. 77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... to renew the charter of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094;...

  14. 76 FR 65935 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 15791-15798, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031), and effective on April 21, 2011, we amended the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 56 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan... avian influenza to simplify the list of types of poultry eligible for 100 percent indemnity, among...

  15. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 40th Biennial Conference. DATES: The.... Andrew R. Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike...

  16. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 41st Biennial Conference. DATES: The..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094-5173,...

  17. 77 FR 41366 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our updated... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... received a petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status...

  18. 76 FR 27301 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for cotton..., Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 734-5720,...

  19. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 31577-31578, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0039), in which we announced the availability, for... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which...

  20. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ..., including Medfly. On September 21, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 48013-48014, Docket No... the Federal Register (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) on January 26, 2010, and effective... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  1. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  2. 75 FR 81372 - Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... shipping procedures. On May 14, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 27225- 27227, Docket No... published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2010 (75 FR 66643-66644, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0016), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados From...

  3. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  4. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...: Effective on January 10, 2011, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 74 FR 47999... in the Federal Register on September 21, 2009 (74 FR 47999-48001, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0072), we... change, the interim rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 74 FR 47999-48001...

  5. 78 FR 23209 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Addition of Taxa of Plants for Planting To List of Taxa Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011),...

  6. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 11071-11072, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0020) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow...

  7. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431-65432, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0077), we... Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... concerning the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) status of Japan and the risk of susceptible animals and...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  9. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., 2011, we published a proposed rule \\2\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 78168- 78172, Docket No. APHIS... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD42 Importation of Sand Pears From China AGENCY... and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China...

  10. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... will be detailed in another notice published in the Federal Register. In accordance with that process, on December 18, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 74787-74788, Docket No. APHIS-2012... standards established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Reconsideration of the status...

  11. 75 FR 62498 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    .... Sec. 301.76 through 301.76-11). Citrus greening, also known as Huanglonghing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS... in the United States. The regulations in ``Subpart-Citrus Fruit'' (7 CFR 319.28) allow...

  12. 77 FR 22463 - Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 81942-81943, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0036) a proposal... domestic citrus trade association, and a group of students. All opposed our proposal to remove the set..., Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine, Reporting and...

  13. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... is being phased in, as described in two notices we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 5911-5913 and 74 FR 45415- 45418, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0119). Under the Act, ``Plant'' means: ``Any wild member... shipment or facility level. For example, bananas are a common food crop because bananas in general meet...

  14. 9 CFR 51.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed. Dairy cattle. A female bovine of a recognized dairy breed over 20 months of age, which has calved... Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.1 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following... States Department of Agriculture (APHIS or Service). Animals. Cattle, bison, and breeding swine....

  15. 9 CFR 98.30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland). Cattle. Animals of the bovine species... of Agriculture (APHIS or Service.) Animals. Cattle, sheep, goats, other ruminants, swine, horses... domestic swine is prohibited. Ruminants. All animals which chew the cud, such as cattle, buffaloes,...

  16. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 6222-6227, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0002), a proposal \\1\\ to amend the fruits and... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and...

  17. 75 FR 66643 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 29680- 29684, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0016) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD15 Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional... are amending the regulations for the importation of Hass avocados originating in Michoac n,...

  18. 76 FR 39376 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Avocado from Michoac n Mexico. OMB Control Number: 0579-0129. Summary of Collection: Under the Plant... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulations allow fresh Hass Avocado fruit grown in approved orchards... Plants or Plant Products,'' to ensure that fresh Hass Avocados from Mexico do not harbor insect...

  19. 76 FR 77475 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... permits and compliance agreements to prevent the spread of PCN and to ensure that regulated articles can be moved safely from the quarantined area without spreading PCN. If APHIS did not collect this information, the spread of PCN in the United States could result in a loss of domestic or foreign markets...

  20. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting... (APHIS) is soliciting feedback from our stakeholders in several areas having to do with our partnerships... modernization initiatives and to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to share their thoughts on...

  1. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  2. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in... Inspection Service's Wildlife Services (APHIS-WS) program is to provide Federal leadership in...

