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Sample records for aphis gossypii glover

  1. Respon Fungsional Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius terhadap Aphis Gossypii Glover

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    F. X. Wagiman

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field-cage experiments were conducted at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. Objective of the study was to determine the functional response of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae predating on chilli aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae. The larvae and adults of the predaceous coccinellid exhibited the Hulling's Type II functional response. A first instar of the coccinellid predating on single first instar of the aphid within 24.6 minutes in the laboratory and 16.8 minutes in the field. While a fourth instar and an adult of the coccinellid predating on single fourth instar of the aphid within 4.2 and 1.5 minutes respectively.

  2. Biological parameters of the non-target pest Aphis gossypii Glover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thiago Mota

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Development and commercial use of Bollgard cotton in the USA nearly promises versus today reality. Plant. J. 27:489-501. Pessoa LGA, Souza B, Carvalho CF, Silva M (2004). Aspectos da biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro cultivares de Algodoeiro, em Laboratório.

  3. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  4. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  5. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius

    2008-01-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R o = 205.38 and 164.08 females; r m = 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  6. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F.

    2007-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  7. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  8. Plasticity in host utilization by two host-associated populations of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Gadhave, K R; Dutta, B; Srinivasan, R

    2018-06-01

    Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A. gossypii host-associated populations (HAPs), which were field collected from cotton and squash (cotton-associated population and melon-associated population), and later maintained separately in the greenhouse. The two aphid populations were exposed to seven plant species (cotton, okra, watermelon, squash, cucumber, pigweed, and morning glory), and evaluated for their host utilization plasticity by estimating aphid's fitness parameters (nymphal period, adult period, fecundity, and intrinsic rate of increase). Four phenotypical characters (body length, head capsule width, hind tibia length and cornicle length) were also measured from the resulting 14 different HAP × host plant combinations. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI sequences showed no genetic variation between the two HAPs. Fitness parameters indicated a significant variation between the two aphid populations, and the variation was influenced by host plants. The performance of melon-aphids was poor (up to 89% reduction in fecundity) on malvaceous hosts, cotton and okra. However, cotton-aphids performed better on cucurbitaceous hosts, squash and watermelon (up to 66% increased fecundity) compared with the natal host, cotton. Both HAPs were able to reproduce on two weed hosts. Cotton-aphids were smaller than melon-aphids irrespective of their host plants. Results from this study suggest that the two HAPs in the study area do not have strict host

  9. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  10. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  11. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

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    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  13. The joint action of destruxins and botanical insecticides (rotenone, azadirachtin and paeonolum) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Zou, Chunhua; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying

    2012-06-18

    The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot), azadirachtin (Aza) and paeonolum (Pae) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun's Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC) and Finney's Synergistic Coefficient (SC). The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC₅₀ values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun's CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney's SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  14. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  15. Tri-trophic interactions between Bt cotton, the herbivore Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the predator Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Dong, Liang; Lövei, Gábor L; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Tri-trophic impacts of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton GK12 and NuCOTN 99B were studied using a predator, the great lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), and its prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, in laboratory feeding experiments. The parental nontransgenic cotton cultivar of GK12 was used as control. The predator was fed with uniform (aphids from a single cultivar) or mixed prey (aphids from the three cotton cultivars provided on alternate days). Mortality and development of the immature stages, pupal body mass, adult sex ratio, fecundity, and egg viability of C. pallens were measured. When fed GK12-originated aphid prey, pupal body mass of C. pallens was significantly higher than that of the control, more females emerged, and these females laid significantly more eggs. Other parameters were not impacted. Females emerging from larvae maintained on NuCOTN 99B-originated prey laid fewer eggs than those maintained on GK12. Other measurements did not differ significantly between the two Bt cotton cultivars. Compared with the control, mixed feeding significantly prolonged pupal development time and increased pupal body mass and percentage of females but did not affect other parameters. These results indicate that C. pallens is sensitive to aphid prey from different cotton cultivars. Transgenic Bt cotton GK12-originated aphid prey has no adverse impact on survival, development, and fecundity of C. pallens. Between the two Bt cotton cultivars, NuCOTN 99B-originated aphid prey provided to C. pallens in the larval stage may lower female fecundity. Mixed feeding of C. pallens with the two Bt cotton-originated prey and non-Bt prey may have some adverse impacts on pupal development.

  16. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Robson José da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar o potencial de crescimento de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson é importante para seu uso em programas de controle biológico de pulgões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de L. testaceipes em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover. Na avaliação da mortalidade de imaturos, do desenvolvimento e da razão sexual foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas do parasitóide e 480 ninfas de cada pulgão testado. Na avaliação da longevidade e da fertilidade foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas do parasitóide e uma colônia por dia de cada pulgão, até a morte da fêmea do parasitóide, sendo 300 (1º dia; 250 (2º dia; 200 (3º dia; 150 (4º dia; 100 (5º dia e 50 ninfas nos demais dias. L. testaceipes apresentou taxas de mortalidade de imaturos de 5,6% em R. maidis e de 9,2% em A. gossypii, desenvolvimento de 10,2 e 10,1 dias e razão sexual de 0,71 e 0,66, respectivamente. L. testaceipes apresentou fecundidade de 498,2 ovos em R. maidis e de 327,8 ovos em A. gossypii. Os parâmetros de crescimento de L. testaceipes em R. maidis e A. gossypii foram, respectivamente, R O= 205,38 e 164,08 fêmeas; r m= 0,449 e 0,431 fêmeas/fêmeas/dia; lambda = 1,57 e 1,54 fêmeas/dia; T= 11,86 e 11,83 dias e TD= 10,78 e 11,27 dias. L. testaceipes apresenta alto potencial de crescimento em R. maidis e A. gossypii. R. maidis mostrou ser hospedeiro adequado aos propósitos de criação massal e utilização em sistema de criação aberta para L. testaceipes.The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female

  17. Both point mutations and low expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit are associated with imidacloprid resistance in an Aphis gossypii (Glover) population from a Bt cotton field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewei; Li, Fen; Chen, Anqi; Ma, Kangsheng; Liang, Pingzhuo; Liu, Ying; Song, Dunlun; Gao, Xiwu

    2017-09-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover is a destructive pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Although the expansion of Bt cotton cultivation has helped to control some insect pests, the damage from cotton aphids has not been mitigated. The evolution of aphid resistance to imidacloprid has made its chemical control more difficult since its introduction in 1991. Field populations of A. gossypii that were collected from different transgenic (Bt) cotton planting areas of China in 2014 developed different levels of resistance to imidacloprid. The IMI_R strain has developed high resistance to imidacloprid with the resistance ratio >1200-fold. Compared with the susceptible IMI_S strain, the IMI_R strain also developed a high level cross resistance to sulfoxaflor and acetamiprid. The limited synergism with either PBO or DEF suggests that resistance may be due to the site mutation of molecular target rather than to enhanced detoxification. Three target-site mutations within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) β1 subunit were detected in the IMI_R strain. The R81T mutation has been reported to be responsible for imidacloprid resistance in A. gossypii and M. persicae. Both V62I and K264E were first detected in A. gossypii. These point mutations are also present in field populations, suggesting that they play a role in the resistance to imidacloprid. Furthermore, the expression level of transcripts encoding β1 subunit was decreased significantly in the IMI_R strain compared with the IMI_S strain, suggesting that both point mutations and the down-regulation of nAChR β1 subunit expression may be involved in the resistance mechanism for imidacloprid in A. gossypii. These results should be useful for the management of imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphids in Bt cotton fields in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

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    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  19. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

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    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  20. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

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    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  1. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton=Efeitos de inseticidas botânicos na taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodão

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    Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%; Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Piper aduncum L (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375 and 0.05%. Cotton leaf discs, CNPA 8H cultivar with 5 cm in diameter were immersed for 30 seconds in products broth and dried for 30 minutes. Eight replicates per concentration were used and each disc was infested with five apterous adult females of A. gossypii uniform in size and confined for 10 days. Compostonat®, Rotenat® and Neempro provided negative ri decreasing A. gossypii population. Natuneem® and Neemseto® and the essential oil of F. vulgare showed positive ri increasing the population. The coefficients of determination (R2 of regression lines ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. The essential oils of C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides and P. aduncum were not statistically significant precluding the establishment of regression lines.Inseticidas botânicos têm sido estudados, visando o controle alternativo de pragas. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos desses inseticidas sobre a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (ri de Aphis gossypii. Os inseticidas botânicos foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® e Neempro (0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 e 1,75%; Nautneem® e Neemseto® (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%; e os óleos essenciais de Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e Piper aduncum L. (0; 0,0125; 0,025; 0,0375 e 0,05%. Discos de folhas de algodoeiro, cultivar CNPA 8H, com 5 cm de di

  2. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, M.V.; Agüero, R.; Rivera, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se identificaron las especies hospederas naturales de Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) en plantaciones comerciales de melón para la exportación en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en dos fincas, ubicadas una en la provincia de Guanacaste y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas, correspondientes a dos zonas de vida vegetal diferentes. Se identificaron como especies hospederas del áfido todas aquellas especies vegetales en las que se observó la presencia del áfido en su forma ápter...

  3. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  4. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  5. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures that ca...

  6. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron las especies hospederas naturales de Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera en plantaciones comerciales de melón para la exportación en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en dos fincas, ubicadas una en la provincia de Guanacaste y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas, correspondientes a dos zonas de vida vegetal diferentes. Se identificaron como especies hospederas del áfido todas aquellas especies vegetales en las que se observó la presencia del áfido en su forma áptera. En ambas fincas el estudio se realizó en los alrededores y dentro del cultivo de melón. En la finca A en cinco diferentes comunidades vegetales (cultivo, canal de drenaje, charral, potrero mejorado y semi-bosque previamente seleccionadas y en la finca B en cuatro comunidades vegetales (cultivo, charral, pastizal natural y semi-bosque. Especímenes de las plantas colonizadas por áfidos y los áfidos colonizadores de cada especie fueron recolectadas para su identificación. Los áfidos se preservaron en alcohol al 70% v/v e identificaron utilizando las claves taxonómicas para áfidos, confirmándose como especie dominante a A. gossypii. La diversidad, cobertura y época de aparición de las especies de plantas hospederas fue monitoreada durante un año calendario en las diferentes comunidades vegetales presentes en ambas fincas, observándose diferencias entre las dos fincas estudiadas. En la finca A se observaron 86 diferentes especies vegetales, pertenecientes a 49 familias, asociadas al cultivo del melón, mientras que en la finca B se identificaron 72 especies de 40 familias. En conjunto para ambas fincas, un de 24 especies de plantas (16 familias estaban colonizadas por el áfido A. gossypii. De éstas, 16 especies de 10 familias, son reportes nuevos de plantas hospederas para este áfido: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia

  7. Separate and Combined Effects of Mentha piperata and Mentha pulegium Essential Oils and a Pathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Davari, Mahdi; Razmjou, Jabrael; Naseri, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the toxicity of essential oils of Mentha piperata L. and Mentha pulegium L. and pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium (Zare & Gams) were studied in the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Analyses of the essential oils by GC-MS indicated limonene (27.28%), menthol (24.71%), menthone (14.01%), and carvol (8.46%) in the M. piperata essential oil and pulegone (73.44%), piperitenone (5.49%), decane (4.99%), and limonene (3.07%) in the essential oil of M. pulegium as the main components. Both essential oils and the pathogenic fungus had useful toxicity against A. gossypii. Probit analysis indicated LC50 values (lethal concentrations to kill 50% of population; 95% confidence limits in parentheses) of M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils as 15.25 (12.25-19.56) and 23.13 (19.27-28.42) µl/liter air, respectively. Susceptibility to the pathogenic fungus increased with exposure time. Aphid mortality also increased when the essential oils were combined with L. muscarium, although the phenomena was additive rather than synergistic. Mycelial growth inhibition of L. muscarium exposed to the essential oils was also very low. Based on our results, M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils and the pathogenic fungus L. muscarium have some potential for management of A. gossypii. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Santos, Bárbara Davis B

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions.

  9. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  10. Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Kalaitzaki, Argyro; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Michaelakis, Antonios; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Dourtoglou, Vassilis; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2018-04-01

    The insecticidal activity of a new nano-formulated natural pyrethrin was examined on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the predators Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae), in respect with the nano-scale potential to create more effective and environmentally responsible pesticides. Pyrethrin was nano-formulated in two water-in-oil micro-emulsions based on safe biocompatible materials, i.e., lemon oil terpenes as dispersant, polysorbates as stabilizers, and mixtures of water with glycerol as the dispersed aqueous phase. Laboratory bioassays showed a superior insecticidal effect of the pyrethrin micro-emulsions compared to two commercial suspension concentrates of natural pyrethrins against the aphid. The nano-formulated pyrethrins were harmless, in terms of caused mortality and survival time, to L3 larvae and four-instar nymphs of the predators C. septempunctata and M. pygmaeus, respectively. We expect that these results can contribute to the application of nano-technology in optimization of pesticide formulation, with further opportunities in the development of effective plant protection products compatible with integrated pest management practices.

  11. The behavior of Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and of their predator Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton-cowpea intercropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Santos, Bárbara D B

    2018-01-01

    The intercropping is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management. It is based on the principle that increased plant diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the crop. The current study aimed to assess the impact the colored fiber cotton-cowpea intercropped systems on Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora and on their predator Cycloneda sanguinea and the losses and the dispersion behavior of these aphids and their predator in these cropping systems. The experiment had a randomized block experimental design with two bioassays and four treatments. The number of apterous and alate aphids (A. gossypii) per cotton plant was 1.46 and 1.73 or 1.97 and 2.19 times highest in the solid cotton system than that found in the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1) and (S2), respectively. On the other hand, the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and S2) reduced, respectively, in 43% and 31% the number of apterousA. gossypiiper cotton plant compared to the control. Implementing cotton-cowpea intercropped system in the S1 scheme reduced A. gossypii infestation, favored the multiplication of C. sanguinea, and allowed obtaining heavier open bolls.

  12. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  13. Genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Ya; Yang, Xian-Ming; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-05-15

    Aphis gossypii, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world, can cause serious economic losses in the main crop-producing areas. To clarify issues such as the genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and demographic history of A. gossypii populations, we used 10 nuclear microsatellite loci (SSR) and two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI and Cytb) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of A. gossypii populations that were collected from 33 sampling sites in China from different climatic zones. SSR and mtDNA data suggested low to moderate levels of genetic diversity. A star-shaped network of mtDNA haplotypes indicated that the maternal ancestor of China cotton aphids likely originated in Xinjiang. The POPTREE, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed two genetic clusters: an eastern and a western region group. Isolation by distance (IBD) results showed a positive correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance in the vast eastern region but not in the western region. Neutrality testing and mismatch distribution analysis provided strong evidence for a recent rapid expansion in most populations. Genetic bottleneck was not detected in A. gossypii populations of China. The present work can help us to develop strategies for managing this pest.

  14. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  15. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-01-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F 1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development in both the IMI-R and -S strain. • Electron beam irradiation induces DNA damage in both the S and IMI-R strain. • The expression of several specific genes were higher in the IMI-R strain. • 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary treatment for both strains of this species

  16. Desenvolvimento larval de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Cláudia Schlick-Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro (FMT 701, Acala 90 e Delta Opal. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade de Cassilândia (MS. Os adultos de C. externa foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC, em sala climatizada. As larvas do predador foram individualizadas em placas de Petri e alimentadas diariamente com pulgões advindos das diferentes cultivares. Larvas que se alimentaram de indíviduos da cultivar FMT 701 apresentaram a viabilidade menor do que as que alimentaram dos afídeos criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90. Observou-se redução do consumo diário nas larvas de terceiro ínstar que se alimentaram dos pulgões advindos da cultivar Acala 90. Consequentemente, larvas supridas com pulgões criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90, tiveram menor peso, 3,60 e 3,90 mg respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da FMT 701. De modo geral, é possível a utilização de C. externa no controle de A. gossypii nas cultivares estudadas.

  17. The neotype barcode of the cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877) and a proposal for type barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type barcode is a DNA barcode unequivocally tied to an authoritatively identified specimen, preferably the primary type specimen. Type barcodes are analogous, albeit subordinate, to type specimens, providing a stable reference to which other barcodes can be compared. We here designate and describe...

  18. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  19. Morphometric relationship, phylogenetic correlation, and character evolution in the species-rich genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojoong Kim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich genus Aphis consists of more than 500 species, many of them host-specific on a wide range of plants, yet very similar in general appearance due to convergence toward particular morphological types. Most species have been historically clustered into four main phenotypic groups (gossypii, craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. To confirm the morphological hypotheses between these groups and to examine the characteristics that determine them, multivariate morphometric analyses were performed using 28 characters measured/counted from 40 species. To infer whether the morphological relationships are correlated with the genetic relationships, we compared the morphometric dataset with a phylogeny reconstructed from the combined dataset of three mtDNA and one nuclear DNA regions.Based on a comparison of morphological and molecular datasets, we confirmed morphological reduction or regression in the gossypii group unlike in related groups. Most morphological characteristics of the gossypii group were less variable than for the other groups. Due to these, the gossypii group could be morphologically well separated from the craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. In addition, the correlation of the rates of evolution between morphological and DNA datasets was highly significant in their diversification.The morphological separation between the gossypii group and the other species-groups are congruent with their phylogenetic relationships. Analysis of trait evolution revealed that the morphological traits found to be significant based on the morphometric analyses were confidently correlated with the phylogeny. The dominant patterns of trait evolution resulting in increased rates of short branches and temporally later evolution are likely suitable for the modality of Aphis speciation because they have adapted species-specifically, rapidly, and more recently on many different host plants.

  20. Evaluation and application of parasitoids for biological control of Aphis gossypii in glasshouse cucumber crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van M.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction
    Aphids are an important problem in glasshouse vegetables. Already at low aphid densities fruits can get contaminated with honeydew, which decreases the economical value of the fruits. When aphids feed on the growing tips of the plants, the new shoots can get heavily

  1. Functional characterization of carboxylesterase gene mutations involved in Aphis gossypii resistance to organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y-H; Ai, G-M; Li, M; Shi, X-Y; Diao, Q-Y; Gao, X-W

    2017-12-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides in insects. Over-expression and structural modification of CarEs have been implicated in the development of organophosphate (OP) insecticide resistance in insects. A previous study identified four nonsynonymous mutations (resulting in four amino acid residue substitutions) in the open reading frame of the carboxylesterase gene of resistant cotton aphids compared to the omethoate susceptible strain, which has possibly influenced the development of resistance to omethoate (a systemic OP insecticide). The current study further characterized the function of these mutations, both alone and in combination, in the hydrolysis of OP insecticides. The metabolism results suggest that the combination of four mutations, mainly existing in the laboratory-selected OP-resistant cotton aphid population, increased the OP hydrolase activity (approximately twofold) at the cost of detectable carboxylesterase activity. The functional studies of single or multiple mutations suggest the positive effect of H104R, A128V and T333P on the acquisition of OP hydrolase activity, especially the combination of H104R with A128V or T333P. K484R substitution decreased both the OP hydrolase activity and the CarE activity, indicating that this mutation primarily drives the negative effect on the acquisition of OP hydrolase activity amongst these four mutations in the resistant strain. The modelling and docking results are basically consistent with the metabolic results, which strongly suggest that the structural gene modification is the molecular basis for the OP resistance in this laboratory-selected cotton aphid strain. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Molecular determinants of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa; Lengeler, Klaus B; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of development and entry into sporulation is critical for fungi to ensure survival of unfavorable environmental conditions. Here we present an analysis of gene sets regulating sporulation in the homothallic ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. Deletion of components of the conserved pheromone/starvation MAP kinase cascades, e.g., STE11 and STE7, results in increased sporulation. In kar3 mutants sporulation is severely reduced, while deletion of KAR4 as well as of homologs of central Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulators of sporulation, IME1, IME2, IME4, and NDT80, abolishes sporulation in A. gossypii. Comparison of RNAseq transcript profiles of sporulation-deficient mutants identified a set of 67 down-regulated genes, most of which were up-regulated in the oversporulating ste12 mutant. One of these differentially expressed genes is an endoglucanase encoded by ENG2. We found that Eng2p promotes hyphal fragmentation as part of the developmental program of sporulation, which generates single-celled sporangia. Sporulation-deficient strains are arrested in their development but form sporangia. Supply of new nutrients enabled sporangia to return to hyphal growth, indicating that these cells are not locked in meiosis. Double-strand break (DSB) formation by Spo11 is apparently not required for sporulation; however, the absence of DMC1, which repairs DSBs in S. cerevisiae, results in very poor sporulation in A. gossypii. We present a comprehensive analysis of the gene repertoire governing sporulation in A. gossypii and suggest an altered regulation of IME1 expression compared to S. cerevisiae.

