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Sample records for aphis gossypii glover

  1. Demographic parameters of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on five cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JABRAEIL RAZMJOU; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; SEYED ZIAEDDIN MIRHOSEINI

    2006-01-01

    Life table parameters of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, were estimated on five cotton cultivars ('Sealand' ,'Siokra' ,'Varamin' ,'Bakhtegan' and 'Sahel'). Demographic parameters of the cotton aphid were assessed at 27.5 ± 1 ℃, 65% ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L: D)h. The shortest developmental time for the nymphal stages was 5.5 days on 'Siokra' and the longest was 6.1 days on 'Sealand'. The highest offspring per female was 29.6 on 'Sahel' and the lowest was 15.3 on 'Sealand'. The rm values varied from 0.272 on 'Sealand' to 0.382 (day-1) on 'Varamin'. Jackknife estimates of the A.gossypii parameters on these cultivars indicated the greatest developmental rate and fecundity on 'Varamin' and the poorest on 'Sealand' cultivar.

  2. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  3. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Qiang Tan; Tian-Cheng Ai; Xiao-Zhen Lu; Qing-Nian Cai; Cong Liu

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K) fertilizers on the distribu...

  4. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively Ro= 205.38 and 164.08 females; rm= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  5. ESTUDIO DE Harmonia axirydis Pallas (COLEOPTERA: COCINELIDAE) COMO BIOAGENTE DE CONTROL DE Aphis gossypii Glover (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Flores Macías; Silvia Rodríguez Navarro; M. Guadalupe Ramos-Espinosa; Fidel Payán Zelaya

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre la densidad de presa y el depredador es un elemento de gran importancia en los estudios de ecología de insectos. En el presente trabajo se estudió la interacción entre el depredador Harmonia axirydis Pallas y el áfido Aphis gossypii Glover. Se evaluaron cuatro densidades de presa (75, 150, 225 y 300) y la respuesta funcional se determinó mediante regresión logística. Los parámetros de la respuesta fueron estimados utilizando el modelo de Holling y la regresión no linear iter...

  6. Effectiveness of Lysiphlebus testaceïpes Cresson as biocontrol agent of Aphis gossypii Glover infesting pepper plants

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    M. Ben Halima Kamel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, greenhouse crops are damaged by Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Ben Halima Kamel 1991; Ben Halima Kamel and Ben Hamouda 1993, 1998. These aphids are considered to be the most dangerous pests of pepper because of their biology and biotic potential (Ben Halima Kamel 1991; Blackman and Eastop 2000. There are several ways of controlling these pests with chemical control being the most widely used. This method has more disadvantages than benefits (Gibson et al. 1982. The use of natural enemies to control aphids is an effective way of improving the yield and quality of protected crops. There are many studies on the following naturally occurring enemies of A. gossypii: Aphidius matricariae Haliday, Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer (Ben Halima Kamel and Ben Hamouda 1998 and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Ben Halima Kamel, unpublished data, 1999. It is now important to evaluate the effectiveness of L. testaceipes as a biocontrol agent of A. gossypii. This parasitoďd was introduced into the Mediterranean area (Carver and Franzmann 2001 and is thought to be an important parasite of A. gossypii (Lopes et al. 2007. The aim of this mainly laboratory study was to determine the factors affecting the establishment and success of a biological control agent, in particular the number of L. testaceďpes relative to the initial density of A. gossypii, needed to control the aphid. In addition, the effect of the L. testaceďpes on structure of A. gossypii populations was evaluated. Furthermore, the effectiveness of L. testaceipes in controlling A. gossypii infesting a protected crop of pepper plants and the subsequent effect on the growth of the pepper plants was also evaluated.

  7. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  8. Efeitos de fungicidas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantas de pepino Effects of fungicides on the biological aspects of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cucumber

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    Ronelza Rodrigues da Costa Zaché

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de alguns fungicidas protetores utilizados na cultura de pepino sobre o pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em condições controladas (Temp.: 25±2º C; UR: 70±10% e fotofase de 12 h. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (fungicidas e testemunha e 45 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por um indivíduo. Os fungicidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens em g i.a.L-1, foram: enxofre 800 PM (1,6, mancozebe 800 PM (1,6 e oxicloreto de cobre 840 PM (1,49. A testemunha foi composta por água destilada. Todos os produtos avaliados não influenciaram na duração em dias da fase ninfal e adulta, períodos pré-reprodutivos e reprodutivos de A. gossypii. Houve efeito do enxofre e do oxicloreto de cobre sobre o período pós-reprodutivo desse pulgão, constatando-se um período 4,5 vezes superior àquele da testemunha e mancozebe. A fecundidade foi influenciada pelos fungicidas testados, ocorrendo aumento de 1,25 vezes na produção total de ninfas, sendo então os fungicidas testados favoráveis ao inseto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxic effects of some protecting fungicides used in cucumber crop on the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877. The experiments were conducted in controlled conditions (Temp.: 25±2º C; RH: 70±10% and 12 h photophase. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (fungicides and control and 45 replicates, each plot comprised of one individual. The used fungicides and their respective dosages in g a.i. L-1 were: sulfur 800 PM (1.6, mancozeb 800 PM (1.6 and copper oxichloride 840 PM (1.49. The control was composed of water. None of the tested products influenced the duration in days of the nymphal and adult phases, or the pre-reproductive and reproductive periods of A. gossypii. Sulfur and copper oxichloride affected the post-reproductive period of the

  9. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDE AGAINST APHID, APHIS GOSSYPII GLOVER INFESTING ISABGOL CROP

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    B. R. PATEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2008-09 to evaluate the different insecticides against aphid, Aphisgossypii Glover infesting isabgol (Plantago ovata crop under field condition at Sardarkrushinagar, S. D. A. U.,Dantiwada. The result of the field study revealed that, among all the chemical and botanical insecticides used,carbosulfan @ 0.05 per cent was found to be most effective by recording lowest population of aphid as per aphidindexing method (0.99 A. I. with the highest seed yield, 11.24 q/ha and neem oil @ 0.5 per cent was superiorthan other botanical recording (1.83 A. I. with a maximum 7.21 q/ha seed yield. Thus, from the overall resultsit can be concluded that the carbosulfan @ 0.05 and neem oil 0.5 per cent proved most effective for themanagement of aphid A. gossypii in isabgol crop.

  10. Effects of spirotetramat treatments on fecundity and carboxylesterase expression of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Shi, Xueyan; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-05-01

    Spirotetramat is a novel tetramic acid-based insecticide, belonging to keto-enol pesticide family, with a novel mode of action; it interferes with lipid biosynthesis. Its insecticide activity against various agricultural pest insects have been demonstrated (e.g. on Myzus persicae, Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus urticae). However, information available is currently limited on the efficacy of spirotetramat on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, a key cotton pest worldwide. We assessed the spirotetramat toxicity on A. gossypii and evaluated its effects on aphid fecundity when exposed to a sublethal concentration (LC10) and to increasing lethal concentrations (LC25, LC50, and LC75). A key mechanism involved in insecticide resistance in aphids relates to esterase activity. We estimated the CarE activity and a CarE gene expression in aphids in response to spirotetramat exposure, then we tested tolerance of offspring to spirotetramat when the parents were exposed to the highest concentration tested in our study (LC75). Results showed that spirotetramat showed increasing toxicity to A. gossypii with exposure duration to treated leaves; LC50 ranged from 23,675.68 to 12.27 mg/L for 1 to 5-days exposure. In addition, spirotetramat reduced aphid daily fecundity, in all concentration treatments, especially with up to 90 % reduction in case of exposure to LC75. Total CarE activity increased dramatically and CarE mRNA expression was also up regulated in aphids after exposure to LC75 spirotetramat. Finally, the tolerance to spirotetramat in offspring (when parents were exposed to the LC75) showed a 2.5-fold increase when compared to control aphids. Consequently, spiroteramat showed potential for pest management of cotton aphids owing to both lethal and sublethal activities, notably strong impact on aphid fecundity. However, we also demonstrated that increased tolerance of A. gossypii to spirotetramat may happen through increased CarE- activity and subsequent metabolic degradation

  11. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  12. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

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    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  13. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  14. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

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    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  15. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  16. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

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    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  17. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

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    Ezio Santos Pinto; Eduardo Moreira Barros; Jorge Braz Torres; Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    2012-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products...

  18. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Eignung von Aphelinus asychis Walker und Aphelinus varipes Förster (Hym., Aphelinidae) für die biologische Bekämpfung von Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom., Aphididae)

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    Schirmer, Stefanie; BLAESER, Peter; Sengonca, Cetin

    2008-01-01

    Die Gurkenblattlaus Aphis gossypii GLOVER (Hom., Aphididae) ist ein weltweit verbreiteter, polyphager Schädling, dessen Wirtspflanzenspektrum verschiedene Feld- und Gewächshauskulturen wie z. B. Malvaceen (Baumwolle, Hibiskus) und Curcurbitaceen (Gurken, Melonen, Zucchini) umfasst. In Europa stellt die Gurkenblattlaus einen wichtigen Schädling an Gurkenkulturen im Unterglasanbau dar (VAN SCHELT 1993) und sie tritt vermehrt auch an anderen Gewächshauskulturen auf (VAN STEENIS 1992). Aufgrund d...

  19. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  20. Duração e viabilidade das fases pré-imaginais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen alimentadas com Aphis gossypii Glover e Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier Duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen pre-imago phases, fed with Aphis gossypii (Glover and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier

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    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com o pulgão do algodoeiro, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae, e com a traça do milho, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, em Campina Grande, Paraíba, em 1998/99 em condições controladas sob temperatura de 25±2ºC, 70±10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de C. externa decorreu normalmente: fase larval com três ínstares, pré-pupa e pupa. De acordo com os resultados, pode-se concluir que as larvas de C. externa alimentadas com A. gossypii apresentam uma duração significativamente maior para o primeiro e terceiro ínstares, que às alimentadas com S. cerealella. Entretanto, não há efeito dessas presas na viabilidade das fases desse predador, exceto para a de pré-pupa. C. externa pode ser criado em A. gossypii ou S. cerealella sem risco de perda de viabilidade, embora algumas fases possam ser mais longas.This work was carried out at the Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 1998/99, to study the duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae, fed with Aphis gossypii (Homoptera, Aphididae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, under controlled conditions. The temperature was 25+-2º C, 70+-10% UR and 12-hour photophase. The C. externa pre-imaginal development was normal: larval phase with three instars, pre-pupa and pupa. The results showed that C. externa larvae fed on A. gossypii had a first and third instar longer than the ones fed with S. cerealella. However, no effect was observed in the phases' viability, excepting the pre-pupa. C. externa can feed on both preys without viability loss, although this may enhance some phases' duration.

  1. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  2. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

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    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  3. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

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    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  4. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

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    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  5. Identification and expression profiling of odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins between two wingless morphs and a winged morph of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii glover.

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    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insects interact with their environment and respond to the changes in host plant conditions using semiochemicals. Such ecological interactions are facilitated by the olfactory sensilla and the use of olfactory recognition proteins. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii can change its phenotype in response to ecological conditions. They reproduce mainly as wingless asexual morphs but develop wings to find mates or new plant hosts under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, plant nutrition and population density. Two groups of small soluble proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to be involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. However, the exact molecular roles that these proteins play in insect olfaction remain to be discovered. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of three asexual developmental stages (wingless spring and summer morphs and winged adults and characterised 9 OBP and 9 CSP genes. The gene structure analysis showed that the number and length of introns in these genes are much higher and this appears to be unique feature of aphid OBP and CSP genes in general. Another unique feature in aphids is a higher abundance of CSP transcripts than OBP transcripts, suggesting an important role of CSPs in aphid physiology and ecology. We showed that some of the transcripts are overexpressed in the antennae in comparison to the bodies and highly expressed in the winged aphids compared to wingless morphs, suggesting a role in host location. We examined the differential expression of these olfactory genes in ten aphid species and compared the expression profile with the RNA-seq analyses of 25 pea aphid transcriptome libraries hosted on AphidBase.

  6. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton=Efeitos de inseticidas botânicos na taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodão

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    Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%; Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Piper aduncum L (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375 and 0.05%. Cotton leaf discs, CNPA 8H cultivar with 5 cm in diameter were immersed for 30 seconds in products broth and dried for 30 minutes. Eight replicates per concentration were used and each disc was infested with five apterous adult females of A. gossypii uniform in size and confined for 10 days. Compostonat®, Rotenat® and Neempro provided negative ri decreasing A. gossypii population. Natuneem® and Neemseto® and the essential oil of F. vulgare showed positive ri increasing the population. The coefficients of determination (R2 of regression lines ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. The essential oils of C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides and P. aduncum were not statistically significant precluding the establishment of regression lines.Inseticidas botânicos têm sido estudados, visando o controle alternativo de pragas. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos desses inseticidas sobre a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (ri de Aphis gossypii. Os inseticidas botânicos foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® e Neempro (0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 e 1,75%; Nautneem® e Neemseto® (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%; e os óleos essenciais de Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e Piper aduncum L. (0; 0,0125; 0,025; 0,0375 e 0,05%. Discos de folhas de algodoeiro, cultivar CNPA 8H, com 5 cm de di

  7. Aspectos biológicos de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em três cultivares de algodoeiro e em três espécies de plantas daninhas Biological aspects of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on three cotton cultivars and on three weeds species

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto; Antonio Carlos Busoli

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os aspectos biológicos de A. gossypii em três cultivares de algodoeiro e em três espécies de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Controle Biológico, sob condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1ºC), umidade relativa do ar (70 ± 10%) e fotofase (12 horas). Foram utilizados seis tratamentos, correspondendo às cultivares de algodoeiro CNPA ITA 90, Coodetec 402 e Deltaopal e espécies de plantas daninhas: guanxum...

  8. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  9. 瓜蚜为害对寄主植物主要营养物质和次生物质的影响%Influences of Aphis gossypii Glover feeding on the contents of main nutrients and secondary compounds in host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 庞保平; 常静

    2013-01-01

    为明确瓜蚜Aphis gossypii Glover与其寄主植物相互作用关系及其机理,本文采用蒽酮比色法、考马斯亮蓝法、磷钼酸-磷钨酸比色法及索氏回流法,分别测定了瓜蚜为害对黄瓜、哈密瓜、南瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜等5种寄主植物叶片内可溶性总糖、可溶性蛋白质、单宁及黄酮含量的影响.结果表明,瓜蚜为害后,供试寄主植物叶片中可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量显著降低,而单宁和黄酮的含量明显上升.说明瓜蚜为害导致寄主植物营养质量下降,而次生代谢物质含量上升,从而对植食者产生诱导抗性.%In order to investigate the interaction between Aphis gossypii Glover and its host plants, it was determined how the aphid feeding affected the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, tannin and flavone in the leaves of its five host plants ( Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo var. saccharinus, Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis, Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa) , using anthrone colorimetric method, Coomassie brilliant blue staining, phosphor - molybdenum acid -phosphor - tungstenic acid colorimetry and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein in the leaves of its host plants decreased while the contents of tannin and flavone increased after the host plants were fed by the aphids. This indicated that the aphid feeding caused the decrease of host plant' s nutrition quality while the increase of harmful secondary metabolite contents, and therefore, induced the resistance to herbivores.

  10. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159

  11. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  12. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  13. COTTON APHID APHIS GOSSYPII L. (HOMOPTERA; APHIDIDAE); A CHALLENGING PEST; BIOLOGY AND CONTROL STRATEGIES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar; Iqra Azam; Nadia Iram; Waheed Iqbal; Aqsad Rashda; Fakhra Anwer; Kiran Atta; Rafaqat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) is a key pest of cotton crop. The indiscriminate use of insecticides and pesticides during 1930’s and latter to control insects pests, developed resistance in cotton aphid against these chemicals resulting in outbreak of this pest. Cotton aphid has a major impact on quality and yield of cotton which emphasizes the need to manage this notorious pest. The main goal of this review is to highlight various strategies viz., biological, chemical and cultural control for...

  14. Chitinolytic Bacteria Isolated from Chili Rhizosphere: Chitinase Characterization and Application as Biocontrol for Aphis gossypii

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    TARUNI SRI PRAWASTI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitin, a common constituent of insect exoskeleton, could be hydrolyzed by chitinase. This research was conducted to select rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of chili pepper that produced chitinase and to examine their chitinase activity in degrading chitin of the Aphis gossypii. A total of 25 rhizobacteria isolates formed a clear zone when grown on chitin agar. Three of them had the highest chitinolytic index and were identified as Bacillus sp. strain I.5, I.21, and II.14. The II.14 was chosen for characterization of chitinase activity. The isolate showed maximum chitinase activity at 48-h-incubation. Maximum temperature and pH of the chitinase activity were 55°C and 7.0, respectively. The cell culture and the enzyme crude extract of the above three isolates were tested against A. gossypii and the result was compared to the control through microscopic observation. Hydrolytic analysis showed that the enzyme crude extract of these isolates were able to degrade chitin of insect exoskeleton since the first 3-h-incubation. Meanwhile, the cell culture treatment on the chitin showed degrading activity after 12 h (Bacillus sp. strain I.21 and II.14, and 9 h (Bacillus sp. strain I.5. Chitin degradation of A. gossypii exoskeleton by enzyme crude extract was better than the cell culture treatment. Chitinases produced by Bacillus sp. strains I.5, I.21, and II.14 are potential as biocontrol agents for A. gossypii.

  15. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  16. COTTON APHID APHIS GOSSYPII L. (HOMOPTERA; APHIDIDAE; A CHALLENGING PEST; BIOLOGY AND CONTROL STRATEGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii is a key pest of cotton crop. The indiscriminate use of insecticides and pesticides during 1930’s and latter to control insects pests, developed resistance in cotton aphid against these chemicals resulting in outbreak of this pest. Cotton aphid has a major impact on quality and yield of cotton which emphasizes the need to manage this notorious pest. The main goal of this review is to highlight various strategies viz., biological, chemical and cultural control for cotton aphid management. The selection of suitable control strategy is made on by viewing the severity of cotton aphid outbreak. Furthermore, the role of transgenic crops in lowering cotton aphid population is also described. However, the preservation of the cotton aphid's natural enemies could be an ecologically sustainable method of maintaining the aphid population below threshold level.

  17. Combination of genetic resistance and management of field borders: towards an effective and sustainable control of Aphis gossypii outbreaks and virus epidemics in cantaloupe melon crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gognalons, Patrick; Boissot, Nathalie; Mistral, Pascale; Chareyron, Virginie; Wipf-Scheibel, Catherine; Lecoq, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Aphis gossypii is a major pest of cantaloupe melon crops, causing direct damage (sap uptake) and indirect damage (virus transmission). The cantaloupe gene Vat confers resistance to colonization by A. gossypii and resistance to the non-persistent viruses (CMV, WMV, etc) carried by A. gossypii. lt is however ineffective in blocking the transmission of viruses carried by other aphid species and its use is thus generally coupled with aphicide treatments to limit virus transmission by non-colon...

  18. Cycloxaprid: A novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide to control imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Qi, Haoliang; Yang, Daibin; Yuan, Huizhu; Rui, Changhui

    2016-09-01

    Imidacloprid is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with potent insecticidal activity. However, resistance to imidacloprid is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species. Cycloxaprid with cis-configuration is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, which shows high activity against imidacloprid-resistant pests. The LC50 of imidacloprid against the resistant Aphis gossypii was 14.33mgL(-1) while it was only 0.70mgL(-1) for the susceptible population, giving a resistance ratio of 20.47. In this imidacloprid-resistant population, a point mutation (R81T) located in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit was found out. But this point mutation did not decrease the activity of cycloxaprid against A. gossypii. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 1.05 and 1.36mgL(-1) for the imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant populations, respectively. In addition, cycloxaprid provided better efficacies against resistant A. gossypii than imidacloprid in the fields. Although cycloxaprid was highly toxic to A. gossypii, it showed high selective activity between A. gossypii and its predominant natural enemies, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla sinica. These results demonstrate that cycloxaprid is a promising insecticide against imidacloprid-resistant A. gossypii and suitable for the integrated pest management. PMID:27521919

  19. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  20. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  1. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  2. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development in both the IMI-R and -S strain. • Electron beam irradiation induces DNA damage in both the S and IMI-R strain. • The expression of several specific genes were higher in the IMI-R strain. • 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary treatment for both strains of this species

  3. Biologia de aphis gossypii em plantas infectadas pelo vírus do mosaico das nervuras do algodoeiro Biology Of cotton aphid on plants infected by cotton vein mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a biologia do pulgão-do-algodoeiro, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, em plantas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. sadias e infectadas com o vírus causador do mosaico das nervuras. O experimento foi realizado em câmara climatizada mantida a 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os dois tratamentos corresponderam a pulgões que se alimentaram de plantas sadias e infectadas com o vírus. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1% solidificado e um disco foliar de plantas sadias ou infectadas, com 30 repetições cada uma. Os pulgões que se alimentaram de plantas infectadas tiveram menor duração da fase ninfal (4,5 dias em relação àqueles que se alimentaram de plantas sadias (4,9 dias. Os períodos pré-reprodutivo, reprodutivo e pós-reprodutivo e a longevidade não foram influenciados pelo vírus. A maior mortalidade também foi observada em pulgões alimentados com plantas infectadas. O tempo decorrido entre gerações (T e o tempo necessário para duplicar em número (TD foram menores para pulgões que se alimentaram de plantas infectadas (9,74 e 1,66 dias respectivamente, as quais também acarretaram maior mortalidade ninfal. A taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, a capacidade inata de aumentar em número (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ foram favoráveis aos pulgões que se alimentaram de folhas de algodoeiro infectadas. Conclui-se que os pulgões mantidos em folhas de algodoeiro sadias atingiram melhores índices de desenvolvimento enquanto na reprodução os melhores índices são observados em pulgões mantidos em folhas infectadas.The objective of this work was to study the biology of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. healthy and infected by cotton vein mosaic virus. The assay was performed in climatic chambers at 25±1ºC, under relative humidity

  4. Toxicities of several insecticides and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in Aphis gossypii%几种常用杀虫剂对瓜蚜的毒力和对乙酰胆碱酯酶的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永成; 刁青云; 李海平

    2011-01-01

    The toxicities of 4 common insecticides to Aphis gossypii Glover on cucumber plants were studied in the greenhouses using leave-dipping method. The results showed that A. gossypii was most sensitive to imidacloprid in the insecticides tested, and LC50 was 4. 203 mg/L. The LC50 values for omethoate, phoxim and triazophos were 21.70, 38.86 and 43.30 mg/L, respectively. It was shown that 3OP insecticides tested could significantly inhibit the activity of AChE in A. gossypii, and their inhibition activities increased over time. The I50 values of omethoate, phoxim and triazophos to AChE were 9.6× 10-6 , 11.4× 10-6 and 17.1 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively.%用叶片药膜法测定了4种常用杀虫剂氧乐果、辛硫磷、三唑磷、吡虫啉对呼和浩特市郊蔬菜基地温室黄瓜上发生的瓜蚜的毒力.结果表明,瓜蚜对吡虫啉最敏感,LC仅为4.203 mg/L,氧乐果、辛硫磷、三唑磷对瓜蚜的LC分别为21.70、38.86、43.30 mg/L.研究明确了3种有机磷杀虫剂对瓜蚜体内乙酰胆碱酯酶AChE均有明显的抑制作用,并随着抑制时间的延长,抑制率增加.I值分别为氧乐果9.6×10mol/L,辛硫磷11.4×10mol/L,三唑磷17.1×10mol/L.

  5. The neotype barcode of the cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877) and a proposal for type barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type barcode is a DNA barcode unequivocally tied to an authoritatively identified specimen, preferably the primary type specimen. Type barcodes are analogous, albeit subordinate, to type specimens, providing a stable reference to which other barcodes can be compared. We here designate and describe...

  6. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    OpenAIRE

    Zayame Vegette Pinto; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza; Renato Almeida Sarmento; Madelaine Venzon; Gil Rodrigues dos Santos; Marcela Cristina Agustini C. da Silveira; Paulo Henrique Tschoeke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin) at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were expos...