  3. 9 CFR 85.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test, except for approved differential pseudorabies tests other than the glycoprotein I (gpI) ELISA test; 5. Latex Agglutination Test (LAT); and 6. Particle Concentration Fluorescence... States Department of Agriculture (APHIS or Service). Approved differential pseudorabies test. Any...

  4. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... organizations at the State level to accommodate varying local laws and management objectives for feral swine... and organizations to meet local management objectives, which may include reducing statewide... practices (40 CFR 1502.14(d)). Under the no action alternative, current APHIS feral swine damage...

  5. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34422, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0065... Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from...

  6. 9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... product from each serial and each subserial shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in... least eight rabbits of a strain acceptable to APHIS, each weighing 4-8 pounds, shall be injected... first does. (3) Fourteen to seventeen days after the second dose, all surviving rabbits shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... product from each serial and each subserial shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in... used. (2) Each of at least eight rabbits of a strain acceptable to APHIS, each weighing 4-8 pounds... rabbits shall be bled, and the serum tested for antitoxin content. (i) At least seven rabbits are...

  8. 50 CFR 14.252 - What definitions do I need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) (See definition of “licensee” in 9 CFR 1.1.). Prohibited... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Captive Wildlife Safety Act § 14.252...

  9. 7 CFR 1.123 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department under the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, USDA/OGC-42. Community Development Division Community... Services Programs—Animal Welfare and Horse Protection Regulatory Actions, USDA/APHIS-4. Farmers Home... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations §...

  10. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...) that reduce the maximum number of required animals per test from 6 to 3. The Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S... . References AWA. 2010. Animal Welfare Act. 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq. Public Law 89- 544. Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awa/awa.pdf . CPSC. 2010. Hazardous Substances and...

  11. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...' regulations in 7 CFR part 340. In a notice \\1\\ published in the Federal Register on September 2, 2009 (74 FR... published in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54950-54951, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...

  12. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International,...

  13. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... In a notice \\2\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41364-41366, Docket No... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice describing our public review process for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of...

  14. 9 CFR 98.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (APHIS). Approved artificial insemination center. A facility approved or licensed by the national... government of the region in which the facility is located for the artificial insemination of donor dams or for conception as a result of artificial breeding by a donor sire and for collecting and...

  15. 76 FR 13971 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fruits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...-0120, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118... Secretary determines that the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent a plant pest or noxious... conditions, from certain parts of the world. Importation of papayas from certain regions of Brazil,...

  16. 78 FR 25942 - J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination... petition from the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) seeking a determination of nonregulated status of...

  17. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., 2010, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010... (75 FR 34320-34322, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0004), we amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations... that was published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010. Done in Washington, DC on December 22,...

  18. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at least... approved for this use by APHIS, and must be an electronic implant, flank tattoo, ear tattoo,...

  19. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  20. 75 FR 69046 - Notice of Determination of the High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 17368-17370, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0088) a notice \\1\\ in... hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, and other birds from the Czech Republic and Sweden presents a low... 2007. \\1\\ To view the notice and the evaluation, go to...

  1. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Julia Punderson, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Center for Import and Export... the certificate requirements for imported live poultry and hatching eggs. We are adding language to...,'' Docket No. APHIS-2007-0014; 74 FR 18285-18288). That document changed Sec. 94.6(c) to create a...

  2. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... part 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, is delayed until July 25, 2011. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register (76 FR 16683-16686, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112) to amend the regulations... 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, until July 25, 2011. Authority: 7 U.S.C....

  3. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection...

  4. 77 FR 7122 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... and found free of the mite Tenuipalpus granati, the false spider mite Tenuipalpus punicae, and the... inspected and found free of the mite Tenuipalpus granati, the false spider mite Tenuipalpus punicae, and the... September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60450, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0087), in which we announced the availability,...

  5. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  6. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010-31 May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M. J.; Barlow, E. J.; Beebee, T. J. C.; Bennetzen, J. L.; BERMINGHAM, E.; Boisselier-Dubayle, M. C.; Bozarth, C. A.; Brooks, C. P.; Brown, R. P.; Catanese, G; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, I.; Chak, S. T. C.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, ...