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 16 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extracted from marine brown algae collected from Mandapam Island, India · EMAIL FREE ... Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis induction from ... Biological parameters of the non-target pest Aphis gossypii Glover ... for bacterial growth control · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Primeiro Registro de Afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea em Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. no Brasil

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    Suzan Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. The starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. has origin Asiatic and was introduced in Brazil in 1817, since then has increased its cultivation area in the country. The plant is attacked by few insects like flies and bugs. This work reports the presence of Aphis gossypii Glover on A. carambola for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species groups found in the Midwestern United States and their contribution to the phylogenetic knowledge of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Doris M; Voegtlin, David J; Coeur d'acier, Armelle; Giordano, Rosanna

    2014-06-01

    A phylogeny of the genus Aphis Linnaeus, 1 758 was built primarily from specimens collected in the Midwest of the United States. A data matrix was constructed with 68 species and 41 morphological characters with respective character states of alate and apterous viviparous females. Dendrogram topologies of analyses performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean), Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I, Elongation Factor 1-α and primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola 16S sequences were not congruent. Bayesian analysis strongly supported most terminal nodes of the phylogenetic trees. The phylogeny was strongly supported by EF1-α, and analysis of COI and EF1-α molecular data combined with morphological characters. It was not supported by single analysis of COI or Buchnera aphidicola 16S. Results from the Bayesian phylogeny show 4 main species groups: asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, and middletonii. Results place Aphis and species of the genera Protaphis Börner, 1952, Toxoptera Koch, and Xerobion Nevsky, 1928 in a monophyletic clade. Morphological characters support this monophyly as well. The phylogeny shows that the monophyletic clade of the North American middletonii species group belong to the genus Protaphis: P. debilicornis (Gillette & Palmer, 1929), comb. nov., P. echinaceae (Lagos and Voegtlin, 2009), comb. nov., and P. middletonii (Thomas, 1879). The genus Toxoptera should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). The analysis also indicates that the current genus Iowana Frison, 1954 should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Folic Acid Production by Engineered Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros, Gaspar; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Folic acid (vitamin B 9 ) is the common name of a number of chemically related compounds (folates), which play a central role as cofactors in one-carbon transfer reactions. Folates are involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids, as well as supplying methyl groups to a broad range of substrates, such as hormones, DNA, proteins, and lipids, as part of the methyl cycle. Humans and animals cannot synthesize folic acid and, therefore, need them in the diet. Folic acid deficiency is an important and underestimated problem of micronutrient malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. Therefore, the addition of folic acid as food additive has become mandatory in many countries thus contributing to a growing demand of the vitamin. At present, folic acid is exclusively produced by chemical synthesis despite its associated environmental burdens. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii in order to explore its potential as a natural producer of folic acid. Overexpression of FOL genes greatly enhanced the synthesis of folates and identified GTP cyclohydrolase I as the limiting step. Metabolic flux redirection from competing pathways also stimulated folic acid production. Finally, combinatorial engineering synergistically increased the production of different bioactive forms of the folic vitamin. Overall, strains were constructed which produce 146-fold (6595µg/L) more vitamin than the wild-type and by far represents the highest yield reported. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 124.32 - APHIS action on petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Diligence Petitions § 124.32 APHIS action on petition. (a) Within 90 days after APHIS receives a petition... diligence during the regulatory review period. APHIS will publish its determination in the Federal Register... due diligence petition without considering the merits of the petition if: (1) The petition is not...

  8. Hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. Cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro Growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. Gossypii var. Cephalosporioides on cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações sobre o hábito de crescimento de Colletotrichum gossypii e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides em sementes de algodoeiro, inoculadas artificialmente e incubadas a 20-22°C durante cinco a sete dias, evidenciaram as seguintes características: (a em raízes: acérvulos isolados ou em grupos, massa conidial cor branco-suja, alaranjada ou salmão (mais freqüente, setas marrom-escuras, muitas vezes encobertas pela matriz gelatinosa; conídios produzidos também no micélio aéreo ou nas extremidades das setas, onde ficam aderidos, formando pequenos aglomerados; (b na superfície das sementes: conídios produzidos nos ápices de setas que emergem diretamente do tegumento, ficando aderidos uns aos outros, formando cachos, semelhantes a cadeias, que são vistos brilhantes sob a luz, em estereomicroscópio. As setas férteis são formadas também no micélio aéreo que recobre as sementes, geralmente após cinco dias de incubação. Os acérvulos com massa conidial raramente são visíveis, exceto em sementes danificadas ou mortas. Como característica de C. gossypii, observou-se que as sementes exibem, de modo geral, uma coloração rosada, em decorrência da abundante esporulação; a ausência ou escassez de micélio aéreo e as setas curtas resultam em um crescimento rente ao tegumento e aspecto compacto. Comparativamente, nas sementes com C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides, as setas são mais longas e menos densas; o micélio aéreo com setas férteis ocorre com mais freqüência, conferindo às sementes tonalidades acinzentadas e aspecto solto. A constatação de setas férteis em lesões foliares de ramulose evidencia que, no campo, essas estruturas podem funcionar como autênticos conidióforos, desempenhando um importante papel epidemiológico, ao possibilitar a disseminação dos esporos pelos ventos, a longas distâncias.The growth habit of Colletotrichum gossypii and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides on artificially

  9. Engineering Ashbya gossypii strains for de novo lipid production using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, and it is currently exploited for the industrial production of this vitamin. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications presents important advantages such as the utilization of low-cost culture media, inexpensive downstream processing and a wide range of molecular tools for genetic manipulation, thus making A. gossypii a valuable biotechnological chassis for metabolic engineering. A. gossypii has been shown to accumulate high levels of lipids in oil-based culture media; however, the lipid biosynthesis capacity is rather limited when grown in sugar-based culture media. In this study, by altering the fatty acyl-CoA pool and manipulating the regulation of the main ∆9 desaturase gene, we have obtained A. gossypii strains with significantly increased (up to fourfold) de novo lipid biosynthesis using glucose as the only carbon source in the fermentation broth. Moreover, these strains were efficient biocatalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates from sugarcane molasses to biolipids, able to accumulate lipids up to 25% of its cell dry weight. Our results represent a proof of principle showing the promising potential of A. gossypii as a competitive microorganism for industrial biolipid production using cost-effective feed stocks. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Blockage of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway affects riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rui; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-10

    The Ashbya gossypii riboflavin biosynthetic pathway and its connection with the purine pathway have been well studied. However, the outcome of genetic alterations in the pyrimidine pathway on riboflavin production by A. gossypii had not yet been assessed. Here, we report that the blockage of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the recently generated A. gossypii Agura3 uridine/uracil auxotrophic strain led to improved riboflavin production on standard agar-solidified complex medium. When extra uridine/uracil was supplied, the production of riboflavin by this auxotroph was repressed. High concentrations of uracil hampered this (and the parent) strain growth, whereas excess uridine favored the A. gossypii Agura3 growth. Considering that the riboflavin and the pyrimidine pathways share the same precursors and that riboflavin overproduction may be triggered by nutritional stress, we suggest that overproduction of riboflavin by the A. gossypii Agura3 may occur as an outcome of a nutritional stress response and/or of an increased availability in precursors for riboflavin biosynthesis, due to their reduced consumption by the pyrimidine pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  12. Floods of 1971 and 1972 on Glover Creek and Little River in southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Wilbert O.; Corley, Robert K.

    1973-01-01

    Heavy rains of December 9-10, 1971, and Oct. 30-31, 1972, caused outstanding floods on Glover Creek and Little River in McCurtain County in southeastern Oklahoma. This report presents hydrologic data that document the extent of flooding, flood profiles, and frequency of flooding on reaches of both streams. The data presented provide a technical basis for formulating effective flood-plain zoning that will minimize existing and future flood problems. The report also can be useful for locating waste-disposal and water-treatment facilities, and for the development of recreational areas. The area studied includes the reach of Little River on the Garvin and Idabel 7 1/2-minute quadrangles (sheet 1) and the reach of Glover Creek on the southwest quarter of the Golden 15-minute quadrangle (sheet 2). The flood boundaries delineated on the maps are the limits of flooding during the December 1971 and October 1972 floods. Any attempt to delineate the flood boundaries on streams in the study area other than Glover Creek and Little River was considered to be beyond the scope of this report. The general procedure used in defining the flood boundaries was to construct the flood profiles from high-water marks obtained by field surveys and by records at three stream-gaging stations (two on Little River and one on Glover Creek.). The extent of flooding was delineated on the topographic maps by using the flood profiles to define the flood elevations at various points along the channel and locating the elevations on the map by interpolating between contours (lines of equal ground elevation). In addition, flood boundaries were defined in places by field survey, aerial photographs, and information from local residents. The accuracy of the flood boundaries is consistent with the scale and contour interval of the maps (1 inch = 2,000 feet; contour interval 10 and 20 feet), which means the flood boundaries are drawn as accurately as possible on maps having 10- and 20-foot contour intervals.

  13. 75 FR 75170 - APHIS User Fee Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ...] APHIS User Fee Web Site AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service charges user fees, as authorized by law, to... contains information about the Agency's user fees. ADDRESSES: The Agency's user fee Web site is located at...

  14. 9 CFR 124.10 - APHIS liaison with PTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false APHIS liaison with PTO. 124.10 Section 124.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... period was the first permitted commercial marketing or use of the product under the provision of law...

  15. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  16. Metabolic engineering of riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii through pathway optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-10-14

    The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation of flavinogenic microorganisms and Ashbya gossypii is the main industrial producer of the vitamin. Accordingly, bioengineering strategies aimed at increasing riboflavin production in A. gossypii are highly valuable for industry. We analyze the contribution of all the RIB genes to the production of riboflavin in A. gossypii. Two important metabolic rate-limiting steps that limit the overproduction of riboflavin have been found: first, low mRNA levels of the RIB genes hindered the overproduction of riboflavin; second, the competition of the AMP branch for purinogenic precursors also represents a limitation for riboflavin overproduction. Thus, overexpression of the RIB genes resulted in a significant increase in riboflavin yield. Moreover, both the inactivation and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene, which controls the first step of the AMP branch, also proved to have a positive effect on riboflavin production. Accordingly, a strain that combines both the overexpression of the RIB genes and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene was engineered. This strain produced 523 mg/L of riboflavin (5.4-fold higher than the wild-type), which is the highest titer of riboflavin obtained by metabolic engineering in A. gossypii so far. Riboflavin production in A. gossypii is limited by a low transcription activity of the RIB genes. Flux limitation towards AMP provides committed substrate GTP for riboflavin overproduction without detrimental effects on biomass formation. A multiple-engineered Ashbya strain that produces up to 523 mg/L of riboflavin was generated.

  17. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  18. The APSES protein Sok2 is a positive regulator of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa; Dünkler, Alexander; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a homothallic, flavinogenic, filamentous ascomycete that starts overproduction of riboflavin and fragments its mycelium quantitatively into spore producing sporangia at the end of a growth phase. Mating is not required for sporulation and the standard homothallic laboratory strain is a MATa strain. Here we show that ectopic expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATα2 in A. gossypii completely suppresses sporulation, inhibits riboflavin overproduction and downregulates among others AgSOK2. AgSok2 belongs to a fungal-specific group of (APSES) transcription factors. Deletion of AgSOK2 strongly reduces riboflavin production and blocks sporulation. The initiator of meiosis, AgIME1, is a transcription factor essential for sporulation. We characterized the AgIME1 promoter region required for complementation of the Agime1 mutant. Reporter assays with AgIME1 promoter fragments fused to lacZ showed that AgSok2 does not control AgIME1 transcription. However, global transcriptome analysis identified two other essential regulators of sporulation, AgIME2 and AgNDT80, as potential targets of AgSok2. Our data suggest that sporulation and riboflavin production in A. gossypii are under mating type locus and nutritional control. Sok2, a target of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, serves as a central positive regulator to promote sporulation. This contrasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae where Sok2 is a repressor of IME1 transcription. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Colletotrichum gossypii do algodoeiro Genetic variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum gossypii of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro é atacado por Colletotrichum gossypii (CG e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Ambos os patógenos são transmitidos pela semente e sua distinção morfológica é extremamente difícil e inconsistente. Tentativas foram feitas no presente trabalho para verificar a variabilidade genética entre CG e CGC através de RAPD-PCR, ERIC- e REP-PCR e PCR-RFLP da região ITS rDNA. Foram utilizados 53 isolados coletados de sementes e folhas de plantas de diferentes cultivares nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, e Paraiba, entre 1999 e 2003. Baseado em testes de patogenicidade, vinte e um isolados foram classificados como CG e 32 como CGC. Os resultados obtidos por RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se oito primers, revelaram dois grupos distintos sendo que o primeiro foi formado por 94% dos isolados de sementes e o segundo por 95% dos isolados de folhas. Na análise de ERIC- e REP-PCR, resultados semelhantes a RAPD foram obtidos, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi formado por 93% dos isolados provenientes das sementes e o segundo por 78% dos isolados provenientes das folhas. Quando o produto de amplificação da região ITS rDNA foi digerido com oito enzimas de restrição, um perfil de bandas semelhante para todos os isolados foi obtido. Resultados de RAPD, ERIC- e REP-PCR demonstraram que existem diferenças genéticas entre os isolados provenientes das sementes e aqueles provenientes de parte aérea, e esses dois grupos foram claramente distintos. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados utilizando outras técnicas moleculares para a obtenção de marcadores capazes de distinguir entre isolados de CG e CGC.Cotton is attacked by Colletotrichum gossypii (CG and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Both the pathogens are transmitted by seed and their morphological distinction is extremely difficult and inconsistent. In the present study, attempts were made to verify the genetic variability among 53 isolates of CG and CGC using

  20. Evaluation of antifungal metabolites activity from bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against Colletotrichum gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hafiz Husnain; Nelly Rajaofera, M J; He, Qiguang; Anam, Usmani; Lin, Chunhua; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria. We also estimated the heat stability and pH range and toxicity of biosurfactant produced by strain 0E-04. The results showed that biosurfactant has maximum antifungal activity against C. gossypii. In vitro study concluded that the biosurfactant can reduce fungal activity by inhibiting the spore germination of C. gossypii. Moreover, the biosurfactant also has wide pH and temperature range. We observed Antifungal activity of biosurfactant at 5 to 10 pH range and temperature range was also wide from room temperature to 100 °C. We also observed the toxicity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis against zebra fish (Danio rerio). We were noticed that biosurfactant have least harmful effect with maximum concentration. The study confirmed that biosurfactant of Bacillus licheniformis have high pH and heat stability range with least harmful effects so it can be a good replacement of chemical pesticides for cotton anthracnose control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electron tomography of the microtubule cytoskeleton in multinucleated hyphae of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaux, Romain; Lang, Claudia; Politi, Antonio Z; Jaspersen, Sue L; Philippsen, Peter; Antony, Claude

    2012-12-01

    We report the mechanistic basis guiding the migration pattern of multiple nuclei in hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. Using electron tomography, we reconstructed the cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton in three tip regions with a total of 13 nuclei and also the spindle microtubules of four mitotic nuclei. Each spindle pole body (SPB) nucleates three cMTs and most cMTs above a certain length grow according to their plus-end structure. Long cMTs closely align for several microns along the cortex, presumably marking regions where dynein generates pulling forces on nuclei. Close proximity between cMTs emanating from adjacent nuclei was not observed. The majority of nuclei carry duplicated side-by-side SPBs, which together emanate an average of six cMTs, in most cases in opposite orientation with respect to the hyphal growth axis. Such cMT arrays explain why many nuclei undergo short-range back and forth movements. Only occasionally do all six cMTs orient in one direction, a precondition for long-range nuclear bypassing. Following mitosis, daughter nuclei carry a single SPB with three cMTs. The increased probability that all three cMTs orient in one direction explains the high rate of nuclear bypassing observed in these nuclei. The A. gossypii mitotic spindle was found to be structurally similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of nuclear microtubule (nMT) number, length distribution and three-dimensional organization even though the two organisms differ significantly in chromosome number. Our results suggest that two nMTs attach to each kinetochore in A. gossypii and not only one nMT like in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Revision of the taxonomic status of Aphis floridanae Tissot (Hemiptera:Aphididae) using morphological and molecular insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three Aphis species are involved in this study. Aphis floridanae Tissot, 1933 and A. nasturtii Kaltenbach, 1843 are currently treated as synonym, and A. impatientis Thomas, 1878 has a valid taxonomic status. Morphological and cytochrome oxidase 1 (Cox1) data show that Aphis floridanae is not synonym...

  3. Relationships between benthic cover, current strength, herbivory, and a fisheries closure in Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T.; Karnauskas, M.

    2011-03-01

    Benthic cover, current strengths, and fish abundance and diversity were examined on 150 lagoonal patch reefs and mapped to determine their distribution, inter-relationships, and relationship to the fisheries closure in Glovers Reef Atoll. Current strength was highest at both the northern and southern ends of the atoll and largely controlled by local wind and weakly by tidal forcing. Benthic functional group distributions varied throughout the atoll and had distinct areas of dominance. In contrast, dominance of coral species was weaker, reflecting the lost cover and zonation of Acropora, Porites, and Montastraea that were reported in the 1970s. Hard and soft corals dominated the windward rim, while the central and leeward lagoon had lower current strengths and sea grass and fleshy green algae were relatively more abundant. Brown erect algae were relatively more common in the north and calcifying green and red algae the southern ends of the atoll. Only Montastraea- Agaricia agaricites distributions were similar to reports from the 1970s with high relative dominance in the southern and northeast atoll. The central-northern zone, which was described as an Acropora zone in the 1970s, was not recognizable, and Porites porites, P. astreoides, Millepora alcicornis, and Favia fragum were the most abundant species during this survey . Hard and soft coral cover abundance declined away from the reef rim and tidal channels and was associated with fast seawater turnover and high surgeonfish abundance. Consequently, the windward rim area has retained the most original and persistent hard-soft coral and surgeonfish community and is considered a priority for future management, if the goal is to protect coral from fishing impacts.

  4. Primeiro Registro de Afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) em Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Suzan Beatriz Zambon da; Sousa e Silva, Carlos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) árvore de origem Asiática foi introduzida no Brasil em 1817, desde então vem aumentando sua área de cultivo no país. A planta é atacada por poucos insetos como as moscas e percevejos. Este trabalho relata a presença de Aphis gossypii Glover em A. carambola pela primeira vez no Brasil. First Record of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) in Brazil Abstract. The starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) has origin Asiatic an...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15920-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t... 44 10.0 1 ( EU019869 ) Aphis gossypii from Hibiscus elongation factor 1 ... ...44 10.0 1 ( EU019868 ) Aphis gossypii from Hibiscus mutabilis elongation... 44 10.0 1 ( EF660855 ) Myzus per

  6. Organization of organelles within hyphae of Ashbya gossypii revealed by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaux, Romain; Hoepfner, Dominic; Schlatter, Ivan; Antony, Claude; Philippsen, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii grows as multinucleated and constantly elongating hyphae. Nuclei are in continuous forward and backward motion, also move during mitosis, and frequently bypass each other. Whereas these nuclear movements are well documented, comparatively little is known about the density and morphology of organelles which very likely influence these movements. To understand the three-dimensional subcellular organization of hyphae at high resolution, we performed large-scale electron tomography of the tip regions in A. gossypii. Here, we present a comprehensive space-filling model in which most membrane-limited organelles including nuclei, mitochondria, endosomes, multivesicular bodies, vacuoles, autophagosomes, peroxisomes, and vesicles are modeled. Nuclei revealed different morphologies and protrusions filled by the nucleolus. Mitochondria are very abundant and form a tubular network with a polarized spherical fraction. The organelles of the degradative pathways show a clustered organization. By analyzing vesicle-like bodies, we identified three size classes of electron-dense vesicles (∼200, ∼150, and ∼100 nm) homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm which most likely represent peroxisomes. Finally, coated and uncoated vesicles with approximately 40-nm diameters show a polarized distribution toward the hyphal tip with the coated vesicles preferentially localizing at the hyphal periphery.