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  9. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  10. 7种农药对瓜蚜的室内毒力测定%Toxicities of Seven Types of Pesticide to the Melon Aphid Aphis gossypii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫亚军; 石宝才; 康总江; 王泽华; 朱亮; 魏书军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]采用浸叶法测定7种药剂对瓜蚜的毒力.[结果]结果表明:阿维菌素活性最高,LC50值为8.2728 mg/L,其次为甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐,LC50值为23.2278 mg/L,啶虫脒的LC50值为29.2927 mg/L,吡虫啉和毒死蜱的敏感性最低,LC50值分别为46.0487、48.9797 mg/L.螺虫乙酯各测试质量浓度处理后48、72 h时的平均死亡率仅为8.9%、11.2%,高效氯氰菊酯测试质量浓度达2000mg/L时,24 h校正死亡率仅为37.97%.[结论]7种药剂对瓜蚜的毒力排序为阿维菌素>甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐>啶虫脒>吡虫啉>毒死蜱>高效氯氰菊酯>螺虫乙酯.%[Aims] The toxicities of seven insecticides to melon aphid Aphis gossypii were studied by leaf-dipping method. [Results] The results showed that abamectin had the highest toxicity with LC50 of 8.2728 mg/L, next was the emamectin benzoate with LC50 of 23.2278 mg/L. The LC50of acetamiprid, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos were 29.2927, 46.0487 and 48.9797 mg/L respectively. The average mortality was 8.9 and 11.2% under the treatment of spirotetramat after 48 and 72 h. The corrected average mortality was 37.97% under the treatment of beta-cypermethrin with concentration of 2000 mg/L after 24 h. [Conclusions] The toxicity of the seven pesticides to the Aphis gossypii from high to low is abamectin>emamectin benzoate>acetamiprid>imidacloprid>chlorpyrifos>beta-cypermethrin>spirotetramat.

  11. Bioactivity of Camphor to Aphids (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach, Myzus persicae Sulzer and Aphis gossypii Glover)%莰酮对蚜虫生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤丽梅; 李保同

    2002-01-01

    进行了樟树(Cinnanomum camphora L.)中的莰酮(Camphor C10H160)对蚜虫的触杀、熏蒸毒力和拒食活性研究.结果表明,处理后24 h莰酮对菜缢管蚜、桃蚜和棉蚜触杀作用的LD50分别为3.12×10-3,2.04x10-3,0.68×10-3ng/头,熏蒸作用的LC50分别为3.44,2.56,1.06mg/L,拒食作用的AFC50分别为3.34,2.98,1.32mg/L.经回归和相关分析,处理浓度与作用效果相关性均达到极显著或显著水平.莰酮在田间防治菜缢管蚜的效果显著.

  12. 多异瓢虫食物消耗与利用与其猎物棉蚜的寄主植物种类相关%Food consumption and utilization of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is related to host plant species of its prey, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳艳; 周晓榕; 段文昌; 庞保平

    2015-01-01

    [目的]猎物质量和类型在捕食者食物选择、消耗及营养转化过程中起着重要作用,植物的营养质量影响植食者的营养质量,进而植食者作为捕食者猎物的营养质量.为进一步了解植物-猎物-捕食者三营养层的相互作用,研究了寄主植物对捕食者食物消耗与利用的影响.[方法]在室内评价了多异瓢虫Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)4龄幼虫和雌成虫取食和利用5种不同葫芦科植物上的棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover的效率.[结果]多异瓢虫4龄幼虫和成虫均对南瓜Cucurbita moschata var.melonaeformis上的蚜虫取食量最高,而对瓢葫芦Lagenaria siceraria var.gourda上的蚜虫取食量最低.4龄幼虫取食哈密瓜Cucumis melo var.cantalupensis上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率、食物利用率和食物转化率均达到最大,而雌成虫在取食黄瓜Cucumis sativus和搅瓜Cucurbita pepo var.medullosa上的蚜虫时,其相对生长率不存在显著差异,在取食黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的蚜虫时,其食物利用率和食物转化率也不存在显著差异.因此,哈密瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为多异瓢虫4龄幼虫的猎物,而黄瓜、瓢葫芦和搅瓜上的瓜蚜更适宜作为成虫的猎物.[结论]寄主植物种类与多异瓢虫对棉蚜的捕食效率相关,该结论为进一步利用昆虫的食性对害虫进行控制奠定理论基础.

  13. Engineering Ashbya gossypii for efficient biolipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin. Indeed, engineered strains are currently used for the industrial production of riboflavin, replacing the chemical synthesis processes formerly used. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications affords significant advantages that involve low-cost media use and cheap downstream processing for some applications. Although A. gossypii cannot be considered a bona fide oleaginous microorganism, the accumulation of lipid droplets within hyphae has been described. In view of the genomic and molecular tools available for its manipulation, the metabolism of A. gossypii was engineered aiming to increase total lipid accumulation. Blocking the β-oxidation pathway through the knock-out of the AgPOX1 gene was sufficient to obtain strains with high lipid yields, comparable to those of the best oleaginous microorganisms. Thus, the poxΔ strain of A. gossypii constitutes a novel promising tool for the production of microbial oils in forthcoming modified A. gossypii strains. PMID:25625436

  14. Insetos associados a gravioleira (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae) na regiao de Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, N.; Gomes, A.L.S.; Couturier, Guy; Ronchi-Teles, B.

    1998-01-01

    Insects collected on soursop (#Annonaceae$ : #Annona muricat$ L.) nearby Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, are reported. Thirty-seven species were found, but only six were considered injurious to the plant : #Bephratelloides pomorum$ F. (#Eurytomidae$), #Cerconota anonella$ Sepp (#Stenomatidae$), #Membracis suctifructus$ Boulard & Couturier (#Membracidade$) and Pinnaspis aspidistrae$ Signoret (#Diaspididae$) attacking fruits ; #Aphis spiraecola$ Patch and #Aphis gossypii$ Glover (#Aphididae$) feeding...

  15. Riboflavin production by Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2012-04-01

    Riboflavin is an important nutrient for humans and animals. Industrial production has shifted completely from chemical synthesis to microbial fermentation. First generation riboflavin production was improved by a combination of traditional mutagenesis and genetic engineering, and isolated strains have been used in industry. As the DNA genome of riboflavin producers has the potential to reveal new technologies, DNA microarray, proteomic and metabolic analyses have been applied to the analysis of hyper-riboflavin producers. In this review, disparity mutagenesis technology is introduced as a means of improving riboflavin production by Ashbya gossypii. DNA microarray, proteomic and metabolic analyses of this high riboflavin producer are discussed, as well as recent riboflavin production trends, costs and future improvements. PMID:22187081

  16. The short, tragic life of Robert M. Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defalque, R J; Wright, A J

    2004-04-01

    Robert Mortimer Glover (1815-1859) was a contemporary of John Snow and James Young Simpson. Although he did not reach the standing of those two giants, his researches, writings and lectures were important contributions to the early development of British anaesthesia. Glover was the first to explore the physiological action of chloroform in the laboratory and to discover its anaesthetic effect in 1842. He helped Sir John Fife in Hannah Greener's autopsy in January 1848 and influenced Fife's conclusions on the cause of the young girl's death. His numerous and extensive articles reviewing the history, chemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications of various anaesthetics were widely read and quoted by his colleagues, including John Snow. While in Edinburgh and Newcastle, Glover was recognised as a remarkably astute physician, original researcher, prolific writer and enthusiastic lecturer with an enormous knowledge of medicine, the physical sciences, mathematics and philosophy. His brilliant career deteriorated after his arrival in London and, especially, after his return from the Crimea, although he continued to publish until the week before his death. The causes of his decline remain obscure. The last year of his life was ruined by his addiction to chloroform, to whose development he had contributed so much, and which killed him at the early age of 43. PMID:15023112

  17. Infection process of Phakopsora gossypii in cotton leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Araujo; Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra; Paulo Geraldo Berger; Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical rust caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora gossypii is an emerging disease in cotton that has caused significant yield losses of crop/cotton cultivated in Brazil. Considering the current importance of tropical rust and the need to obtain additional basic information about its causal agent to better control this disease, the present study aimed to determine the infection process of P. gossypii in cotton leaves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty-day-old plan...

  18. 鹿児島におけるケナフの害虫相とその主要種の発生消長

    OpenAIRE

    平松, 亜也; 坂巻, 祥孝; 櫛下町, 鉦敏; ヒラマツ, アヤ; サカマキ, ヨシタカ; クシゲマチ, カネトシ; HIRAMATSU, Aya; SAKAMAKI, Yositaka; KUSIGEMATI, Kanetosi

    2001-01-01

    Concerning the pests feeding on Kenaf, Hibiscus Cannabinus L., some surveies were carried out in Kagoshima City in 1999,with the confirmation of 39 species, 28 families and 8 orders, all of which recorded first in Japan. Investigations were made in the Kenaf field concerning some species of the major pests, namely Aphis gossypii Glover, Anomala albopilosa albopilosa (Hope), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), Anomis flava (Fabricius) and Haritalodes derogata (Fabricius). The cotton aphid, Aphis go...

  19. Genome scale metabolic modeling of the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Revuelta, José Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, or vitamin B2. Advances in genetic and metabolic engineering of A. gossypii have permitted the switch from industrial chemical synthesis to the current biotechnological production of this vitamin. Additionally, A. gossypii is a model organism with one of the smallest eukaryote genomes being phylogenetically close to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has therefore been used to study evolutionary aspects of bakers' yeast. We here reconstructed the first genome scale metabolic model of A. gossypii, iRL766. The model was validated by biomass growth, riboflavin production and substrate utilization predictions. Gene essentiality analysis of the A. gossypii model in comparison with the S. cerevisiae model demonstrated how the whole-genome duplication event that separates the two species has led to an even spread of paralogs among all metabolic pathways. Additionally, iRL766 was used to integrate transcriptomics data from two different growth stages of A. gossypii, comparing exponential growth to riboflavin production stages. Both reporter metabolite analysis and in silico identification of transcriptionally regulated enzymes demonstrated the important involvement of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in riboflavin production. PMID:24374726

  20. Metabolic engineering of riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii through pathway optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation of flavinogenic microorganisms and Ashbya gossypii is the main industrial producer of the vitamin. Accordingly, bioengineering strategies aimed at increasing riboflavin production in A. gossypii are highly valuable for industry. Results We analyze the contribution of all the RIB genes to the production of riboflavin in A. gossypii. Two important metabolic rate-limiting steps that limit the overprodu...

  1. Investigation of protein secretion and secretion stress in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Arvas, Mikko; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Background Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous Saccharomycete used for the industrial production of riboflavin that has been recently explored as a host system for recombinant protein production. To gain insight into the protein secretory pathway of this biotechnologically relevant fungus, we undertook genome-wide analyses to explore its secretome and its transcriptional responses to protein secretion stress. Results A computational pipeline was used to predict the inventory of proteins putative...

  2. A Survey of the Insect Pests and Farmers' Practices in the Cropping of Tomato in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umeh, VC.; Kuku, FO.; Nwanguma, EI.; Adebayo, OS.; Manga, AA.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of some tomato producing areas of Nigeria indicated that the major insects attacking tomato included the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L., the whitefly Bemisia tabacci Gennadius, and various species of aphids, mostly Aphis gossypii Glover. Interviews conducted to assess farmers' practices which contribute to insect damage showed that inappropriate application of insecticides and the use of wrong dosages may have contributed to insect co...

  3. Hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. Cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro Growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. Gossypii var. Cephalosporioides on cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações sobre o hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro, inoculadas artificialmente e incubadas a 20-22°C durante cinco a sete dias, evidenciaram as seguintes características: (a em raízes: acérvulos isolados ou em grupos, massa conidial cor branco-suja, alaranjada ou salmão (mais freqüente, setas marrom-escuras, muitas vezes encobertas pela matriz gelatinosa; conídios produzidos também no micélio aéreo ou nas extremidades das setas, onde ficam aderidos, formando pequenos aglomerados; (b na superfície das sementes: conídios produzidos nos ápices de setas que emergem diretamente do tegumento, ficando aderidos uns aos outros, formando cachos, semelhantes a cadeias, que são vistos brilhantes sob a luz, em estereomicroscópio. As setas férteis são formadas também no micélio aéreo que recobre as sementes, geralmente após cinco dias de incubação. Os acérvulos com massa conidial raramente são visíveis, exceto em sementes danificadas ou mortas. Como característica de C. gossypii, observou-se que as sementes exibem, de modo geral, uma coloração rosada, em decorrência da abundante esporulação; a ausência ou escassez de micélio aéreo e as setas curtas resultam em um crescimento rente ao tegumento e aspecto compacto. Comparativamente, nas sementes com C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides, as setas são mais longas e menos densas; o micélio aéreo com setas férteis ocorre com mais freqüência, conferindo às sementes tonalidades acinzentadas e aspecto solto. A constatação de setas férteis em lesões foliares de ramulose evidencia que, no campo, essas estruturas podem funcionar como autênticos conidióforos, desempenhando um importante papel epidemiológico, ao possibilitar a disseminação dos esporos pelos ventos, a longas distâncias.The growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides on artificially

  4. Carrier-mediated transport of riboflavin in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, C; Revuelta, J L; Krämer, R

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii is used for industrial riboflavin production. We examined riboflavin uptake and excretion at the plasma membrane using riboflavin auxotrophic and overproducing mutants. The riboflavin uptake system had low activity [Vmax = 20 +/- 4 nmol min(-1) g(-1) mycelial dry weight (dw)] and high affinity (KM = 40 +/- 12 microM). Inhibitor studies with the analogs FMN and FAD revealed high specificity of the uptake system. Excretion of riboflavin was not the consequence of non-specific permeability of the plasma membrane. Excretion rates in the mid-production phase were determined to be 2.5 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dw for wild-type cells and 66.7 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dw for an overproducing mutant, respectively. Inhibition of the reverse reaction, riboflavin uptake, led to an increase in apparent riboflavin efflux in the early production phase, indicating the presence of a separate excretion carrier. Riboflavin accumulation in A. gossypii vacuoles leading to product retention was found to be a secondary transport process. To address the question of whether a flux from the vacuoles back into the cytoplasm is present, we characterized efflux in hyphae in which the plasma membrane was permeabilized with digitonin. Efflux kinetics across the vacuolar membrane were unaffected by the lack of vacuolar H+ATPase activity and ATP, suggesting a passive mechanism. Based on the characterization of riboflavin transport processes in this study, the design of new production strains with improved riboflavin excretion may be possible. PMID:11234964

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    , which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...... remains unidentified. In this thesis I provide a comprehensive functional analysis of genes important for sporulation in A. gossypii. Previous results, together with findings presented in this work show that the role of the pheromone response pathway in A. gossypii has been rewired to regulate sporulation...... recombination that allows cross-over between homologous chromosomes. In S. cerevisiae, this requires double strand break (DSB) formation and subsequent repair via the components Spo11 and Dmc1. The work in this thesis show that the A. gossypii Spo11 and Dmc1 homologs are not required for sporulation, thus...

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of an invertase secreted by Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Dinis, Cláudia; Magalhães, Frederico; Oliveira, Carla Cristina Marques de; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    The repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes natively secreted by the filamentous fungus Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii has been poorly explored. Here, an invertase secreted by this flavinogenic fungus was for the first time molecularly and functionally characterized. Invertase activity was detected in A. gossypii culture supernatants and cell-associated fractions. Extracellular invertase migrated in a native polyacrylamide gel as diffuse protein bands, indicating the occurrence of at least two inver...

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. R...

  8. Major contribution of the Ehrlich pathway for 2-phenylethanol/rose flavor production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, Davide; Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Aroma alcohols of fermented food and beverages are derived from fungal amino acids catabolism via the Ehrlich pathway. This linear pathway consists of three enzymatic reactions to form fusel alcohols. Regulation of some of the enzymes occurs on the transcriptional level via Aro80. The riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii produces strong fruity flavours in contrast to its much less aromatic relative Eremothecium cymbalariae. Genome comparisons indicated that A. gossypii harbors genes for aromatic amino acid catabolism (ARO8a, ARO8b, ARO10, and ARO80) while E. cymbalariae only encodes ARO8a and thus lacks major components of aromatic amino acid catabolism. Volatile compound (VOC) analysis showed that both Eremothecium species produce large amounts of isoamyl alcohol while A. gossypii also produces high levels of 2-phenylethanol. Deletion of the A. gossypii ARO-genes did not confer any growth deficiencies. However, A. gossypii ARO-mutants (except Agaro8a) were strongly impaired in aroma production, particularly in the production of the rose flavour 2-phenylethanol. Conversely, overexpression of ARO80 via the AgTEF1 promoter resulted in 50% increase in VOC production. Together these data indicate that A. gossypii is a very potent flavour producer and that amongst the non-Saccharomyces biodiversity strains can be identified that could provide positive sensory properties to fermented beverages. PMID:24920045

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of an invertase secreted by Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Dinis, Cláudia; Magalhães, Frederico; Oliveira, Carla; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-06-01

    The repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes natively secreted by the filamentous fungus Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii has been poorly explored. Here, an invertase secreted by this flavinogenic fungus was for the first time molecularly and functionally characterized. Invertase activity was detected in A. gossypii culture supernatants and cell-associated fractions. Extracellular invertase migrated in a native polyacrylamide gel as diffuse protein bands, indicating the occurrence of at least two invertase isoforms. Hydrolytic activity toward sucrose was approximately 10 times higher than toward raffinose. Inulin and levan were not hydrolyzed. Production of invertase by A. gossypii was repressed by the presence of glucose in the culture medium. The A. gossypii invertase was demonstrated to be encoded by the AFR529W (AgSUC2) gene, which is highly homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 (ScSUC2) gene. Agsuc2 null mutants were unable to hydrolyze sucrose, proving that invertase is encoded by a single gene in A. gossypii. This mutation was functionally complemented by the ScSUC2 and AgSUC2 genes, when expressed from a 2-μm-plasmid. The signal sequences of both AgSuc2p and ScSuc2p were able to direct the secretion of invertase into the culture medium in A. gossypii. PMID:24452331

  10. Growth stress triggers riboflavin overproduction in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Thomas; Wiesenburg, Andreas; Gätgens, Cornelia; Funke, Andreas; Viets, Ulrike; Vijayalakshmi, Swaminathan; Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is used for riboflavin biosynthesis on an industrial scale, but even the wild type displays overproduction. Because riboflavin overproduction was known to start at the transition between growth and stationary phase, it was suspected that overproduction was induced at low growth rates. However, chemostatic cultivations performed at different growth rates did not result in any detectable riboflavin formation. In this study, we report that it was not the final growth rate that triggered riboflavin overproduction but a decline in growth rate. Therefore, continuous fermenter cultivations with dilution rate shifts were performed. Peaks of riboflavin overproduction were observed in the wild type and in a RIB3placZ reporter strain after downshifts in dilution rate. Accumulation of riboflavin correlated with an increased expression of lacZ reporter activity. The step size of the downshifts corresponded to the peak size of riboflavin formation and reporter activity. Expression of further RIB genes encoding riboflavin biosynthetic enzymes was analyzed by RT-PCR. RIB mRNA levels of the ribulose-5-phosphate branch of the divided riboflavin biosynthesis pathway (RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5) were found to increase in the riboflavin production phase, whereas the RIB2 and RIB7 mRNA levels belonging to the GTP branch remained constant. We propose that a decline in growth rate triggers the increased expression of RIB3, RIB4, and RIB5 resulting in riboflavin overproduction. Because although a reduction in oxygen supply, temperature increase or decrease, or salt stress did affect growth, but neither did lead to riboflavin overproduction nor did induce RIB3 reporter expression, we conclude that declining nutrition must be the stress stimulus. Because about half of the cells in the hyphae of Ashbya gossypii did not accumulate riboflavin, the regulatory response on the cellular level can be estimated to be at least twice as great in comparison to what we

  11. 7 CFR 372.6 - Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities... IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES § 372.6 Early planning for applicants and non-APHIS entities. Each prospective... environmental documentation is encouraged to contact, at the earliest opportunity, APHIS' program staff....

  12. 77 FR 15033 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User..., as amended. The system of records being proposed is the APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to add a new system of records, entitled APHIS...

  13. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: A historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation of A. gossypii as an industrial riboflavin producer. Although there is still room for optimizing riboflavin production, the recent years have seen an abundant advance in the exploration of A. gossypii for other biotechnological applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins, single cell oil and flavour compounds. Here, we will address the biotechnological potential of A. gossypii beyond riboflavin production by presenting (a) a physiological and metabolic perspective over this fungus; (b) the molecular toolbox available for its manipulation; and (c) commercial and emerging biotechnological applications for this industrially important fungus, together with the approaches adopted for its engineering. PMID:26456510

  14. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta José L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C. We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

  15. Effects of excess root applied silicon on Triticum aestivum and Zea mays under Aphis gossypii and Schistocerca gregaria herbivory and water-stressed conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Deluca, Sudakshina

    2013-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) are two of the most important staple food and industrial crops used by developed and developing countries. Drought and pest attack often reduces wheat and maize production, causing huge economic losses. Silicon has been proposed to protect plants from several biotic and abiotic environmental stresses such as pest attack and drought. Silicon accumulation in plants can increase the abrasiveness of their leaves, potentially deterring herbivory by se...

  16. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; de Pereda, José María; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Herein, we report the functional and structural characterization of the IMPDH enzyme from the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. Our data show that the overexpression of the IMPDH gene increases the metabolic flux through the guanine pathway and ultimately enhances 40 % riboflavin production with respect to the wild type. Also, IMPDH disruption results in a 100-fold increase of inosine excretion to the culture media. Our results contribute to the developing metabolic engineering toolbox aiming at improving the production of metabolites with biotechnological interest in A. gossypii. PMID:26150243

  17. Relationships between benthic cover, current strength, herbivory, and a fisheries closure in Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T.; Karnauskas, M.

    2011-03-01

    Benthic cover, current strengths, and fish abundance and diversity were examined on 150 lagoonal patch reefs and mapped to determine their distribution, inter-relationships, and relationship to the fisheries closure in Glovers Reef Atoll. Current strength was highest at both the northern and southern ends of the atoll and largely controlled by local wind and weakly by tidal forcing. Benthic functional group distributions varied throughout the atoll and had distinct areas of dominance. In contrast, dominance of coral species was weaker, reflecting the lost cover and zonation of Acropora, Porites, and Montastraea that were reported in the 1970s. Hard and soft corals dominated the windward rim, while the central and leeward lagoon had lower current strengths and sea grass and fleshy green algae were relatively more abundant. Brown erect algae were relatively more common in the north and calcifying green and red algae the southern ends of the atoll. Only Montastraea- Agaricia agaricites distributions were similar to reports from the 1970s with high relative dominance in the southern and northeast atoll. The central-northern zone, which was described as an Acropora zone in the 1970s, was not recognizable, and Porites porites, P. astreoides, Millepora alcicornis, and Favia fragum were the most abundant species during this survey . Hard and soft coral cover abundance declined away from the reef rim and tidal channels and was associated with fast seawater turnover and high surgeonfish abundance. Consequently, the windward rim area has retained the most original and persistent hard-soft coral and surgeonfish community and is considered a priority for future management, if the goal is to protect coral from fishing impacts.

  18. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Service Agency, APHIS' Wildlife Services, or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Strain Design of Ashbya gossypii for Single-Cell Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Santos, María A.; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell oil (SCO) represents a sustainable alternative for the oil industry. Accordingly, the identification of microorganisms with either higher lipidogenic ability or novel capacities for the transformation of raw materials constitutes a major challenge for the field of oil biotechnology. With this in mind, here, we were prompted to address the lipidogenic profile of the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii, which is currently used for the microbial production of vitamins. We foun...

  20. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: a historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Silva, R.; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation o...

  1. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta José L; Santos María A; Jiménez Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the c...