  7. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register on July 8, 2013 (78 FR 40688-40689, Docket No. APHIS- 2013... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a...

  8. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the producer of the site must arrange for a site audit to gain (or regain) Stage III certified... decertified by APHIS, the producer must follow the procedures for requesting an initial site audit for Stage I... program, then the producer must follow the procedures for requesting an initial audit for Stage I...

  9. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on live or dead animals, and will base the approval or disapproval of a test on the evaluation by APHIS and, when appropriate, outside scientists, of: (1) A standardized test protocol that must include..., the test methodology, and any control or quality assurance procedures; (2) Data to...

  10. 9 CFR 54.10 - Tests for scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator will base the approval or disapproval of a test on the evaluation by APHIS and, when appropriate, outside scientists, of: (1) A standardized test protocol that must include a description of the test, a... or quality assurance procedures; (2) Data to support reproducibility, that is, the ability...

  11. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1... Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2), advising the public of our... preparing an EIS, for which we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket...

  12. 77 FR 41359 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of...) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status...

  13. 78 FR 13308 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Dicamba and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... determination of nonregulated status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  14. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing that the Monsanto/ KWS... Federal Register (75 FR 67945- 67946, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing the availability of an... published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2) advising the public...

  15. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 27303-27304, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0023) a notice\\1\\ advising the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as MON 87460, which...

  16. 78 FR 28796 - Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ..., 2012, 77 FR 41356-41357; Docket No. APHIS-2012-0097 published on February 27, 2013, 78 FR 13308-13309... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... the potential approval of two petitions from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking a...

  17. 77 FR 29588 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52302-52303, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0074), in... the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach From Colombia into the Continental United States... fresh celery, arugula, and spinach from Colombia. Based on the findings of three pest risk...

  18. Sample Set (SE): SE45 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aphy-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for h... for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.rik

  19. 77 FR 75968 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... surveillance mission. They are used routinely when specimens (such as blood, milk, tissue, or urine) from any animal (including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and poultry) are submitted to APHIS' National... information needed for the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. This information identifies the...

  20. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS) for animals, animal products, birds, germ plasm, organisms, and vectors. These... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and Plant Products User Fees AGENCY: Animal...

  1. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... fly and that any fruit fly finds are reported to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 319 RIN 0579-AD34 Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  2. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/fruit_flies/index.shtml. The description of the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined...

  3. 77 FR 41362 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Petition for... Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from Okanagan Specialty...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-6 - Trust fund agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-6 Trust fund... the exportation of fruits or vegetables and APHIS services are to be funded by the national...

  5. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...=APHIS-2011-0050 to submit or view comments and to view supporting and related materials available...: Title: Animal Welfare. OMB Number: 0579-0036. Type of Request: Extension of approval of an information... Act that are used for teaching, testing, and experimentation. This information is used by...

  6. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of origin of the MCS may be used if approved by APHIS. (c) The MCS and either each subculture of... sources of cells in the batch. (d) The MCS and either each subculture used to prepare a biological product... not be used. If bacteria or fungi are found in a subculture, the subculture shall not be used. (e)...

  7. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  8. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  9. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on August 17, 2011 (76 FR 50992-50993, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of...

  10. 78 FR 13303 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Register on December 5, 1997 (62 FR 64350-64351, Docket No. 97-052-2), APHIS announced our determination of... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk... Health Inspection Service has prepared a preliminary decision regarding a request from Stine Seed...

  11. 76 FR 61072 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... commerce. The Act and the regulations will allow only operators of garbage treatment facilities, which meet... slaughter testing and recordkeeping. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS will collect information to... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service Title: Swine...

  12. 76 FR 44454 - Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in Arizona, California, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... (Triticum durum), and triticale (Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale), a hybrid of wheat and rye. Karnal bunt... Federal Register on November 10, 2010 (75 FR 68942-68945, Docket No. APHIS- 2009-0079), we amended the..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Transportation. Accordingly, the interim rule published at 75...

  13. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...: Effective on September 21, 2012, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 77 FR 5381... February 3, 2012 (77 FR 5381-5385, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0004), we amended the plum pox regulations to... rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 77 FR 5381-5385 on February 3, 2012. Done...