  7. Sequence and structural characterization of Trx-Grx type of monothiol glutaredoxins from Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Saurabh; Kumari, Pragati; Kushwaha, Hemant Ritturaj

    2013-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are enzymatic antioxidants which are small, ubiquitous, glutathione dependent and essentially classified under thioredoxin-fold superfamily. Glutaredoxins are classified into two types: dithiol and monothiol. Monothiol glutaredoxins which carry the signature "CGFS" as a redox active motif is known for its role in oxidative stress, inside the cell. In the present analysis, the 138 amino acid long monothiol glutaredoxin, AgGRX1 from Ashbya gossypii was identified and has been used for the analysis. The multiple sequence alignment of the AgGRX1 protein sequence revealed the characteristic motif of typical monothiol glutaredoxin as observed in various other organisms. The proposed structure of the AgGRX1 protein was used to analyze signature folds related to the thioredoxin superfamily. Further, the study highlighted the structural features pertaining to the complex mechanism of glutathione docking and interacting residues.

  8. A mutant with riboflavin productivity obtained from non-riboflavin-producing ashbya gossypii by γ-induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Suhong; Ge Zhongliang

    1993-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate Ashbya gossypii, which does not produce riboflavin originally, and mutants were obtained with colonial colour changing from white into yellow. Mutant ratio was high at the absorption dose of 90 Gy. Results of reverse phase-HPLC, high performance-TLC and fluoroscopic analysis proved that riboflavin is produced by the mutant fermentation. The mutant remained after generations of culture, indicating that the induced new properties are stably inheritable

  9. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. López Ciruelos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

  10. 77 FR 73613 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... the Plant Protection Act (U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) (PPA), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... officials in APHIS' Plant Protection and Quarantine program for follow-up, including onsite inspections by... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0085...

  11. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In...

  12. SEPARATION OF THE MINOR FLAVONOLS FROM FLOS GOSSYPII BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Yongxin; Gu, Dongyu; Ayupbek, Amatjan; Huang, Yun; Dou, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Tianyou; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2010-01-01

    An effective high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for further separation and purification of four minor flavonols in addition to five major flavonols which were reported by our previous study from extracts of Flos Gossypii. HSCCC was performed with three two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (7.5:15:6:7, v/v), (2.5:15:2:7, v/v) and (0:1:0:1, v/v). The separation was repeated 3 times, and 3.8 mg of 8-methoxyl-kaempferol-7-O-β-D-rhamnoside (HPLC purity 98.27%), 6.7 mg of astragalin (HPLC purity 94.18%), 3.3 mg of 4′-methoxyl-quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (HPLC purity 94.30%) and 8.2 mg of hyperoside (HPLC purity 93.48%) were separated from 150 mg of the crude sample. The chemical structures of the flavonols were confirmed by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the target compound with smaller K value (<0.5) can be separated by increasing column length of HSCCC. And four separation rules of flavonols according to the present study and references were summarized, which can be used as a useful guide for separation of flavonols by HSCCC. PMID:21494318

  13. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct.

  14. Evolution of multinucleated Ashbya gossypii hyphae from a budding yeast-like ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Hans-Peter; Philippsen, Peter

    2011-06-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii polarity establishment at sites of germ tube and lateral branch emergence depends on homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae factors controlling bud site selection and bud emergence. Maintenance of polar growth involves homologues of well-known polarity factors of budding yeast. To achieve the much higher rates of sustained polar surface expansion of hyphae compared to mainly non-polarly growing yeast buds five important alterations had to evolve. Permanent presence of the polarity machinery at a confined area in the rapidly expanding hyphal tip, increased cytoplasmic space with a much enlarged ER surface for generating secretory vesicles, efficient directed transport of secretory vesicles to and accumulation at the tip, increased capacity of the exocytosis system to process these vesicles, and an efficient endocytosis system for membrane and polarity factor recycling adjacent to the zone of exocytosis. Morphological, cell biological, and molecular aspects of this evolution are discussed based on experiments performed within the past 10 y. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In... from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region must meet the following conditions: (1) The pork or pork products...

  16. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  17. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained fro...

  18. Development of a stage-structured process-based predator–prey model to analyse biological control of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, by the sevenspot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata, in cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.Y.; Wang, J.; Cui, J.J.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural system diversification is well known to affect the population dynamics of crop pests, but predator–prey dynamics in crop systems are difficult to analyse due to interactions between multiple life stages of predator and prey, the modulating effect of temperature, the actions of

  19. Oxidative stress protection and glutathione metabolism in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione in riboflavinogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Chandra, T S

    2014-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a plant pathogen and a natural overproducer of riboflavin and is used for industrial riboflavin production. A few literature reports depict a link between riboflavin overproduction and stress in this fungus. However, the stress protection mechanisms and glutathione metabolism are not much explored in A. gossypii. In the present study, an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in response to hydrogen peroxide and menadione. The lipid peroxide and membrane lipid peroxide levels were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating oxidative damage. The glutathione metabolism was altered with a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the presence of H2O2 and menadione. Expression of the genes involved in stress mechanism was analyzed in response to the stressors by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CTT1, SOD1, GSH1, YAP1, and RIB3 were increased by H2O2 and menadione, indicating the effect of stress at the transcriptional level. A preliminary bioinformatics study for the presence of stress response elements (STRE)/Yap response elements (YRE) depicted that the glutathione metabolic genes, stress genes, and the RIB genes hosted either STRE/YRE, which may enable induction of these genes during stress.

  20. Control of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...

  1. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Cokos, B A; Sala, E

    2002-06-01

    The proliferation of algae on disturbed coral reefs has often been attributed to (1) a loss of large-bodied herbivorous fishes, (2) increases in sea water nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, and (3) a loss of hard coral cover or a combination of these and other factors. We performed replicated small-scale caging experiments in the offshore lagoon of Glovers Reef atoll, Belize where three treatments had closed-top (no large-bodied herbivores) and one treatment had open-top cages (grazing by large-bodied herbivores). Closed-top treatments simulated a reduced-herbivory situation, excluding large fishes but including small herbivorous fishes such as damselfishes and small parrotfishes. Treatments in the closed-top cages included the addition of high phosphorus fertilizer, live branches of Acropora cervicornis and a third unmanipulated control treatment. Colonization, algal biomass and species composition on dead A. palmata "plates" were studied weekly for 50 days in each of the four treatments. Fertilization doubled the concentration of phosphorus from 0.35 to 0.77 microM. Closed-top cages, particularly the fertilizer and A. cervicornis additions, attracted more small-bodied parrotfish and damselfish than the open-top cages such that there was moderate levels of herbivory in closed-top cages. The open-top cages did, however, have a higher abundance of the chemically and morphologically defended erect algal species including Caulerpa cupressoides, Laurencia obtusa, Dictyota menstrualis and Lobophora variegata. The most herbivore-resistant calcareous green algae (i.e. Halimeda) were, however, uncommon in all treatments. Algal biomass increased and fluctuated simultaneously in all treatments over time, but algal biomass, as measured by wet, dry and decalcified weight, did not differ greatly between the treatments with only marginally higher biomass (p reefs except for creating space. In contrast, A. cervicornis appears to attract aggressive damselfish that

  2. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M.; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  3. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  4. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  5. Seed Treatment Combined with a Spot Application of Clothianidin Granules Prolongs the Efficacy of Controlling Piercing-Sucking Insect Pests in Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Yao; Li, Beixing; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mu, Wei

    2017-09-13

    Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0.9 kg ai/ha) at the bud stage can effectively suppress A. gossypii and A. lucorum infestations throughout the seedling and blooming stages after planting and can improve cotton yield. The spot application of clothianidin granules also reduced the population densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The dynamic changes of clothianidin residues demonstrated that the control efficacy of clothianidin against A. gossypii and A. lucorum might be related to the residues of this neonicotinoid in cotton leaves. This pest management practice provided long-term protection against cotton piercing-sucking pests for the entire growing season of cotton plants and could supplement the short-term control efficiency of clothianidin used as a seed treatment.

  6. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se observar o efeito de diversas substâncias nitrogenadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspectos morfológicos das colônias do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa em substrato sólido. Usou-se um substrato sintético como meio-básico e a este se adicionou peptona, metionina, asparagina, nitrato de sódio ou salicilato de amônia, conforme o tratamento. A testemunha não recebeu qualquer fonte de nitrogênio. Concluiu-se que a peptona foi o melhor tratamento para esporulação e crescimento miceliano, seguindo-se a asparagina que foi eficiente na indução da esporulação. O salicilato de amônia exerceu efeito inibidor do crescimento vegetativo e da esporulação do fungo. Para produção de inóculo, a curto prazo, recomenda-se o uso da peptona como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram observadas diferenças na pigmentação, bordos e densidade das colônias. A esporulação, embora abundante em substratos contendo peptona e asparagina, ocorreu em forma de verdadeiras massas localizadas de conídios na primeira, e como conídios dispersos na segunda.

    In this experiment, the effect of different nitrogenous substances on the mycelium growth, sporulation and morphological aspects of the colonies of the fungus Colletotrichum gossypii  South Var. cephalosporoides Costa planted in a solid substrate were observed. A synthetic substrate was used as a basic medium, and to this was added peptone metionine, asparagine, sodium nitrate or ammonium salicylate, according to the treatment. The control (group received no nitrogen whatsover. It was concluded that peptone was the best treatment for sporulation and mycelium growth, and that the next best was asparagine which was helpfull in inducing sporulation. Ammonium salicylate inhibited the vegetative growth

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dynamics of multiple nuclei in Ashbya gossypii hyphae depend on the control of cytoplasmic microtubules length by Bik1, Kip2, Kip3, and not on a capture/shrinkage mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Sandrine; Philippsen, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii has a budding yeast-like genome but grows exclusively as multinucleated hyphae. In contrast to budding yeast where positioning of nuclei at the bud neck is a major function of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs), A. gossypii nuclei are constantly in motion and positioning is not an issue. To investigate the role of cMTs in nuclear oscillation and bypassing, we constructed mutants potentially affecting cMT lengths. Hyphae lacking the plus (+)end marker Bik1 or the kinesin Kip2 cannot polymerize long cMTs and lose wild-type nuclear movements. Interestingly, hyphae lacking the kinesin Kip3 display longer cMTs concomitant with increased nuclear oscillation and bypassing. Polymerization and depolymerization rates of cMTs are 3 times higher in A. gossypii than in budding yeast and cMT catastrophes are rare. Growing cMTs slide along the hyphal cortex and exert pulling forces on nuclei. Surprisingly, a capture/shrinkage mechanism seems to be absent in A. gossypii. cMTs reaching a hyphal tip do not shrink, and cMT +ends accumulate in hyphal tips. Thus, differences in cMT dynamics and length control between budding yeast and A. gossypii are key elements in the adaptation of the cMT cytoskeleton to much longer cells and much higher degrees of nuclear mobilities.

  9. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

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    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  10. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  11. Reciprocal interactions between native and introduced populations of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and the specialist aphid, Aphis nerii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Agrawal, A.A.; Roge, C.; Bezemer, T.M.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Following its introduction into Europe (EU), the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) has been free of most specialist herbivores that are present in its native North American (NA) range, except for the oleander aphid Aphis nerii. We compared EU and NA populations of A. nerii on EU and NA milkweed

  12. Comparison of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences between old and new world strains of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial DNA provides useful tools for inferring population genetic structure within a species and phylogenetic relationships between species. The complete mitogenome sequences were assembled from strains of the cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora, from the old (15,308 bp) and new world (15,305 bp...

  13. Review of invasive grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, and native parasitoids in the Mediterranean (Hemiptera, Aphididae; Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Shukshuk, A. H.; Ghaliow, M. E.; Laamari, M.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Tomanović, Ž.; Rakhshani, E.; Pons, X.; Starý, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2011), s. 269-274 ISSN 0354-4664 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : invasions * Aphis illinoisensis * grapevine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2011

  14. Potential candidates for biological control of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in Serbia

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    Stanković, S.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The black bean aphid is widely spread aphid species in the Palaearctic, known to attack over 1150 plant species. Because some of the host plants are of great agricultural interest, Aphis fabae represent a very important pest. We assembled all data concerning the presence of this pest and connected it in tritrophic associations. In the period of 24 years investigation on the territory of Serbia it has been recorded in 107 trophic associations. In total there are 145 findings of A. fabae parasitized by 19 taxa of Aphidiinae (Brackonidae from seven genera. The most suitable biocontrol agents for the black bean aphid are Lysiphlebus fabarum, Binodoxys angelicae, Lipolesis gracilis and the introduced species Lysiphlebus testaceipes.

  15. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

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    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  16. Clustering of Nuclei in Multinucleated Hyphae Is Prevented by Dynein-Driven Bidirectional Nuclear Movements and Microtubule Growth Control in Ashbya gossypii ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Sandrine; Keller, Miyako; Voegeli, Sylvia; Seger, Shanon; Lang, Claudia; Philippsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process. Previous studies with Ashbya gossypii revealed extensive bidirectional movements and bypassings of nuclei, an autonomous cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton emanating from each nucleus, and pulling of nuclei by sliding of cMTs along the cortex. Here, we show that dynein is the sole motor for bidirectional movements and bypassing because these movements are concomitantly decreased in mutants carrying truncations of the dynein heavy-chain DYN1 promoter. The dynactin component Jnm1, the accessory proteins Dyn2 and Ndl1, and the potential dynein cortical anchor Num1 are also involved in the dynamic distribution of nuclei. In their absence, nuclei aggregate to different degrees, whereby the mutants with dense nuclear clusters grow extremely long cMTs. As in budding yeast, we found that dynein is delivered to cMT plus ends, and its activity or processivity is probably controlled by dynactin and Num1. Together with its role in powering nuclear movements, we propose that dynein also plays (directly or indirectly) a role in the control of cMT length. Those combined dynein actions prevent nuclear clustering in A. gossypii and thus reveal a novel cellular role for dynein. PMID:21642510

  17. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  18. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  19. Temperature and Development Impacts on Housekeeping Gene Expression in Cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphidiae.

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    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To standardize gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to consistently expressed housekeeping genes (HKGs is required. In this study, ten candidate HKGs including elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11, ribosomal protein L14 (RPL14, ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8, ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S from the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch were selected. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method were employed to evaluate the expression profiles of these HKGs as endogenous controls across different developmental stages and temperature regimes. Based on RefFinder, which integrates all four analytical algorithms to compare and rank the candidate HKGs, RPS8, RPL14, and RPL11 were the three most stable HKGs across different developmental stages and temperature conditions. This study is the first step to establish a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in A. craccivora following the MIQE guideline. Results from this study lay a foundation for the genomics and functional genomics research in this sap-sucking insect pest with substantial economic impact.

  20. Variability and transmission by Aphis glycines of North American and Asian Soybean mosaic virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, L L; Latorre, I J; Steinlage, T A; McCoppin, N; Hartman, G L

    2003-10-01

    The variability of North American and Asian strains and isolates of Soybean mosaic virus was investigated. First, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing the coat protein (CP)-coding regions of 38 SMVs were analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Second, the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence variability of the P1-coding region of 18 SMVs and the helper component/protease (HC/Pro) and CP-coding regions of 25 SMVs were assessed. The CP nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were the most similar and predicted phylogenetic relationships similar to those obtained from RFLP analysis. Neither RFLP nor sequence analyses of the CP-coding regions grouped the SMVs by geographical origin. The P1 and HC/Pro sequences were more variable and separated the North American and Asian SMV isolates into two groups similar to previously reported differences in pathogenic diversity of the two sets of SMV isolates. The P1 region was the most informative of the three regions analyzed. To assess the biological relevance of the sequence differences in the HC/Pro and CP coding regions, the transmissibility of 14 SMV isolates by Aphis glycines was tested. All field isolates of SMV were transmitted efficiently by A. glycines, but the laboratory isolates analyzed were transmitted poorly. The amino acid sequences from most, but not all, of the poorly transmitted isolates contained mutations in the aphid transmission-associated DAG and/or KLSC amino acid sequence motifs of CP and HC/Pro, respectively.

  1. Biological parameters and fertility life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on strawberry

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    E. S. Araujo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study provides the first contribution of the biology and life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, an important strawberry pest throughout the world. This species lives in the crown and leaf petioles of the plant. It is difficulty to rear this species in laboratory due to protocooperation with ants observed only in the field. We studied the life cycle of A. forbesi on the leaves of the Albion strawberry cultivar at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photophase. The experiment was randomised with 100 replicates. The parameters of the fertility life table were calculated using TabVida. In the population studied, 25% and 46% had four and three instars, respectively. A mean of 1.43 nymphs per female per day was generated. The mean reproductive period was seven days and the mean longevity was 10 days. In every 11 days there is a generation of A. forbesi, where each female has the potential to generate between 6 to 9 individuals daily, increasing its population by 1.2 times. The average life cycle was 16.8 days. High viability observed in all instars and the resulting values of R0, rm and λ suggest that A. forbesi has the capacity to increase their numbers in a short period of time, while generating high populations in strawberry crops, requiring differential management.

  2. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P < 0.05). Our results indicate high levels of genetic exchange in the spiraea aphid, possibly facilitated by geography and climate. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species.

  3. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  4. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

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    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  5. Collective defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae against natural enemies.

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    Manfred Hartbauer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear, show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found

  6. All 37 Mitochondrial Genes of Aphid Aphis craccivora Obtained from Transcriptome Sequencing: Implications for the Evolution of Aphids.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The availability of mitochondrial genome data for Aphididae, one of the economically important insect pest families, in public databases is limited. The advent of next generation sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mitochondrial genome data for many species timely and cost-effectively. In this report, we used transcriptome sequencing technology to determine all the 37 mitochondrial genes of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora. This method avoids the necessity of finding suitable primers for long PCRs or primer-walking amplicons, and is proved to be effective in obtaining the whole set of mitochondrial gene data for insects with difficulty in sequencing mitochondrial genome by PCR-based strategies. Phylogenetic analyses of aphid mitochondrial genome data show clustering based on tribe level, and strongly support the monophyly of the family Aphididae. Within the monophyletic Aphidini, three samples from Aphis grouped together. In another major clade of Aphididae, Pterocomma pilosum was recovered as a potential sister-group of Cavariella salicicola, as part of Macrosiphini.

  7. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  8. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  9. APHiD: Hierarchical Task Placement to Enable a Tapered Fat Tree Topology for Lower Power and Cost in HPC Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelogiannakis, George; Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Shalf, John; Wilke, Jeremiah J.; Knight, Samuel; Kenny, Joseph P.

    2017-05-14

    The power and procurement cost of bandwidth in system-wide networks has forced a steady drop in the byte/flop ratio. This trend of computation becoming faster relative to the network is expected to hold. In this paper, we explore how cost-oriented task placement enables reducing the cost of system-wide networks by enabling high performance even on tapered topologies where more bandwidth is provisioned at lower levels. We describe APHiD, an efficient hierarchical placement algorithm that uses new techniques to improve the quality of heuristic solutions and reduces the demand on high-level, expensive bandwidth in hierarchical topologies. We apply APHiD to a tapered fat-tree, demonstrating that APHiD maintains application scalability even for severely tapered network configurations. Using simulation, we show that for tapered networks APHiD improves performance by more than 50% over random placement and even 15% in some cases over costlier, state-of-the-art placement algorithms.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans With Fixed Level of Precision for Citrus Aphids (Hom., Aphididae) on Two Orange Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafeshani, Farzaneh Alizadeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Aghajanzadeh, Sirous; Gholamian, Esmaeil; Farkhari, Mohammad

    2018-04-02

    Aphis spiraecola Patch, Aphis gossypii Glover, and Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe are three important aphid pests of citrus orchards. In this study, spatial distributions of the aphids on two orange species, Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel, were evaluated using Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. In addition, a fixed-precision sequential sampling plant was developed for each species on the host plant by Green's model at precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The results revealed that spatial distribution parameters and therefore the sampling plan were significantly different according to aphid and host plant species. Taylor's power law provides a better fit for the data than Iwao's patchiness regression. Except T. aurantii on Thomson navel orange, spatial distribution patterns of the aphids were aggregative on both citrus. T. aurantii had regular dispersion pattern on Thomson navel orange. Optimum sample size of the aphids varied from 30-2061 and 1-1622 shoots on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange based on aphid species and desired precision level. Calculated stop lines of the aphid species on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange ranged from 0.48 to 19 and 0.19 to 80.4 aphids per 24 shoots according to aphid species and desired precision level. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans (RVSP) software. This sampling program is useful for IPM program of the aphids in citrus orchards.