  2. Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Colletotrichum gossypii do algodoeiro Genetic variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum gossypii of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro é atacado por Colletotrichum gossypii (CG e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Ambos os patógenos são transmitidos pela semente e sua distinção morfológica é extremamente difícil e inconsistente. Tentativas foram feitas no presente trabalho para verificar a variabilidade genética entre CG e CGC através de RAPD-PCR, ERIC- e REP-PCR e PCR-RFLP da região ITS rDNA. Foram utilizados 53 isolados coletados de sementes e folhas de plantas de diferentes cultivares nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, e Paraiba, entre 1999 e 2003. Baseado em testes de patogenicidade, vinte e um isolados foram classificados como CG e 32 como CGC. Os resultados obtidos por RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se oito primers, revelaram dois grupos distintos sendo que o primeiro foi formado por 94% dos isolados de sementes e o segundo por 95% dos isolados de folhas. Na análise de ERIC- e REP-PCR, resultados semelhantes a RAPD foram obtidos, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi formado por 93% dos isolados provenientes das sementes e o segundo por 78% dos isolados provenientes das folhas. Quando o produto de amplificação da região ITS rDNA foi digerido com oito enzimas de restrição, um perfil de bandas semelhante para todos os isolados foi obtido. Resultados de RAPD, ERIC- e REP-PCR demonstraram que existem diferenças genéticas entre os isolados provenientes das sementes e aqueles provenientes de parte aérea, e esses dois grupos foram claramente distintos. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados utilizando outras técnicas moleculares para a obtenção de marcadores capazes de distinguir entre isolados de CG e CGC.Cotton is attacked by Colletotrichum gossypii (CG and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Both the pathogens are transmitted by seed and their morphological distinction is extremely difficult and inconsistent. In the present study, attempts were made to verify the genetic variability among 53 isolates of CG and CGC using

  3. PREFACE: First International Meeting on Applied Physics (APHYS-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vilas, A.; Chacón, R.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the 1st International Meeting on Applied Physics (APHYS-2003), held in Badajoz (Spain), from 13th to 18th October 2003, and more specifically, selected papers presented during the conference sessions mainly on Applied Optics, Laser Physics, Ultrafast Phenomena, Optical Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Optoelectronics, Quantum Electronics and Applied Solid State Physics-Chemistry. APHYS-2003 was born as an attempt to create a new international forum on Applied Physics in Europe. Since Applied Physics is not really a branch of Physics, but the application of all the branches of Physics to the broad realms of practical problems in Science, Engineering and Industry, this conference was a truly multi and inter-disciplinary event. The organizers called for papers relating Physics with other sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, Information Science, Medicine, etc, or relating different Physics areas, and aimed at solving practical problems. In other words, the Conference was specifically interested in reports applying the techniques, the training, and the culture of Physics to research areas usually associated with other scientific and engineering disciplines. It was extremely rewarding that over 800 researchers, from over 65 countries, attended the conference, where more than 1000 research papers were presented. We feel really proud of this excellent response obtained (in number and quality), for this first edition of the conference. We are very grateful to all the members of the Organizing Committee, for the hard work done for the preparation of the Conference (which began one year before the conference start), and to the members of the International Advisory Committee, for the valuable contribution to the evaluation of submitted works. Also thank to the referees for the excellent work done in the revision of submitted papers. Finally, we would like to thank the Department of Physics of the

  4. The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii as a competitive industrial inosine producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Rubén M; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside with growing biotechnological interest due to its recently attributed beneficial health effects and as a convenient precursor of the umami flavor. At present, most of the industrial inosine production relies on bacterial fermentations. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii to obtain strains able to excrete high amounts of inosine to the culture medium. We report that the disruption of only two key genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway efficiently redirect the metabolic flux, increasing 200-fold the excretion of inosine with respect to the wild type, up to 2.2 g/L. These results allow us to propose A. gossypii as a convenient candidate for large-scale nucleoside production, especially in view of the several advantages that Ashbya has with respect to the bacterial systems used at present for the industrial production of this food additive. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2060-2063. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26927228

  5. Three biotechnical processes using Ashbya gossypii, Candida famata, or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, K P; Revuelta, J L; Seulberger, H

    2000-05-01

    Chemical riboflavin production, successfully used for decades, is in the course of being replaced by microbial processes. These promise to save half the costs, reduce waste and energy requirements, and use renewable resources like sugar or plant oil. Three microorganisms are currently in use for industrial riboflavin production. The hemiascomycetes Ashbya gossypii, a filamentous fungus, and Candida famata, a yeast, are naturally occurring overproducers of this vitamin. To obtain riboflavin production with the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis requires at least the deregulation of purine synthesis and a mutation in a flavokinase/FAD-synthetase. It is common to all three organisms that riboflavin production is recognizable by the yellow color of the colonies. This is an important tool for the screening of improved mutants. Antimetabolites like itaconate, which inhibits the isocitrate lyase in A. gossypii, tubercidin, which inhibits purine biosynthesis in C. famata, or roseoflavin, a structural analog of riboflavin used for B. subtilis, have been applied successfully for mutant selections. The production of riboflavin by the two fungi seems to be limited by precursor supply, as was concluded from feeding and gene-overexpression experiments. Although flux studies in B. subtilis revealed an increase both in maintenance metabolism and in the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, the major limitation there seems to be the riboflavin pathway. Multiple copies of the rib genes and promoter replacements are necessary to achieve competitive productivity. PMID:10855708

  6. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-04-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. PMID:24031850

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production.

  8. Patogenitas Beberapa Cendawan Entomopatogen (Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, dan Beauveria bassiana)terhadap Aphis glycines pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Widariyanto, Riri

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the effectiveness of entomopatogen’s fungus ( L. Lecanii, M. Anisopliae, and B. bassiana) to Aphis glycines in soybean on field. Research done at Farm of Faculty of Agriculture of University of Sumatera Utara, Medan from December 2015 until Februari 2016. The method used Randomized Block Design by seven treatment that is : P0/control (Instar 4 of Aphis glycines without treatment Entomopathogen), P1 (Instar 2 of Aphis glycines + Lecanicillium lecani...

  9. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    two data sets; nodes with strong bootstrap support from one analysis never contradicted those strongly supported by the other analysis. Palaearctic species of the subgenus Bursaphis (= "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis) form a monophyletic group within the genus Aphis. All these analyses...

  10. Cotton resistance to ramulose and variability of Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides Resistência do algodoeiro a ramulose e variabilidade de Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fernandes do Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cultivars and 21 lines of cotton were evaluated for resistance to ramulose (Colletotrichum gossypii f. sp. cephalosporioides in a field where the disease is endemic. The seeds of each genotype were planted in 5 x 5 m plots with three replications. The lines CNPA 94-101 and 'CNPA Precoce 2'were used as standard susceptible and resistant references, respectively. The disease incidence (DI was calculated from the proportion of diseased plants in the plot. The disease index (DIn was calculated from the disease severity using a 1 to 9 scale, and was evaluated at weekly intervals starting 107 days after emergence. The data collected was used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. In general, the DIn increased linearly with time and varied from 20.0 to 57.1 and AUDPC from 567 to 1627 among the genotypes which could be clustered in to two distinct groups. The susceptible group contained two cultivars and nine lines and the resistant group contained one cultivar and 12 lines. The relationship between disease index and evaluation times was linear for the 25 genotypes tested. The line CNPA 94-101, used as susceptible standard, was the most susceptible with an average DI = 83.4, DIn = 57.1 and AUDPC = 1627.7. The line CNPA 96-08 with DI = 37.8, DIn = 20.0 and AUDPC = 567.7 was the most resistant one. Among the commercial cultivars 'IAC 22' was the most susceptible and 'CNPA Precoce 2', used as resistant standard was the most resistant. The variability in virulence of the pathogen was studied by spray inoculating nine genotypes with conidial suspensions (10(5/mL of either of the 10 isolates. The disease severity was evaluated 30 days later using a scale of 1 to 5. The virulence of the isolate was expressed by DIn. All the isolates were highly virulent but their virulence avaried for several genotypes and could be clustered in two distinct groups of less and more virulent isolates. The isolate MTRM 14 from Mato Grosso was the least

  11. Note: Aphis vitalbae Ferrari, 1872 (Hemiptera: Aphididae): new finding on ornamental Clematis spp. in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Hałaj, Roman; Osiadacz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Aphis vitalbae Ferrari is reported from Poland for the first time on ornamental clematis (Clematis spp.). The distribution of this aphid in Europe and its possible expansion route are presented with a key to identifying the aphids infesting Clematis plants in Europe. Barbara Osiadacz

  12. Life history and morphological plasticity of three biotypes of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), from eastern Asia that was first reported in North America in 2000. The influence of temperature on plasticity of life history and morphological traits of the soybean aphid ha...

  13. Fitch’s Aphis mali Varieties are Rhopalosiphum insertum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight specimens of Asa Fitch’s Aphis mali "varieties" were recently rediscovered in the National Aphidoidea Collection at Beltsville, MD. Previously regarded as nomina dubia, those specimens include: A. mali var. fulviventris, var. nigricollis, var. nigriventris, var. obsoleta, var. pallidicornis, ...

  14. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct. PMID:19716523

  15. Isolation of an oxalate-resistant Ashbya gossypii strain and its improved riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Morimoto, Aki; Nariyama, Masashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    An oxalate-resistant strain of Ashbya gossypii was naturally isolated from spores grown on an oxalate-containing medium, and its medium was optimized to improve riboflavin production. Riboflavin production by the resistant strain was three-fold higher than that by the wild-type organism when grown in flask cultures. Medium optimization increased the riboflavin production by the resistant strain to 5 g l(-1), which was five-fold higher than that obtained by the wild-type strain. The productivity was reproduced in a 3-l bioreactor. During the early growth phase, the specific activity of isocitrate lyase in the oxalate-resistant strain was slightly higher than that in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the oxalate-resistant strain revealed that the expression of aldose reductase and cobalamin-independent methionine synthase decreased significantly. This is the first report that describes the natural isolation of a riboflavin producer using an antimetabolite-containing medium to enhance the riboflavin production level. This method should also be useful for improving the productivity of other bioproducts since it does not require any mutations or genetic modifications of the microorganism. PMID:19826846

  16. Toxicity of Three Insecticides to Lysiphlebus fabarum, a Parasitoid of the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Sabahi, Qodratollah; Rasekh, Arash; Michaud, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of three insecticides to Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a parasitoid of Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was investigated using IOBC/wprs protocols. Abamectin 1.8 EC, imidacloprid 350 SC, and pymetrozine 25 WP were tested under laboratory conditions at recommended field rates. Immature stages of the parasitoid were exposed to materials by briefly dipping mummified aphids into insecticide solutions/suspensions or water (controls). ...

  17. Efektivitas Cendawan Entomopatogen (Fusarium sp.) terhadap Aphis glycines dan Empoasca terminalis pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Fatahuddin, Fatahuddin; BUMBUNGAN, JATORO

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in soybean growers??? field in Soppeng District, South Sulawesi, Indoensia,from June 2009 to August 2009, to assess the effectiveness of a fungal entomopathogen,Fusarium sp., in suppressing the populations of Aphis glycines and Empoasca (Distantasca) terminalis. The study consisted of four treatments: Application of Fusarium sp., application of a deltamehtrin insecticide, alternate weekly application of Fusarium sp. and deltamethrin, and an untereated control...

  18. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gao, Lingling; Singh, Karam B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Researc...

  19. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  20. Oxidation of rapeseed oil in waste activated bleaching earth and its effect on riboflavin production in culture of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Enoch Y; Ming, Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Long-term behavior of rapeseed oil in waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) and the effect of this oil on riboflavin production in the culture of Ashbya gossypii were investigated. Waste ABE with 40% (w/w) rapeseed oil was stored for 80 d, and the extent of oxidation of rapeseed oil was measured by several analytical methods to determine the chemical properties of the oil at different stages of the oil deterioration process:peroxide value, acid value, concentrations of organic acids, acetaldehyde and unsaturated fatty acid, and content of polymerized triglycerides. Peroxide value, acid value, and concentrations of organic acids and acetaldehyde did not affect riboflavin production. However, the content of polymerized triglycerides markedly increased the viscosity of rapeseed oil and was the main reason for the exponential decrease in riboflavin production. A good correlation between the polymerized triglyceride content or viscosity and riboflavin production in the culture of A. gossypii using rapeseed oil as the sole carbon source was found. PMID:16233590

  1. Possibility of diacetyl and related compounds as the 4-carbon compound necessary for the formation of riboflavin in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Mitsuda, H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various compounds (0.5%) involved in the butanediol and the glycolytic pathways on riboflavin formation in whole cells of Ashbya gossypii at rest were examined. The addition of acetate, glycerol and diacetyl inhibited riboflavin formation, while the addition of acetoin had no effect on it, and the addition of ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, pyruvic acid and glucose accelerated it. The relation of diacetyl and acetoin to riboflavin formation during resting cell incubation in the presence of 0.5% ethanol and various concentrations of 2,3-butanediol was examined. The results quantitatively revealed a precursor-product relation between riboflavin formation and the formation of diacetyl and acetoin. The results obtained provide evidence that a high flavinogenic agent, ethanol, was converted to acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, acetoin and diacetyl in this order, that a week flavinogenic agent, 2,3-butanediol, was transferred to diacetyl through acetoin, and that the diacetyl produced can be utilized as the 4-carbon compound for riboflavin formation in the flavinogenic mold, Ashbya gossypii. It remains obscure whether diacetyl is enzymatically involved in riboflavin formation. PMID:6534171

  2. Oxidative stress protection and glutathione metabolism in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione in riboflavinogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Chandra, T S

    2014-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a plant pathogen and a natural overproducer of riboflavin and is used for industrial riboflavin production. A few literature reports depict a link between riboflavin overproduction and stress in this fungus. However, the stress protection mechanisms and glutathione metabolism are not much explored in A. gossypii. In the present study, an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione. The lipid peroxide and membrane lipid peroxide levels were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating oxidative damage. The glutathione metabolism was altered with a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the presence of H2O2 and menadione. Expression of the genes involved in stress mechanism was analyzed in response to the stressors by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CTT1, SOD1, GSH1, YAP1, and RIB3 were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating the effect of stress at the transcriptional level. A preliminary bioinformatics study for the presence of stress response elements (STRE)/Yap response elements (YRE) depicted that the glutathione metabolic genes, stress genes, and the RIB genes hosted either STRE/YRE, which may enable induction of these genes during stress. PMID:25178419

  3. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2015-01-01

    Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) es una de las plagas claves en el cultivo de clementinos de la cuenca Mediterránea. En primavera, este pulgón coloniza las brotaciones tiernas de los clementinos y causa importantes pérdidas económicas todos los años. Actualmente la gestión integrada de A. spiraecola en clementinos está basada en el control químico ya que se desconoce bastante sobre el control biológico de A. spiraecola en cítricos. Los esfuerzos realizados hasta la fecha se han ...

  4. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  5. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  6. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  7. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, fresh pork and pork products...

  8. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  9. A Survey of the Insect Pests and Farmers' Practices in the Cropping of Tomato in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeh, VC.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of some tomato producing areas of Nigeria indicated that the major insects attacking tomato included the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L., the whitefly Bemisia tabacci Gennadius, and various species of aphids, mostly Aphis gossypii Glover. Interviews conducted to assess farmers' practices which contribute to insect damage showed that inappropriate application of insecticides and the use of wrong dosages may have contributed to insect control failures. Intercropping tomato with crops such as cereals tubers and other vegetables reduced infestation in some areas. However, most farmers' practices did not affect insect pest abundance. Insect populations and percentages of infestation were, in most cases, found to be significantly higher in Oyo state (in the rain forest agro-ecological zone than in other surveyed states located in the savannah agro-ecological zones.

  10. Efeito do deslintamento químico sobre a ocorrência e desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum gossypii associado às sementes de algodoeiro Effects of chemical delinting on the level of occurrence and development of Colletotrichum gossypii associated with cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ G. CHITARRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A primeira fase do trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do tempo de deslintamento químico, 1:30 e 4:30 min, sobre o nível de infecção de Colletotrichum gossypii inoculado artificialmente em sementes de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum. Sementes de algodoeiro com línter foram inoculadas com C. gossypii, mediante contato das mesmas com colônias do fungo em placas de Petri de 9 cm de diâmetro, por 30 h. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a ocorrência de fungos e o poder germinativo das sementes. Na segunda fase, o objetivo foi avaliar a influência do exsudato de sementes de algodoeiro, em função do tempo da duração do deslintamento com ácido sulfúrico, considerando-se as frações de sedimentação de sementes e diferentes condições de envelhecimento artificial sobre o desenvolvimento de C. gossypii, em condições de laboratório. As sementes foram deslintadas quimicamente com ácido sulfúrico comercial concentrado pelos períodos de 1:30 e 4:30 min, separadas em frações de sedimentação em água e submetidas ao envelhecimento artificial por 0, 72 e 96 h. Os substratos foram obtidos a partir do exsudato resultante da embebição contendo os eletrólitos lixiviados das sementes. O desenvolvimento de C. gossypii na presença do exsudato das sementes foi avaliado em meio agarizado, através da medição do crescimento micelial e da esporulação do fungo. O deslintamento químico, pelo período de 1:30 min, propiciou aumento do percentual de ocorrência de C. gossypii em sementes não-desinfestadas superficialmente, e o crescimento micelial e a esporulação do fungo foram favorecidos pelo substrato proveniente de sementes deslintadas por 4:30 e 1:30 min, respectivamente.The present work was conducted in two phases. The first phase evaluated how the lenght of time of chemical delinting, 1:30 and 4:30 min, effected the level of infection by Colletotrichum gossypii on artificially inoculated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum seeds. Non

  11. 78 FR 689 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., veterinary medicine, plant pathology, and agribusiness. The program allows participants to live on a college...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS Student Outreach Program AGENCY: Animal and...

  12. Review of invasive grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, and native parasitoids in the Mediterranean (Hemiptera, Aphididae; Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Shukshuk, A. H.; Ghaliow, M. E.; Laamari, M.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Tomanović, Ž.; Rakhshani, E.; Pons, X.; Starý, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2011), s. 269-274. ISSN 0354-4664 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (CS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : invasions * Aphis illinoisensis * grapevine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2011

  13. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se observar o efeito de diversas substâncias nitrogenadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspectos morfológicos das colônias do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa em substrato sólido. Usou-se um substrato sintético como meio-básico e a este se adicionou peptona, metionina, asparagina, nitrato de sódio ou salicilato de amônia, conforme o tratamento. A testemunha não recebeu qualquer fonte de nitrogênio. Concluiu-se que a peptona foi o melhor tratamento para esporulação e crescimento miceliano, seguindo-se a asparagina que foi eficiente na indução da esporulação. O salicilato de amônia exerceu efeito inibidor do crescimento vegetativo e da esporulação do fungo. Para produção de inóculo, a curto prazo, recomenda-se o uso da peptona como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram observadas diferenças na pigmentação, bordos e densidade das colônias. A esporulação, embora abundante em substratos contendo peptona e asparagina, ocorreu em forma de verdadeiras massas localizadas de conídios na primeira, e como conídios dispersos na segunda.

    In this experiment, the effect of different nitrogenous substances on the mycelium growth, sporulation and morphological aspects of the colonies of the fungus Colletotrichum gossypii  South Var. cephalosporoides Costa planted in a solid substrate were observed. A synthetic substrate was used as a basic medium, and to this was added peptone metionine, asparagine, sodium nitrate or ammonium salicylate, according to the treatment. The control (group received no nitrogen whatsover. It was concluded that peptone was the best treatment for sporulation and mycelium growth, and that the next best was asparagine which was helpfull in inducing sporulation. Ammonium salicylate inhibited the vegetative growth

  14. The endosymbiont Arsenophonus is widespread in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, but does not provide protection from parasitoids or a fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is infected with the symbiont, Arsenophonus sp., ...

  15. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rouhani; Mohammad Amin Samih; Salma Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L.) shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using the...

  16. Further contributions to the tritrophic plant-aphid-parasitoid associations in Malta with special reference to Aphis nerii (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) as a prevalent refugium of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Zammit, Mark; Stary, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Four species of aphid parasitoids, namely Aphidius colemani, Binodoxys angelicae, Lysiphlebus fabarum and Lysiphlebus testaceipes were reared from Aphis nerii on Nerium oleander and/or Stephanotis floribunda in Malta. Aphidius colemani was the most abundant, occurring in different habitat types. Binodoxys angelicae represents a confirmation of a doubtful past record, while Lysiphlebus testaceipes is a new record for Malta. Aphis nerii is evaluated as a refugium of several aphid parasitoids in...

  17. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  18. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  19. Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yang; An Zhao; Zhen Congai; Liu Qizhi; Shi Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the esse...

  20. Molecular and morphological identification of hymenoptran parasitoids from the pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FARROKHZADEH, Hadi; Moravvej, Gholamhossein; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Karimi, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Parasitoids play the positive role in aphids control management by keeping the population of aphids below the economic threshold. The pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae is attacked by several parasitoids which mostly belong to Aphidiinae subfamily. The identification of parasitoids and hyperparasitoids is problematic due to their small size and ambiguous morphological characteristics. The analysis of molecular data of DNA sequences has been suggested as a complementary approach to the classical...

  1. Development and parasitism by Aphelinus certus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewin, Andrew J; Xue, Yingen; Welsman, John A; Broadbent, Bruce A; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2010-10-01

    Since its introduction in 2000, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has been a serious pest of soybean in North America. Currently, insecticide application is the only recommended control method. However, a number of natural enemies have the potential to regulate soybean aphid populations. In 2007, Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, a soybean aphid parasitoid native to Asia, was found in commercial soybean fields in Ontario. This is the first record of this species in North America. To evaluate the potential biological control services provided by A. certus for soybean aphid management, temperature-dependent developmental parameters and functional response to soybean aphid were determined. A. certus is capable of completing its development between temperatures of 15.3 and 30.2°C. The lower thresholds of development for the egg-mummy and mummy-adult life stages were determined to be 9.1 and 11.6°C, respectively. The lethal temperature of development for the egg-mummy and mummy-adult life stages were 29.5 and 31.0°C, respectively. In this temperature range, A. certus did not exhibit temperature-dependent mortality; however, parasitism rate increased with temperature. A. certus exhibited a type II functional response to the soybean aphid. PMID:22546454

  2. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  3. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  4. Effects of various metabolites (sugars, carboxylic acids and alcohols) on riboflavin formation in non-growing cells of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, H; Nakajima, K; Ikeda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The effects of various sugars and sugar derivatives on flavinogenesis were examined using non-growing cells of a high flavinogenic mold, Ashbya gossypii. Glucose, fructose and galactose were found to be the most stimulative. Glycerol and glucono-delta-lactone were less stimulative; next in order were n-propanol, n-butanol, glycols and butanediols, which were likewise effective; acetate, lactate and pyruvate were slightly stimulative. In contrast, ribose, xylose, arabinose, ribitol, citrate, succinate, oxaloacetate, glyoxylate and malate were rather inhibitory, in additions at 1.0%. Among these compounds, ethanol (1%) greatly stimulated riboflavin formation. Maximum flavinogenesis with the above stimulants was attained by the additions of 1% ethanol, 1.25--3.0% glucose, 1.25% glycerol, 4.0--6.0% propane and butanediols, 1.0% pyruvate and 0.9% acetate after 37 hr incubation, respectively. These compounds inhibited flavinogenesis with increasing concentrations above their optimum concentrations. The stimulation effect of ethanol far exceeded those of other stimulants but ethanol had almost no effect on growth and pH values during incubation. With the addition of ethanol (1%) during incubation, maximum formation (1,776 microgram/g wet mycelia) of riboflavin was achieved when added at the start of incubation and the most effective utilization was observed when added at the logarithmic phase of flavinogenesis, although the maximum formation of riboflavin in the latter case was much lower than in the former case. The relation of sugar metabolism, especially ethanol metabolism, to flavinogenesis was discussed with the flavinogenic activities of these additives. PMID:27596

  5. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  6. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamphuis Lars G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n = 150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

  7. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  8. BIOLOGÍA DEL ÁFIDO NEGRO (Aphis craccivora: APHIDIDAE) SOBRE FRÍJOL CAUPI (Vigna unguiculata, FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nataly DE LA PAVA S; Paula Andrea SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del pulgón negro, Aphis craccivora Koch, sobre fríjol caupí (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.)), bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los insectos se criaron sobre plántulas individualizadas a una temperatura promedio de 28 °C, humedad relativa de 70 % y fotoperiodo de 12 horas. Los parámetros medidos fueron periodo ninfal, fecundidad, supervivencia, periodo pre-reproductivo y aspectos relativos a la tasa de crecimiento del áfido. La tasa...

  9. Increased population of the aphid Aphis pomi at a motorway. Part 3. The effect of exhaust gases. [Crataegus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, S.; Flueckiger, W.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of motorway air pollution on the infestation of Crataegus spp. by Aphis pomi was examined using chambers with ambient and filtered air. In the chamber with ambient air the aphid population increased to up to 4.4 times the aphid number in the chamber with filtered air. Analysis of a phloem exudate revealed a significant increase in glutamine relative to the sugar content in the plants grown in the polluted air. Some substantial changes in phenolic compounds were also recorded. The results indicate that air pollution around motorways can alter the host plant-parasite relationship to increase the susceptibility of the plant.