  14. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rule published April 25, 2013 (78 FR 24634) is reopened. We will consider all comments that we receive... FR 24634-24663, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011) a proposal that would restructure the regulations... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring...

  15. 9 CFR 160.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., asses, mules, zebras, birds, and poultry. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The Animal and... this subchapter based on completion of an APHIS-approved orientation or training program. Regular.... Category II animals. Food and fiber animal species; horses; birds; farm-raised aquatic animals; all...

  16. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Additional...: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...

  17. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The... Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 46, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5571....

  18. 76 FR 62313 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... INFORMATION: On August 11, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 50082-50110, Docket No. APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 RIN 0579-AD24 Traceability for... establish minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability...

  19. 7 CFR 372.5 - Classification of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant health risks or that may affect opportunities on the part of the public to influence agency... at 7 CFR 1b.3(a), are entirely appropriate for APHIS. Other actions in this class include: (1... environment of pure cultures of organisms that are either native or are established introductions....

  20. 75 FR 40719 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ..., 2010, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service published a direct final rule. (See 75 FR 20771... to update information concerning the number of copies of Outlines of Production and labeling to..., VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 148, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-8245. Authority: 21...

  1. Irradiation to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities: Pioneering generic doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved radiation doses up to 1000 Gy (1 kGy) for preservation and disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a pioneering rule providing generic low-dose radiation quarantine treatments to control insects. A gener...

  2. 76 FR 30638 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... testing and classification, to help separate test-positive herds from test-negative herds. APHIS will... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation... Animal Health Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.) the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  3. 75 FR 81560 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... population, APHIS plans to conduct the Small- Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. A small-scale farm is... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Small-Scale... not respond. The information collected through the Small-Scale Livestock Operations study will...

  4. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  5. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... INFORMATION: On January 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (APHIS-2007-0044, 75 FR 1585-1586) a... Agency in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6026-6027; Docket No. ER-FRL-8987- 9... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination...

  6. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses 731 days of age... 731 days of age. This document revises certain CEM-testing requirements for imported stallions and... Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 ] River Road Unit...

  7. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.); (2) regulations of the Council on Environmental... in the Federal Register (77 FR 49409-49410, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0052) a notice \\1\\ announcing the... presented in an appendix to the EA. On June 5, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR...

  8. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), (2) regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality for...@aphis.usda.gov ). To obtain copies of the risk assessment (also the manufacturer's risk analysis with... vaccination field trial in West Virginia. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk...

  9. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Greenbrier, Summers, and Monroe Counties, WV, including portions of U.S. Forest Service National Forest... in accordance with: (1) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C..., we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 48119-48120, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0089) a notice \\1\\...

  10. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...) administers and enforces the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (the Act), as amended (21 U.S.C. 151-159). The regulations... Medical Association met with APHIS to discuss the Agency's current labeling guidance and to explore the...., ``This product has been shown to be effective for the vaccination of healthy animals X weeks of age...

  11. 7 CFR 319.40-7 - Treatments and safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Heat treatment. Heat treatment must be performed only at a facility where APHIS or an inspector... paragraph. Heat treatment procedures may employ steam, hot water, kilns, exposure to microwave energy, or... regulated article by plant pests. (d) Heat treatment with moisture reduction. (1) Heat treatment...

  12. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 18161-18166, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050) a proposal\\1\\ to amend the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...

  13. 7 CFR 301.38-6 - Compliance agreements and cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 301.38-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine, or by...

  14. 7 CFR 301.38-5 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles: issuance and cancellation of certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-5 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles... and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine). The addresses...

  15. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  16. 77 FR 55795 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation... the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) allows certain types of... occasion. Total Burden Hours: 344. Title: Citrus from Peru. OMB Control Number: 0579-0289. Summary...

  17. 77 FR 65852 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... PPA, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the importation of citrus fruit...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Revision to and... Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  18. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the importation of citrus fruit from certain parts of the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu Oranges From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  19. 78 FR 52896 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is taking action to provide additional protection... not be able to allow the movement of untreated citrus to transit the United States to...

  20. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including... the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a...