  11. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  12. The influence of Lasius neoniger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and biomass of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Johnson, D W; Brown, G C

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are often tended by the aphid-tending ant, Lasius neoniger Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In this study, we examined the effects of tending by ants on the density and biomass of soybean aphids on soybeans in Kentucky. We performed cage studies that limited access by ants and/or natural enemies. We used a split-plot design with natural enemy access as the main plot and ant attendance as the sub plot. We found that natural enemy access negatively affected aphid population density in the presence of tending ants, seen as a three- to four-fold increase in aphid density when natural enemies were excluded. In addition, we found that ant tending positively affected aphid biomass, both when natural enemies were given access to aphids or when natural enemies were excluded, seen by a two-fold increase in aphid biomass when ants tended aphids, both in the presence or absence of natural enemies. Biomass accumulation is seen as an important measurement for assessing aphid performance, and we argue that aphid-tending by ants can have an influence on natural field populations of soybean aphids. Agronomic practices that affect ant abundance in soybeans may influence the performance and hence pest outbreaks for this economically important pest. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  13. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rouhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L. shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using them, insecticidal solutions of different concentrations were prepared and tested on A. nerii. For comparison purposes, imidacloprid was also used as a conventional insecticide. In the experiments, the LC50 value for imidacloprid, Ag and Ag-Zn nanoparticles were calculated to be 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, and 539.46 mg mL-1, respectively. The result showed that Ag nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of A. nerii. Additionally, the study showed that imidacloprid at 1 μL mL-1 and nanoparticles at 700 mg mL-1 had the highest insect mortality effect.El áfido de la adelfa, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, es una de las plagas más comunes de plantas ornamentales en las familias Apocynaceae y Sclepiadaceae y tiene distribución mundial, ha sido responsable de la mortalidad de un gran número de arbustos de adelfa (Nerium oleander L. cada ano. En este estudio se investigó la actividad insecticida de nanopartículas de Ag contra A. nerii. Nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn fueron sintetizadas a través de un método solvotérmico, y con ellas se prepararon soluciones insecticidas de diferentes concentraciones y se probaron contra A. nerii. Con fines de comparación, también se usó imidacloprid como un insecticida convencional. En los experimentos, el valor LC50 para imidacloprid, nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn se calculó como 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, y 539.46 mg mL-1, respectivamente. El resultado mostró que nanopart

  14. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzo, E.; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M.L.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly

  15. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Nerium oleander aphid Aphis nerii is tolerant to a local isolate of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta

    2013-04-01

    In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids.

  17. Habitat affinity of resident natural enemies of the invasive Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on soybean, with comments on biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Noma, Takuji

    2010-06-01

    We integrated a natural enemy survey of the broader landscape into a more traditional survey for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), parasitoids and predatory flies on soybean using A. glycines-infested soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., placed in cropped and noncropped plant systems to complement visual field observations. Across three sites and 5 yr, 18 parasitoids and predatory flies in total (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae [two species] and Bracondae [seven species], Diptera: Cecidomyiidae [one species], Syrphidae [seven species], Chamaemyiidae [one species]) were detected, with significant variability in recoveries detected across plant system treatments and strong contrasts in habitat affinity detected among species. Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson was the most frequently detected parasitoid, and no differences in abundance were detected in cropped (soybean, wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], corn [Zea mays L.], and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]) and noncropped (poplar [Populus euramericana (Dode) Guinier] and early successional vegetation) areas. In contrast, Binodoxys kelloggensis Pike, Starý & Brewer had strong habitat affinity for poplar and early successional vegetation. The low recoveries seasonally and across habitats of Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus sp., and Aphidius colemoni Viereck make their suitability to A. glycines on soybean highly suspect. The widespread occurrence of many of the flies reflects their broad habitat affinity and host aphid ranges. The consistent low field observations of parasitism and predation suggest that resident parasitoids and predatory flies are unlikely to contribute substantially to A. glycines suppression, at least during the conventional time period early in the pest invasion when classical biological control activities are considered. For selected species that were relatively well represented across plant systems (i.e., L. testaceipes and Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani), conservation biological control efforts

  18. Type of prey influences biology and consumption rate of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M. Mendes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalist predators are capable of consuming different types of prey, and as each prey may have distinct nutritional values, each may have a distinct impact on the biology of the predator. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how the consumption of different prey influences certain biological characteristics and the predatory capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say. The investigation was performed in climatic chamber at 25 ±1 ºC, RH 70 ± 10% and fotophase 12. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, adults of Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood and nymphs of Aphis gossypii Glover were used as prey and were provided daily ad libitum for all the mobile stages of the predator. The results showed that biological parameters of O. insidiosus are affected differently depending on the type of prey ingested. The development time of the nymphal stage was 13.1, 11.23 and 10.25 days for O. insidiosus feeding on eggs of A. kuehniella, nymphs of A. gossypii and adults of C. phaseoli, respectively. Longevity was five times larger for adults fed on eggs of A. kuehniella (56.25 days compared to that of adults that preyed on nymphs of A. gossypii (11.44 days, and four times larger when the prey were adults of C. phaseoli (13.58 days. The consumption of eggs of A. kuehniella by predator females resulted in a shorter pre-oviposition period (3.2 days and a longer oviposition period (44.4 days when compared to the consumption of other types of prey. In addition, fecundity was increased with the consumption of eggs of A. kuehniella (195.25 eggs laid / female when compared to feeding on the other prey, C. phaseoli (70.00 eggs laid / female or A. gossypii (22.50 eggs laid / female. However, the consumption of aphids was larger (148.28 nymphs/ nymphal stage than that of thrips (74.10 thrips / nymphal stage or eggs of A. kuehniella (37.03 eggs /nymphal stage for all of the nymphal stages of the predator. The results indicate that the eggs of A. kuehniella are the type of

  19. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  20. Mass rearing and augmentative biological control evaluation of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against multiple pests of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Majesh; Sahayaraj, Kitherian; Kumar, Vivek; Avery, Pasco B; McKenzie, Cindy L; Osborne, Lance S

    2017-08-01

    Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a generalist predator of cotton pests and is commonly found inhabiting cotton-growing regions in southern India. With the goal of integrating this predator in standard management practices used against cotton pests on a commercial scale, (1) we developed a protocol for adult group rearing of this predator inside micro-environmental cages (MECs), and (2) we evaluated the biocontrol potential of mass-produced predators against cotton pests under potted and field conditions. Higher fecundity and adult longevity of R. fuscipes was recorded in the MECs than under natural growing conditions. The reduviid predator preferred stones and fallen leaves as hiding places in the MECs. The predator showed a higher biocontrol potential during the night hours against two pests, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab.), than during the day under potted conditions. Under field conditions, R. fuscipes significantly reduced the population of Aphis gossypii Glover, P. solenopsis, D. cingulatus and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) by 28, 70, 29 and 50%, respectively. No negative impact of R. fuscipes was reported on other natural enemies present in the cotton agroecosystem. Significantly higher crop yield and cost benefit ratio were observed in R. fuscipes-released plots than in the control plots. The results suggest that R. fuscipes can be mass produced efficiently under controlled conditions in MECs, and used in an integrated management program for multiple cotton pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The solanaceous fruit crop pepino ( Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus , Potexvirus , and Potyvirus . No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit.

  2. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  3. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  4. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [es

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of a new class of insecticides: the N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelbarger, Joseph D; Parker, Marshall H; Yap, Maurice Ch; Buysse, Ann M; Babcock, Jonathan M; Hunter, Ricky; Adelfinskaya, Yelena; Samaritoni, Jack G; Garizi, Negar; Trullinger, Tony K

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit led to the discovery of a series of N-(6-arylpyridazin-3-yl)amides with insecticidal activity. It was hypothesized that the isosteric replacement of the pyridazine ring with a 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring could lead to more potent biological activity and/or a broader sap-feeding pest spectrum. The resulting N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides were explored as a new class of insecticides. Several methods for 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole synthesis were used for the preparation of key synthetic intermediates. Subsequent coupling to variously substituted carboxylic acid building blocks furnished the final targets, which were tested for insecticidal activity against susceptible strains of Aphis gossypii (Glover) (cotton aphid), Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (green peach aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (sweetpotato whitefly). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on both the amide tail and the aryl A-ring of novel N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides led to a new class of insecticidal molecules active against sap-feeding insect pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of ant attendance by Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on predation and parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John J; Horn, David J

    2008-10-01

    Ant attendance is known to affect the population dynamics of aphids and may increase or decrease aphid populations through stimulation, predation, or protection. In this study, we performed a series of laboratory experiments to examine the effects of ant attendance on populations of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. Aphid colonies were exposed to the predators Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae) and a parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Aphidiidae) in the presence and absence of attending Monomorium minimum (Formicidae). We also tested for direct effects of ant attendance in the absence of natural enemies. Ants attending soybean aphid populations were observed harassing or killing O. insidiosus and H. axyridis. Attendance interfered with both predator species, resulting in reduced predation and an increase in aphid numbers up to 10-fold in the presence of ants. Ants were not observed directly interfering with the parasitoid A. colemani, but the number of parasitized aphids was higher in aphid colonies that were left unattended by ants.

  7. Evidence for an Invasive Aphid “Superclone”: Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in Oleander Aphid (Aphis nerii) Populations in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John Scott; Mondor, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander) and Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km) and large (3,700 km) geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii “superclones”. Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG) or “clone”) and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. Conclusions/Significance Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species. PMID:21408073

  8. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species.We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species.Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  9. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE O FUNGO colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE INCUBATION ON THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypi SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura de incubação sobre o crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e morfologia da colônia do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa, em substrato de batata + dextrose + agar, pH 5,6. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados e as temperaturas variaram de 12 a 33°C, a intervalos de 3° C. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de incubação afeta notavelmente o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a morfologia da colônia do fungo. Temperaturas acima da faixa ótima provocaram modificações mais acentuadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspecto morfológico, do que temperaturas baixas. Conídios produzidos em temperaturas extremas, 12 a 33°C, mostraram-se mais curtos que os dos demais tratamentos. A incubação à temperatura de 27°C é a mais recomendável para produção de inóculos em quantidade.

    In this work, the effect of temperature of incubation on the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of the fungus colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa in substrate containing potato + dextrose + agar pH 5.6, was studied. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, with temperatures varying from 12 to 33 degrees centigrades, at intervals of 3°C. It was concluded that the temperature of incubation notably affects the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of this fungus. Temperatures above the optimum range caused greater changes in mycelial, sporulation an morphology of the colony than temperatures below this range. Conidia produced at l2 and 33°C were shown to be shorter than those in other treatments. The temperature of incubation recommended for inocule production was 27°C.

  10. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  11. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Is Widespread in Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, but Does Not Provide Protection from Parasitoids or a Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Jason A.; Buckman, Karrie A.; Wu, Kongming; Heimpel, George E.; White, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is infected with the symbiont Arsenophonus sp., which has an unknown role in its aphid host. Our research goals were to document the infection frequency and diversity of the symbiont in field-collected soybean aphids, and to determine whether Arsenophonus is defending soybean aphid against natural enemies. We performed diagnostic PCR and sequenced four Arsenophonus genes in soybean aphids from their native and introduced range to estimate infection frequency and genetic diversity, and found that Arsenophonus infection is highly prevalent and genetically uniform. To evaluate the defensive role of Arsenophonus, we cured two aphid genotypes of their natural Arsenophonus infection through ampicillin microinjection, resulting in infected and uninfected isolines within the same genetic background. These isolines were subjected to parasitoid assays using a recently introduced biological control agent, Binodoxys communis [Braconidae], a naturally recruited parasitoid, Aphelinus certus [Aphelinidae], and a commercially available biological control agent, Aphidius colemani [Braconidae]. We also assayed the effect of the common aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere & Hennebert) Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), on the same aphid isolines. We did not find differences in successful parasitism for any of the parasitoid species, nor did we find differences in P. neoaphidis infection between our treatments. Our conclusion is that Arsenophonus does not defend its soybean aphid host against these major parasitoid and fungal natural enemies. PMID:23614027

  12. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M

    2008-06-01

    Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled conditions for effects on survivorship, development time and fecundity in A. glycines and H. axyridis. Both azadirachtin and neem seed oil significantly increased aphid nymphal mortality (80 and 77% respectively) while significantly increasing development time of those surviving to adulthood. First-instar H. axyridis survival to adulthood was also significantly reduced by both neem formulations, while only azadirachtin reduced third-instar survivorship. Azadirachtin increased H. axyridis development time to adult when applied to both instars, while neem oil only increased time to adult when applied to first instar. Neither neem formulation affected the fecundity of either insect. Results are discussed within the context of future laboratory and field studies aimed at clarifying if neem-derived insecticides can be effectively integrated with biological control for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pengendalian Aphis craccivora Koch. dengan kitosan dan pengaruhnya terhadap penularan Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC pada kacang panjang

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    Dita Megasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphis craccivora is one of the important pests on yard long bean. It causes direct damage and also has an indirect effect as insect vector of the Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV. The research was done to test the effectiveness of chitosan in suppressing aphid population growth, feeding preference and its ability in transmiting BCMV. Chitosan with concentration ranging of 0.1–1.0% were applied on leaves using spraying method at 1 day before BCMV transmission. BCMV was transmitted by using 3 individuals of viruliferous aphids on each plant. Results show that chitosan treatments on leaves or plants significantly suppressed the population and feeding preferences of A. craccivora. Further, treated plants showed lower disease incidence, severity and BCMV titre significantly compared with untreated control plants. The positive effects of chitosan in suppressing population growth as feeding preferences and BCMV transmission might be due to the anti-feedant effect of chitosan on A. craccivora. Based on the result, chitosan at concentration 0.9% is the most effective concentration in suppressing BCMV and its vector A. craccivora.

  14. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Runqiang; He, Jun; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-10-12

    In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were ( Z )-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola , with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w : w ). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  15. Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Ahmed; Leroy, Pascal; Haubruge, Eric; Hance, Thierry; Frère, Isabelle; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    An intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the flora of a natural clone of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The strain was able to grow freely in aerobic conditions on a rich medium containing 1 % of each of the following substrates: glucose, yeast extract and casein peptone. Pure culture was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture on the same medium and the strain was designated CWBI-2.3(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain CWBI-2.3(T) was a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, having high sequence similarity (>99 %) with 'Candidatus Serratia symbiotica', the R-type of secondary endosymbiont that is found in several aphid species. As strain CWBI-2.3(T) ( = LMG 25624(T) = DSM 23270(T)) was the first R-type symbiont to be isolated and characterized, it was designated as the type strain of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov.

  16. Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuang Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines induces soybean (Glycine max leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1 determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2 use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA, benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores.

  17. Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in Aphis glycines Matsumura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinghui; Pan, Yiou; Bi, Rui; Gao, Xiwu; Chen, Xuewei; Peng, Tianfei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Xiaoyue; Shang, Qingli

    2015-02-01

    A resistant strain of the Aphis glycines Matsumura (CRR) has developed 76.67-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared with the susceptible (CSS) strain. Synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-Tributyltrithiophosphate (DEF) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the resistant strain. Bioassay results indicated that the CRR strain had developed high levels of cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos (11.66-fold), acephate (8.20-fold), cypermethrin (53.24-fold), esfenvalerate (13.83-fold), cyfluthrin (9.64-fold), carbofuran (14.60-fold), methomyl (9.32-fold) and bifenthrin (4.81-fold), but did not have cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, abamectin. The transcriptional levels of CYP6A2-like, CYP6A14-like and cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 9-like increased significantly in the resistant strain than that in the susceptible. Similar trend were observed in the transcripts and DNA copy number of CarE and E4 esterase. Overall, these results demonstrate that increased esterase hydrolysis activity, combined with elevated cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxicatication, plays an important role in the high levels of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and can cause cross-resistance to other insecticides in the CRR strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  19. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

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    Ramasamy Maruthadurai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker and three species of syrphids, viz., Paragus serratus (Fabricius, Dideopsis aegrota (Fabricius and Ischidon scutellaris (Fabricius were found predating on A. odinae.  All the immature stages of predators were found predating on first, second, third and fourth instars of the aphid.  Among the coccinellids, the dominant species were S. castaneus (4.26 grubs/nut followed by C. sexmaculata (0.42 grubs/leaf and P. flaviceps (0.14 grubs/nut.  Of the syrphids, P. serratus 2.39 larvae/nut was the major predator. The species D. aegrota (1.2 larvae/leaf and I. scutellaris (0.5 larvae/nut were recorded as minor predators.  Seasonal abundance of predators was synchronized with the aphid with a maximum occurrence during February 2015.  The aphid population gradually reduced from April onwards due to the voracious feeding activity of the predators.  The study concluded that the aphidophagous predators, viz., coccinellids and syrphids play a  major role in managing the aphid A. odinae in cashew and could be encouraged for augmentation and conservation of these predators in a cashew based ecosystem.

  20. Tissue specific expression of potent insecticidal, Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) in important pulse crop, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to resist the phloem feeding Aphis craccivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sarkar, Anindya; Mondal, Hossain Ali; Das, Sampa

    2009-08-01

    The phloem sap-sucking hemipteran insect, Aphis craccivora, commonly known as cowpea aphid, cause major yield loss of important food legume crop chickpea. Among different plant lectins Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL), a mannose binding lectin was found to be potent antifeedant for sap sucking insect A. craccivora. Present study describes expression of ASAL in chickpea through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of "single cotyledon with half embryo" explant. ASAL was expressed under the control of CaMV35S promoter for constitutive expression and phloem specific rolC promoter for specifically targeting the toxin at feeding site, using pCAMBIA2301 vector containing plant selection marker nptII. Southern blot analysis demonstrated the integration and copy number of chimeric ASAL gene in chickpea and its inheritance in T(1) and T(2) progeny plants. Expression of ASAL in T(0) and T(1) plants was confirmed through northern and western blot analysis. The segregation pattern of ASAL transgene was observed in T(1) progenies, which followed the 3:1 Mendelian ratio. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) determined the level of ASAL expression in different transgenic lines in the range of 0.08-0.38% of total soluble protein. The phloem tissue specific expression of ASAL gene driven by rolC promoter has been monitored by immunolocalization analysis of mature stem sections. Survival and fecundity of A. craccivora decreased to 11-26% and 22-42%, respectively when in planta bioassay conducted on T(1) plants compared to untransformed control plant which showed 85% survival. Thus, through unique approach of phloem specific expression of novel insecticidal lectin (ASAL), aphid resistance has been successfully achieved in chickpea.

  1. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant

  2. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

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    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  3. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

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    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  4. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença azul do algodoeiro está associada a um vírus ainda pouco conhecido em suas características morfológicas e moleculares, tanto quanto a sua patologia e epidemiologia. O tipo de transmissão circulativa pelo afídeo vetor Aphis gossypii Glover, associado a recentes relatos de estudos moleculares, sustentam ser o agente etiológico uma espécie membro da família Luteoviridae. No presente trabalho, estudos anatômicos comparativos em plantas sadias e infectadas foram realizados com a finalidade de conhecer aspectos estruturais da interação vírus-espécie hospedeira, com potencial aplicação na área de diagnose e melhoramento genético. Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em folhas de plantas infectadas, com área foliar reduzida, nervuras cloróticas e margem foliar voltada para baixo. O encurtamento dos entrenós, que resultam em um agrupamento de folhas, flores e frutos, e conseqüente redução da altura da planta, do número e tamanho dos frutos, são expressões fenotípicas da planta de algodão infectada, a qual serviu para o presente estudo. Nas plantas infectadas com o agente da doença azul havia maior acúmulo de calose e de cristais de oxalato de cálcio, cloroplastos íntegros distribuídos na região periférica das células do mesofilo e aparente alteração química no interior das células do parênquima paliçádico. Inclusões nos vasos do floema e, ocasionalmente no xilema, também foram observadas. O acúmulo de calose e a presença de inclusões no floema podem indicar uma relação ou preferência do vírus por esse tecido.Cotton blue disease is caused by a virus whose morphological and molecular characteristics is not well known and so demanding information its phytosanitary and epidemiological characteristics. Evidences of an aphid borne (Aphis gossypii Glover circulative (persistent type of transmission, associated with a recent molecular report, sustain for a virus species belonging to the

  5. Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.