  10. Leaf temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)population growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bridget F. O'Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; Clare Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; May R. Berenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) experience physiological changes that influence their suitability as food for insects.To determine the effects of living on soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under elevated CO2,population growth of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) was determined at the SoyFACE research site at the University of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign,Illinois,USA,grown under elevated (550μL/L) and ambient (370μL/L) levels of CO2.Growth of aphid populations under elevated CO2 was significantly greater after 1 week,with populations attaining twice the size of those on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.Soybean leaves grown under elevated levels of CO2 were previously demonstrated at SoyFACE to have increased leaf temperature caused by reduced stomatal conductance.To separate the increased leaf temperature from other effects of elevated CO2,air temperature was lowered while the CO2 level was increased,which lowered overall leaf temperatures to those measured for leaves grown under ambient levels of CO2.Aphid population growth on plants grown under elevated CO2 and reduced air temperature was not significantly greater than on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.By increasing Glycine max leaf temperature,elevated CO2 may increase populations of Aphis glycines and their impact on crop productivity.

  11. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  12. Purine biosynthesis, riboflavin production, and trophic-phase span are controlled by a Myb-related transcription factor in the fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Laura; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L; Santos, María A

    2006-07-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a natural riboflavin overproducer used in the industrial production of the vitamin. We have isolated an insertional mutant exhibiting higher levels of riboflavin production than the wild type. DNA analysis of the targeted locus in the mutant strain revealed that a syntenic homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 gene, a member of the Myb family of transcription factors, was inactivated. Directed gene disruption of AgBAS1 confirmed the phenotype observed for the insertional mutant, and the Deltabas1 mutant also showed auxotrophy for adenine and several growth defects, such as a delay in the germination of the spores and an abnormally prolonged trophic phase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the DNA-binding domain of AgBas1p is able to bind to the Bas1-binding motifs in the AgADE4 promoter; we also show a clear nuclear localization of a green fluorescent protein-Bas1 fusion protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses comparing the wild type and the Deltabas1 mutant revealed that AgBAS1 was responsible for the adenine-mediated regulation of the purine and glycine pathways, since the transcription of the ADE4 and SHM2 genes was virtually abolished in the Deltabas1 mutant. Furthermore, the transcription of ADE4 and SHM2 in the Deltabas1 mutant did not diminish during the transition from the trophic to the productive phase did not diminish, in contrast to what occurred in the wild-type strain. A C-terminal deletion in the AgBAS1 gene, comprising a hypothetical regulatory domain, caused constitutive activation of the purine and glycine pathways, enhanced riboflavin overproduction, and prolonged the trophic phase. Taking these results together, we propose that in A. gossypii, AgBAS1 is an important transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, such as purine and glycine biosynthesis, riboflavin overproduction, and growth. PMID:16820505

  13. Potential exposure of a classical biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, on non-target aphids in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In summer 2007, the Asian parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released in North America for control of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae). Despite its comparatively narrow host range, releases of B. communis may still constitute a risk to native a...

  14. Fitofagi di recente introduzione nelle colture agrumicole della Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Delrio, Gavino; Ortu, Salvatore; Prota, Romolo

    1981-01-01

    In addition to the 23 species known to be present for some ti me in Sardinian citrus grove biocoenoses recent investigations revealed 16 additional phytophages, namely Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.), Aphis citricola v.d.G., Aphis gossypii Glov., Aphis craccivora Koch, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Macrosyphum euphorbiae (Thomasl), Aulacorthum solani (Kalt.), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Mask.), Pseudococcus longispinus Targ., Prays citri Mill., Myelois cera...

  15. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Daniela BACIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.. The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6 and the largest one on C. officinalis LDA (16.4. The average number of flowers per plant ranged from 98.0 (C. suffruticosa Valh. to 2.0 (C. officinalis UK. From among all genotypes, aphids (Aphis fabae have attacked 19 (42.2%, and the results showed that AD% (Attack Degree depend significantly on genotypes. RAPD analysis and phylogenetic dendrogram illustrated the relationship between genotypes and DNA polymorphism exists between the six species. Were found not only close phylogenetic links among cultivars apart of the same specie, but also between different species. C. officinalis A., C. alata UK and C. suffruticosa formed a subgroup similar to the molecular level, but also confirming some phenotypic similarities, these species having the smallest number of petals in the corolla and the highest sensitivity to Aphis fabae attack. The large variability identified in Calendula genotypes allows the selection of potential genitors for new breeding works, with appropriate decorative characteristics and resistance to aphids attack. RAPD analyses and phenotypic study allows hypothesis regarding the success of intra- and inter-specific hybridization, thus facilitating Calendula breeding processes.

  16. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled condit...

  17. Review and key to the world parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Aphis ruborum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its role as a host reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Rakhshani, E.; Pons, X.; Petrović, A.; Pike, K. S.; Starý, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2012), s. 386-394. ISSN 0013-8746 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001; University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rubus spp. * Aphis ruborum * parasitoid complex Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2012

  18. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis Lars G; Gao Lingling; Singh Karam B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australia...

  19. Weed Host Specificity of the Aphid, Aphis spiraecola: Developmental and Reproductive Performance of Aphids in Relation to Plant Growth and Leaf Chemicals of the Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala, B. K.; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid ...

  20. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  1. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. PMID:26313961

  2. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rouhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L. shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using them, insecticidal solutions of different concentrations were prepared and tested on A. nerii. For comparison purposes, imidacloprid was also used as a conventional insecticide. In the experiments, the LC50 value for imidacloprid, Ag and Ag-Zn nanoparticles were calculated to be 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, and 539.46 mg mL-1, respectively. The result showed that Ag nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of A. nerii. Additionally, the study showed that imidacloprid at 1 μL mL-1 and nanoparticles at 700 mg mL-1 had the highest insect mortality effect.El áfido de la adelfa, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, es una de las plagas más comunes de plantas ornamentales en las familias Apocynaceae y Sclepiadaceae y tiene distribución mundial, ha sido responsable de la mortalidad de un gran número de arbustos de adelfa (Nerium oleander L. cada ano. En este estudio se investigó la actividad insecticida de nanopartículas de Ag contra A. nerii. Nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn fueron sintetizadas a través de un método solvotérmico, y con ellas se prepararon soluciones insecticidas de diferentes concentraciones y se probaron contra A. nerii. Con fines de comparación, también se usó imidacloprid como un insecticida convencional. En los experimentos, el valor LC50 para imidacloprid, nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn se calculó como 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, y 539.46 mg mL-1, respectivamente. El resultado mostró que nanopart

  3. Preference black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, to genotypes of cowpea = Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, a genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being attacked by various insects, among these, the black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference of black aphid, to different cowpea genotypes. Two experiments were conducted in cages (3.0 x 1.6 x 2.0 m, with free choice and no-choice, a randomized block and completely randomized design, respectively, with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of one plant per plastic pot. The followed 15 cowpea genotypes were evaluated in the study: BRS Guariba, Pretinho Precoce 1, Apiaú, Sempre Verde, Cara-preta, BRS Mazagão, BRS Cauamé, BR 17 Gurguéia, Iracema, BRS Aracê, BRS Itaim, BRS Xiquexique, BRS Marataoã, BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Juruá. In the free-choice test, a potted plant infested with aphids was placed in the center of the cage with 15 pots of each genotype randomly distributed in a circle. After 24, 48 and 96 h were counted the number of adults and nymphs per plant. In the no-choice test, five females adult were placed in plants trapped in cages attached to the plants, being counted after 96 h, the number of live and dead females, and the number of nymphs. Cowpea genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e BRS Aracê showed feeding non-preference resistance and negatively interfere with the nymph’s production per female of A. craccivora. The genotypes Apiaú, BR 17 Gurguéia e BRS Mazagão are succeptible to A. craccivora. = O feijão-caupi está amplamente distribuído nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo, sendo atacado por diversos insetos, dentre esses, o pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a preferência de pulgão-preto a genótipos de feijão-caupi a partir de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Foram realizados experimentos em gaiolas (3,0 x 1,6 x 2,0 m, com e sem chance de escolha, utilizando delineamento

  4. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  5. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes. PMID:26476557

  6. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  7. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author)

  8. BIOEFFICACY OF CYANTRANILIPROLE 10% OD-AN ANTHRANILIC DIAMIDE INSECTICIDE AGAINST SUCKING PESTS OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. PATEL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 in order to evaluate the field bio-efficacy of a newer molecule cyantraniliprole 10% OD (Cyazypyr @ 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 g a.i./ ha along with indoxacarb 14.5 SC (Avaunt @ 75 g a.i./ha and endosulfan 35 EC (Thiodan @ 350 g a.i./ha as standard checks against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover; thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. The two higher doses of cyantraniliprole 10% OD i.e. 90 and 105 g a.i./ha was found highly effective in managing the population of aphid, thrips and whitefly during both the year compared to endosulfan and indoxacarb. The seed cotton yield was recorded significantly higher in treatments cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 (31.97 q/ha and 105 (33.33 q/ha g a.i./ha with an increase of 50.80 and 52.81 per cent over untreated control, respectively. Considering the bio-efficacy and yield, cyantraniliprole 10% OD @ 90 g a.i./ha is recommended for effective control of sucking pests in cotton ecosystem.

  9. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  10. Toxicity Determination of Four Insecticides on Aphis glycines Matsumura%4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴海英; 张礼凤; 王彩洁; 李伟; 徐冉

    2013-01-01

    In order to explicit the control effects of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and py-metrozine on Aphis glycines Matsumura, indoor toxicity determination was carried out using dipping method. The results showed that the toxicity of acetamiprid was the strongest with the LC50 of 7. 026 μg/g, and then was imidacloprid, nitenpyram and pymetrozine in order with the LC50 of 9.484, 15.247 and 43.734 μg/g respectively. All of them had better control effects on Aphis glycines.%为明确啶虫脒、吡虫啉、烯啶虫胺和吡蚜酮等杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的毒力和防治效果,采用浸渍法进行了4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫的室内毒力测定.结果表明,4种杀虫剂对大豆蚜虫都有较高的毒力,以啶虫脒对大豆蚜虫的毒力最高,LC50为7.026 μg/g.,其余3种杀虫剂的毒力大小依次为吡虫啉、烯啶虫胺、吡蚜酮,LC50分别为9.484、15.247和43.734 μg/g,对大豆蚜虫均有较好的防治效果.

  11. Toxicity of Synergistic Imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch%增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀玲; 李艳波; 刘月; 冷阳; 张一宾

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的毒力.[方法]采用浸渍法测定了2种增效吡虫啉对豆蚜的24 h致死作用,同时以市售的35%吡虫啉悬浮剂为对照.[结果]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4防治豆蚜的效果最佳,其LC50值为5.2673 mg/L;其次为31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-1,LC50值为7.7441 mg/L;35%吡虫啉悬浮剂的LC50值为10.563 0 mg/L,豆蚜对其的敏感性相对较低.[结论]31%增效吡虫啉悬浮剂SE-6-4和SE-1是2个良好的制剂产品,具有减量同效的应用价值,可将其进一步用于田间试验.%[Aims] Toxicity of synergistic imidacloprid to Aphis craccivora Koch was studied. [Methods] The 24 h-lethal effect of synergistic imidacloprid were determined by impregnation method, and the commercial imidacloprid 35% SC as control [Results] The results showed that synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 31 % SC had the highest control efficacy with LC50 of 5.2673 mg/L, followed by synergistic imidacloprid SE-1 31% SC with LC50 of 7.7441 mg/L. The LC^of imidacloprid 35% SC was 10.5630 mg/L, and had low toxicity to Aphis craccivora Koch. [Conclusions] The control efficacy of low-dose synergistic imidacloprid SE-6-4 and SE-1 31% SC were similar to that of high-dose imidacloprid 35% SC, They were good formulations and could be used in field trials.

  12. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE O FUNGO colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE INCUBATION ON THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypi SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura de incubação sobre o crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e morfologia da colônia do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa, em substrato de batata + dextrose + agar, pH 5,6. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados e as temperaturas variaram de 12 a 33°C, a intervalos de 3° C. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de incubação afeta notavelmente o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a morfologia da colônia do fungo. Temperaturas acima da faixa ótima provocaram modificações mais acentuadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspecto morfológico, do que temperaturas baixas. Conídios produzidos em temperaturas extremas, 12 a 33°C, mostraram-se mais curtos que os dos demais tratamentos. A incubação à temperatura de 27°C é a mais recomendável para produção de inóculos em quantidade.

    In this work, the effect of temperature of incubation on the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of the fungus colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa in substrate containing potato + dextrose + agar pH 5.6, was studied. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, with temperatures varying from 12 to 33 degrees centigrades, at intervals of 3°C. It was concluded that the temperature of incubation notably affects the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of this fungus. Temperatures above the optimum range caused greater changes in mycelial, sporulation an morphology of the colony than temperatures below this range. Conidia produced at l2 and 33°C were shown to be shorter than those in other treatments. The temperature of incubation recommended for inocule production was 27°C.

  13. Repellent Activity of Extracts of Wild Rice Species against Panonychus citri and Aphis citricola in Associated with Esterase Isoenzyme in Insests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Shu-qing; LIU Xiang-fa; FENG Guo-zhong; PAN Da-jian

    2006-01-01

    Six species of wild rice with different ecophenotypes including Oryza grandiglumis (E6-1, E6-3 / 6-4), O. minuta (E13-9,E13-13), O. officinalis (E15-8, E15-13), O. punctata (E16-1, E16-3, E1 6-13), O. granulata (E7-4), and O. latifolia (101392, E9-1, E9-10)were extracted with methnol and the repellent activity of the extracts against the two insects Aphis citricola and Panonychus citri were studied. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 showed higher repellent rate to the two insects than those of the other species. The repellent rates of the extracts of E15-8 to P. citriand A. citricola were 83.26% and 87.86% at 5×104 μg/mL in 24 h and 87.95% and 82.43% in 48 h, respectively. The extracts of O. officinalis E15-8 had the effect of inhibition to the esterase of the two insects.

  14. Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuang Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines induces soybean (Glycine max leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1 determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2 use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA, benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores.

  15. Weed host specificity of the aphid, Aphis spiraecola: developmental and reproductive performance of aphids in relation to plant growth and leaf chemicals of the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid tropical parts of northeast and southern India. Variations in developmental and reproductive performances in apterous viviparous female aphids were recorded in relation to differences in leaf chemicals in different growth stages of C. odorata. Aphids reproduced at higher rates in the vegetative stage of C. odorata when developmental time was shortest, and fecundity was higher in a longer reproductive time. Intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were also recorded to be higher in the vegetative stage of the weed host. In the vegetative stage, leaves contained higher quantity of proteins and nitrogen, which are vital for insect reproduction. Results of this study have demonstrated that A spiraecola showed synchronization of its developmental and reproductive performances to growth stages of C. odorata, which occur in high abundance in the study area. PMID:22950746

  16. 不同杀虫剂对花生蚜毒力及拌种控制效果研究%Toxicities and Control Effects of Clothianidin and Other Insectcides to Aphis craccivora by the Seed Dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丹; 刘磊; 渠成; 薛明

    2015-01-01

    为明确噻虫胺等9种杀虫剂对花生蚜虫的毒力和拌种处理对花生蚜虫的控制效果,采用浸渍法进行了室内毒力测定,并进行了盆栽和田间药剂拌种防治试验。结果表明,以新烟碱类噻虫胺、吡虫啉、啶虫脒和噻虫嗪对蚜虫的毒力最高,其毒力分别是毒死蜱的49.2、40.7、26.6和26.1倍;其次是吡蚜酮、高效氯氰菊酯和氯氟氰菊酯,哒螨灵的毒力是毒死蜱的3.9倍。盆栽药剂拌种处理后50d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对花生蚜的防效达仍在89%以上。田间拌种处理后25d,噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉对蚜虫的防效均达100%,药后45d 防效达87.07%~92.67%,其中以噻虫胺防效最高,而对照药剂毒死蜱几乎无控制效果。采用新烟碱类药剂噻虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉拌种,对花生苗期蚜虫控制效果优异,并可有效控制地下害虫,且对天敌保护作用强。%To define the toxicity of clothianidin and other 8 insectcides to Aphis craccivora , the toxicities to Aphis craccivora were detected using the insect-dip bioassay method.The effects of pot and field experiment to Aphis craccivora were also studied.The results showed that the toxicities of clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam against Aphis craccivora were 49.2, 40.7, 26.6 and 26.1 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.Followed by imidacloprid, beta-cyper-methrin, cyfluthrin were 7.5, 6.7 and 6.4 times as those of chlorpyrifos, respectively.And the toxic-itiy of pyridaben was 3.9 times of chlorpyrifos.Pot test results showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were all over 89% when given the dose of 240g /100kg 50 days later.The results of field efficacy showed that the control effects of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid were all up to 100% 25 days later, and were 87.07%~92.67% 45 days later.Clothiani-din had the best control effect to Aphis craccivora , while the control effect of

  17. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  18. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  19. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  20. Control Effects of Bacillus subtilis BL03 Strain on Alternaria alternata and Colltotrichum gossypii in Field%枯草芽孢杆菌BL03对苹果霉心病和棉苗病害田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉成

    2000-01-01

    @@ 枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)BL03菌株,是作者从苹果树体上分离得到的拮抗菌株之一.室内测定对苹果霉心病菌(Alternaria alternata)、炭疽病菌(Colltotrichum gossypii)、红霉病菌(Trichothecium roseum)和镰刀菌(Fusarium sp.)等10种病原菌的抑制效果均为100%.本文报道枯草芽孢杆菌BL03菌液对苹果霉心病和棉花苗期病害的田间防治效果.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  2. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andja Vucetic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  3. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  4. A BRIEF REVIEW ON ABUNDANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF BRINJAL ( SOLANUM MELONGENA L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Omprakash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (SolanummelongenaL. occupies a distinct place in the realm of vegetable crops. It is a bushy plant, commonly known as egg plant. It is one of the most popular and important vegetable crops grown in India and many parts of the world. It is native of Indian sub-continent, with India as the probable centre of origin (Gleddieet al., 1986. In the world, brinjal occupies an area of 1.72 m ha with a production of 43.17 m MT with an average productivity of 25 MT per ha (FAOSTAT, 2011. In India brinjal is grown throughout the year in almost all parts of the country. Although brinjal is widely grown, it is subjected to severe damage by different insect pests leading to significant loss in yield. There are 26 insect pests species and few non insect pest species infesting brinjal of which the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis(Guen.; whitefly, Bemisiatabaci(Genn.; leafhopper, Amarascadevastans(Distant; epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.; aphid, Aphis gossypii(Glover.; mealy bug, Centroccocusinsolitus(Guen.; lace wing bug, Urentiushystricellus(Richt. and non insect pest, red spider mite, Tetranichusmacfurlanei(Andrecause severe damage, necessitating initiation of control measures quite frequently(Vevai,1970. Infestation due to leafhopper, whitefly and shoot and fruit borer results in about 70-92 per cent loss in yield of brinjal (Rosaiah, 2001. Dhankaret al.1997 recorded 63 per cent yield loss due to shoot and fruit borer alone.As brinjal is a vegetable crop and harvesting of fruits is done at regular short intervals, safer and effective insecticides are needed for controlling the insect pest complex. At present synthetic pyrethroids are regularly used for the control of shoot and fruit borer and their indiscriminate use, leading to whitefly, aphid and mite resurgence is well documented (Reddy and Srinivas, 2005. The present day need emphasizes not only the use of different groups of chemicals that are eco-friendly but

  5. Pests on tomatoes produced in greenhouses in Strumica region

    OpenAIRE

    Spasov, Dusan; Spasova, Dragica; Georgievski, Milan; Atanasova, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is one of the most important cultures grown in green - houses in Strimica Region. Therefore, stydin the pests that demage tomatoes is very important. The aim of the examination was to dermined the pests on tomato grown in greenhouses during 2007 and 2008 in Strumica region. More pests were determined during the examination: Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Trialeurodes vaporarium, Thrips tabaci Frankliniela occidentalis, Aculops lycopersi, Tetranychys urticae, ...

  6. Introduced sap-feeding insect pests of crop plants in the Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Watson, Gillian W.

    1999-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects within Hemiptera and Thysanoptera are some of the most important crop pests world-wide. Apart from the loss of yield they cause by sap depletion, saliva toxicity and soiling of the leaves, some species transmit serious plant virus diseases. Important sap-feeding species that have been introduced to the Maltese Islands include the whitefly Bemisia tabaci; the scale insects Pseudococcus longispinus, Planococcus citri and Icerya purchasi; the aphids Aphis gossypii...

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Ridhi; Ranjan, Alok; Idris, Asif; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Bag, Sumit K; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Pandey, Kapil Deo; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Sawant, Samir V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for ...

  8. Resource Provisioning as a Habitat Manipulation Tactic to Enhance the Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), and the Plant-Mediated Effects of a Systemic Insecticide, Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Charles-Tollerup, Jennifer Jean

    2012-01-01

    Resource provisioning as a habitat manipulation tactic to control the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, by the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani, was investigated in the ornamental, potted-plant nursery using the shrub Photinia x fraseri as a plant host. Floral food resources from an invasive, Conium maculatum, an ornamental, P. x fraseri, and a native, Salvia apiana considerably improved the longevity and fecundity of A. colemani in laboratory experiments. Additionally, floral nec...

  9. Fatores que afetam artrópodes associados a cinco acessos de ginseng-brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata) em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais = Factors affecting arthropods associated with five accessions of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata) in Montes Claros, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Mayra Pimenta; Péricles Leonardo Fernandes; Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Ernane Ronnie Martins

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar artrópodes associados a cinco acessos ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' e 'GSD1') de Pfaffia glomerata, bem como o efeito de clima, dossel, face foliar, tricomas e inimigos naturais sobre a entomofauna. Dos artrópodes observados, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) apresentaram maior densidade populacional. Dos inimigos naturais observados, ácaros predadores est...

  10. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande; Roni Paulo Fortunato; Paulo Rogério Beltramin da Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete ...

  11. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm) module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shravan M Haldhar; Choudhary B R; Bhargava R; Sharma S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM) were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1) against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii), leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica), hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata) and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in ...

  12. 不同杀虫剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力及复配研究%Toxicity test of different pesticides and their mixed formulation against Aphis citricola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庾琴; 王振; 封云涛; 刘中芳; 张润祥

    2013-01-01

    In order to select effective single and mixed pesticides for the control of Aphis citricola van der Goot,toxicity of acetamiprid,imidacloprid,beta-cypermethrin,bifenthrin,abamectin,fenvalerate,phoxim,malathion and their mixtures were tested by insect-soaking method.The results showed that A.citricola was sensitive to acetamiprid,followed by imidacloprid,bifenthrin and abamectin.The toxicity of malathion was the lowest.Among all formula,the synergistic effect of the mixture of acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 2∶1 was the best,the second was acetamiprid and beta-cypermethrin at the proportion of 1 ∶4,followed by acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 1 ∶ 4 and 4 ∶ 1,acetamiprid and fenvalerate at the proportion of 1∶ 4,acetamiprid and bifenthrin at the proportion of 1∶ 2.Field experiments also indicated that control efficiency of the mixture of acetamiprid and abamectin at the proportion of 2∶1 on A.citricola was better than that of their each single.%采用浸虫法测定不同药剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力,并对不同药剂进行复配,测定复配药剂对苹果黄蚜的毒力和复配效果.结果表明:苹果黄蚜对啶虫脒最敏感,其次是吡虫啉、联苯菊酯、阿维菌素,对高效氯氰菊酯、氰戊菊酯敏感度较低,对马拉硫磷基本无敏感性.不同药剂复配以啶虫脒与阿维菌素配合效果最好,5种不同比例配合均表现为增效作用,其中啶虫脒与阿维菌素质量配比为2∶1时增效作用最明显,其余依次为啶虫脒与阿维菌素(1∶4)和(4∶1)、啶虫脒与高效氯氰菊酯(1∶4)、啶虫脒与氰戊菊酯(1∶4)、啶虫脒与联苯菊酯(1∶2),其共毒系数均高于400.田间试验同样表明:啶虫脒与阿维菌素(2∶1)桶混处理效果明显好于单剂.

  13. Engineering osmotic stress tolerance in the riboflavin producer Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rui Miguel Correia da; Aguiar, Tatiana Quinta; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide scenario of strong investment in biodiesel production brings new economical and environmental concerns that need to be addressed. Among them, the most prominent lies on the accumulation of large amounts of a main by-product of the process, crude glycerol. Valorization of this biodiesel waste through its microbial conversion into high-value products is one of the most attractive and sustainable applications explored. Crude glycerol contains several impurities such ...