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    Nora C Lawo

    Full Text Available Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184 and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

  6. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  7. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

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    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  8. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  9. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  10. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 2528-IJBCS-Article-Cocou A Djihinto

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    (endosulfan 700 g/ha) pour le contrôle des populations de Aphis gossypii, Pectinophora gossypiella et .... chaque ligne mesure 20 mètres de longeur. .... performance de Fanga 500 EC en milieu réel ..... fenêtre et gestion de Helicoverpa.

  12. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

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    Andja Vucetic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  13. Influence of Different Diets on Two-sex Life Table Parameters of Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menteries

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    H. Zohdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common pistachio psylla (CPP, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, 1989 (Hem.: Psylloidea: Rhinocolinae is an important pest of pistachio trees. The presence of a large population of psyllid causes severe problems such as falling buds and leaves and therefore this pest causes heavy economic damage to farmers. Predators are the largest and the most diverse natural enemies of the CPP. They are offered as biological control agents against pistachio pests, especially CPP, although they are mostly general predators. Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menteries is one of the common psylla predators of pistachio orchard that have a significant role in biological control of Agonoscena pistaciae population. Despite the importance of this efficient predator, the limited study has been done on the effect of different hosts on the biological parameters of this lady beetle. In this study, the demographic parameters of this lady beetle by feeding on 4 different prey species, A. pistaciae , Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hem.:Aphididae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.:Aphididae and eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.(Lep.:Pyralidae were studied in the laboratory conditions (25 ± 2°C, relative humidity of %65 ±5 and photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours of darkness. Materials and Methods: Nymphs of CPP (A.pistaciae and adults of O. conglobata contaminata beetles were collected on the pistachio leaves from a pistachio orchard. Aphids (A. fabae and A. gossypii were reared on the bean and the cotton plants planted in a greenhouse. Eggs of E. kuehniella were prepared from insectarium of Kerman Plant protection management and rearing of E. kuehniella was done in the laboratory conditions in Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resoarce Research Center. Before starting the experiment, one generation of O. conglobata contaminata was reared in the laboratory on the different host separately. One hundred eggs of O. conglobata contaminata were used to

  14. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  15. Stimulation des défenses naturelles par l’application d’un Lombricompost. Effet sur les paramètres populationnels d’Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae et la qualité Phytochimique de la fève

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahr-Eddine Djazouli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaichi, W. Djazouli, Z. Djemai, I. Abdelkader, S. Ribera, I. and Nancé, J. 2017. Stimulation of natural defences by the application of lombricompost. Effect on the Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptéra: Aphididae population and phytochemical quality of faba bean. Lebanese Science Journal, 18(1: 81-97. The integrated production in durable agriculture aims to improve the efficiency of biological inputs through formulations extending the remanence in the field or the incorporation of synergistic products which, being themselves nontoxic at used quantities, increase the protective action of the viabe cultivations. The lombricultivation represents an appropriate technology to enhance the value of the farm residues and manage, on a long term basis, plant health. The study focused on the stimulation of natural defenses of bean through the use of a lombricompost dilutions produced in two different seasons. The effect of lombricompost has been evaluated based on the Aphis fabae population density in relation to the phytochemical quality of the nutritional support. Variations of biochemical molecule contents and major mineral elements during the leaf expanding phase have been noticed. These changes affect the biological performance as well as the density of A. fabae population. The results allowed detecting a positive effect of lombricompost on plant chemistry. On the other hand, enrichment in proteins and proline under the effect of strong dilution was noticed. Finally, results related to the repressive effect of the different forms of lombricompost showed a marked difference between treatments and the control, with a stronger effect on the winged forms. Results also indicated some variability of the Aphis Fabae populational structure in relation to the phytochemical enrichments established by the application of lombricompost.

  16. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

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    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  17. Genetic differentiating Aphis fabae and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Sternorranycha: Aphididae) populations in Egypt using mitochondrial COI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helmi, A.; Sharaf, Abdoallah

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 11 (2016), s. 1266-1273 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA sequencing * Aphididae * COI * biotypes * SNPs * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  18. Inheritance of resistance to Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides in cotton

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    Mansuêmia Alves Couto de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the inheritance of the resistance to cotton ramulosis. For thispurpose, two groups of lines with contrasting performance for the evaluated trait were crossed. The disease-susceptibleparents were Delta Opal, CNPA 999 and CNPA 2161, and those with resistance BRS Facual, CNPA 2043 and CNPA 2984,resulting in nine crosses, always of one resistant and one susceptible parent, totalizing 42 treatments. The experiment was setup in a randomized complete block design with three replications. It was verified that the genetic control of ramulosisresistance is predominantly oligogenic, and the number of genes involved depends on the parents that participate in eachcross, due to the possibility of differential loci fixation. Evidence of partial dominance in the sense of increasing diseaseresistance was found, but there were also indications that dominance is not unidirectional.

  19. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  20. PRODUCT NEEM AZAL T/S - BROAD-SPECTRUM PHYPOPESTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF PESTS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

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    Vinelina Yankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for determination of the effectiveness of product Neem Azal T/S (a. i. azadirachtin were conducted at a concentration of 0,3% against some major pests in vegetable crops grown in greenhouses at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2010-2016. It was established very good insecticidal and acaricidal action of phytopesticide against: cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.; green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.; western flower trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.; cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.; tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae Koch.. This product is a successful alternative to using chemical insecticides and acaricides.

  1. The genome sequence of pepper vein yellows virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Polerovirus)

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Ritsuko; Nakashima, Nobuhiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kawano, Shinji; Toyosato, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) was sequenced using random amplification of RNA samples isolated from vector insects (Aphis gossypii) that had been given access to PeVYV-infected plants. The PeVYV genome consisted of 6244 nucleotides and had a genomic organization characteristic of members of the genus Polerovirus. PeVYV had highest amino acid sequence identities in ORF0 to ORF3 (75.9 - 91.9%) with tobacco vein distorting polerovirus, with which it was only 25.1% iden...

  2. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Aphis mellifera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korandová, Michala; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 3 (2016), s. 405-411 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; European Union Seventh Framework(CZ) 316304 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : telomere * telomerase * Apis mellifera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2016

  3. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... ¹Département d'Agronomie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Batna, 05000, Algérie. ²INRA Centre de .... Fishers PLSD test was then used for pair-wise compa- risons of all the ..... proteinase inhibitor II, and pathogenesis-related protein P4 in tomato ... Les principales viroses limitant la culture de la fève.

  4. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  5. Ocorrência de afídeos causando danos em mangueira (Mangifera indica L., no Vale do São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA RACHEL GONÇALVES

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaram-se em pomares de mangueiras (Mangifera indica L., no semi-árido nordestino, altas infestações de afídeos causando danos às folhas novas e brotações da planta. Diversas amostras foram coletadas, tendo sido identificadas três espécies: Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii e Toxoptera aurantii. As duas primeiras espécies estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez como pragas, em mangueiras, no Brasil. Espécimens de referência encontram-se depositados no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa Semi-Árido, localizada em Petrolina-PE.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COTTON RAMULOSIS (Colletotrichum gossypii SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA RAMULOSE (Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa DO ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Calil

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    These experiments deal with the effects of outbreak of early, medium and late developing ramulosis on the IAC-13.l variety of cotton, which was seeded at three different intervals in Itauçu (Goiás—Brazil. The effects of the ramulosis on the height and weight of the plants, on the number of bolls, and on the weight of the cotton seeds and lints, were studied. The experiments were installed in a flat area of red latosoil. The experimental design was one of random blocks with six repetitions and the plants were classified, at the end of their vegetative growth, into the following categories: healthy, early ramulosis, medium ramulosis and late developing ramulosis. The early and medium ramulosis affected more significantly the studied parameters, and it was observed that varieties of cotton which were moderately resistant in relation to ramulosis, can be severely affected during growing seasons of heavy rains such as the 1975/76 season.

    Estudaram-se os efeitos da incidência precoce, mediana e tardia de ramulose sobre o peso e altura das plantas, número de capulhos, peso das sementes e da pluma de algodoeiro do cultivar IAC-l3.l em três épocas de semeadura (21/10/75, 21/11/75 e 23/12/75 no município de Itauçu (GO. O experimento foi instalado em região plana com latossolo vermelho. Foram utilizados blocos casualizados com seis repetições e plantas no final do ciclo vegetativo foram classificadas em quatro tipos: sadias, com ramulose precoce, com ramulose mediana ou com ramulose tardia. Concluiu-se que a forma precoce e também a mediana foram as que afetaram mais significativamente os parâmetros aferidos, e que cultivares tidos como de razoável comportamento em relação à ramulose, podem ser severamente afetados em anos agrícolas muito chuvosos como foi o de 1975/76.

  7. Incidence and epidemiology of Citrus tristeza virus in the Valencian community of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, M; Gorris, M T; Marroquín, C; Román, M P; Olmos, A; Martínez, M C; de Mendoza, A H; López, A; Navarro, L

    2000-11-01

    The first outbreak of citrus tristeza disease in Spain caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was recorded in 1957 in the Valencian Community (VC). In total c. 40 million trees, mainly of sweet orange and mandarin grafted on sour orange rootstocks, declined due to CTV. Large-scale surveys in different municipalities of the VC indicated that the disease spread very fast. Incidence increased from 11% in 1989 to 53% in 1998. Toxoptera aurantii and Aphis spiraecola (inefficient aphid vectors of CTV) predominated before 1985-87. Since then the relatively efficient vector Aphis gossypii has become dominant and induced an epidemic that has been modelled. The large number of A.gossypii that visited each clementine tree (estimated to exceed 97000 per year) explained the difference between the temporal pattern of spread of CTV in clementine which followed the Gompertz model and that in sweet orange (logistic model). The susceptibility of the different citrus species to CTV infection by aphids seems to depend on the number of young, succulent shoots produced. The epidemiological data allowed specific recommendations to be made to growers in order to facilitate a change to a modern citrus industry based on the use of selected varieties grafted on tristeza-tolerant rootstocks produced within a certification scheme. This has been done already in almost 90% of the VC citrus-growing area. The tristeza problem has been solved unless more aggressive isolates are introduced and become prevalent.

  8. Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Li, Mei-Xia; Chang, Hai-Jing; Mao, Yun; Zhang, Han-Ying; Lu, Li-Xia; Yan, Shuai-Guo; Lang, Ming-Lin; Liu, Li; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carboxylesterases underwent two divergent evolutionary events: (1) quantitative mechanism characterized by the overproduction of carboxylesterase protein; and (2) qualitative mechanism caused by changes in enzymatic properties because of mutation from glycine/alanine to aspartate at the 151 site (G/A151D) or from tryptophan to leucine at the 271 site (W271L), following the numbering of Drosophila melanogaster AChE. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. In this study, wild-type, G/A151D and W271L mutant carboxylesterases from Culex pipiens and Aphis gossypii were subjected to germline transformation and then transferred to D. melanogaster. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. This result indicated that G/A151D or W271L mutation disrupted the original activities of the enzyme. Less than 1.5-fold OP resistance was only observed in flies expressing A. gossypii mutant carboxylesterases compared with those expressing A. gossypii wild-type carboxylesterase. However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. gossypii W271L mutant esterase exhibited 1.5-fold resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide compared with non-transgenic flies. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulate rain about action insecticide flonicamid in the control of the cotton aphid=Chuva simulada sobre ação inseticida flonicamid no controle do pulgão-do-algodoeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Degrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cotton production system in Brazil concentrates on the area of the cerrado, characterized by frequent rains that interfere in the effectiveness of the necessary sprays during its cycle. The objective of the work was to evaluate simulate rain of 15 mm in 4 hours after spraying in the control of Aphis gossypii with insecticide flonicamid. Plants of Gossypium hirsutum were cultivated in pots containing soil as substrate in greenhouse conditions. The pots were arranged in randomized complete design with seven treatments and five replicates, consisting of: test without insecticide spraying, without insecticide spraying with rain, flonicamid spraying with simulate rain of 15 mm after 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours after spraying. Equivalent insecticide was sprayed 75 g of flonicamid by hectare. The efficiency evaluation was accomplished through the individuals of A. gossypii count which started from an artificial infestation 6 days before the application of the treatments. The results were: a 15-mm precipitation during the first four hours after flonicamid spraying interfered negatively in the control of A. gossypii.O cultivo do algodoeiro no Brasil concentra-se na Região do Cerrado, caracterizada por chuvas freqüentes que interferem na eficácia das pulverizações necessárias durante seu ciclo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar chuva simulada de 15 mm nas 4h iniciais após pulverização no controle de A. gossypii com inseticida flonicamid. Plantas de Gossypium hirsutum foram cultivadas em vasos contendo solo como substrato em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições, consistindo de: testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida, testemunha sem pulverização de inseticida com presença de chuva e pulverização de flonicamid com chuva simulada de 15 mm aos 30 min., 1, 2 e 4h após aplica

  10. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc...

  12. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  13. Survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcêz, Renata Maia; Chaves, Alexandre Levi Rodrigues; Eiras, Marcelo; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; de Azevedo Filho, Joaquim Adelino; da Silva, Leonardo Assis; Colariccio, Addolorata

    2015-01-01

    Passion fruit woodiness may be caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in Brazil. To assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, was monitored. Dissemination of CABMV was determined analyzing golden passion fruit plants monthly for 18 months by PTA-ELISA. Seasonality and aphid fauna diversity was determined by identification of the captured species using yellow sticky, yellow water-pan and green tile traps. Population composition of the aphid species was determined using the descriptive index of occurrence, dominance and general classification and overlap of species in the R program. Analyses of species grouping afforded to recognize 14 aphid species. The genus Aphis represented 55.42 % of the species captured. Aphid species formed two distinct clusters, one of which was characterized by the diversity of polyphagous species that presented high potential to spread CABMV. The low abundance and diversity of aphid species did not interfere negatively in the CABMV epidemiology. The genus Aphis, particularly Aphis fabae/solanella and A. gossypii, was crucial in the spread of CABMV in passion fruit orchards in the eastern State of São Paulo.

  14. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  15. Screening of broad spectrum natural pesticides against conserved target arginine kinase in cotton pests by molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Seethalakshmi; Habeeb, S K M; Raman, Chandrasekar

    2018-03-12

    Cotton is an economically important crop and its production is challenged by the diversity of pests and related insecticide resistance. Identification of the conserved target across the cotton pest will help to design broad spectrum insecticide. In this study, we have identified conserved sequences by Expressed Sequence Tag profiling from three cotton pests namely Aphis gossypii, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera exigua. One target protein arginine kinase having a key role in insect physiology and energy metabolism was studied further using homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to identify potential biopesticide compounds from the Zinc natural database. We have identified four compounds having excellent inhibitor potential against the identified broad spectrum target which are highly specific to invertebrates.

  16. Occurrence, Distribution and Properties of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Zadjaii

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AlflMV was recorded on 21 hosts comprising of four field crops, 14 vegetables, one ornamental plant and two new weed species (Heliotropium europaeum and Ammi majus belonging to nine families. The virus was identified and confirmed on the basis of its biological, serological (ELISA and physical properties. The leaves, stem and crown from systemically infected alfalfa plant contained high concentration of the virus. It was nonpersistently transmitted by cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii. The wide host range, including virus reservoirs, seed-borne infection and insect transmission account for high incidence and distribution of AlfMV in the country. The virus isolate had a dilution end point between 1 x 10-3 to l x 10-4, 65-67 °C thermal inactivation point and a few days in-vitro longevity and appears to be similar to the AlfMV-S strain.

  17. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  18. The genome sequence of pepper vein yellows virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Polerovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ritsuko; Nakashima, Nobuhiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kawano, Shinji; Toyosato, Tetsuya

    2011-05-01

    The complete genome of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) was sequenced using random amplification of RNA samples isolated from vector insects (Aphis gossypii) that had been given access to PeVYV-infected plants. The PeVYV genome consisted of 6244 nucleotides and had a genomic organization characteristic of members of the genus Polerovirus. PeVYV had highest amino acid sequence identities in ORF0 to ORF3 (75.9 - 91.9%) with tobacco vein distorting polerovirus, with which it was only 25.1% identical in ORF5. These sequence comparisons and previously studied biological properties indicate that PeVYV is a distinctly different virus and belongs to a new species of the genus Polerovirus.

  19. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  20. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  1. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2014-12-08

    (1) Intraguild predation (IGP) can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2) Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3) C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall). Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars) reduces the likelihood of predation. (4) To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  2. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  3. Contrasting effects of necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogens on the aphid Aphis fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naemi, F.; Hatcher, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Phytophagous insects have to contend with a wide variation in food quality brought about by a variety of factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the plant. One of the most important factors is infection by plant pathogenic fungi. Necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogenic fungi may have contrasting effects on insect herbivores due to their different infection mechanisms and induction of different resistance pathways, although this has been little studied and there has been no study of their comb...

  4. 77 FR 15033 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... animals, animal products, birds, germ plasm, organisms, and vectors. VS incurs costs associated with... exportation of animals, animal products, birds, germ plasm, organisms, and vectors. Categories of records in... role-based access given on a need-to-know basis. Retention and disposal: Electronic data is maintained...

  5. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Veterinary Services Laboratory Submissions (VSLS), the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), and the..., Office of Management and Budget. Signed in Washington, DC, on November 11, 2011. Thomas J. Vilsack...

  6. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  7. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  8. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  9. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  10. 78 FR 689 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through... Program is designed to help students learn about careers in animal science, veterinary medicine, plant... working for the U.S. Government. The Student Outreach Program is designed to enrich students' lives while...

  11. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in āere (in air from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kent Morgan

    Full Text Available Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid, Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter, Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug, and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale. Examination of in āere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in āere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in āere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005788 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uery: 286 ESYQTKRQRLMKQLKENYAGHTAFCVTALDEICWFLNIRGSDVEYNPVFYAYFVIHQDSS 345 ... ESYQTKRQRLMKQLKENYAGHT...AFCVTALDEICWFLNIRGSDVEYNPVFYAYFVIHQDSS Sbjct: 1 ... ESYQTKRQRLMKQLKENYAGHTAFCVTALDE...gossypii ATCC 10895] ref|NP_986634.1| AGL032Cp ... [Eremothecium gossypii] ... Length = 385 ... Q

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_005788 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gossypii ATCC 10895] ref|NP_986381.1| AGL286Cp ... [Eremothecium gossypii] ... Length = 122 ... Query: 201 ALNGFENTDPHTST...AFALGPEGPTQRNLDTHGXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXLGLYSDMG 260 ... ALNGFENTDPHTSTAFALGPE...GPTQRNLDTHG ... LGLYSDMG Sbjct: 1 ... ALNGFENTDPHTSTAFALGPEGPTQRNLDT

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_005788 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gossypii ATCC 10895] ref|NP_986570.1| AGL097Cp ... [Eremothecium gossypii] ... Length = 198 ... Query: 449 NPRKFESWL...HTATLANIATVFKDSDSKEWRAHGDPTEIAIQVFATRMDHPHHALTTXXXX 508 ... NPRKFESWLHTATLANIATVF...KDSDSKEWRAHGDPTEIAIQVFATRMDHPHHALTT ... Sbjct: 1 ... NPRKFESWLHTATLANIATVFKDSDSKEWR

  15. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Viñuela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV, transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed.

  17. Characterization of three novel SINE families with unusual features in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    Full Text Available Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3' -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3' -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3'-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer.