  14. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  15. A genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfer, Mark; Girardot, Gregory; Fénéant, Lucie; Ben Tamarzizt, Hana; Verdin, Eric; Moury, Benoît; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated CMV-Rom, was isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near Avignon, France. Laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical CMV isolates, CMV-Rom has a particularly narrow host range. It could be transmitted by aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical CMV isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the CMV-Rom genomic RNAs shows that this isolate does not belong to any of the previously described CMV subgroups, IA, IB, II or III. PMID:27138549

  16. DEF对大豆蚜羧酸酯酶活性的抑制及其增效作用%The effects of pretreatment with S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on carboxylesterase activity and susceptibility to eight kinds of insecticides in the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正堂; 肖达; 卢延; 李锦钰; 董金锦; 宋敦伦; 高希武

    2011-01-01

    The effects of exposing aphids to S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate ( DEF) on the effectiveness of eight kinds of insecticides and on aphid carboxylesterase activity, were investigated in Aphis glycines (Matsumura). Aphids were collected in the field and reared on soybean seedlings in a laboratory for more than 30 generations. The results show that beta-cypermethrin had the highest insecticidal activity on soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The carboxylesterase activity of soybean aphids decreased gradually after exposure to DEF for 2 h, and reached its lowest level, 69. 6% , after 10 h. Activity gradually recovered after 24 h. The LC,0 values of eight insecticides with three treatments; exposure to DEF, pesticides mixed with DEF and pesticides without DEF, were as follows; beta-cypermethrin ( 0. 294, 0. 613, 0. 814 mg · L-1), deltamethrin (0. 047, 0. 181, 0. 340 mg · L-1), omethoate (91. 025, 144. 882, 107. 999 mg ·L-1), malathion (78.212, 147.546, 141.912 mg · L-1), imidacloprid (1.778, 7.689, 11.876 mg · L-1), acetamiprid (0.814, 5.931, 9.581 mg· L-1), methomyl (7.120, 19.559, 37.335 mg · L-1) and carbofuran (11.298, 20.957 , 23.927 mg · L-1). The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DEF on carboxylesterase was significantly greater in soybean aphids that had been exposed to DEF for 10 h. The pretreatment of soybean aphids with DEF may enhance insecticide activity compared to either using insecticides without such pretreatment, or applying a mixture of insecticide and DEF. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the chemical control of soybean aphids in thefield.%对采自田间的大豆蚜Aphis glycines Matsumura在室内不接触任何药剂的情况下连续饲养30代以上作为被测虫源,研究DEF(1,2,4-三丁基三硫磷酸酯)不同时间处理大豆蚜后对高效氯氰菊酯等8种药剂的增效作用,以及大豆蚜体内羧酸酯酶的活性变化.结果显示,高效氯氰菊酯对经DEF处理10 h的大

  17. 9 CFR 124.10 - APHIS liaison with PTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after the product was approved for marketing or use; and (4) Providing such other information as may be..., 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC, between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through... the product was subject to a regulatory review period before its commercial marketing or use;...

  18. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  19. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yovkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses. The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts, Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts.The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species. Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species.Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  20. The mortality and repellency effect of a formulation of spearmint essential oil on the cotton-melon aphid under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of essential oils derived from aromatic plants has been considered as low-risk insecticides. These compounds have repellency, insecticidal and growth-reducing effects on immature stages of a variety of insects. Since it is not possible to use pure essential oils in agricultural fields and greenhouses, development of commercial formulations essential-oils is necessary. In this study, the insecticidal activity and repellency effect of essential oil from spearmint (Mentha spicata and its formulation was tested against the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, which is one of the key pests of greenhouse crops. The LC50 values of fumigation bioassay of the essential oil against the first instar nymph, third instar nymph and adult of A. gossypii were 2.70, 3.41 and 5.24 µl/L, respectively. For contact toxicity bioassay, based on preliminary tests, a formulation of essential oil from spearmint was used in four concentrations (8000, 12500, 16000 and 25000 mg/L. Results revealed that spearmint essential-oil formulation caused 88.7% adult mortality when applied at a concentration of 25000 mg/L. The repellency index was calculated when aphids were exposed for 24 h to LC20 concentration. This index was -10%. These results showed that formulation of spearmint essential oil could be used as a commercial substitute for chemical insecticides to control A. gossypii under greenhouse conditions.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COTTON RAMULOSIS (Colletotrichum gossypii SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA RAMULOSE (Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa DO ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Calil

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    These experiments deal with the effects of outbreak of early, medium and late developing ramulosis on the IAC-13.l variety of cotton, which was seeded at three different intervals in Itauçu (Goiás—Brazil. The effects of the ramulosis on the height and weight of the plants, on the number of bolls, and on the weight of the cotton seeds and lints, were studied. The experiments were installed in a flat area of red latosoil. The experimental design was one of random blocks with six repetitions and the plants were classified, at the end of their vegetative growth, into the following categories: healthy, early ramulosis, medium ramulosis and late developing ramulosis. The early and medium ramulosis affected more significantly the studied parameters, and it was observed that varieties of cotton which were moderately resistant in relation to ramulosis, can be severely affected during growing seasons of heavy rains such as the 1975/76 season.

    Estudaram-se os efeitos da incidência precoce, mediana e tardia de ramulose sobre o peso e altura das plantas, número de capulhos, peso das sementes e da pluma de algodoeiro do cultivar IAC-l3.l em três épocas de semeadura (21/10/75, 21/11/75 e 23/12/75 no município de Itauçu (GO. O experimento foi instalado em região plana com latossolo vermelho. Foram utilizados blocos casualizados com seis repetições e plantas no final do ciclo vegetativo foram classificadas em quatro tipos: sadias, com ramulose precoce, com ramulose mediana ou com ramulose tardia. Concluiu-se que a forma precoce e também a mediana foram as que afetaram mais significativamente os parâmetros aferidos, e que cultivares tidos como de razoável comportamento em relação à ramulose, podem ser severamente afetados em anos agrícolas muito chuvosos como foi o de 1975/76.

  2. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete design with seven treatments and five replicates, consisting of: test without insecticide spraying, without insecticide spraying with rain, flonicamid spraying with simulate rain of 15 mm after 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours after spraying. Equivalent insecticide was sprayed 75 g of flonicamid by hectare. The efficiency evaluation was accomplished through the individuals of A. gossypii count which started from an artificial infestation 6 days before the application of the treatments. The results were: a 15-mm precipitation during the first four hours after flonicamid spraying interfered negatively in the control of A. gossypii.O cultivo do algodoeiro no Brasil concentra-se na Região do Cerrado, caracterizada por chuvas freqüentes que interferem na eficácia das pulverizações necessárias durante seu ciclo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar chuva simulada de 15 mm nas 4h iniciais após pulverização no controle de A. gossypii com inseticida flonicamid. Plantas de Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas em vasos contendo solo como substrato em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições, consistindo de: testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida, testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida com presença de chuva e pulverização de flonicamid com chuva simulada de 15 mm aos 30 min., 1, 2 e 4h após aplica

  3. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  4. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  5. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Buey, Ruben M.; Ledesma Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; Revuelta Doval, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Her...

  6. Fatores que afetam artrópodes associados a cinco acessos de ginseng-brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais = Factors affecting arthropods associated with five accessions of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata in Montes Claros, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar artrópodes associados a cinco acessos ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' e 'GSD1' de Pfaffia glomerata, bem como o efeito de clima, dossel, face foliar, tricomas e inimigos naturais sobre a entomofauna. Dos artrópodes observados, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae e Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae apresentaram maior densidade populacional. Dos inimigos naturais observados, ácaros predadores estiveram associados ao ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae, e um complexo de aranhas a besouros desfolhadores, pulgões e cicadelídeos. Observaram-se correlações significativas diretas múltiplas e lineares da população de A. gossypii com maior densidade de Crematogaster sp.(Hymenotera: Formicidae (protocooperação e correlação negativa com densidade de Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae e a temperatura do ar. Foi observado maior ataque de ácaros T. ludeni, T. urticae (Tetranychidae e P. latus, em períodos de menor umidaderelativa. Observou-se maior densidade populacional de A. gossypii, nos acessos 'ROST' e 'NAT' e de T. ludeni ao acesso 'ROST'. O acesso 'GSD1' foi o mais danificado por besouros desfolhadores. Pulgões e ácaros preferiram alimentar-se na face abaxial das folhas apicais,enquanto D. speciosa apresentou preferência pela face adaxial do terço mediano do dossel. Tricomas (100% tectores não afetaram os artrópodes.The objective of this study was to identify arthropods associated with five accessions ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' and 'GSD1' of Pfaffia glomerata and the effect of weather, canopy height, foliar face, trichomes, and naturals enemies over the entomofauna. The arthropods Aphis gossypii, Diabrotica speciosa, and Tetranychus ludeni had the highest population densities. Among naturals enemies, there were predator mites associated with the broad mitePolyphagotarsonemus latus, and the spiders

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11596-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available za sativa (japonica cultivar-... 50 2e-04 AY251805_1( AY251805 |pid:none) Bigelowiella natans ubiquitin/ribo...... 50 2e-04 AF321438_1( AF321438 |pid:none) Galleria mellonella polyubiquitin ... 50 2e-04 AY251803_1( AY251803 |pid:none) Bigel...vwvvwva wvvwisvnlviclvvwevwevwviiiaqlqdhqliknhqnkdlgyn*nn*rswvlwielq isllkhrlmeisiwpltvy*dnnkik**kkkkkfkk*kk... Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 50 0.020 2 ( DY887904 ) CeleSEQ4723 Cunninghamella elegans pBluescript (E... 52 0... AB035275 |pid:none) Homo sapiens DA41 mRNA, complete c... 85 9e-15 CR954218_69( CR954218 |pid:none) Ostreococcus tauri

  8. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  9. Induced mutations for resistance to aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphid is a major insect pest of cowpea and causes heavy yield losses throughout the world. Two mutants, ICV11 and ICV12, resistant to aphids were developed from the M3 generation of ICV1 seeds irradiated with 20 kR of gamma rays. These mutants are true breeding and have a high level of seedling resistance to aphids under screenhouse conditions. The mutants have a high level of antibiosis, causing the death of the pest. They have improved plant type (semi-erect) and longer pod size (20 cm), with 19 seeds, compared with ICV1, which has a pod size of 14 cm with 13 seeds. However, the mutants are late in flowering and maturity compared with the control ICV1. Grain yields of mutants under 'unspread' field conditions are rather low, but they could give higher yields if planted early or protected from other insects using insecticides. The genetics of resistance of mutants was studied in crosses with the susceptible ICV1 and other resistant cultivars. Five day old seedlings were infested with ten aphids per plant in the screenhouse. The reactions of the F1, F2 and BC1 (F1 back-crossed to the susceptible parent ICV1) populations from the crosses of the resistant mutant ICV11 with ICV1 revealed that resistance was governed by a single dominant gene. Analyses of the allelic relationship of the gene for resistance in ICV11 were undertaken in the F1 and F2 populations from the crosses of ICV11 with other resistant cultivars TVu310 and ICV10. Results indicated that the single dominant genes of TVu310 and ICV10 are the same and allelic, while the single dominant gene of the mutant cultivar ICV11 is non-allelic to, and independent of, the resistance genes of TVu310 and ICV10. The dominant gene of TVu310 and ICV10 is designated as Ac1, while the dominant gene of ICV11 is designated as Ac2. Use of resistance genes in breeding for aphid resistance is discussed. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Sun Xi-miao in T he Biogr aphy of T he Avatamsaka - Sutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Hyun- Sook

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to introduce and examine the biography of Sun Xi-miao(孫思邈581-682 which I found in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經傳記, that Fazang(法藏643-712 wrote in 692 A.D. This document was neglected to understand Sun who was the famous medical writer of the collection of prescriptions, the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方. His life is rather well documented, because he has his own biographies in Jiu Tang shu and Xin Tang shu(新唐書 which cited from Da Tang sin yu(大唐新語, published in 807. But I found several new informations about Sun in The Biography of The Avatamsaka-Sutra, such as he use to be a military medicine in the troops of Li Yuan(李淵 who became the first emperor Kao Tsu(高祖 of Tang dynasty and treat Sun with great favour. This document let us know that the Bei ji qian jin yao fang(備急千金要方 was dedicated to Kao Tsu, known as published in 652 A.D. MY CONCLUSIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS: First, it was written by Fazang in 692 A.D, who was the real establisher of the fraternity of the Avatamsaka in China, for the purpose of encouraging to copy the Avatamsaka-Sutra(華嚴經. According to this biography, Sun made 750 copies to persuade the monks and the peoples, and that's the reason Fazang wrote his biography.Secondly, it was not conveyed to posterity, such as Sun was good looking, tall and use to be the medicine of Kao Tsu and dedicated his medical book to the first emperor. It might be left out for Tai Tsung(太宗's sake in the official records, who murdered his brother, the heir apparent to the throne and became the second emperor by himself. On the contrary, it was written in Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang shu that Sun made a prediction that his collection of prescriptions would help the holyman after 50 years from Xuan Di(宣帝578-579 of Northern Chou(北周 Dynasty. Holyman meant Tai Tsung. It shows that Sun's biographies in the Da Tang sin yu, Jiu and Xin Tang Shu were based on the documents that might be fabricated and embellished for Tai Tsung. Thirdly, this biography let us know that Sun wote the Bei ji qian jin yao fang under the circumstances that the epidemic disease was spreaded in Changan at 618 A.D. and the population of Kao Tsu era(618-626 was decreased rapidly. I think that's why he wrote down the medical morals as the first chapter, and the prescriptions about the gynecology and pediatrics as the second chapter.

  11. 7 CFR 322.15 - APHIS review of permit applications; denial or cancellation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0207) ... information on the risks associated with the importation of the restricted organisms. (2) Review by... deny the permit application and provides scientific, risk-based reasons supporting that...

  12. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  13. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  14. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  15. Aphid populations (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea depend of mulching in watermelon production in the Mediterranean region of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Winged morphs of aphids were investigated under field conditions during 2008, 2010 and 2011 in the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Field experiments were conducted to record aphid diversity and compare polyethylene black mulch to straw mulch and bare soil in terms of their attractiveness to aphid species in a watermelon crop. Aphids were collected weekly using yellow water metal traps from May to July. During the study, 44 species in 31 genera were detected; 36 species in 24 genera were identified in 2008, 18 species in 15 genera were identified in 2010, and 34 species in 25 genera were identified in 2011. The overall seasonal percentage composition showed that Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were consistently eudominant species, whereas Acyrtosiphon pisum (Harris was consistently dominant. Cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L. was determined as the dominant species in 2008 and as eudominant species in 2011. Additionally, Macrosiphum rosae (L. was twice recorded as the dominant species, whereas Aphis gossipii Glover was dominant once, and Phorodon humuli (Schrank was eudominant once. Our study also demonstrated that mulching sporadically affected the abundance of individual species. The attractiveness of mulching for aphid species differed between the treatments. It was found that bare soil was attractive to A. pisum and M. rosae, black mulch was attractive to B. helichrysi and P. humuli, and straw mulch was attractive to four aphid species, of which two were eudominant, A. fabae and M. persicae. The presented species are mostly polyphagous, and their preference for certain mulches can be used in crop protection management.

  16. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Daniela BACIU; Lucica MIHALTE; Adriana F. SESTRAS; Radu E. SESTRAS

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz) cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.). The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6) and the large...

  17. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1993 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum discussing the plan for disease sampling of coyotes in July and August 1993 as part of the disease study associated with the...

  18. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  19. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) and 94.10(a) of this chapter as one in which classical swine fever is known to exist, except for the... because of the detection of classical swine fever in domestic swine, from the time of detection until the... classical swine fever in wild boar, from the time of detection until the designation of the zone as...

  20. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in aere (in air from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kent Morgan

    Full Text Available Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid, Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter, Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug, and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale. Examination of in āere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in āere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in āere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.

  1. Outcomes of co-infection by two potyviruses: implications for the evolution of manipulative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaudon, Lucie; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have documented effects of plant viruses on host plants that appear to enhance transmission by insect vectors. But, almost no empirical work has explored the implications of such apparent manipulation for interactions among co-infecting pathogens. We examined single and mixed infections of two potyviruses, watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), that frequently co-occur in cucurbitaceae populations and share the same aphid vectors. We found that ZYMV isolates replicated at similar rates in single and mixed infections, whereas WMV strains accumulated to significantly lower levels in the presence of ZYMV. Furthermore, ZYMV induced changes in leaf colour and volatile emissions that enhanced aphid (Aphis gossypii) recruitment to infected plants. By contrast, WMV did not elicit strong effects on plant-aphid interactions. Nevertheless, WMV was still readily transmitted from mixed infections, despite fairing poorly in in-plant competition. These findings suggest that pathogen effects on host-vector interactions may well influence competition among co-infecting pathogens. For example, if non-manipulative pathogens benefit from the increased vector traffic elicited by manipulative competitors, their costs of competition may be mitigated to some extent. Conversely, the benefits of manipulation may be limited by free-rider effects in systems where there is strong competition among pathogens for host resources and/or access to vectors. PMID:23407835

  2. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  3. The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum negatively affects both above- and belowground herbivores in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqing; Starr, James L; Krumm, Janice L; Sword, Gregory A

    2016-10-01

    Mutualistic plant-endophyte symbioses can benefit plants by increasing host fitness through reductions in herbivory. The fungus, Chaetomium globosum strain TAMU 520, was previously isolated as an endophyte from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and can be re-inoculated to systemically colonize cotton plants via seed treatment. We evaluated the potential impacts of the endophyte in cotton on plant parasitic nematodes belowground, along with piercing-sucking and chewing insects aboveground. Endophytic C. globosum inhibited root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection and reduced female reproduction belowground. To confirm the endophytic effect of C. globosum on root-knot nematode, a contact fungicide was applied to remove soil-borne and epiphytic C. globosum Consistent inhibition of nematode activity was observed post-fungicide treatment, with positive C. globosum colonization confirmed within plant tissues. Aboveground, endophytic C. globosum also negatively affected the fecundity of both cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) and beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua). Faster development rates and smaller head capsule of beet armyworm larvae were observed when fed Chaetomium-colonized plants. However, no larval weight difference was found between Chaetomium-colonized and control plants. No consistent effect on plant performance was found across experiments. Our findings illustrate how a single facultative fungal endophyte can increase plant systemic resistance against a range of invertebrate herbivores in a major crop. PMID:27451418

  4. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan M Haldhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1 against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica, hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in which the lowest incidence was recorded as compared to other modules. The organic IPM module-III comprised of growing resistant genotype (RM-50, spray of neem oil at 20 DAS, installation of pheromone trap (10/ hectare at 42 DAS, spray of tumba fruit extract (TFE 5% at 50 DAS and spray of spinosad 46 SC at 60 DAS was the most effective. The conventional I (farmer’s practices was the second most effective system against major pests during both years. The benefit-cost ratio of the tested muskmelon production systems in the control of insect-pests decreased in the following order: module-III (B: C ratio 8.80:1> module-I (B: C ratio 7.74:1> module-IV (B: C ratio 6.60:1> module-II (B: C ratio 3.56:1.

  5. Effect of neem seed kernel and handal extracts on muskmelon pest complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucumis melo (var ananas) was grown during the autumn and winter seasons of 1996/97 at Shambat. The efficacy of three neem (azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel (NSK) extracts and one handal (citrullus colocynthis) fruit-extract (HFE) were tested against pests-complex and natural enemies associated with this crop. Malathion was used as a standard treatment. All extracts significantly reduced infestations of major pests, especially bemisia tabaci (genn), aphis gossypii (glov) and liriomyza spp, compared to untreated control. The results were always comparable to, or even better than those of malathion NSK extracts residual affect extended up to 10 days, which is longer than that of HFE. The latter seems to be attractive to epilachna elaterii at the applied dosage rate. All extracts showed delayed effect on the populations of this pest towards the end of the season. All treatments, except HFE, significantly reduced the damage by dacus ciliatus (Lw). No adverse effects on natural enemies, viz chrysopids, syrphids, and coccinellids, were detectable as a result of using plant extracts.(Author)

  6. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  7. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF PREDACEOUS ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS DIVERSIDADE E ABUNDÂNCIA DE ARTRÓPODES PREDADORES ASSOCIADOS A DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of studying the abundance and diversity of predaceous arthropods associated with cotton crop, and analyze the influence of meteorological factors, interactions between natural enemies and population dynamics of coccinellids associated with their principal prey, the aphid Aphis gossypii, an experiment was carried out in the region of Ipameri, Goiás State, Brazil, at the Universidade Estadual de Goiás campus. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments, consisting of the DeltaOPAL, FMX 966, FMX 993, FMX 910, and NuOPAL cultivars, in four replications. Among the arthropods sampled in the cotton crop, the coccinellids and spiders were the most abundant ones in the cultivars evaluated. Spiders occurred throughout the cotton cycle, while the coccinellids population increased gradually until 55 DAE, showing a population peak at 34 DAE, coinciding with the population peak of aphids (Aphis gossypii. Among the coccinellids observed in the cultivars under study, Scymnus spp. was the most abundant in cotton. The pentatomid and forficulid occurred from 99 to 128 days after the emergence of cotton, which corresponds to the highest density of target pest insects. It was not found influence of meteorological factors or negative interactions among predaceous arthropods.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium hirsutum; natural enemies, coccinellids.

    9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including zoo... quarantine facility, for any animal or bird that requires a diet other than standard feed, including but...

  8. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  9. Vermelhão do algodoeiro Cotton "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma moléstia do algodoeiro associada à infestação pelo pulgão Aphis gossypii, é descrita. É proposto que o nome vermelhão fique restrito a essa moléstia e que quando esta designação for usada em associação com outras moléstias, seja qualificada em seu emprêgo. São apontadas algumas diferenças que permitem distinguir o vermelhão do afídio de outras condições em que a coloração das fôlhas do algodoeiro é mais ou menos semelhante. Foi verificado que, quando afídios coletados de plantas com vermelhão eram alimentados em algodoeiros novos por 48 horas apenas, os sintomas da moléstia se manifestavam dentro de 12 a 30 dias. Infestações com um afídio por planta foram suficientes para reproduzir a moléstia em alguns casos ; com cinco afídios por planta conseguiu-se reproduzir a moléstia com maior freqüência ; com 25 afídios, em praticamente todos os casos. Insetos da mesma espécie, coletados de plantas de pepino, não produziram o vermelhão quando colocados sobre algodoeiros. Reprodução de vermelhão foi obtida por enxertia, passando os sintomas a se manifestar nos cavalos ; houve também perpetuação dos sintomas por enxertia em terceira reprodução vegetativa. A evidência obtida nos ensaios de reprodução da moléstia é discutida, sendo apontado que tudo indica ser um vírus a causa primária da moléstia e não toxina do inseto ou deficiência de elementos. Outras hipóteses alternativas são mencionadas.A disease associated with the infestation of cotton plants by the cotton or melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov. is described under the name of "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis. Symptoms of the disease resemble those resulting from magnesium deficiency. Aphids collected from diseased plants reproduced the disease when fed on cotton seedlings for 48 hours. Symptoms usually appeared from 12 to 30 days after inoculation, as chlorotic areas or spots that later turned reddish or purplish under strong light conditions

  10. How does atmospheric elevated CO2 affect crop pests and their natural enemies? Case histories from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Sun; Jin Yin; Fa-Jun Chen; Gang Wu; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations have risen rapidly since the Industrial Revolution and are considered as a primary factor in climate change.The effects of elevated CO2 on herbivore insects were found to be primarily through the CO2-induced changes occurring in their host plants,which then possibly affect the intensity and frequency of pest outbreaks on crops.This paper reviews several ongoing research models using primary pests of crops (cotton bollworm,whitefly,aphids) and their natural enemies (ladybeetles,parasitoids) in China to examine insect responses to elevated CO2.It is generally indicated that elevated CO2 prolonged the development of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera,a chewing insect,by decreasing the foliar nitrogen of host plants.In contrast,the phloemsucking aphid and whitefly insects had species-specific responses to elevated CO2 because of complex interactions that occur in the phloem sieve elements of plants.Some aphid species,such as cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii and wheat aphid,Sitobion avenae,were considered to represent the only feeding guild to respond positively to elevated CO2 conditions.Although whitefly,Bemisia tabaci,a major vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus,had neutral response to elevated CO2,the plants became less vulnerable to the virus infection under elevated CO2.The predator and parasitoid response to elevated CO2 were frequently idiosyncratic.These documents from Chinese scientists suggested that elevated CO2 initially affects the crop plant and then cascades to a higher trophic level through the food chain to encompass herbivores (pests),their natural enemies,pathogens and underground nematodes,which disrupt the natural balance observed previously in agricultural ecosystems.