  18. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  19. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  20. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  1. Genetic diversity and potential vectors and reservoirs of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Juarez, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro; Mengual, Carmen M; Sempere, Raquel N; Plaza, María; Elena, Santiago F; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto; Aranda, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year, or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97 to 100 and 94 to 97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.

  2. An exponential growth model with decreasing r captures bottom-up effects on the population growth of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costamagna, A.C.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Landis, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    1 There is ample evidence that the life history and population dynamics of aphids are closely linked to plant phenology. Based on life table studies, it has been proposed that the growth of aphid populations could be modeled with an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time.

  3. Project APhiD: A Lorenz-gauged A-Φ decomposition for parallelized computation of ultra-broadband electromagnetic induction in a fully heterogeneous Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Chester J.

    2013-08-01

    An essential element for computational hypothesis testing, data inversion and experiment design for electromagnetic geophysics is a robust forward solver, capable of easily and quickly evaluating the electromagnetic response of arbitrary geologic structure. The usefulness of such a solver hinges on the balance among competing desires like ease of use, speed of forward calculation, scalability to large problems or compute clusters, parsimonious use of memory access, accuracy and by necessity, the ability to faithfully accommodate a broad range of geologic scenarios over extremes in length scale and frequency content. This is indeed a tall order. The present study addresses recent progress toward the development of a forward solver with these properties. Based on the Lorenz-gauged Helmholtz decomposition, a new finite volume solution over Cartesian model domains endowed with complex-valued electrical properties is shown to be stable over the frequency range 10-2-1010 Hz and range 10-3-105 m in length scale. Benchmark examples are drawn from magnetotellurics, exploration geophysics, geotechnical mapping and laboratory-scale analysis, showing excellent agreement with reference analytic solutions. Computational efficiency is achieved through use of a matrix-free implementation of the quasi-minimum-residual (QMR) iterative solver, which eliminates explicit storage of finite volume matrix elements in favor of "on the fly" computation as needed by the iterative Krylov sequence. Further efficiency is achieved through sparse coupling matrices between the vector and scalar potentials whose non-zero elements arise only in those parts of the model domain where the conductivity gradient is non-zero. Multi-thread parallelization in the QMR solver through OpenMP pragmas is used to reduce the computational cost of its most expensive step: the single matrix-vector product at each iteration. High-level MPI communicators farm independent processes to available compute nodes for simultaneous computation of multi-frequency or multi-transmitter responses.

  4. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Hoelmer, K.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Yu, J.; Wang, M.; Heimpel, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2010), s. 179-186 ISSN 1070-9428 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Developments of the Republic of Serbia(SR) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lysiphlebus orientalis sp. n. * aphid parasitoids * Glycine max Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  6. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  7. Vermelhão do algodoeiro Cotton "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma moléstia do algodoeiro associada à infestação pelo pulgão Aphis gossypii, é descrita. É proposto que o nome vermelhão fique restrito a essa moléstia e que quando esta designação for usada em associação com outras moléstias, seja qualificada em seu emprêgo. São apontadas algumas diferenças que permitem distinguir o vermelhão do afídio de outras condições em que a coloração das fôlhas do algodoeiro é mais ou menos semelhante. Foi verificado que, quando afídios coletados de plantas com vermelhão eram alimentados em algodoeiros novos por 48 horas apenas, os sintomas da moléstia se manifestavam dentro de 12 a 30 dias. Infestações com um afídio por planta foram suficientes para reproduzir a moléstia em alguns casos ; com cinco afídios por planta conseguiu-se reproduzir a moléstia com maior freqüência ; com 25 afídios, em praticamente todos os casos. Insetos da mesma espécie, coletados de plantas de pepino, não produziram o vermelhão quando colocados sobre algodoeiros. Reprodução de vermelhão foi obtida por enxertia, passando os sintomas a se manifestar nos cavalos ; houve também perpetuação dos sintomas por enxertia em terceira reprodução vegetativa. A evidência obtida nos ensaios de reprodução da moléstia é discutida, sendo apontado que tudo indica ser um vírus a causa primária da moléstia e não toxina do inseto ou deficiência de elementos. Outras hipóteses alternativas são mencionadas.A disease associated with the infestation of cotton plants by the cotton or melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov. is described under the name of "vermelhão" or anthocyanosis. Symptoms of the disease resemble those resulting from magnesium deficiency. Aphids collected from diseased plants reproduced the disease when fed on cotton seedlings for 48 hours. Symptoms usually appeared from 12 to 30 days after inoculation, as chlorotic areas or spots that later turned reddish or purplish under strong light conditions

  8. Development of a population-based threshold model of conidial germination for analysing the effects of physiological manipulation on the stress tolerance and infectivity of insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M; Magan, N; Mead, A; Chandler, D

    2006-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being used as biocontrol agents of insect pests, but their efficacy can be poor in environments where water availability is reduced. In this study, the potential to improve biocontrol by physiologically manipulating fungal inoculum was investigated. Cultures of Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium muscarium, Lecanicillium longisporum, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were manipulated by growing them under conditions of water stress, which produced conidia with increased concentrations of erythritol. The time-course of germination of conidia at different water activities (water activity, aw) was described using a generalized linear model, and in most cases reducing the water activity of the germination medium delayed the onset of germination without affecting the distribution of germination times. The germination of M. anisopliae, L. muscarium, L. longisporum and P. fumosoroseus was accelerated over a range of aw levels as a result of physiological manipulation. However, the relationship between the effect of physiological manipulation on germination and the osmolyte content of conidia varied according to fungal species. There was a linear relationship between germination rate, expressed as the reciprocal of germination time, and aw of the germination medium, but there was no significant effect of fungal species or physiological manipulation on the aw threshold for germination. In bioassays with M. anisopliae, physiologically manipulated conidia germinated more rapidly on the surface of an insect host, the melon cotton aphid Aphis gossypii, and fungal virulence was increased even when relative humidity was reduced after an initial high period. It is concluded that physiological manipulation may lead to improvements in biocontrol in the field, but choice of fungal species/isolate will be critical. In addition, the population-based threshold model used in this study, which considered germination in terms of physiological

  9. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  10. Use Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science for Comprehensive Citation Tracking. A review of: Bakkalbasi, Nisa, Kathleen Bauer, Janis Glover and Lei Wang. “Three Options for Citation Tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 3.7 (2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether three competing citation tracking services result in differing citation counts for a known set of articles, and to assess the extent of any differences.Design – Citation analysis, observational study.Setting – Three citation tracking databases: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Subjects – Citations from eleven journals each from the disciplines of oncology and condensed matter physics for the years 1993 and 2003.Methods – The researchers selected eleven journals each from the list of journals from Journal Citation Reports 2004 for the categories “Oncology” and “Condensed Matter Physics” using a systematic sampling technique to ensure journals with vary ingimpact factors were included. All references from these 22 journals were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003 by searching three databases: Web of Science, INSPEC, and PubMed. Only research articles were included for the purpose of the study. From these, a stratified random sample was created to proportionally represent the content of each journal (oncology 1993: 234 references, 2003: 259 references; condensed matter physics 1993: 358 references, 2003: 364 references. In November of 2005, citations counts were obtained for all articles from Web of Science, Scopus and GoogleScholar. Due to the small sample size and skewed distribution of data, non‐parametric tests were conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between sets.Main Results – For 1993, mean citation counts were highest in Web of Science for both oncology (mean = 45.3, SD = 77.4 and condensed matter physics (mean = 22.5, SD= 32.5. For 2003, mean citation counts were higher in Scopus for oncology (mean = 8.9,SD = 12.0, and in Web of Science for condensed matter physics (mean = 3.0, SD =4.0. There was not enough data for the set of citations from Scopus for condensed matter physics for 1993 and it was therefore excluded from analysis. A Friedman test to measure for differences between all remaining groups suggested a significant difference existed, and so pairwise post‐hoc comparisons were performed. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranked tests demonstrated significant differences “in citation counts between all pairs (p Conclusion – The study does not confirm the authors’ hypothesis that differing scholarly coverage would result in different citation counts from the three databases. While there were significant differences in mean citation rates between all pairs of databases except for Google Scholar and Scopus in condensed matter physics for 2003, no one database performed better overall. Different databases performed better for different subjects, as well as for different years, especially Scopus, which only includes references starting in 1996. The results of this study suggest that the best citation database will depend on the years being searched as well as the subject area. For a complete picture of citation behaviour, the authors suggest all three be used.

  11. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 10 field experiments were done at Kununurra, Carnarvon or Medina in Western Australia (WA) which have tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates, respectively. These experiments investigated the effectiveness of cultural control measures in limiting ZYMV spread in pumpkin, and single-gene resistance in commercial cultivars of pumpkin, zucchini and cucumber. Melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) colonised field experiments at Kununurra; migrant green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) visited but did not colonise at Carnarvon and Medina. Cultural control measures that diminished ZYMV spread in pumpkin included manipulation of planting date to avoid exposing young plants to peak aphid vector populations, deploying tall non-host barriers (millet, Pennisetum glaucum) to protect against incoming aphid vectors and planting upwind of infection sources. Clustering of ZYMV-infected pumpkin plants was greater without a 25m wide non-host barrier between the infection source and the pumpkin plants than when one was present, and downwind compared with upwind of an infection source. Host resistance gene zym was effective against ZYMV isolate Knx-1 from Kununurra in five cultivars of cucumber. In zucchini, host resistance gene Zym delayed spread of infection (partial resistance) in 2 of 14 cultivars but otherwise did not diminish final ZYMV incidence. Zucchini cultivars carrying Zym often developed severe fruit symptoms (8/14), and only the two cultivars in which spread was delayed and one that was tolerant produced sufficiently high marketable yields to be recommended when ZYMV epidemics are anticipated. In three pumpkin cultivars with Zym, this gene was effective against isolate Cvn-1 from Carnarvon under low inoculum pressure, but not against isolate Knx-1 under high inoculum pressure, although symptoms were milder and marketable yields greater in them than in cultivars without Zym. These findings allowed additional cultural control recommendations to be added

  12. Identification of two acetylcholinesterases in Pardosa pseudoannulata and the sensitivity to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Shao, Ying; Jiang, Feng; Li, Jian; Liu, Zewen

    2014-03-01

    Pardosa pseudoannulata is an important predatory enemy against insect pests, such as rice planthoppers and leafhoppers. In order to understand the insecticide selectivity between P. pseudoannulata and insect pests, two acetylcholinesterase genes, Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2, were cloned from this natural enemy. The putative proteins encoded by Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2 showed high similarities to insect AChE1 (63% to Liposcelis entomophila AChE1) and AChE2 (36% to Culex quinquefasciatus AChE2) with specific functional motifs, which indicated that two genes might encode AChE1 and AChE2 proteins respectively. The recombinant proteins by expressing Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2 genes in insect sf9 cells showed high AChE activities. The kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of two recombinant AChE proteins were significantly different. The sensitivities to six insecticides were determined in two recombinant AChEs. Pp-AChE1 was more sensitive to all tested insecticides than Pp-AChE2, such as fenobucarb (54 times in Ki ratios), isoprocarb (31 times), carbaryl (13 times) and omethoate (6 times). These results indicated that Pp-AChE1 might be the major synaptic enzyme in the spider. By sequence comparison of P. pseudoannulata and insect AChEs, the key amino acid differences at or close to the functional sites were found. The locations of some key amino acid differences were consistent with the point mutation sites in insect AChEs that were associated with insecticide resistance, such as Phe331 in Pp-AChE2 corresponding to Ser331Phe mutation in Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii AChE2, which might play important roles in insecticide selectivity between P. pseudoannulata and insect pests. Of course, the direct evidences are needed through further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinación del ciclo biológico de Hippodamia convergens Guerin - Meneville,1842 (Coleoptera: coccinellidae) y su capacidad predadora de áfidos (Aphis sp.) en condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Mallama Goyes, Ana Julia; Eraso Gómez, Ronald Fernán

    2016-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 La importancia de la vegetación urbana radica en los beneficios que genera al medio ambiente, a la salud y a la calidad de vida de los seres humanos, debido a que disminuyen diferentes tipos de contaminación; es por ello, que se hace necesario mantener un adecuado estado sanitario sin recurrir a la utilización de tratamientos fitosanitarios...

  14. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part must be appraised at their fair market value by an appraiser selected by APHIS. APHIS may decline... veterinarian in charge may grant a reasonable time for the presentation of their registration papers. [67 FR...

  15. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Health Inspection Service's Wildlife Services (APHIS-WS) program is making a policy decision on how to... this definition. Otherwise, APHIS will refer all requests for operational assistance with urban rodent...

  16. 75 FR 81942 - Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... copy of your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2010-0036, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS..., Assistant Director of Preclearance Programs, Quarantine Policy, Analysis, and Support, PPQ, APHIS, 4700... have increased, and lower the number if environmental, climatic, or other factors indicate a lower risk...

  17. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for Petitions for..., Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737... process changes APHIS is making to our petition process, go to http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet...

  18. 76 FR 12932 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS), as well as obtain APHIS' authorization to ship the product for field testing. To... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0011] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that...

  19. 78 FR 23207 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing of a Yersinia Pestis Vaccine, Live...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS), as well as obtain APHIS' authorization to ship the product for field testing. To... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0020... Poxvirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  20. 75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0033... of the world where screwworm is considered to exist. DATES: We will consider all comments that we.... APHIS-2010-0033, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit...

  1. 78 FR 690 - Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). The APHIS Animal Care program ensures compliance with AWA... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0079] Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  2. 78 FR 61321 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0074... Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture is authorized, among other things...-2009-0034), APHIS amended the regulations to add the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina to the list of...

  3. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...

  4. 7 CFR 300.4 - Reference Manual B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 2001, by the National Seed Health System (NSHS), has been approved for incorporation by reference in 7... inspection at the APHIS Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 4700 River Road, Riverdale, MD or at the... the APHIS Web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/pim/accreditation. ...

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_005787 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sypii ATCC 10895] ref|NP_985616.1| AFR069Cp ... [Eremothecium gossypii] ... Length = 62 ... Query: 34 GAGAGCPVCQNCHTST...TPLWRRDEHGAVLCNACGLFLKLHGRPRPISLKTDVIKSRN 90 ... GAGAGCPVCQNCHTSTTPLWRRDEHGAVLCNAC...GLFLKLHGRPRPISLKTDVIKSRN Sbjct: 1 ... GAGAGCPVCQNCHTSTTPLWRRDEHGAVLCNACGLFLKLHGRPRPISLKTDVIKSRN 57

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_005786 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssypii ATCC 10895] ref|NP_984597.1| AEL263Cp ... [Eremothecium gossypii] ... Length = 128 ... Query: 4 ... KDIRT...GDRVLCKVGDFPPWPAVVVPQRFLSKLVYSGKRSKSYVCVAFFNDDSYYWKEPRH 63 ... KDIRTGDRVLCKVGDFPPWPAVVVP...QRFLSKLVYSGKRSKSYVCVAFFNDDSYYWKEPRH Sbjct: 1 ... KDIRTGDRVLCKVGDFPPWPAVVVPQRFLSKLVY

  7. Genetics Home Reference: lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... G, Jones MC, Kerstjens-Frederikse WS, Lidral AC, McDonald M, Nelson CC, Witte M, Glover TW. Clinical ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  8. Metaheuristic approaches to order sequencing on a unidirectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that tabu search (TS) incorporates “intelligence. ..... location that will benefit the solution quality by considering implications that may arise ..... [12] Glover F, 1986, Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence, ...

  9. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  10. Local Purchasing of Journals is Required in Addition to a Nationally Purchased Collection to Meet the Information Needs of NHS Staff. A review of: Glover, Steven William, John Addison, Colette Gleghorn, and John Bramwell. “Journal Usage in NHS Hospitals: A Comparison Report of Total Usage at an Acute NHS Trust and a Specialist NHS Trust in the North West of England.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007: 193‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Kelson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To compare journal usage between an acute National Health Service (NHS Trust and a specialist NHS Trust located in North West England to provide some evidence as to how well the National Core Content Collection (provided by ProQuest meets the needs of staff in these settings.Design ‐ Comparative studySetting ‐ An acute NHS Trust, comprising four hospital sites, and a cancer specialist NHS Trust based on a single site. Both Trusts are located in North West England. The cancer specialist NHS Trust is a teaching hospital with undergraduate nurses, medical students, and student radiographers. This Trust is also closely associated with an adjoining cancer research institute. The acute NHS Trust has a large number of healthcare staff in training and was not described as a teaching hospital.Subjects ‐ Staff of the respective NHS Trusts. The staff numbers for each organisation were not provided.Methods ‐ COUNTER usage statistics of online journals, obtained from publisher administration tools, were collected for one year covering the period 1 December 2005 to 30 November 2006. Where available, the number of photocopies made from print journals during the same period by library users for their own use was also included. All full‐text downloads of journal articles were counted as part of this study, hence the possibility of double counting if a single article was requested in both HTML and PDF versions. Details of free or open access articles accessed without the need for a username and password were not included in the study. To encourage use of the electronic journals, library services at both Trusts implemented a number of initiatives to maximize publicity. These included direct e‐mails to staff, posters, and presentations to staff. Athens registration, required for access to the electronic journal collections, was promoted as part of the induction process for new library users. Staff members were encouraged to apply for the electronic table of contents alert for journals in their area of specialty. An A‐Z list of journals was accessible via the Trusts’ intranet and internet sites, and direct links to electronic journals were added to the NHS Dialog/Datastar databases and on PubMed.Main results ‐ The libraries at both Trusts in the study provide the majority of their journals in electronic‐only format. In addition to the National Core Content titles, the cancer specialist Trust provides access to an additional five journal collections: Science Direct Health Sciences, Blackwell Synergy Medical and Nursing collection, five journals selected from Nature Publishing Group, selected society journals via HighWire Press and Oxford University Press titles. Staff members of the acute Trust have access to an additional three journal collections: Science Direct Health Sciences, the BMJ Publishing Group (BMJPG collection and 16 LWW titles via Ovid. During the study period, a total of 93,376 articles were downloaded or copied. Of these, 47,079 articles were downloaded or copied by staff of the cancer specialist NHS Trust and 46,297 articles were downloaded or copied by staff of the acute NHS Trust. The usage of each of the journal collections during the study period for each Trust is shown in the table below with the most used resource shown in bold. (See article for table General information regarding some of the commonly used journal titles by staff of each Trust was included in the commentary, but levels of use were not enumerated. Staff of the cancer specialist NHS Trust favoured cancer‐related titles, whilst staff of the acute NHS Trust accessed journal titles over a greater range of subject areas. Details of the top titles accessed from the National Core Content collection were not provided for either Trust. A possible reason given for the lower usage level of the National Core Content collection by the cancer specialist NHS Trust compared to the acute NHS Trust was the presence of embargoes on many cancer‐related titles within the National Core Content collection. Information about training offered to staff, their level of access to computer facilities,or familiarity with accessing electronic journal collections was not provided.Conclusion ‐ Staff of both Trusts in the study recorded a high level of journal use, with a total of 93,376 articles downloaded or photocopied during the study period. There was a marked difference in the usage patterns of the National Core Content journals between the two Trusts studied with the acute NHS Trust showing a higher proportion of usage (29.9%compared with the cancer specialist Trust(4.5%. Staff members of the acute NHS Trust accessed a greater range of subject areas, while staff those at the cancer specialist NHS Trust favoured cancer related titles.The results indicated that the National Core Content collection did not meet the information needs of the specialist cancer Trust as well as it met the needs of the more generalist acute Trust. The National Core Content collection appears insufficient to meet the diverse information needs of all NHS staff. Local purchasing of journals, in addition to national level provision, is therefore required to ensure that the needs of local specialties are adequately supported.

  11. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...We are amending the regulations that govern the importation of animals and animal products by consolidating the list of factors APHIS considers when evaluating the animal health status of a foreign region and by setting out new factors APHIS will consider when evaluating a region as historically free of a specific disease. These changes will make clearer the types of information APHIS needs from a requesting region in order to conduct an evaluation.

  12. 76 FR 62312 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... interested individuals to obtain specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the Federal Select Agent Program. CDC, APHIS, and CJIS...

  13. 77 FR 10472 - Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority.... Evan Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147...

  14. 76 FR 20623 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD...

  15. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contaminated livestock equipment; cleaning and disinfection requirements, or other requirements. APHIS may... livestock equipment; premises cleaning and disinfection requirements; or other requirements. A herd plan may...

  16. The EU needs more anticipatory funding of health and environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-01-01

    In recent months, there have been several attacks on the Precautionary Principle and how the principle has been used in the EU. For example, the scientific advisor to the President of the European Commission, Ann Glover, has accused Commissioners of having “crazy ideas” about the safety of nanote......In recent months, there have been several attacks on the Precautionary Principle and how the principle has been used in the EU. For example, the scientific advisor to the President of the European Commission, Ann Glover, has accused Commissioners of having “crazy ideas” about the safety...

  17. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... to Docket No. APHIS-2009-0084, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700...; however, both litchis and longans are commercially grown in the State of Florida and the climatic... economic effects of this action on small entities. The analysis is summarized below. Copies of the full...

  18. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  19. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    .... 0 2. In Sec. 93.500, the definition of APHIS-defined EU CSF region is removed and a definition of... Definitions. * * * * * APHIS-defined European CSF region. The regions of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic... (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland). * * * * * Sec. 93.505 [Amended] 3. In...

  20. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    .... In Sec. 93.500, the definition of APHIS-defined EU CSF region is removed and a definition of APHIS-defined European CSF region is added, in alphabetical order, to read as follows: Sec. 93.500 Definitions... (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland). * * * * * Sec. 93.505 [Amended] 3. In...

  1. 7 CFR 351.1 - Joint treatment generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) under the authority of the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S... Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs of APHIS have made provisions with the U.S. Postal and Customs... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 75 FR 7548 - Amendments to the Select Agents Controls in Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 1C360 on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Commerce Control List (CCL) to reflect changes that the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ... Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant...

  3. 7 CFR 354.4 - User fees for certain domestic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Directors, USDA, APHIS, Plant Protection and Quarantine and the States for which they are responsible, may be obtained from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine... their agents, must contact the Regional Director, USDA, APHIS, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 5 for...

  4. 78 FR 14510 - Notice of Availability of New Guidelines for Pest Risk Assessments of Imported Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS... (PRAs) for imports of fruits and vegetables. A PRA is defined by the International Plant Protection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0077...

  5. 9 CFR 124.31 - Applicant response to petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Diligence Petitions § 124.31 Applicant response to petition. (a) The applicant may file with APHIS a written... the petition, but shall be limited to the issue of whether the applicant acted with due diligence... application, the due diligence petition, and APHIS records. ...

  6. 9 CFR 124.40 - Request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Diligence Hearing § 124.40 Request for hearing. (a) Any interested person may request, within 60 days beginning on the date of publication of a due diligence determination by APHIS in accordance with § 124.32, that APHIS conduct an informal hearing on the due diligence determination. (b) The request for a...

  7. 77 FR 34933 - Notice of Request for Extension of and Revision to an Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2012-0043, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS...- 0043 or in our reading room, which is located in room 1141 of the USDA South Building, 14th Street and... wooden handicrafts from China under certain conditions. This action allows for trade in Chinese wooden...

  8. De verspreiding van virusziekten van de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) door insekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elze, D.L.

    1927-01-01

    The object was to study the relation between virus and the transmitting insect, especially the aphids Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus pseudosolani Theob., Macrosiphum solanifold Ashm., Aphis rhamni Fonsc. and Aphis fabae Scop. The diseases studied were leafroll, common mosaic (virus A), crinckle (virus

  9. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., 94, 95, and 104 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094] RIN 0579-AD45 Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and adding it to the list of regions we...

  10. 78 FR 79657 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Issuance of a Permit for Distribution and Sale of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... must obtain approval from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to ship the product... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0093... Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  11. 9 CFR 130.50 - Payment of user fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compliance agreement signed in accordance with this chapter, must be paid when specified in the agreement. (3... made at an APHIS office 7 or an Animal Import Center; 7 A list of APHIS offices and Animal Import..., MD 20738-1231. (2) All types of checks, including traveler's checks, drawn on a U.S. bank in U.S...

  12. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by..., Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 36, Riverdale, MD...

  13. 78 FR 58511 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0065... regions of the world where screwworm is considered to exist. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1238...

  14. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  15. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... comment to Docket No. APHIS-2010-0024, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8... using a flushing method, placed in a 20-mesh sieve on top of a 200-mesh sieve, sprinkled with a liquid... process would then be repeated. The contents of the 200- mesh sieve would then be placed on a petri dish...

  16. 76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment for... available for public comment the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our draft... plant pest risk assessment are also available on the APHIS Web site at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs...

  17. 75 FR 59605 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    .... APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited... Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties and to elect to continue to..., National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Agriculture (APHIS). Associated equipment. Articles associated and moved with mobile homes and... agreement. A written agreement between APHIS and a person engaged in growing, handling, or moving regulated... visual inspection by an inspector during a 10-minute walk through the area; however, it does not include...

  19. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and... Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks...: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0114, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS...

  20. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No APHIS-2012-0061] Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control... for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United States. We... glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States'' (March 2012...

  1. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0060....), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is... causes the loss of young animals through spontaneous abortion or birth of weak offspring, reduced milk...

  2. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0010....), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is... birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat...

  3. 76 FR 44570 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Nomination Request Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... to animal diseases, contact Ms. Alicia D. Love, Training Technician, Professional Development Staff... eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2011-0068-0001...Detail ;D=APHIS-2011- 0068 or in our reading room, which is located in room 1141 of the USDA South...

  4. A Technical and Practical Study of Composting as a Solid Waste Management Alternative for the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    52 0C Phvsoderma zeae- Brown spot of corn > 80C maydis Giberella zeae Seedling blight of corn > 651C ascospores Glomeralla gossypii Cotton anthracnose ...Pyrenophora teres Net blotch, barley 45°C conidia 55°C mycelium Septoria lycopersici Leafspot, tomatoes 43°C spores (2:221) 44 The extent of

  5. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the .... DNA was cloned in p-GEM Teasy vector (Promega, USA) as per the ... M. persicae and A. gossypii transmitted the virus in non persistent manner ...

  6. A review and critical analysis of how cognitive neuroscientific investigations using dance can contribute to sport psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Acquah, D.; Ramsey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether watching Michael Jackson moonwalk or Savion Glover tap dance, it is striking how skilfully some people can move their bodies. The emerging field of cognitive neuroscience has produced important advances in understanding the control and perception of complex action. Here we outline the merits

  7. JSTO Science and Technology Update. Volume 1, Number 2, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the organism from lethality. Experimental animal model and techniques to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of GT3 Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected...Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 27: 573–576. 22. Glover D, Riley LJ Jr, Carmichael K, Spar B, Glick JH, Slatopolsky E, Attie M, Goldfarb S (1983). Hypocalcemia

  8. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Quality Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    .... Glover, Sr., Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA (202) 501-1448 or email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Supplies and services acquired under Government contracts..., acceptance, warranty, and other measures associated with quality requirements. Standard clauses related to...

  9. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    portunity to test QCD by measuring the energy dependence of different ... event shape data was not satisfactory largely due to the scale uncertainty of the pertur- .... )3 d ¯C dy. + O. ( α4 s. ) . (5). Here the event-shape distribution is normalized to the ..... [1] A Gehrmann-De Ridder, T Gehrmann, E W N Glover and G Heinrich, J.

  10. Modeling and Control for Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenis, Joel

    Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain scheduled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

  11. Magnetic rock properties of the gabbros from the ODP Drill Hole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    most coarse-grained oxide mineral bearing rocks record low Koenigsberger ratio (2 to 5) and median .... K. S. Krishna. Figure 2. (c) Stable remanence data of oxide gabbro (sample 29R-4, 54) which is nearly ..... the oxide gabbro with a mean around 3500×10−6 SI ..... Glover L 1994 The EDGE Experiment and the US East.

  12. Children's Use of Allocentric Cues in Visually- and Memory-Guided Reach Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Theory suggests that the vision-for-perception and vision-for-action processing streams operate under very different temporal constraints (Glover, 2004; Goodale, Jackobson, & Keillor, 1994; Graham, Bradshaw, & Davis, 1998; Hu, Eagleson, & Goodale, 1999). With the present study, children and young adults were asked to estimate how far a cued target…

  13. Military Housing Privatization Initiative (MHPI), Eglin AFB, Florida and Hurlburt Field, Florida. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Gene G. Sanderson George E. Cox Gerald A. Rush* Gerald Goodson Ginny Graybiel Glenda L. Glover Gordon Eldridge Gordon Goodin Greg Artabasy Greg... Fanc ~np. Thank you very much. COLONEL CUMBIE: Thank you, sir. !Vlr. Robert Larson . MR. LARSON: My name is Robert Larson . The Military Housing

  14. 77 FR 66464 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Value Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...; whether our estimate of the public burden of this collection of information is accurate, and based on... provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis E. Glover, Sr., Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA, (202) 501-1448 or email at [email protected] . A. Purpose Per Federal Acquisition...

  15. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to t...

  16. A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Aubert, Maxime; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Li, Bo; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Said, Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Moore, Mark W.; Roberts, Richard G.; Zhao, Jian-xin; McGahan, David; Jones, Brian G.; Perston, Yinika; Szabó, Katherine; Mahmud, M. Irfan; Westaway, Kira; [Unknown], Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; van der Kaars, Sander; Grün, Rainer; Wood, Rachel; Dodson, John; Morwood, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held

  17. An Extended Microcomputer-Based Network Optimization Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    fee a)S. SECURITY CLASS. (44 tis fdoen Unclassified IS& D OCASIfrCATION/OOW#GMAINiG 16o. DiSloRISuTION STATEMENT (a# IN#@ RapeffJ Approved for public...Generalized Netowrks ," Mathematics of Operations Research, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1979), pp. 39-59. 31. Glover, F. and Klingman, D., "A Note on Computational

  18. 77 FR 56845 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety, biosecurity and incident response... Laboratory Registration for Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins (APHIS/CDC Form 1...

  19. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    .... Travel directions to the USDA Center at Riverside are available on the Internet at ( http://www.aphis... gain access to the building. Parking is available next to the building for a $4 fee. The nearest Metro...

  20. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  1. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... examination of regular-kill slaughter animals in those cases where no submission is made to NVSL. (2... Programs, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231. (d) Reporting of tests—(1) SCT and...

  2. 78 FR 63373 - Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ..., PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 851-2018. SUPPLEMENTARY... treatment) sufficient to kill certain insect pests associated with imported fruits and vegetables and with...

  3. 76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 26, Riverdale, MD... willkommi (Dasycypha), is a serious plant disease caused by a fungus that can kill mature and immature...

  4. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  5. 78 FR 54618 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-2013-0053, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... substantially affect such commerce unless the garbage has been treated to kill disease organisms. Untreated...

  6. Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ward, B.B.; Tuit, C.B.; Jayakumar, A.; Rich, J.J.; Moffett, J.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Department of Biology , University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371, USA e National Institute of Oceanogr aphy, Goa, Dona Paula 403004, India article info Article history : Received 17 December 2007 Received in revised form 14 July 2008...

  7. 75 FR 1749 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...] Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of... Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Subray Hegde, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS...

  8. Saving Utah's Landscape, Biocontrol of Tamarisk

    OpenAIRE

    Extension, USU

    2000-01-01

    Scientists at the Animal, Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have been working for years to determine if beetles imported from China and Kazakhstan would effectively consume tamarisk (salt cedar) in the U.S. without threatening desirable vegetation.

  9. 76 FR 81404 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    .... Livestock demographics and marketing practices in the region. The type and extent of disease surveillance in... targeting that pathogen would be minimal. In such a case, it would not be necessary for APHIS to receive...

  10. 7 CFR 371.10 - Legislative and Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications arm of APHIS. (b) Director of LPA. The Director of LPA is responsible for: (1) Advising and..., graphic design, radio-TV, and policy/editorial/graphics clearances for publications. Planning and...

  11. 78 FR 64908 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, All Subtypes, and Newcastle Disease; Additional Restrictions. OMB... Inspection Service (APHIS), through its Veterinary Services (VS) Program. Highly pathogenic avian influenza... declaration or affirmation; notification of signs of disease in a recently imported bird; cooperative service...

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,

  13. Effect of natural and chemical insecticides on Hyalopterus pruni and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Anthmis pseudocotula and their mixtures with chemical insecticide (Malathion) on growth of ... ed the use of natural extracts of Fagonia arabica, Salix ..... Studies on the efficacy of neem products against the aphid Aphis.

  14. 77 FR 60056 - Shippers-General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...) Plant and animal waste regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS); (iii) Waste...; (vii) Rejected or recalled health care products; (viii) Documents intended for destruction in...

  15. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... genetically modified organisms but did not provide any specific disagreement with APHIS' analysis. Commenters... certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted... pests. Such genetically engineered organisms and products are considered ``regulated articles.'' The...

  16. 7 CFR 371.1 - General statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... headquartered in Washington, DC, and Riverdale, MD. The APHIS Management Team at these locations consists of the...) Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services (VS) Deputy Administrator, Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services (MRPBS) Deputy Administrator, Wildlife Services (WS) Deputy Administrator, Animal Care...

  17. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... quarantined areas, contact Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Policy Manager, PHP, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and...

  18. 9 CFR 96.10 - Uncertified casings; transportation for disinfection; original shipping containers; disposition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States without certification may be forwarded in customs custody to a USDA-approved facility for disinfection under APHIS supervision and release by the United States Customs authorities, provided that...

  19. 75 FR 36346 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... June 2010. Kevin Shea Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2010... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0062... AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. [[Page 36347

  20. 75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... APHIS-2010-0097] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota AGENCY: Animal... are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alecia Naugle, Coordinator, National Tuberculosis Eradication...

  1. 76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... APHIS-2011-0093] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico AGENCY...: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by...

  2. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... the U.S. market or prices. Under these circumstances, the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health..., APHIS' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. Lists of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee...

  3. 7 CFR 300.3 - Reference Manual A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration, Procedures, and Policies of the National Seed Health System, which was published on February 25... inspection at the APHIS Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 4700 River Road, Riverdale, MD or at the...

  4. 77 FR 3226 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ..., Office of Management and Budget (OMB), [email protected] or fax (202) 395-5806 and to... Mexico pose a negligible risk of introducing classical swine fever and END into the United States. APHIS...

  5. Applicability of empirical correlations for estimating global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan, K.K.; Baholo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Three empirical models suggested by different investigators, for estimating monthly mean daily global radiation on a horizontal surface, are compared statistically to test their universal applicability. The models thus compared are those suggested by Rietveld, Glover and McCulloch and Gopinathan. The models are compared by calculating the root mean square error, mean bias error and mean relative percentage error values. The model suggested by Gopinathan yields the best results in terms of root mean square, mean bias and mean percentage errors. The model by Rietveld is the second best and the model by Glover and McCulloch comes at third place. However, the differences in the magnitude of errors among the three models are very small and all the three models can be considered to be accurate for global radiation estimation for any location in the world

  6. REVIEW: EXPLORERS AND SCIENTISTS IN CHINA'S BORDERLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Rohlf

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Denise M Glover, Stevan Harrel, Charles F McKhann, and Margaret Byrne Swain (eds). 2011. Explorers and Scientists in China's Borderlands, 1880-1950. Seattle: University of Washington Press. This collection of eight biographical essays from a 2007 symposium makes for engaging reading and holds together well as a book. The authors, mainly anthropologists, examine the lives of ten explorers who were active primarily in the first half of the twentieth century. Some worked for d...

  7. The Effect of Heat Input and Composition on Weld Metal Microstructures in Thin Section HY-130 GMAW(Gas Metal Are Welding) Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    weldments, Glover et al. [Ref. Ej show, via a schematic CCT diagram , that austenite should transform to coarse polygonal ferrite with regions of pearlite...are essentially subjected to continuous cooling during solidification, so the resultant microstructures should be predictable from CCT diagrams . Unfortunately...cooling rate variaticn just within a single weld pass. Although individual CCT diagrams for weld metals are generally not available, the influence of

  8. Microstructural Characterization of HSLA-100 GMA-Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Intermeiate Oxygen Regime ----------- 66 D.) Schematic CCT Diagram - --------------- 66 9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my appreciation to my thesis...have been observed in this research [review Figures 31 (a), (b) and 35 (a)]. Figure 38 (d) shows a schematic CCT diagram reported by Glover (Ref. 5) and...Regime B.) High Ox. gen Regime C. )Interme late Oxygen Regime D.1 Schematic CCT Diagram 66 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Anderson, T.L., Hyatt J A West, J.C

  9. Implications of Technology on the Future Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    industrial base to obtain similar benefits and significant cost savings – Talent to be reallocated for core missions by reducing FTEs associated with...USN Representative Capt Thomas Koch, USMC Representative Mr. Taylor Glover 17-S-2249 CLEARED For Open Publication Aug 18, 2017 Department of Defense...OFFICE OF PREPUBLICATION AND SECURITY REVIEW These are the final briefing slides as approved by the Defense Business Board in the public meeting held

  10. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    LOAM SOIL ECBC-TR-1388 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini Carlton T. Phillips RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE Richard M...plastic wrap was stretched over the top of each container and secured with a rubber band. Three pinholes were made in the plastic wrap to 6...172–178. Glover, J.; Levander, O.; Parizek, J.; Vouk, V. Selenium. In Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals; Friberg, L., Norberg, G.F., Vouk, V.B

  11. Scramjet Isolator Modeling and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Layer Interactions,” (NATO) AGARD CP 193, May 1976. 17. Cox, C., Lewis, C., Pap, R., Glover, C., Priddy, K., Edwards, J., and McCarty, D., “Prediction...Static Polynomial Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.2 Continuous Linear Model with Static Polynomial Input . 75 5.3 ARX Models with Static...Vector of NARX model regression values . . . . . . . . . . 70 Nr Number of samples for a run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ΘNL Vector of

  12. Geophysical Imaging for Investigating the Delivery and Distribution of Amendments in the Heterogeneous Subsurface of the F.E. Warren AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    grain-fluid interface (Revil and Glover 1997, 1998). The electrical current distribution can be visualized by equipotential surfaces , with current flow...dimensional µg/L micrograms per liter µS/cm micro-Siemens per centimeter bgs below ground surface CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response...during, and after fracture emplacement using both surface and crosshole-based configurations. Several seismic methods were tested, including

  13. Plant genotype shapes ant-aphid interactions: implications for community structure and indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which plant genotype shapes arthropod community structure. In a field experiment, we measured the effects of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) genotype and ants on milkweed arthropods. Populations of the ant-tended aphid Aphis asclepiadis and the untended aphid Myzocallis asclepiadis varied eight- to 18-fold among milkweed genotypes, depending on aphid species and whether ants were present. There was no milkweed effect on predatory arthropods. Ants increased Aphis abundance 59%, decreased Myzocallis abundance 52%, and decreased predator abundance 56%. Milkweed genotype indirectly influenced ants via direct effects on Aphis and Myzocallis abundance. Milkweed genotype also modified ant-aphid interactions, influencing the number of ants attracted per Aphis and Myzocallis. While ant effects on Myzocallis were consistently negative, effects on Aphis ranged from antagonistic to mutualistic among milkweed genotypes. As a consequence of milkweed effects on ant-aphid interactions, ant abundance varied 13-fold among milkweed genotypes, and monarch caterpillar survival was negatively correlated with genetic variation in ant abundance. We speculate that heritable variation in milkweed phloem sap drives these effects on aphids, ants, and caterpillars. In summary, milkweed exerts genetic control over the interactions between aphids and an ant that provides defense against foliage-feeding caterpillars.

  14. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  15. Parameters for the Evaluation of the Fate, Transport, and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Anal. Bering/Chukchi, accessed 3 January 2007, http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/PSB/EPS/SST/data/beringst.c.gif. RE-2 15 Brewer , P. G.; Glover, D. M...Highly Purified Mustard Gas and its Action on Yeast , ” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69(7), 1808-1809. 135 Redemann, C. E.; Chaikin, S. W.; Fearing, R. B...171 MacNaughton, M. G.; Brewer , J. H., Environmental Chemistry and Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio TX, 1994

  16. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  17. [An unpublished contribution of Melanie Klein "On Reassurance"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Claudia; Klein, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Melanie Klein's unpublished paper on reassurance is presented in German translation. The author shows that it was a contribution to Glover's investigation on psychoanalytic technique in the 1930s. The paper is discussed against the background of the technical discussions conducted in London at that time (e. g. M. Schmideberg, J. Strachey) and of Klein's relevant publications. Although Klein consistently considered "correct" interpretation to be the most effective means of reassurance, she occasionally also accepted a non-interpreting approach. In this respect the paper presented here goes further than any other of her writings.