  11. Host Plant Determines the Population Size of an Obligate Symbiont (Buchnera aphidicola) in Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Chen; Cao, Wen-Jie; Zhong, Le-Rong; Godfray, H Charles J; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2016-04-15

    Buchnera aphidicolais an obligate endosymbiont that provides aphids with several essential nutrients. Though much is known about aphid-Buchnerainteractions, the effect of the host plant onBuchnerapopulation size remains unclear. Here we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques to explore the effects of the host plant onBuchneradensities in the cotton-melon aphid,Aphis gossypiiBuchneratiters were significantly higher in populations that had been reared on cucumber for over 10 years than in populations maintained on cotton for a similar length of time. Aphids collected in the wild from hibiscus and zucchini harbored moreBuchnerasymbionts than those collected from cucumber and cotton. The effect of aphid genotype on the population size ofBuchneradepended on the host plant upon which they fed. When aphids from populations maintained on cucumber or cotton were transferred to novel host plants, host survival andBuchnerapopulation size fluctuated markedly for the first two generations before becoming relatively stable in the third and later generations. Host plant extracts from cucumber, pumpkin, zucchini, and cowpea added to artificial diets led to a significant increase inBuchneratiters in the aphids from the population reared on cotton, while plant extracts from cotton and zucchini led to a decrease inBuchneratiters in the aphids reared on cucumber. Gossypol, a secondary metabolite from cotton, suppressedBuchnerapopulations in populations from both cotton and cucumber, while cucurbitacin from cucurbit plants led to higher densities. Together, the results suggest that host plants influenceBuchnerapopulation processes and that this may provide phenotypic plasticity in host plant use for clonal aphids. PMID:26850304

  12. Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boll Roger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal, which is one of these traits, is a key concept in evolutionary biology but has been over-simplified in most theoretical studies. We evaluated the impact of the local-scale dispersal strategy of phytophagous insects on their fitness, using an individual-based model to simulate population dynamics and dispersal between leaves and plants, by walking and flying, of the aphid Aphis gossypii, a major agricultural pest, in a melon field. We compared the optimal values for dispersal parameters in the model with the corresponding observed values in experimental trials. Results We show that the rates of walking and flying disperser production on leaves were the most important traits determining the fitness criteria, whereas dispersal distance and the clustering of flying dispersers on the target plant had no effect. We further show that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depended strongly on plant characteristics. Conclusion Parameters defining the dispersal strategies of aphids at a local scale are key components of the fitness of these insects and may thus be essential in the adaptation to agricultural environments that are structured in space and time. Moreover, the fact that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depends strongly on plant characteristics suggests that traits defining aphid dispersal strategies may be a cornerstone of host-plant specialization.

  13. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in cotton seedlings by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiuju; SHI Xueyan; LIANG Pei; GAO Xiwu

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that infestation of plants causes increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes in the phenolic compounds synthesis pathway and the octadecanoid pathway, respectively. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the infestation of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii ) and mechanical wound can cause the induction of PAL and LOX activities in cotton seedlings, and whether the induction occurs in healthy seedlings growing nearby the attacked ones. The specific activities of PAL and LOX were measured using spectrophotometric method after aphid infestation and mechanical wounding. Result indicated that PAL activity and LOX activity were greatly induced by mechanical wounding and aphid infestation in cotton seedlings. The induction of PAL and LOX occurred not only in wounded and infested seedlings but also in intact healthy seedlings growing nearby. After exposed to the aphid infestation-induced volatiles, the specific activity of PAL in cotton seedlings increased by 6 % at 24 h, 80 % at 48 h, 235 % at 72 h compared to the control, and the specific activity of LOX increased by 18 % at 24 h, 34 % at 48 h,24 % at 72 h, respectively. In comparison, the specific activity of PAL in unwounded seedlings exposed to wound-induced volatiles increased by 0.0 at 24 h, 200% at 48 h, 164% at 72 h, respectively and the specific activity of LOX increased by 28% at 24 h, 37% at 48 h, 8 % at 72 h, respectively. It suggests that the induced volatiles are involved in plant-plant communication as airborne transferred signals.

  14. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  15. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  16. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by N-deoxynojirimycin analogs in several insect phloem sap feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'kobovitz, Marina Katzman; Butters, Terry D; Cohen, Ephraim

    2016-02-01

    Secondary metabolites and synthetic iminosugars that structurally resemble monosaccharides are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity. The enzyme is core in cleaving sucrose in phloem feeding insects and it also plays a crucial role of reducing osmotic stress via the formation of oligosaccharides. Inhibition of hydrolysis by iminosugars should result in nutritional deficiencies and/or disruption of normal osmoregulation. Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and 2 N-alkylated analogs [N-butyl DNJ (NB-DNJ) and N-nonyl DNJ (NN-DNJ)] were the major iminosugars used throughout the study. The extensive experiments conducted with α-glucosidase of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci indicated the competitive nature of inhibition and that the hydrophilic DNJ is a potent inhibitor in comparison to the more hydrophobic NB-DNJ and NN-DNJ compounds. The same inhibitory pattern was observed with the psyllid Cacopsylla bidens α-glucosidase. In contrast to the above pattern, enzymes of the aphids, Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were more sensitive to the hydrophobic iminosugars as compared to DNJ. In vivo experiments in which adult B. tabaci were fed dietary iminosugars, show that the hydrophilic DNJ was far less toxic than the lipophilic NB-DNJ and NN-DNJ. It is proposed that this pattern is attributed to the better accessibility of the hydrophobic NN-DNJ to the α-glucosidase membrane-bound compartment in the midgut. Based on the inhibitory effects of certain polyhydroxy N-alkylated iminosugars, α-glucosidase of phloem feeding hemipterans could serve as an attractive target site for developing novel pest control agents. PMID:25900765

  17. Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-09-01

    Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests. PMID:21952370

  18. Concours annuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yearly competitions. Pour améliorer le rendement agricole, on est amené à établir des programmes de fertilisation des sols et de protection phytosanitaire souvent basés essentiellement sur l'utilisation des intrants chimiques. Cependant, l'utilisation des engrais chimiques peut entraîner la dégradation des sols et favoriser le développement des insectes ravageurs piqueurs-suceurs. Il est donc nécessaire de rechercher des méthodes de fertilisation alternatives qui permettraient de limiter la prolifération des insectes. La rhizobactérie Bacillus amyloliquefaciens est connue comme bio-fertilisant. Le présent travail vise à évaluer la dynamique des populations du puceron A. gossypii Glover sur le cotonnier en fonction du matériel de fertilisation utilisé, à savoir la souche de B. amyloliquefaciens FZB 42 et l'engrais minéral (NPKSMgB: 21-17-10-4,5-3,5-0,75. A cet effet, trois variantes ont été testées: trempage des semences dans la suspension de la rhizobactérie, application de NPKSMgB et un témoin (sans apport de fertilisant. Les résultats ont montré que les cotonniers fertilisés avec de l'engrais minéral ont de façon significative attiré plus de pucerons que les plantes fertilisées avec B. amyloliquefaciens. Sur la base de ces résultats et de données obtenues dans d'autres essais menés en plein champ qui montraient un effet positif de l'application de B. amyloliquefaciens sur le rendement du cotonnier, on peut conclure que l'utilisation de cette rhizobactérie peut constituer une solution intéressante pour la fertilisation du cotonnier.

  19. 76 FR 80869 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Drought...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ published in the Federal Register on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27303-27304, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0023), APHIS..., 2011. On July 27, 2011, APHIS published in the Federal Register (76 FR 44891-44892, Docket No. APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of...

  1. 78 FR 44926 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41359-41361, Docket No. APHIS-2012- 0027), APHIS announced the...\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk...

  2. 78 FR 13309 - ArborGen Inc.; Availability of Petition, Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... APHIS-2007-0027, 72 FR 19876-19877), June 3, 2009 (Docket No. APHIS-2008-0059, 74 FR 26648-26649), and February 10, 2012 (Docket No. APHIS-2011-0130; 77 FR 7123-7124). In these assessments, APHIS concluded that... may affect natural resources and sociocultural resources. Potential impacts of allelopathy of...

  3. 78 FR 12755 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Schedules for Construction Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Register at 77 FR 73659, on December 11, 2012. One respondent submitted comments. DATES: Submit comments on.... Glover, Sr., Procurement Analyst, Office of Acquisition Policy, (202) 501-1448 or email curtis.glover@gsa..., within five days after work commences on the contract or another period of time determined by...

  4. Use Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science for Comprehensive Citation Tracking. A review of: Bakkalbasi, Nisa, Kathleen Bauer, Janis Glover and Lei Wang. “Three Options for Citation Tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 3.7 (2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether three competing citation tracking services result in differing citation counts for a known set of articles, and to assess the extent of any differences.Design – Citation analysis, observational study.Setting – Three citation tracking databases: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Subjects – Citations from eleven journals each from the disciplines of oncology and condensed matter physics for the years 1993 and 2003.Methods – The researchers selected eleven journals each from the list of journals from Journal Citation Reports 2004 for the categories “Oncology” and “Condensed Matter Physics” using a systematic sampling technique to ensure journals with vary ingimpact factors were included. All references from these 22 journals were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003 by searching three databases: Web of Science, INSPEC, and PubMed. Only research articles were included for the purpose of the study. From these, a stratified random sample was created to proportionally represent the content of each journal (oncology 1993: 234 references, 2003: 259 references; condensed matter physics 1993: 358 references, 2003: 364 references. In November of 2005, citations counts were obtained for all articles from Web of Science, Scopus and GoogleScholar. Due to the small sample size and skewed distribution of data, non‐parametric tests were conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between sets.Main Results – For 1993, mean citation counts were highest in Web of Science for both oncology (mean = 45.3, SD = 77.4 and condensed matter physics (mean = 22.5, SD= 32.5. For 2003, mean citation counts were higher in Scopus for oncology (mean = 8.9,SD = 12.0, and in Web of Science for condensed matter physics (mean = 3.0, SD =4.0. There was not enough data for the set of citations from Scopus for condensed matter physics for 1993 and it was therefore excluded from analysis. A Friedman test to measure for differences between all remaining groups suggested a significant difference existed, and so pairwise post‐hoc comparisons were performed. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranked tests demonstrated significant differences “in citation counts between all pairs (p Conclusion – The study does not confirm the authors’ hypothesis that differing scholarly coverage would result in different citation counts from the three databases. While there were significant differences in mean citation rates between all pairs of databases except for Google Scholar and Scopus in condensed matter physics for 2003, no one database performed better overall. Different databases performed better for different subjects, as well as for different years, especially Scopus, which only includes references starting in 1996. The results of this study suggest that the best citation database will depend on the years being searched as well as the subject area. For a complete picture of citation behaviour, the authors suggest all three be used.

  5. 罗汉果花叶病病原病毒鉴定%Virus Identification of Luohanguo Mosaic Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 余玉冰; 刘志明

    2001-01-01

    从典型病株上分离到1种大小为12nm×(600~800)nm的线状病毒;该病毒可通过汁液摩擦和棉蚜(Aphis gossypii)传播,人工接种可侵染罗汉果(Siraitia grosvenorii)、西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo)、南瓜(C.moschata)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)、毛节瓜(Citrullus vulgaria)和瓠瓜(Lagenariasiceraria)等葫芦科植物引起花叶症状,侵染苋色藜(Chenopodium amaranticolor)引起局部褪绿斑点,接种番木瓜(Carica papaya)、普通烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)、心叶烟(N.glutinosa)、曼陀罗(Datura stramomum)、洋酸浆(Physalis floridana)、番杏(Tetragoniatetragonioides)、豇豆(Vigna sinensis)未见有任何症状;病毒的致死温度为55 ℃~60 ℃,稀释终点为10-3~10-4,在17 ℃~25 ℃下放置10 d还有侵染活力;ELISA测定结果表明,该病毒与西瓜花叶病毒2(WMV-2)有密切的血清学关系.上述结果表明,引起广西罗汉果花叶病的病原病毒是WMV-2的一个株系.本研究还表明,罗汉果花叶病毒与番木瓜环斑病毒(PRSV)、马铃薯Y病毒(PVY)、烟草蚀纹病毒(TEV)、大豆花叶病毒(SMV)及莴苣花叶病毒(LMV)均有较密切的血清学关系.

  6. 越南棉花蓝病害研究进展%Researches on Cotton Blue Disease in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琨泰檀宾

    2001-01-01

    棉花蓝病害(blue disease,BD)于20世纪80年代初期在越南首次发生,10多年后即成为棉花主要病害.罹病棉株表现为发育迟缓、矮小、叶片向下卷曲,产量和品质严重下降.蓝病害在越南产棉省宁城、平顺、平福的发病最重.该病为棉蚜携带病毒,其转主寄主有黄花稔(Sida acuta)、白背黄花稔(Sida rhombifolia)和玫瑰茄(Hibiscussabdariffa)等.这些转主寄主和滞留在田间的棉杆残体等是病害的传染源.单项防治措施有清洁棉田,适时播种,与绿豆或玉米轮作,叶面喷药,用"高巧"进行种子包衣等.综合防治措施为:每公斤种子用70水剂高巧5g(imidachloride有效剂量3.5g@kg-1)包衣并与绿豆轮作,及所有措施同时应用.%Blue disease (BD) occurred in Vietnam in the early 1980's and has become the most economic important disease of cotton since late 80's. Infected plant is stunt and its leaves curl downwards, yield and quality of fiber reduced. Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan and Binh Phuoc provinces are cotton-grown areas that the most suffered from BD. It's caused by virus and transmitted by cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) in persistent manner and by grafting. Sida acuta,Sida rhornbifolia and Hibiscus sabdariffa are alternate hosts of BD. They and cotton residues are the main reservoir of BD infection. Single practices such as field sanitation, compact sowing dates, cotton inter-crop with mung bean and maize, chemical foliar spray and seedcoating with Gaucho are effective in reduction of BD infection. The most effective in controlling BD is the complex of cotton inter-crop with mung bean and seed-coating with Gaucho 70WS 5g @ kg-1 of seed (Imidachloprid 3.5g (a. i. ) @kg-1). But only the applications of all measures together can obtain success in diminishing blue disease incidence and loss of yield at very low level.

  7. Результаты скрининга штаммов Bacillus thuringiensis по отношению к вредителям защищенного грунта

    OpenAIRE

    Прищепа, Людмила

    2013-01-01

    Скрининг биологической активности штаммов кристаллоносных ба- цилл в отношении вредителей защищенного грунта позволил отобрать высокоактивные штаммы Bacillus thuringiensis по отношению к паутинному клещу Tetranychus urticae Koch., и бахчевой тле Aphis gossypii Glov. Результаты тестирования показали, что степень влияния кристаллоносных бацилл на фитофагов защищенного грунта зависит от штамма и вида вредителя. Штаммы 12–91, 13–91, 25–91 вызывали гибель бахчевой тли, биологическая эффективность ...

  8. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 22, 2007 and effective on March 16, 2007 (72 FR 13423-13428, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0032) that....aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml . We believe that the procedures set... effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34322-34336, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0015).\\4\\ Several commenters on...

  9. 78 FR 40940 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Register \\1\\ (74 FR 5911-5913 and 74 FR 45415- 45418, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0119). \\1\\ To view...-2008-0119. On August 4, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 46859-46861, Docket No. APHIS... on October 29, 2010 (75 FR 66699, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0018). We received 21 comments by that...

  10. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... APHIS-2013-0022, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit... Wilds, Trade Director, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 140, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851- 2275. For... information collection activities, including box labeling, a phytosanitary certificate with an...

  11. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... FR 21311. On November 12, 2010, APHIS issued an EA that evaluated a range of alternatives and... 15, 2010. See 76 FR 8708. These documents are posted on the APHIS Web site at: http://www.aphis.usda... Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...

  12. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... interest through a notice\\1\\ published in the Federal Register on September 2, 2008 (73 FR 51266- 51267, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0098). In addition, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 26831... August 3, 2009. APHIS subsequently published a notice in the Federal Register on August 24, 2009 (74...

  13. 78 FR 44924 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41357-41358, Docket No. APHIS-2012- 0035), APHIS... petition. \\1\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk...

  14. 78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    .... In a notice \\2\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice describing our public review process for... Federal Register on August 5, 2013, (78 FR 47272-47273, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020), APHIS announced...

  15. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, ] (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020), APHIS... petition. \\1\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment...

  16. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... (74 FR 27456-27467, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0146) a proposal \\1\\ to make several changes to the... interim rule published and effective on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53397-53400, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0097... FR 60008-60048, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0023), which stated that the first consideration in...

  17. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    .... APHIS-2012-0014, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit..., PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 851- 2036. SUPPLEMENTARY... the risk associated with the importation of papayas from Central America, Brazil, Colombia,...

  18. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    .... Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7, Concord.... Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the United States. On August 16, 2012, APHIS-WS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 49409-49410, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0052) a notice \\1\\ announcing...

  19. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  20. Local Purchasing of Journals is Required in Addition to a Nationally Purchased Collection to Meet the Information Needs of NHS Staff. A review of: Glover, Steven William, John Addison, Colette Gleghorn, and John Bramwell. “Journal Usage in NHS Hospitals: A Comparison Report of Total Usage at an Acute NHS Trust and a Specialist NHS Trust in the North West of England.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007): 193‐9.

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie Kelson

    2008-01-01

    Objective ‐ To compare journal usage between an acute National Health Service (NHS) Trust and a specialist NHS Trust located in North West England to provide some evidence as to how well the National Core Content Collection (provided by ProQuest) meets the needs of staff in these settings.Design ‐ Comparative studySetting ‐ An acute NHS Trust, comprising four hospital sites, and a cancer specialist NHS Trust based on a single site. Both Trusts are located in North West England. The cancer spe...

  1. Transgenic Trees: Implementation and Outcomes of the Plant Protection Act

    OpenAIRE

    Sedjo, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The responsibility for protecting U.S. agriculture from pests and diseases is assigned by the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture. The Plant Protection Act (Title 7 U.S.C. Sections 7701 et seq.) gives Aphis statutory authority over genetically modified organisms (GMO), in effect assigning to APHIS a related responsibility of determining whether a genetically altered plant, crop, or tree is likely to pose unac...

  2. 76 FR 11751 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information... Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture is to provide leadership...

  3. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0032), in which... (76 FR 51934-51935, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0032), in which we announced the availability, for review..., Argentina AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...

  4. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 83-84, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041), APHIS announced the availability of the Pioneer... Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To Produce Male Sterile/Female Inbred Plants AGENCY: Animal... determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated as event...

  5. 78 FR 25941 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Extension of a Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... question. In a notice published in the Federal Register on December 5, 1997 (62 FR 64350-64351, Docket No..., APHIS published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register (78 FR 13303-13304, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0033... Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  6. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 81404-81408, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0158) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... where the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy is neither negligible nor controlled. He stated that... that foreign country, stating that multinational meat packers might lobby APHIS to conduct...

  7. 76 FR 66269 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Regulatory Programs (MRP) of the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of... areas. APHIS will collect information using the MRP-5 form (Self-Certification Medical Statement). Need and Use of the Information: The information collected from the prospective employees assists the...

  8. 78 FR 2039 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... (76 FR 50082-50110, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0091) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... No. APHIS-2009-0091, 76 FR 62313). We received 1,618 comments by that date. They were from cattle and... 71, 77, 78, et al. Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  9. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please state that your comment refers to Docket No. APHIS-2010..., APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133 Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-5333. For copies of more detailed..., including box labeling, phytosanitary certificates with an additional declaration, trust fund...

  10. 78 FR 32229 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-2013-0011, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118..., Section Leader, Policy, Evaluation and Licensing, CVB, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 148, Riverdale, MD... enforces requirements concerning production, packaging, labeling, and shipping of these products and...

  11. 78 FR 4121 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Cut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1238... Aley, Senior Regulatory Policy Specialist, Plant Health Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133... declaration, box labeling, and production site registration. Cut flowers must be accompanied by...

  12. 76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on October 10, 2008 (73 FR 60099-60102, Docket No. APHIS... published in the Federal Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60586-60588, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0097), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and...

  13. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... (74 FR 12055-12058, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0124), we amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by... (74 FR 12055-12058, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0124). DATES: Effective Date: March 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations;...

  14. 78 FR 13286 - Sharing Certain Business Information Regarding the Introduction of Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... officials. The APHIS FOIA Office oversees any information release requested under FOIA. \\1\\ See 50 FR 38561... governments would support better contingency planning and disaster responses. In the event of a local... APHIS. Permit and notification review also allows States to better plan their logistics and...

  15. 76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... evaluate plant health risks based on the proposed location and layout of the facility site before a... detailed layout of the facility site and its location to APHIS. APHIS will evaluate plant health risks... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation...

  16. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Register and effective on June 17, 2010 \\2\\ (75 FR 34322-34336, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0015), we... and effective on April 27, 2011 (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048). In that rule, we... was published at 75 FR 34322 on June 10, 2011, is adopted as a final rule, with the following...

  17. 75 FR 20560 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... the Federal Register on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 1749-1751, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0072), APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as transformation event MIR162, which has...

  18. 75 FR 61413 - Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... evaluation of the entity's BQMS. On June 4, 2009, APHIS published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR... subsequently published a notice in the Federal Register on August 24, 2009 (74 FR 42644, Docket No. APHIS-2008... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality...

  19. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals removed by APHIS from a herd for testing, will be appraised by an APHIS official appraiser and a State... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of...

  20. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ...\\ (76 FR 7721-7731, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0043) to add Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia to the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (NOTE: In a final rule published on November 10, 2011 [76 FR 70037-70040... artificial insemination is less than 5 days old and the current prohibition, therefore, was burdensome...

  1. 78 FR 18307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... APHIS programs including veterinary medicine, animal science, plant pathology; and (4) increase... of Collection: APHIS Student Outreach Program to help students learn about careers in animal science... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Animal...

  2. 77 FR 22465 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... condition of entry, the pitaya fruit must be produced in accordance with a systems approach that includes..., Import Specialist, Regulatory Coordination and Compliance, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30036- 30040, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0113) a...

  3. 78 FR 23738 - Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI); Availability of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI... that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the...

  4. 77 FR 41354 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting public... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  5. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... the Federal Register on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37771-37772, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0046), APHIS announced... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean... public of our determination that a soybean line developed by the Monsanto Co., designated as event...

  6. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 62365- 62366, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing receipt of... beets (Petition 03-323-01). On October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR... public review. On March 17, 2005, we published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR...

  7. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  8. 77 FR 41357 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  9. 75 FR 57864 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Register (74 FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117) a proposal\\1\\ to authorize the importation of..., researchers obtained ash wood from trees showing visible signs of EAB infestation, split the wood, and stored... Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) that, among other...

  10. 77 FR 12437 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... April 9, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 16146-16151, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117) a... proposal (75 FR 57864-57866, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0117) to modify the heat treatment requirements of the... obtained ash wood from trees showing visible signs of EAB infestation, split the wood, and stored it....

  11. 7 CFR 305.20 - Treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., adjusts, or rejects the treatment. (c) Compliance agreements. Facilities located in the United States must... representative of the heat treatment facilities located in the United States and APHIS. The compliance agreement... inspect the facility to monitor compliance with APHIS regulations. (e) Treatment procedures. (1)...

  12. 77 FR 76809 - Submission of Itineraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... recordkeeping. On October 1, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 50738-50740, Docket No. APHIS... careful planning than those scheduled ahead of time, making it more important for APHIS to ensure that the... programs at locations such as schools and nursing homes, the AZA's 221 accredited zoos and aquariums...

  13. 78 FR 79573 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 6227-6232, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0132) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the... published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32184, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0132). We received....) Auersw. I. Eficacia de materias activas. Bolet n Sanidad Vegetal y Plagas 4: 315-321. S nchez OL,...

  14. 75 FR 26707 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Pomegranates and Baby Kiwi from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register on February 9, 2010 (75 FR 6344-6345, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0097), in..., 2010, we published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 5034-5035, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0082) in... Fresh Pomegranates and Baby Kiwi from Chile into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  15. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... Uruguayan school of agronomy; U.S. port storage, drayage, and general logistics providers; municipal...-APHIS Plant Pest Forecast System (NAPPFAST) indicates that, over a 10-year period, enough days...

  16. 7 CFR 371.5 - Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration (GIPSA), and other APHIS, AMS, and GIPSA officials in the planning and formulation of MRP policies... functions for APHIS and designated functions for other MRP agencies, including finance, personnel, and...) Title 7, Code of Federal Regulations, §§ 371.3(b)(2)(i) through (xiv); (ii) Title 7, Code of...

  17. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to VS. Results of all tests shall be recorded by the testing laboratory and made a part of the... subjected to heat sterilization or other viricidal procedure acceptable to APHIS used in the preparation of... this manner, other procedures may be used if approved by APHIS. (3) The test monolayers shall...

  18. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) APHIS will rank the plant pests in each group in paragraph (c)(2) of this section according to plant... regulated article would reduce the plant pest risk to an insignificant level. If APHIS determines that the imposition of particular conditions on the importation of the regulated article could reduce the plant...

  19. 77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS) published a notice in the Federal Register (71 FR 16547-16548, Docket No. APHIS... Register on January 14, 2011 (76 FR 2680, Docket No. ER-FRL-8994-6), and a notice of availability regarding the final supplemental EIS was published by EPA in the Federal Register on May 11, 2012 (77 FR...

  20. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011... National Coordinator, Animal Care, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 84, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3746... abilities of the horse, without soring, would not be borderline with respect to compliance with the Act...

  1. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... (77 FR 22510-22514, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0028) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations to allow the... Federal Register (77 FR 31829- 31830, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0028) a notice \\2\\ of availability of an... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD61 Importation of Fresh Bananas From the...

  2. 78 FR 27182 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    .... APHIS-2013-0012, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit... have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of... 6,700 to 13,100, and increase the number of total burden hours from 2,603 to 9,803. However,...

  3. 77 FR 6056 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0121, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700... practical utility; ] (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of... total annual burden on respondents: 120 hours. (Due to averaging, the total annual burden hours may...

  4. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... to Docket No. APHIS-2013-0010, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700..., including whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of.... Estimated annual number of responses: 7,440. Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 7,482 hours....

  5. 78 FR 27184 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Table...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2013-0019, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A... accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of information, including the validity of the... respondent: 2. Estimated annual number of responses: 2. Estimated total annual burden on respondents:...

  6. 75 FR 41139 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Docket No. APHIS-2010-0066, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River... information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the... responses: 2,724. Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 545 hours. (Due to averaging, the...

  7. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0010, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the... respondent: 1. Estimated annual number of response hours: 4,900. Estimated total annual burden on...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-4 - Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the commodity-specific sections in this subpart. (2) Other fruits and vegetables. Fruits and... found on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/hawaii.pdf or http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/puerto_rico.pdf....

  9. 77 FR 58088 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... and history of the items destined for importation in the United States. Without the information APHIS... Burden Hours: 630. Title: Importation of Papaya from Colombia and Ecuador. OMB Control Number: 0579-0358... Colombia and Ecuador in the continental United States. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS requires...

  10. 78 FR 79636 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published April 25, 2013 (78 FR 24634) is reopened. We... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 24634-24663, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011) a proposal that would... July 12, 2013 (78 FR 41866-41867, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0011). Among other changes, we proposed...

  11. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... December 9, 2009 (74 FR 64998-65013, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we... that was published in the Federal Register on December 9, 2009 (74 FR 64998-65013, Docket No. APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 91 and 162 RIN 0579-AC04 National...

  12. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0126) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations to allow the... Register on May 25, 2006 (71 FR 30113, Docket No. APHIS-2006- 0072), in which we advised the public of the... pest; in a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 30, 2009 (74 FR 31154-31160, Docket...

  13. 78 FR 79568 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ..., 2013, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) published in the Federal Register (78 FR... FR 32183-32184, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0002). We received 20 comments by that date. They were from the... International Airport, Atlanta, GA. In a recent proposed rule (78 FR 27864-27866; Docket No....

  14. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... and its location to APHIS. APHIS will evaluate plant health risks based on the proposed location...

  15. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chenell Drive... APHIS-WS addresses. Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the United States. On November 24, 2009, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR 61319-61321, Docket No....

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10804-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a strain CBS138 c... 173 2e-41 AE016816_102( AE016816 |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremotheci...so... 159 2e-37 AE016819_958( AE016819 |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremothecium ... 159...e number (1..6, M) 1 Chromosome length 4919822 Start point 3435302 End point 3437040 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) PLUS Number of clones... Xenopus laevis p21 GTPase-associat... 253 2e-65 AF169794_1( AF169794 |pid:none) ...Xenopus laevis p21 GTPase-associat... 253 2e-65 BC059992_1( BC059992 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis hypothetical

  17. 77 FR 73659 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Schedules for Construction Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Acquisition Policy, (202) 501-1448 or email Curtis.glover@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose..., a contractor shall, within five days after work commences on the contract or another period of time... monitor progress under a Federal construction contract when other management approaches for...

  18. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cathy Glover, Senior Loan Specialist, Single Family Housing... State and local officials. (See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, at 48 FR 29112, June 24, 1983; 49 FR 22675, May 31, 1984; 50 FR 14088, April 10, 1985). Consultation and Coordination...

  19. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more. Open period for submitting suggestions to implement Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention Programs of the 2014 ... To ... Find an APHIS publication. Report a suspected plant pest or disease. Learn more about the National Veterinary Accreditation Program. ...

  20. 75 FR 66699 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 46859-46861, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0018) a proposal to establish... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  1. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, winter 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This special use permit allows USDA Animal Damage Control (APHIS) to collect up to 50 coyote, red fox or badger by aerial gunning as part of the disease study...

  2. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis po

  3. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  4. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2011-0029-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery... townships of Appleton, Camden, Cushing, Friendship, Hope, Owls Head, Rockland, Rockport, Saint George,...

  5. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  6. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) amend the regulations to allow fresh tomatoes (Solanum..., titled ``Importation of Tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, from the Economic Community of West African... certain countries. * * * * * (h) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from member States of...

  7. 78 FR 13307 - Dow AgroSciences LLC; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... two insecticidal proteins, Cry1Ac and Cry1F, and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, or PAT,...

  8. 78 FR 13305 - Syngenta Seeds, Inc., and Bayer CropScience AG; Availability of Petition for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting... phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) which, when produced in plants, acetylates L-phosphinothricin, the...

  9. 77 FR 41361 - Dow AgroSciences LLC; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting... phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) proteins. Soybean event DAS-44406-6 is currently regulated under 7...

  10. 77 FR 41363 - BASF Plant Science, LP; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... (ahas) gene csr1-2 with its native promoter from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Soybean event...

  11. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Service stakeholder registry. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Hallie Zimmers, Advisor for State and Stakeholder Relations, Legislative and Public Affairs, APHIS, room 1147, 1400 Independence Avenue...

  12. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (76 FR 16700-16703, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0101) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by allowing... (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States...

  13. QTL Information Table: 851 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available xa5 Resistance or Tolerance Bacterial blight resistance resistant or susceptible phenotype A)Phy ... complementation and further analyzing xa5 (Xa5) in comparison ... with its homolog TFIIAgamma1. Mol Genet Genomics 2 ...

  14. 78 FR 1824 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... information collection associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the... Staff Veterinarian, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301)...

  15. 77 FR 22284 - Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Establishment of a Veterinary Services Stakeholder... announces the availability of a new Veterinary Services email subscription service. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Inspection Service (APHIS) has established a Veterinary Services (VS) Stakeholder Registry, an...

  16. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  17. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  18. Electromagnetic potentials and Aharonov-Bohm effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ershkovich, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton-Jacobi equation which governs classical mechanics and electrodynamics explicitly depends on the electromagnetic potentials (A,{\\phi}), similar to Schroedinger equation. We derived the Aharonov-Bohm effect from Hamilton-Jacobi equation thereby having proved that this effect is of classical origin. These facts enable us to arrive at the following conclusions: a) the very idea of special role of potentials (A,{\\phi}) in quantum mechanics (different from their role in classical physics) ...

  19. New additions and invasive aphids for Turkey’s aphidofauna (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Özhan; BEĞEN, Hayal AKYILDIRIM; Görür, Gazi; DEMİRTAŞ, Emin

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine aphid species in the Inner Western Anatolian Subregion of Turkey. Nineteen aphid species are reported as new to the Turkish aphid fauna. These species are Aphis eryngiiglomerata Bozhko, 1963; Aphis glareosae Bozhko, 1959; Capitophorus eniwanus Miyazaki, 1971; Chaitophorus indicus A.K. Ghosh, M.R. Ghosh & D.N. Raychaudhuri, 1970; Chaitophorus ramicola (Börner, 1949); Cinara indica Verma, 1970; Cinara juniperensis (Gillette & Palmer, 1925...

  20. New Additions and Invasive Aphids for Turkey’s Aphidofauna (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Özhan; Akyıldırım, Hayal; Görür, Gazi; Demirtaş, Emin

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine aphid species in the Inner Western Anatolian Subregion of Turkey. Nineteen aphid species are reported as new to the Turkish aphid fauna. These species are Aphis eryngiiglomerata Bozhko, 1963; Aphis glareosae Bozhko, 1959; Capitophorus eniwanus Miyazaki, 1971; Chaitophorus indicus A.K. Ghosh, M.R. Ghosh & D.N. Raychaudhuri, 1970; Chaitophorus ramicola (Börner, 1949); Cinara indica Verma, 1970; Cinara juniperensis (Gillette & Palmer, 1925); Cinar...

  1. A new dissection methodology and investigation into coal property transformational behaviour impacting on a commercial-scale Sasol-Lurgi MK IV fixed-bed gasifier / John Reginald Bunt

    OpenAIRE

    Bunt, John Reginald

    2006-01-01

    Gasification behaviour is particle dependent, whilst gasifier (reactor) behaviour is an averaging process of individual responses of each particle [Glover, 1991]. It was hypothesized in the case of the present study that if it were possible to extract and analyse particles from different reaction zones within a gasifier, it may be likely to enhance the understanding as to the contribution that these particles make towards gasification. This better understanding of the particle-type compositio...

  2. Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C

    2008-04-01

    Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929

  3. Community Gardening, Motivation and Health Benefits.

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigan, Noelle

    2011-01-01

    community gardens have been described as locally organized initiatives where land is used to produce food, flowers or both in an urban environment (Glover, 2003)' community gardens are diverse and may vary enornously in what they offer, according to local needs and circumstance (Ferris, Norman & Sempik, 2001)' Garden size is dependant on many factors, including location, land available gardening, demand, physical and time limitations of the gardeners and thus standard community garden size ex...

  4. Analysis of the use of e-procurement in the public and private sectors of the UK construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Eadie, Robert; Perera, Srinath; Heaney, George

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Eadie et.al (2010a, 2010b) identified 20 advantages in the adoption of e-procurement within a construction organisation. The Glover report (2008) indicated that by the end of 2010 all public sector procurement should be electronic. The use of e-procurement within the construction industry has been inadequately researched. Martin (2009) examined quantity surveying organisations perspectives on the use of e procurement across the United Kingdom. This paper seeks to address the knowledg...

  5. Violin with Clarinet and Piano

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Violin with Clarinet and Piano Richard Glover Programme note This piece has a reduced range of material, focussing on the relationship between sounds in close proximity to each other, and the acoustic phenomena which arise from this environment. The clarinet plays microtonal variants of the piano's tempered notes, and the violin very slowly glissandos between the two. Violin with Clarinet and Piano was written for the Gemini Ensemble and premiered on 5 January 2008 at the ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02846-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 14 section 4... 38 0.073 8 ( BJ375928 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone...0 0.083 7 ( AE014832 ) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 10 section 4... 38 0.085 8 ( CI998686 ) Marsupenaeus japon... 2... 38 1.6 10 ( AE001370 ) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 2 section 7 ... 38 1.6 3 ( AC094242 ) Rattus norvegicus clone...6 0.003 AE016815_250( AE016815 |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremothecium ... 45 0.005 AF067616_2( AF067616 |pid:none....2 AE016815_447( AE016815 |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremothecium ... 35 5.2 (Q54HD2) RecName: Full=Probable serine/threonine

  7. 棉田非靶标害虫发生丰度与气象因子的关联性分析%Correlation between meteorological factors and abundance of non-target pests in cotton fields in Anyang, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒珺瑜; 张帅; 王春义; 吕丽敏; 朱香镇; 李春花; 崔金杰

    2015-01-01

    【背景】近年来,全球气候条件不断变化,其对农田生态系统和病虫草害发生的影响较大。【方法】于2009~2013年在河南安阳田间小区系统调查了转基因棉田和非转基因棉田主要害虫种群丰度,结合5年间本地气象因素,分段分析了影响棉田主要害虫发生的关键气象因子及其关键影响时期。【结果】不同害虫发生危害的关键气象因子及其关键影响时期不同,且不同害虫种群丰度与气象因子及其影响时期有不同的相关性。影响棉蚜的关键性气象因子是1~8月的平均气温,与相对湿度和降雨量相关性较低;影响棉叶蝉的关键气象因子是1~4月的降雨量,其次是1~8月的相对湿度,而平均气温与其相关性很低;5~8月降雨量对烟粉虱有一定的抑制作用,平均气温和相对湿度对其无显著影响;影响棉蓟马的关键气象因子是平均气温,其次是5~8月相对湿度,降雨量与棉蓟马丰度相关性较低;平均气温、相对湿度和降雨量与盲蝽种群丰度的相关性很低,其发生危害可能是多种气象因子协同作用的结果。【结论与意义】本研究结果可为气候变化条件下棉田主要害虫的预测预报和防御提供理论依据。%Background]In recent years, global climate change continually, and it has a great influence on the farmland ecosystem and insect pests. [Method]How climate factors ( average temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) in January to August from 2009 to 2013 affect population densities of non-target pest species in the two kinds cotton fields were systematically determined in field plot at Anyang, Henan Province. [Result]For the cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii) , the average populatin density was correlated with temperature from January to August but not relevance with relative humidity and total rainfall. For the cotton leafhopper ( Em-poasca biguttula) , the population density positively

  8. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and (3) two exotic predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and T. aripo , in Africa. The objectives are to understand how the two exotic predators (i) exploit chemical information to locate the ta...

  9. Gene-interleaving patterns of synteny in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome: are they proof of an ancient genome duplication event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Feng-Jie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent comparative genomic studies claim local syntenic gene-interleaving relationships in Ashbya gossypii and Kluyveromyces waltii are compelling evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication event in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We here test, using Hannenhalli-Pevzner rearrangement algorithms that address the multiple genome rearrangement problem, whether syntenic patterns are proof of paleopolyploidization. Results We focus on (1 pairwise comparison of gene arrangement sequences in A. gossypii and S. cerevisiae, (2 reconstruction of gene arrangements ancestral to A. gossypii, S. cerevisiae, and K. waltii, (3 synteny patterns arising within and between lineages, and (4 expected gene orientation of duplicate gene sets. The existence of syntenic patterns between ancestral gene sets and A. gossypii, S. cerevisiae, and K. waltii, and other evidence, suggests that gene-interleaving relationships are the natural consequence of topological rearrangements in chromosomes and that a more gradual scenario of genome evolution involving segmental duplication and recombination constitutes a more parsimonious explanation. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees reconstructed under alternative hypotheses placed the putative whole-genome duplication event after the divergence of the S. cerevisiae and K. waltii lineages, but in the lineage leading to K. waltii. This is clearly incompatible with an ancient genome duplication event in S. cerevisiae. Conclusion Because the presence of syntenic patterns appears to be a condition that is necessary, but not sufficient, to support the existence of the whole-genome duplication event, our results prompt careful re-evaluation of paleopolyploidization in the yeast lineage and the evolutionary meaning of syntenic patterns. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Kenneth H. Wolfe (nominated by Nicolas Galtier, Austin L. Hughes (nominated by Eugene Koonin, Mikhail S. Gelfand, and Mark Gerstein.

  10. Assessment of the biological control capability of Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) using functional response experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madadi, Hossein; Parizi, Emad Mohajeri; Allahyari, Hossein; Enkegaard, Annie

    2011-01-01

    instars and females were significantly different on the two prey species. Our study, a part of this first-step evaluation of H. variegata as a biocontrol agent against A. gossypii and A. pisumunder field condition, suggest that the voracity of all tested stages of H. variegata towards both aphid species...... hold good promises for a use of especially fourth instars and females in inundative biocontrol....

  11. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Boretsky, Yuriy R.; Pynyaha, Yuriy V.; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y.; Fedorovych, Dariya V.; Fayura, Lyubov R.; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C.; Andriy A Sibirny

    2011-01-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and F...

  12. Purine Biosynthesis, Riboflavin Production, and Trophic-Phase Span Are Controlled by a Myb-Related Transcription Factor in the Fungus Ashbya gossypii†

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, Laura; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L; Santos, María A.

    2006-01-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a natural riboflavin overproducer used in the industrial production of the vitamin. We have isolated an insertional mutant exhibiting higher levels of riboflavin production than the wild type. DNA analysis of the targeted locus in the mutant strain revealed that a syntenic homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 gene, a member of the Myb family of transcription factors, was inactivated. Directed gene disruption of AgBAS1 confirmed the phenotype observed for the inserti...

  13. Ingeniería Metabólica de Sistemas en el hongo industrial Ashbya gosypii: impulsando la producción de riboflavina, lípidos y nucleósidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Amaro, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    [EN]Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus used by the industry to produce riboflavin. During the last years, the natural capability of this microorganism to produce the vitamin has been increased by different metabolic engineering approaches. Since this fungus presents general industrial advantages in upstream, downstream and the fermentation processes it has been recently proposed for other large scale applications such as recombinant proteins, bioethanol and folic acid production. The ...

  14. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  15. Equações obtidas a partir das leis de conservação para dimensionamento de drenos subterrâneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do C. P. de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se obteve uma expressão algébrica para o modelo de Dumm através do qual se descrevem suas soluções por meio de algoritmo geométrico. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de identificação de padrões potenciais, hiperbólicos, lineares e exponenciais, por intermédio de representações em gráficos monolog e dilog visando definir estratégias de ajuste pela técnica dos mínimos quadrados, sentido em que foram analisados diversos modelos e se identificou que os modelos do tipo linear e potencial ajustam muito bem a razão entre os níveis do lençol freático inicial e após t dias decorridos; além disto, a identificação de que modelos potenciais podem ajustar bem o processo, possibilitou gerar, com o uso do Solver, Office Excel da Microsoft. Inc., modelos simplificados para o problema, razão pela qual se propõe, neste estudo, o ajuste com equações empíricas do tipo potencial para representá-lo com o uso das variáveis: condutividade hidráulica, profundidade e tempo para determinar a distância entre drenos permitindo, inclusive, a descrição dessa distância sob os mesmos parâmetros que o modelo de Glover-Dumm. As soluções encontradas têm pequenas diferenças porém não significativas quanto aos modelos de Glover, Dumm e Glover-Dumm.

  16. PHYCAA: Data-driven measurement and removal of physiological noise in BOLD fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchill, Nathan W.; Yourganov, Grigori; Spring, Robyn;

    2012-01-01

    with physiological noise, and real data-driven model prediction and reproducibility, for both block and event-related task designs. This is demonstrated compared to no physiological noise correction, and to the widely used RETROICOR (Glover et al., 2000) physiological denoising algorithm, which uses...... that is task- and subject-dependent. We also demonstrate that increasing dimensionality of such physiological noise is correlated with increasing variability in externally-measured respiratory and cardiac processes. Using PHYCAA as a denoising technique significantly improves simulated signal detection...

  17. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  18. Osedax mucofloris (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae, a bone-eating marine worm new to Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Schander

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE The bone-eating siboglinid polychaete Osedax mucofloris Glover, Källström, Smith & Dahlgren, 2005 is reported from Norwegian waters for the first time. Dense growth was found on bovine bones deposited at 118 meters depth off western Norway. Dwarf males were observed for the first time. The two specimens sequenced were identical to haplotypes previously found at a Swedish whale fall. The possibility of finding additional species of Osedax is discussed.

  19. Josephson plasma resonance and phonon anomalies in trilayer Bi_2Sr_2Ca_2Cu_3O_10 superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Boris, A. V.; Munzar, D.; Kovaleva, N. N.; Liang, B; Lin, C T; Dubroka, A.; Pimenov, A. V.; Holden, T.; Keimer, B.; Mathis, Y. -L.; Bernhard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) c axis conductivity of a Bi2223 crystal has been measured by ellipsometry. Below T$_c$ a strong absorption band develops near 500 cm $^{-1}$, corresponding to a transverse Josephson-plasmon. The related increase in FIR spectral weight leads to a giant violation of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum-rule. The gain in c axis kinetic energy accounts for a sizeable part of the condensation energy. We also observe phonon anomalies which suggest that the Josephson-currents lead t...

  20. Modelling temporal stability of EPI time series using magnitude images acquired with multi-channel receiver coils.

    OpenAIRE

    Chloe Hutton; Evelyne Balteau; Antoine Lutti; Oliver Josephs; Nikolaus Weiskopf

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Krueger and Glover introduced a model describing the temporal SNR (tSNR) of an EPI time series as a function of image SNR (SNR(0)). This model has been used to study physiological noise in fMRI, to optimize fMRI acquisition parameters, and to estimate maximum attainable tSNR for a given set of MR image acquisition and processing parameters. In its current form, this noise model requires the accurate estimation of image SNR. For multi-channel receiver coils, this is not straightforwar...

  1. Metaheuristics progress as real problem solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Nonobe, Koji; Yagiura, Mutsunori

    2005-01-01

    Metaheuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers is a peer-reviewed volume of eighteen current, cutting-edge papers by leading researchers in the field. Included are an invited paper by F. Glover and G. Kochenberger, which discusses the concept of Metaheuristic agent processes, and a tutorial paper by M.G.C. Resende and C.C. Ribeiro discussing GRASP with path-relinking. Other papers discuss problem-solving approaches to timetabling, automated planograms, elevators, space allocation, shift design, cutting stock, flexible shop scheduling, colorectal cancer and cartography. A final group of methodology papers clarify various aspects of Metaheuristics from the computational view point.

  2. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to...... this question is negative. We prove that the answer to this question is, in fact, positive. A generalization of the TSP, the quadratic assignment problem, is also considered with respect to the analogous question. Probabilistic, graph-theoretical, group-theoretical and number-theoretical methods and...

  3. Lead in the bone and soft tissues of box turtles caught near smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, W.A.; Donovan, M.P.; Henninger, J.M.; Waalkes, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Three box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were caught by small streams in woodland south-east of Glover, MO and one, northeast of Bixby, MO: rural sites of primary lead smelters. Four other turtles were caught in a similar habitat, but distant from industry and main roads. Both groups shared the same food, water, and outside pen in Morgantown, WV. Lead content was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead concentrations in the liver, kidney, skin, blood, and two long bone shafts were found to be significantly higher in the turtles captured near the smelters.

  4. Robust control systems design by H-infinity optimization theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B. C.; Li, X. P.; Banda, S. S.; Yeh, H. H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, step-by-step procedures of applying the H-infinity theory to robust control systems design are given. The objective of the paper is to eliminate the possible difficulties a control engineer may encounter in applying H-infinity control theory and to clear up some misconceptions about H-infinity theory like high-gain controller and numerical obstacles, etc. An efficient algorithm is used to compute the optimal H-infinity norm. The Glover and Doyle (1988) controller formulas are slightly modified and used to construct an optimal controller without any numerical difficulties.

  5. 9 CFR 93.308 - Quarantine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specialized medical attention or additional postmortem testing may be transported off the quarantine site, if..., horses imported from Australia and New Zealand are exempt from testing for dourine and glanders. In... veterinary medical officer of APHIS must inspect the facility to determine whether it complies with...

  6. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., 2011, we published a proposed rule \\2\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 78168- 78172, Docket No. APHIS... viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite. Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid. Bactrocera dorsalis... (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis,...

  7. 76 FR 44455 - Importation of Shepherd's Purse With Roots From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 62484-62486, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0086) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the... place of production, removal of soil, and inspection for quarantine pests by the national plant... measures against endoparasitic nematodes such as new races of the soybean cyst nematode...

  8. 77 FR 55795 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation... the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) allows certain types of... occasion. Total Burden Hours: 344. Title: Citrus from Peru. OMB Control Number: 0579-0289. Summary...

  9. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... cherries and citrus fruit. We considered those comments and, in a notice dated August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46901...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit..., 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 53424-53430, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140) a...

  10. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates the importation of citrus fruit from certain parts of the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu Oranges From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  11. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that....usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml and on Regulations.gov (see footnote 1...

  12. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....25 Fumigation. Fumigation may be used for sanitizing eggs and hatchery equipment or rooms as a part of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  13. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    .... Paragraph (b)(3) would specify that trees and other structures, other than the crop itself, may not shade the crop during the day and no other host plants of Medfly or Mexfly may be grown within 100 meters of... fruit production with at least 1 trap per hectare of APHIS- approved traps and traps must be...

  14. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... major pest of potato crops in cool-temperature areas. Other solanaceous hosts include tomatoes... cause potato yield loss ranging from 20 to 70 percent. The spread of this pest in the United States...) Web site, ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/potato/pcn.shtml ). The...

  15. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 30303- 30305, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0002) a proposal \\1... discussed below by topic. Pest List Section 319.56-40 requires the national plant protection organizations... ovatipennis, bacterial wilt, Andean potato mottle virus, Lantana mealybug, Passionvine mealybug, and the...

  16. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky... Service (APHIS) has received a letter from the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company seeking confirmation that their... Scotts Miracle-Gro Company (Scotts) of Marysville, OH, seeking confirmation that their Kentucky...

  17. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Act that are used for teaching, testing, and experimentation. This information is used by APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...

  18. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  19. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1 Requests should be submitted in writing to Phytosanitary Issues Management, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River..., Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending...

  20. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... first arrival as may be required by an inspector. The pre-export inspection conducted by APHIS personnel... agricultural seasons in the Southern Hemisphere are generally the opposite of those in the Northern Hemisphere... order Lepidoptera. However, the life stages of concern for these pests are the eggs and the...

  1. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... and animal pests and diseases. On January 19, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 2845... (75 FR 29706, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172) a notice announcing the availability of a final... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-6 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the territories into or through the continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... obtained from PPQ Permit Services or at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/transit.shtml... change will not significantly increase the risk of plant pests or diseases in the United States,...

  3. 77 FR 7122 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60450, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0087), in which we announced the availability, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate... continental United States of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. Based on the findings of a pest risk...

  4. 78 FR 13303 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Register on December 5, 1997 (62 FR 64350-64351, Docket No. 97-052-2), APHIS announced our determination of... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk... Health Inspection Service has prepared a preliminary decision regarding a request from Stine Seed...

  5. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... FR 17289-17295 on April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Arnold Tschanz, Senior Plant... and published in the Federal Register on April 6, 2010 (75 FR 17289-17295, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0052... for HLB and that was published in the Federal Register and effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR...

  6. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...,” available from the National Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA, 1498 Klondike Road... place the chick papers immediately into large plastic bags and seal the bags. (B) Place the plastic bags... plastic bags do not require refrigeration. (iii) The laboratory must follow the procedure set forth...

  7. 75 FR 62363 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Collection; Bees and Related Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... the importation of bees and related articles. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... articles, contact Dr. Colin Stewart, Senior Entomologist, Pest Permit Evaluations, PPQ, APHIS, 4700...

  8. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... is being phased in, as described in two notices we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 5911-5913 and 74 FR 45415- 45418, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0119). Under the Act, ``Plant'' means: ``Any wild member... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  9. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., 2010, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010... (75 FR 34320-34322, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0004), we amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations... that was published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010. Done in Washington, DC on December 22,...

  10. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on August 17, 2011 (76 FR 50992-50993, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of...

  11. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at least... approved for this use by APHIS, and must be an electronic implant, flank tattoo, ear tattoo,...

  12. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... establishment, with no evidence found of vesicular disease. (f) The meat consists only of bovine parts or...

  13. 78 FR 24633 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011) and effective on June 27, 2011. We... plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub, a vine, a cutting, a graft, a scion, a bud, a bulb, a root, and a seed... importation of cotton; sugarcane; corn; Indian corn or maize, broomcorn, and related plants; rice;...

  14. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) a final rule that, among... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 68327-68331) on November 14, 2013, and effective on November 29... in Brazil AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  15. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... rule published at 78 FR 1713-1715 on January 9, 2013, and corrected at 78 FR 3827-3828 on January 17... in the Federal Register on January 9, 2013 (78 FR 1713-1715, Docket No. APHIS-2012- 0079) and corrected on January 17, 2013 (78 FR 3827-3828), we amended the golden nematode regulations in 7 CFR...

  16. 7 CFR 331.13 - Restricted experiments. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Recombinant DNA Molecules.” This document is available on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/programs...) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a drug resistance trait to...) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for the biosynthesis...

  17. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Additional...: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...

  18. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The... Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 46, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5571....

  19. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. Additional meetings are currently being planned and will be announced in a future notice. The... CONTACT: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River...

  20. 76 FR 62313 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... INFORMATION: On August 11, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 50082-50110, Docket No. APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 RIN 0579-AD24 Traceability for... establish minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  2. 75 FR 40719 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ..., 2010, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service published a direct final rule. (See 75 FR 20771... to update information concerning the number of copies of Outlines of Production and labeling to..., VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 148, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-8245. Authority: 21...

  3. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... veterinary biologics labeling. We are also making the concept paper available for review and comment. DATES...-2011-0049, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit...

  4. Irradiation to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities: Pioneering generic doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved radiation doses up to 1000 Gy (1 kGy) for preservation and disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a pioneering rule providing generic low-dose radiation quarantine treatments to control insects. A gener...

  5. Scientific Opinion on a technical file submitted by the Japanese Authorities to support a derogation request from the EU import requirements for bonsai and topiary trees that are host plants of Anoplophora chinensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from gro...

  6. 78 FR 2363 - Notification of Deletion of a System of Records; Automated Trust Funds Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Agriculture (USDA) published in the Federal Register (73 FR 23414- 23416, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0026) a system of records notice establishing the Automated Trust Funds (ATF) database system of records. The...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notification of Deletion of a System of Records;...

  7. 76 FR 27301 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for cotton..., Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 734-5720,...

  8. 78 FR 9027 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ..., and rambutan fruit from the Philippines. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 6, 2012 (77 FR 13260-13261, Docket No. APHIS- 2012... rambutan fruit from the Philippines. We solicited comments on the notice for 60 days ending on May 7,...

  9. 9 CFR 54.10 - Tests for scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of suspect animals, the test must be usually reliable but need not be definitive for diagnosing... able to be replicated at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, or another reliable, timely, and cost effective method of check testing must be available to APHIS. (c) A test or combination...

  10. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determines that the laboratory: (1) Employs personnel assigned to supervise the testing who are qualified to... cases for at least 1 year and from positive cases for 5 years; (7) Will allow APHIS to inspect 1 the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval...

  11. 76 FR 30638 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... testing and classification, to help separate test-positive herds from test-negative herds. APHIS will... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation... Animal Health Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.) the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  12. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must bear the U.S. shield. The design, size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the official... eartag must be tamper-resistant and have a high retention rate in the animal. Official eartags must... work of APHIS in a specified area of the United States. Interstate. From one State into or through...

  13. 9 CFR 98.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (APHIS). Approved artificial insemination center. A facility approved or licensed by the national... government of the region in which the facility is located for the artificial insemination of donor dams or for conception as a result of artificial breeding by a donor sire and for collecting and...

  14. 78 FR 25942 - J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for... of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced... petition from the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) seeking a determination of nonregulated status of...

  15. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... the petition. In a notice published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2005 (70 FR 36917-36919..., the Environmental Protection Agency published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 67206-67207... February 24, 2010 (75 FR 8299-8300, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0044), extending the comment period through...

  16. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... INFORMATION: On January 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (APHIS-2007-0044, 75 FR 1585-1586) a... Agency in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6026-6027; Docket No. ER-FRL-8987- 9... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY:...

  17. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Plan. On September 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 57200-57215, Docket No. APHIS... agglutination test, the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, the microhemagglutination inhibition test, the... combination of two or more of these tests. The HI test or the microhemagglutination inhibition test shall...

  18. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting... (APHIS) is soliciting feedback from our stakeholders in several areas having to do with our partnerships... modernization initiatives and to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to share their thoughts on...

  19. 78 FR 14508 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Significant Impact for the Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid... Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United..., resulting in decreased soybean yields and greatly increased control costs. The soybean aphid has...

  20. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  1. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1... Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2), advising the public of our... preparing an EIS, for which we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket...

  2. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing that the Monsanto/ KWS... Federal Register (75 FR 67945- 67946, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing the availability of an... published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2) advising the public...

  3. 76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... notice\\1\\ published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37770-37771, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean... Monsanto Co., designated as event MON 87701, which has been genetically engineered for insect...

  4. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 27303-27304, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0023) a notice\\1\\ advising the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as MON 87460, which...

  5. 78 FR 13308 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Dicamba and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... determination of nonregulated status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  6. 77 FR 41359 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of...) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status...

  7. 78 FR 28796 - Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ..., 2012, 77 FR 41356-41357; Docket No. APHIS-2012-0097 published on February 27, 2013, 78 FR 13308-13309... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... the potential approval of two petitions from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking a...

  8. Sample Set (SE): SE45 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aphy-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for h... for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.rik

  9. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15279-15280, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From... continental United States of garlic from the European Union and other countries. Based on the findings of...

  10. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  11. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ..., including Medfly. On September 21, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 48013-48014, Docket No... the Federal Register (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022) on January 26, 2010, and effective... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  12. 78 FR 23209 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Addition of Taxa of Plants for Planting To List of Taxa Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011),...

  13. 78 FR 26316 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants... whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. We have prepared data sheets that detail... Register on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011), and effective on June 27,...

  14. 76 FR 44572 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are... pending pest risk analysis. We have prepared data sheets that detail the scientific evidence we evaluated... (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011), and effective on June 27, 2011, we established in...

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... destroyed or treated by the transportation or yard company, or other owner thereof, under APHIS...

  16. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... and economic damage. In a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2009 (74 FR 27071... effective on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037), we added Louisiana to the list.... The importation of prickly pear pads, also called ``nopales,'' of Opuntia species cacti is...

  17. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 81401-81404, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0084) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a...

  18. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 18161-18166, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050) a proposal\\1\\ to amend the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...

  19. Two-year oscillation cycle in abundance of soybean aphid in Indiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rhainds, M.; Yoo, H. J. S.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Voegtlin, D.; Castillo, D.; Rutledge, C.; Sadof, C.; Yaninek, S.; O'Neil, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), s. 251-257. ISSN 1461-9555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Aphididae * Aphis glycines * autumn migration * Hemiptera * heteroecy * Rhamnus * seesaw effect * soybean aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.484, year : 2010

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2011-30 september 2011

    OpenAIRE

    A'Hara, S.W.; Amouroux, P.; Argo, Emily.E.; Avand-Faghih, A.; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M.; Blatrix, R.; Blin, Aurelie; Bouktila, D.; Broome, A.; Burban, Christian; Capdevielle-Dulac, C.; Casse, N.; Chandra, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procon...

  1. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 31577-31578, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0039), in which we announced the availability, for... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which...

  2. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in... Inspection Service's Wildlife Services (APHIS-WS) program is to provide Federal leadership in...

  3. 75 FR 71415 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39203-39204, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0027), in... Wall Rocket Leaves From the United Kingdom Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... begin issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of wall rocket leaves...

  4. 77 FR 74787 - Notice of Availability of an Evaluation of the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... in the Federal Register (64 FR 34155-34168, Docket No. 98-090-1) a proposal to amend the regulations... April 7, 2003, in the Federal Register (68 FR 16922-16941, Docket No. 98-090-5), APHIS recognized only those four Regions that remained free of SVD (Friuli, Liguria, Marche, and Valle d'Aosta). In...

  5. 9 CFR 149.2 - Program participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the producer of the site must arrange for a site audit to gain (or regain) Stage III certified... decertified by APHIS, the producer must follow the procedures for requesting an initial site audit for Stage I... program, then the producer must follow the procedures for requesting an initial audit for Stage I...

  6. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Register (72 FR 62798-62802, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0168) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... indicate that the equine is able to bear weight on all four limbs, is able to walk unassisted, is not...

  7. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...: Effective on January 10, 2011, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 74 FR 47999... in the Federal Register on September 21, 2009 (74 FR 47999-48001, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0072), we... change, the interim rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 74 FR 47999-48001...

  8. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 11071-11072, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0020) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow...

  9. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431-65432, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0077), we... Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... concerning the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) status of Japan and the risk of susceptible animals and...

  10. 77 FR 46016 - Notice of Determination of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... restore Japan to the list of regions APHIS considers free of FMD. On July 26, 2011 (76 FR 44503-44504... rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431- 65432... rule \\8\\ published in the Federal Register on January 10, 2012 (77 FR 1388-1396, Docket No....

  11. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Register (75 FR 42363) requesting public comment on the current HHS list of select agents and toxins. The... Register (75 FR 44724) requesting public comment on the USDA/APHIS list of select agents and toxins. The... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness...

  12. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/fruit_flies/index.shtml. The description of the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined...

  13. 77 FR 41362 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status of apple events designated as events GD743 and... FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting public... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Petition...

  14. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. FOR... on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0037), we amended the regulations by... amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. Done in...

  15. Novel methods of monitoring the feeding behavior of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Petr; Bextine, B. R.; Doležalová, R.; Miller, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 5 (2004), s. 1055-1062. ISSN 0013-8746 Grant ostatní: USDA-APHIS Cooperative Agreement(US) 8500-0510-GR Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Susceptible rice varieties * xylella -fastidosa * pierces--disease Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.083, year: 2004

  16. 77 FR 44208 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... and Poultry Products (Milk and Eggs) Into the United States. OMB Control Number: 0579--New. Summary of... critical information concerning the origin and history of the items destined for importation into the... provide APHIS with critical information concerning the origin and history of the items destined...

  17. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22557-22558, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0009), in which we announced the availability... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt....

  18. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  19. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  20. 77 FR 73612 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Introduction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... information and recordkeeping requirements, including APHIS- issued permits, applicants' field testing records... collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an...

  1. Reply to: Comment on “Soybean Aphid Population Dynamics, Soybean Yield Loss, and Development of Stage-Specific Economic Injury Levels” by M.A. Catangui, E.A. Beckendorf, and W.E. Riedell, Agron. J. 101:1080-1092 (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As this manuscript is a response to a Letter to the Editor of the Agronomy Journal, no technical abstract exists. Presented below is the technical abstract for the paper in question. Stage-specific economic injury levels form the basis of integrated pest management for soybean aphid (Aphis glycine...

  2. 75 FR 79763 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... (USDA) /Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), USDA/Agricultural Research Service (ARS... understand the risks and benefits of drug use during pregnancy and lactation. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite... 318 Import Tolerances for Residues of Unapproved New Animal Drugs in Food 0910-AF78 319 Laser...

  3. Aphid-parasitoid asssociations of the Impatiens plants in Central Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae; Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Petrović, A.; Žikić, V.; Havelka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 33-43. ISSN 1302-0250 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : invasions * Aphis fabae * Impatientinum asiaticum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2014

  4. Interference of field evidence, morphology, and DNA analyses of three related Lysiphlebus aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Petrović, A.; Žikić, V.; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, S.; Tomanović, Ž.; Havelka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), article number 171. ISSN 1536-2442 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 173006 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphis fabae * Impatiens glandulifera * Lysiphlebus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.025, year: 2014 http://jinsectscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/1/171

  5. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 42595-42602, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094) a proposal \\2\\ to amend the regulations.... Executive Order 12988 This final rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform..., Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  6. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    .... On May 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28910- 28913, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0093... located over 150 kilometers from the Swiss border, in Germany. Switzerland and Liechtenstein have adopted... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This rule: (1) Preempts all State and local laws...

  7. 77 FR 1388 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED.... A single region of Europe recognized by APHIS as low risk for classical swine fever. (1) A list of... equivalent with respect to classical swine fever to the risk profile for the region it is...

  8. 76 FR 31499 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... classical swine fever (CSF). The regulations in 9 CFR part 93 govern the importation of animals into the..., FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE... recognized by APHIS as low risk for classical swine fever. (1) A list of Member States included in the...

  9. 76 FR 13968 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pine Shoot Beetle; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please state that... accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of information, including the validity of the... responses per respondent: 1. Estimated annual number of responses: 2,340. Estimated total annual burden...

  10. 75 FR 60065 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Lacey Act Declaration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please state...) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the information collection, including the validity... total annual burden on respondents: 13,108,480 hours. (Due to averaging, the total annual burden...

  11. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1238... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the... responses: 24,380. Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 10,006 hours. (Due to averaging, the...

  12. 76 FR 13971 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fruits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...-0120, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118... accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of information, including the validity of the.... Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 200 hours. (Due to averaging, the total annual burden...

  13. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...-0001, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118... utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of information.... Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 163 hours. (Due to averaging, the total annual burden...

  14. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118, Riverdale, MD... information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the...: 15.170068. Estimated annual number of responses: 2,230. Estimated total annual burden on...

  15. 76 FR 28949 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Tomatoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118, Riverdale, MD... practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the collection of information... responses: 2,478. Estimated total annual burden on respondents: 1,704 hours. (Due to averaging, the...

  16. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type and color of all official tags received. Usually maintaining the tag invoice will meet this... premises identification number or a brand or earnotch pattern to an animal that did not originate on the premises to which the number was assigned by a State or APHIS representative or to which the brand...

  17. 75 FR 69046 - Notice of Determination of the High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 17368-17370, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0088) a notice \\1\\ in... Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech Republic and Sweden AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 status of the Czech Republic and...

  18. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on January 9, 2013 (78 FR 1825-1826, Docket No. APHIS- 2012... Dates From Israel AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We... dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we...

  19. 9 CFR 92.2 - Application for recognition of the animal health status of a region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....g., is it passive and/or active; what is the quantity and quality of sampling and testing? (10..., as well as to its methodology in conducting the analysis. Once APHIS has reviewed all comments... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for recognition of...

  20. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rule published April 25, 2013 (78 FR 24634) is reopened. We will consider all comments that we receive... FR 24634-24663, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011) a proposal that would restructure the regulations... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring...

  1. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... current outbreak(s). Identify areas for further research. We are asking the Office of Management and..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and...: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at...

  2. 75 FR 81560 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... population, APHIS plans to conduct the Small- Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. A small-scale farm is... a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Small-Scale... not respond. The information collected through the Small-Scale Livestock Operations study will...

  3. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the... million acres alone in 2003, resulting in decreased soybean yields and greatly increased control...

  4. 76 FR 44454 - Karnal Bunt; Regulated Areas in Arizona, California, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... (Triticum durum), and triticale (Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale), a hybrid of wheat and rye. Karnal bunt... Federal Register on November 10, 2010 (75 FR 68942-68945, Docket No. APHIS- 2009-0079), we amended the..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Transportation. Accordingly, the interim rule published at 75...

  5. 78 FR 60245 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; LabWare Laboratory Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act Systems of Records; LabWare Laboratory Information Management System... is the LabWare Laboratory Information Management System, USDA-APHIS-19. This notice is necessary to... (USDA) is proposing to add a new system of records, entitled LabWare Laboratory Information...

  6. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY... an information collection associated with regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats...: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at (...

  7. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... part 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, is delayed until July 25, 2011. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register (76 FR 16683-16686, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112) to amend the regulations... 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, until July 25, 2011. Authority: 7 U.S.C....

  8. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... equigenitalis. In an interim rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on March 25, 2011 (76 FR... on May 31, 2011 (76 FR 31220-31221, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112), in which we announced that we were... implemented. In a subsequent document published in the Federal Register on August 23, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection...

  10. Proposed draft permit guidance for genetically modified animal disease organisms and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of proposed draft guidance and represents the author's opinions only. They are presented below solely for the purpose of open discussion and comments on the subject of genetically modified arthropod regulations and should not be construed as representing actual or current regulations or opinions of the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). (author)

  11. 77 FR 13257 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... animal disease outbreaks in the United States. Description of Respondents: Business or other for-profit... prevent the spread of any livestock or poultry pest or disease. Through the Foreign Animal Disease... disease. APHIS uses the collected information to effectively prevent FAD occurrences and protect...

  12. 78 FR 12414 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Importation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Switzerland. Major Issues Raised by Argentina Due to the presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina... application for FMD disease-free status (which would include permission to import fresh beef that is either..., Argentina submitted an application to APHIS requesting FMD disease-free status (which would...

  13. 9 CFR 79.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the official animal health work of APHIS in the State concerned. Blackfaced sheep. Any purebred... the premises' assigned number; or (2) A seven-character alphanumeric code, with the right-most... point of origin of an interstate movement of animals. Commercial hair sheep. Any commercial sheep...

  14. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... FR 32391-32400, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0137), and effective October 1, 2009, we established, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services... Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for...

  15. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... FR 32391-32400, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0137), and effective October 1, 2009, we established, for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export...

  16. 75 FR 59605 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... United States and internationally. On December 9, 2009 (74 FR 64998-65013, Docket No. APHIS-2006- 0093... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program... National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties and to elect...

  17. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  18. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketers. Orchard owners eligible for compensation under this paragraph who market all fruit they produce...) Direct marketers. Owners of commercial stone fruit orchards who APHIS has determined meet the eligibility... marketers. The completed application must be accompanied by: (i) A copy of the emergency action...

  19. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  20. 76 FR 65976 - Controlled Import Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Web site or using applications obtained from APHIS headquarters or from local offices of PPQ; paper... replace the references to a Departmental permit with references to a CIP. Rice regulated under Sec. Sec. 319.55 through 319.55-7. In Sec. 319.55(c), we would remove the provision that all seed or paddy...

  1. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69396, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0108) a notice \\1\\ announcing the... severe threat to riparian habitats and irrigation canals of the Rio Grande River Basin and the Southwestern United States, where it causes erosion, damages bridges, alters channel morphology,...

  2. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 6222-6227, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0002), a proposal \\1\\ to amend the fruits and... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and...

  3. 78 FR 56129 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 8987-8992, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0008) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the... Avocados From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Sharwil avocados from Hawaii into the continental United States. As a condition of movement,...

  4. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  5. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  6. 75 FR 66643 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 29680- 29684, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0016) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD15 Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional... are amending the regulations for the importation of Hass avocados originating in Michoac n,...

  7. 75 FR 81372 - Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... shipping procedures. On May 14, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 27225- 27227, Docket No... published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2010 (75 FR 66643-66644, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0016), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados From...

  8. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... (74 FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0126), that led to establishment of the Peruvian Hass avocado... effective on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 1-13), we stated that more research would need to be done in accordance... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  9. 77 FR 3435 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    .... APHIS-2011- 0115), we announced that there would be a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  10. 76 FR 4858 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    .... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Communicable Diseases in Horses. OMB Control Number... Secretary to prevent, control and eliminate domestic diseases such as equine infectious anemia, as well as...: The information collected from forms, APHIS VS 10-11, Equine Infectious Anemia Laboratory Test; VS...

  11. 76 FR 34032 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... infectious and communicable diseases can be transmitted to swine. APHIS' regulations promulgated under the... interstate spread of swine diseases and to request extension of approval of the information collection to... products to prevent the dissemination within the United States of animal diseases and pests of...

  12. Calculation of Volterra kernels for solutions of nonlinear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, JL; Kistler, WM; Thomas, EGF

    2000-01-01

    We consider vector-valued autonomous differential equations of the form x' = f(x) + phi with analytic f and investigate the nonanticipative solution operator phi bar right arrow A(phi) in terms of its Volterra series. We show that Volterra kernels of order > 1 occurring in the series expansion of th

  13. 9 CFR 149.3 - Site audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specified in § 149.8 to cover APHIS' administrative costs in processing the audit and operating the program... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site audit. 149.3 Section 149.3... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.3 Site audit. (a) General. (1)...

  14. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  15. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial State response and containment.../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... response and containment plan that has been approved by APHIS. The initial State response and...

  16. 77 FR 49409 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... rabies in the United States. On July 9, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40322- 40323..., Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7, Concord, NH 03301; (603....3 wildlife rabies vaccine in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia,...

  17. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... whether the wildlife rabies vaccine will produce sufficient levels of population immunity against raccoon... of conflicts that APHIS-WS addresses. Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the United... new wildlife rabies vaccine, human adenovirus type 5 rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine...

  18. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... evaluate a wildlife rabies vaccine that will produce sufficient levels of population immunity in raccoons... ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, 59... of conflicts that APHIS-WS addresses. Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the...

  19. 77 FR 40322 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia. The proposed field trial is necessary to evaluate a wildlife rabies... APHIS-WS addresses. Wildlife is the dominant reservoir of rabies in the United States. One of the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an...

  20. College of Natural Resources assists with oral rabies vaccination project

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    On August 8, 2006, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services (WS), will begin releasing approximately 300,000 Oral Rabies Vaccination (ORV) baits from low-flying aircraft and by car in Buchanan, Dickenson, Lee, Russell, Scott, Smyth, Tazewell, Washington, and Wise counties in southwestern Virginia.