  18. PHYCAA: Data-driven measurement and removal of physiological noise in BOLD fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchill, Nathan W.; Yourganov, Grigori; Spring, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    , autocorrelated physiological noise sources with reproducible spatial structure, using an adaptation of Canonical Correlation Analysis performed in a split-half resampling framework. The technique is able to identify physiological effects with vascular-linked spatial structure, and an intrinsic dimensionality...... with physiological noise, and real data-driven model prediction and reproducibility, for both block and event-related task designs. This is demonstrated compared to no physiological noise correction, and to the widely used RETROICOR (Glover et al., 2000) physiological denoising algorithm, which uses externally...

  19. The strange rays of Professor Roentgen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinier, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper relates the historical discovery of X radiations in 1895 by the German Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roendgen in his laboratory of Wurzburg University. Independently of Roendgen, several physicists such as Charles Glover Barkla, Jean Perrin or Max von Laue have tried to determine the nature of X rays. In 1912, in Cambridge (UK) William Henry and William Lawrence Bragg have used the X-ray diffraction property, discovered by Laue's team, to explore the atomic structure of crystals. The recent development of computers technology has considerably increased the automation of data collection and the analysis of complex diffraction diagrams. (J.S.). 3 refs., 3 photos

  20. The strange rays of Professor Roentgen; Les etranges rayons du Professeur Roentgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinier, A. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper relates the historical discovery of X radiations in 1895 by the German Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roendgen in his laboratory of Wurzburg University. Independently of Roendgen, several physicists such as Charles Glover Barkla, Jean Perrin or Max von Laue have tried to determine the nature of X rays. In 1912, in Cambridge (UK) William Henry and William Lawrence Bragg have used the X-ray diffraction property, discovered by Laue`s team, to explore the atomic structure of crystals. The recent development of computers technology has considerably increased the automation of data collection and the analysis of complex diffraction diagrams. (J.S.). 3 refs., 3 photos.

  1. Metaheuristics progress as real problem solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Nonobe, Koji; Yagiura, Mutsunori

    2005-01-01

    Metaheuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers is a peer-reviewed volume of eighteen current, cutting-edge papers by leading researchers in the field. Included are an invited paper by F. Glover and G. Kochenberger, which discusses the concept of Metaheuristic agent processes, and a tutorial paper by M.G.C. Resende and C.C. Ribeiro discussing GRASP with path-relinking. Other papers discuss problem-solving approaches to timetabling, automated planograms, elevators, space allocation, shift design, cutting stock, flexible shop scheduling, colorectal cancer and cartography. A final group of methodology papers clarify various aspects of Metaheuristics from the computational view point.

  2. NPS Adds Another Astronaut Alumnus With NASA’s Newest Class

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Article taken from the NPS website: http://www.nps.edu/About/News/NPS-Adds-Another-Astronaut-Alumnus-With-NASAs-Newest-Class.html When NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced the latest class of NASA’s eight astronaut candidates, June 17, the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) was able to add yet another space-traveling alumnus to its ranks, now totaling 41 and counting. Lt. Cmdr. Victor Glover, an F/A-18 combat pilot currently serving as a Legislative Fellow in the office of Senat...

  3. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0107] Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act... the comment period for a petition requesting amendments to the Animal Welfare Act regulations and... notice \\1\\ making available for comment a petition requesting amendments to the Animal Welfare Act...

  4. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... per test from 6 to 3. The Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq) and the Public Health Service (PHS....niehs.nih.gov/go/167 . References AWA. 2010. Animal Welfare Act. 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq. Public Law 89- 544. Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awa/awa.pdf . CPSC. 2010. Hazardous...

  5. 78 FR 47215 - Petition to Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... No. APHIS-2012-0107] Petition to Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With... Inspection Service has received a petition requesting amendments to the Animal Welfare Act regulations and...: Background The Animal Welfare Act (AWA, 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to...

  6. 77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0003] RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions AGENCY... the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). We are also announcing the availability of a revised factsheet regarding... retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). ``Retail pet stores'' are not required to...

  7. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... substantively identical form letters submitted by individuals who commented through an animal welfare advocacy... associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse industry, and the general... Show Report'' at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/hp/hp_pubs_reports.shtml . The list of shows...

  8. 75 FR 39203 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Kingdom into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0027... respect to perennial wall rocket leaves grown in the United Kingdom. The analysis evaluates the risks...

  9. 75 FR 71415 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0027] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United Kingdom Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  10. 78 FR 27864 - Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 305 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0089] Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; Mid... fruits and vegetables upon arrival at the MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL. We have determined... escape from shipments of fruits or vegetables before the fruits or vegetables undergo cold treatment...

  11. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  12. 76 FR 77475 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... profit; State, Local and Tribal Government; Not-for-profit institutions. Number of Respondents: 1,163... APHIS did not collect this information, the spread of PCN in the United States could result in a loss of...: Business or other for-profits; State, Local or Tribal Government. Number of Respondents: 600. Frequency of...

  13. 78 FR 61323 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Tomatoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: Under the Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C..., and exporters of tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea; the national plant protection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0084...

  14. 77 FR 65854 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Irradiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: Under the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7701....008 hours per response. Respondents: Foreign plant protection services, irradiation facility personnel... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0070...

  15. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    .... Type of Request: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act... activities, including inspections by national plant protection organization officials from Peru, grower... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0110...

  16. 7 CFR 301.38-6 - Compliance agreements and cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine, or by writing to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Domestic and... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38...

  17. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Request: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0052... Philippines AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an...

  18. 77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... jointly by APHIS and the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of India as part of the required... standard \\2\\ of the International Plant Protection Convention, of which the United States is a contracting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No...

  19. 78 FR 54445 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Christian B. Dellis, Export Services, Plant Health Programs, Plant Protection and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0104] Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Republic of Korea, by an APHIS inspector and an inspector from the national plant protection agency of... in § 319.56-3. (c) Trust fund agreements. The national plant protection agency of the exporting...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits...

  1. 78 FR 7738 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... hour per response. Respondents: Growers, importers, and foreign national plant protection organizations... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0102... Brown Rot AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Revision to and extension of...

  2. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Peppers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to... information collection activities, including inspections by Central American national plant protection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0104...

  3. 78 FR 69362 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey OMB Control Number: 0579-0010 Summary of Collection: The Plant Protection... (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) along with the States and other agencies collects and...

  4. 76 FR 78230 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701... plant protection organizations, and producers. Estimated annual number of respondents: 37. Estimated... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0112...

  5. 76 FR 78229 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to restrict... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0106... From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an...

  6. 78 FR 61322 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fresh...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) authorizes the Secretary of... plant protection organization of Chile. Estimated annual number of respondents: 8. Estimated annual... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0083...

  7. 78 FR 58991 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Fresh...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...: Extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701... fresh pomegranates from Chile, and the national plant protection organization of Chile. Estimated annual... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0082...

  8. 78 FR 4121 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Cut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... and extension of approval of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S... flowers, nurseries, registered production sites, and the national plant protection organizations of... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0111...

  9. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... of an information collection. Abstract: The Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq... response. Respondents: National plant protection organizations of Colombia and Ecuador and importers of... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0018...

  10. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0159] RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the Animal Welfare Act...

  11. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... reclassification of any Class Free State or area to a lower status if two or more herds are found to have.... APHIS-2009-0083] RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds... Class Free States. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit...

  12. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... ;D=APHIS-2010-0032. The first commenter acknowledged Argentina's history of successful Medfly control...] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Southern and Central Oases in the southern half of Mendoza Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for...

  13. 77 FR 58088 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... live poultry from Argentina and the Mexican States of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan under certain... forms will provide APHIS with critical information concerning the origin and history of the items... from Argentina and certain Mexican States. Description of Respondents: Federal Government; Business or...

  14. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .... APHIS notes that those countries where cattle are primarily raised on grass, such as Argentina and... breeding loans because they cannot get them back. The commenter stated that zoo ruminants have no history... ruminant populations. The commenter is incorrect that zoo ruminants have no history of BSE. BSE has been...

  15. 75 FR 49454 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... live poultry from Argentina and the Mexican States of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan under certain... will provide APHIS with critical information concerning the origin and history of the items destined... effective defense against the incursion of END from poultry and poultry products imported from Argentina and...

  16. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... acknowledged Argentina's history of successful Medfly control efforts, but stated that APHIS should not relax...] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... received a request from the Government of Argentina to recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for...

  17. Novel methods of monitoring the feeding behavior of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Petr; Bextine, B. R.; Doležalová, R.; Miller, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 5 (2004), s. 1055-1062 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:USDA-APHIS Cooperative Agreement(US) 8500-0510-GR Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Susceptible rice varieties * xylella -fastidosa * pierces--disease Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.083, year: 2004

  18. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  19. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans would have to be produced in...

  20. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  1. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans must be produced in accordance with a systems...

  2. 7 CFR 319.40-9 - Inspection and other requirements at port of first arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... port of arrival of the date of expected arrival. The address and telephone number of the APHIS Officer... quantity of the regulated articles; the expected date of arrival; the country of origin of the regulated... Charge may be obtained from the Administrator, c/o Port Operations, Plant Protection and Quarantine...

  3. 78 FR 8987 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    .... APHIS-2012-0008] RIN 0579-AD70 Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and... Hawaii quarantine regulations to allow the interstate movement of untreated Sharwil avocados from Hawaii into the continental United States. As a condition of movement, Sharwil avocados from Hawaii would have...

  4. 9 CFR 124.30 - Filing, format, and content of petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESTORATION Due Diligence Petitions § 124.30 Filing, format, and content of petitions. (a) Any interested... diligence in seeking APHIS approval of the product during the regulatory review period. (b) The petition... subpart. (c) The petition must allege that the applicant failed to act with due diligence sometime during...

  5. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011] RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of...

  6. 78 FR 72859 - Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .../Commercial Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2013-0064, Regulatory Analysis and Development... Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to.../Internationa_Standard_Setting/docs/pdf/SCAD/A_SCAD_fev2007.pdf (page 24--under Chinese Taipei). After reviewing...

  7. Variable isotopic compositions of host plant populations preclude assessment of aphid overwintering sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a...

  8. 78 FR 6065 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments regarding this... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) participates in the Cooperative State-Federal Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program, which is a national program to eliminate bovine tuberculosis from the United States. This...

  9. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import... Mexico, the importer shall first apply for and obtain from APHIS an import permit as provided in § 93.404...

  10. 9 CFR 147.5 - The microagglutination test for pullorum-typhoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the serum samples from the blood clot to a microplate as described in “Applied Microbiology,” volume... Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 200, Conyers, GA... described in “Applied Microbiology,” volume 21, No. 3, March 1971, pages 394-399. (3) Dilute the microtest...

  11. 7 CFR 353.8 - Accreditation of non-government facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities may be obtained by writing to Phytosanitary Issues Management, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit... Administrator determines that such action is necessary to protect the public health, interest, or safety. Such... the facility is seeking accreditation must be identified and must possess the training, education, or...

  12. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  13. 76 FR 56730 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0088] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia... additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) or Queensland fruit fly... in our regulations for recognition as pest-free areas. We are making that determination, as well as...

  14. The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS): scientific support to optimize a national program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa D. Jackson; Daniel A. Fieselmann

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) program is to provide a survey profile of exotic plant pests in the United States deemed to be of regulatory significance to USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), State Departments of Agriculture, tribal governments, and cooperators by confirming the...

  15. 9 CFR 53.10 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan. (5) Participate in the State of Maine's integrated pest management (IPM) program for the control... the control and management of ISA. A copy of the action plan shall be submitted to APHIS for review at... by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0192) [28 FR 5935, June 13, 1963, as...

  16. 78 FR 29659 - Forfeiture Procedures Under the Endangered Species Act and the Lacey Act Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    .... APHIS-2007-0086] RIN 0579-AD50 Forfeiture Procedures Under the Endangered Species Act and the Lacey Act... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA), and the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, as amended, that... INFORMATION: Background The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), was...

  17. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1238. Supporting documents... Road Unit 160, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-7228. For copies of more detailed information on the..., destroys the economic value of the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree...

  18. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0029, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-0917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background European larch... kill mature and immature species of the genus Larix (larch) and Pseudolarix (Golden larch). In parts of...

  19. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for a Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... disease surveillance programs. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before September... Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2012-0054-0001. Postal Mail/Commercial... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information regarding livestock disease surveillance...

  20. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of... or honeybee germ plasm imported into the United States under this subpart, you must notify APHIS of...; or (2) By facsimile at (301) 734-8700; or (3) By electronic mail to [email protected] (Approved...

  1. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... thus has no bearing on this rulemaking. Goat Meat One commenter expressed concern that inspectors may... goats. It is unlikely that a facility would slaughter a goat and present its meat as ovine meat. As.... APHIS-2008-0085] RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  2. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference AGENCY... notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP... Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094...

  3. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference AGENCY... notice of a meeting of the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP... CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

  4. 78 FR 25943 - Changes to Scrapie Flock Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Health Programs, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 851-3497... systems of sheep and goats. It belongs to a group of diseases called transmissible spongiform... voluntary program within the broader NSEP. Producers who elect to join the SFCP agree to follow a set of...

  5. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... R.J. Cabrera, Writing, Editing, and Regulatory Coordination, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 35... within or outside its membership. Nomination forms are available on the Internet at http://www.ocio.usda... taken into account the needs of the diverse groups served by the Department, membership should include...

  6. 77 FR 50457 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...: Mrs. R.J. Cabrera, Designated Federal Official, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 35, Riverdale, MD... organizations and individuals. An organization may nominate individuals from within or outside its membership... needs of the diverse groups served by the Department, membership should include, to the extent...

  7. 76 FR 80871 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There... genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  8. 78 FR 23738 - Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI); Availability of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There... genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  9. 76 FR 27303 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests,'' regulate, among other... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  10. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  11. 77 FR 41353 - GENECTIVE SA; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  12. 77 FR 41367 - Dow AgroSciences LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... tests conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while...

  13. 78 FR 65960 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Request for Public Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... the USDA South Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room.... agriculture increases, so does the importance of managing issues that affect agricultural coexistence, such as... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0047] Enhancing...

  14. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer shall first apply for and obtain from APHIS...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93... paragraph (c) of § 93.423. 9 Importations from regions of Central America and the West Indies shall be...

  15. Mountain aphid and parasitoid guilds on Aconitum spp. in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Tomanović, Ž.; Kos, K.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Janeček, J.; Pons, X.; Rakhshani, E.; Starý, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-61 ISSN 1721-8861 Grant - others:Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphis * Aphididae * parasitoids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2014 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol67-2014-057-061havelka.pdf

  16. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0047] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Dragon... importation into the continental United States of dragon fruit (multiple genera and species) from Thailand... weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. DATES: Effective Date: October 4, 2011. FOR...

  17. 77 FR 44208 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), [email protected] or fax (202) 395-5806.... The information collected will provide APHIS with critical information concerning the origin and... States would be at increase risk of an exotic disease incursion. Description of Respondents: Business or...

  18. 78 FR 74101 - [Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... prohibited under an EAN issued by APHIS with respect to regulated articles within the nursery in order to... destruction of their trees, the notification's accompanying inventory describing the acreage and ages of trees... accompanying inventory describing the total number of trees covered by the EAN, their age and variety, and...

  19. Phytosanitary irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis, D. grandiosella, and Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) is increasingly being used to disinfest horticultural commodities of invasive quarantine pests. Most disinfestation is done with generic treatments, where one dose is scheduled for a group of pests and/or commodities. The current generic treatment that USDA-APHIS uses...

  20. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the NPPO to work collaboratively to... than Australia. The commenter concluded that, from a regulatory flexibility standpoint, it would be..., Taiwan, and Thailand, and therefore based our assessment of the potential economic impact of the rule on...

  1. Response to bio-terrorism directed against animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Sheesley, D

    2000-01-01

    The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has a long history of rapid direction, control, and eradication of devastating diseases. Our immediate response mechanisms to diseases such as avian influenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Newcastle disease, have long been recognized by the global emergency response community as models of control and eradication. APHIS and the U.S. livestock industries, in partnership with the Animal Agriculture Coalition, re-evaluated the Nation's animal health emergency preparedness and response systems. The group identified areas that negatively impact, biologically and/or economically, the Nation's animal and food production industries. To counter the increased risks including bioterrorism, APHIS plans to establish a world-class "Center of Excellence for Animal Health Emergency Management." APHIS, Intelligence agencies, other Federal departments, State governments, and industries are working together to provide accurate information on the foreign and domestic threats posed to the U.S. agricultural sector by biological weapons. Additionally, the same agencies and organizations are evaluating, updating, and improving the coordination and training mechanisms necessary to respond in the even of a widespread pest or disease outbreak.

  2. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  3. 9 CFR 2.50 - Time and method of identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. 2 In general, well fitted collars made of leather or plastic will be acceptable under this.... APHIS will determine the acceptability of a material proposed for usage as collars from the standpoint... approved by the Administrator; or (iii) A plastic-type collar acceptable to the Administrator which has...

  4. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review upon request by a State or APHIS representative all bills of sale, pedigree registration... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification by owners. 54.5 Section 54.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 78 FR 24738 - Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0276; FRL-9385-2] Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of... ethylene oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) to sterilize the interior surfaces of enclosed animal isolator units to... APHIS has requested the EPA Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of ethylene oxide...

  6. Calculation of Volterra kernels for solutions of nonlinear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, JL; Kistler, WM; Thomas, EGF

    2000-01-01

    We consider vector-valued autonomous differential equations of the form x' = f(x) + phi with analytic f and investigate the nonanticipative solution operator phi bar right arrow A(phi) in terms of its Volterra series. We show that Volterra kernels of order > 1 occurring in the series expansion of

  7. 76 FR 17617 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... assessments, biosafety requirements, and security measures. DATES: The meeting will be held on May 10, 2011...) and other interested individuals to obtain specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the Federal Select Agent Program. CDC, APHIS, and FBI...

  8. 76 FR 7807 - National Wildlife Services Advisory Committee; Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0057] National Wildlife Services Advisory Committee.... SUMMARY: We are giving notice that the Secretary of Agriculture will reestablish the National Wildlife.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose of the National Wildlife Services Advisory Committee (the Committee) is...

  9. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... stakeholders, APHIS has developed a draft policy guideline (concept paper) concerning the wording of... interested individuals, that we will be holding a public meeting to discuss a draft guideline (concept paper... concept paper available for review and comment. DATES: The public meeting will be held on Thursday, June...

  10. Heat treatment of firewood : meeting the phytosanitary requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott Myers; Marc Joyal

    2011-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer- (EAB-) infested states and into adjoining states has been a major contributor to the spread of EAB throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to stop the further spread of EAB from infested areas and to facilitate interstate commerce, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has required and...

  11. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center...

  12. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the enforcement of all provisions of the interim... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports...

  13. 7 CFR 1.123 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Compliance Review Cases, USDA/AMS-11. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service EEO Complaints and... Services Programs—Animal Welfare and Horse Protection Regulatory Actions, USDA/APHIS-4. Farmers Home... Meat and Poultry Inspection Program—Slaughter, Processing and Allied Industries Compliance Records...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (APHIS) have played a pioneering role in establishing and promoting international harmonisation of biotechnology regulatory .... living organisms to address global to facilitate trade. The project was initiated with environmental issues such as the build up of a questionnaire, completed in 1994, which greenhouse gases.

  15. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  16. Association mapping of aphid resistance in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, as well as other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The utilization of aphid resistance in cowpea breeding is one of the most efficient and environmental friendly methods to contro...

  17. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0046] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental... Inspection Service has prepared a supplemental environmental assessment (EA) relative to an oral rabies... analyzes expanding the field trial for an experimental oral rabies vaccine for wildlife to additional areas...

  18. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive...

  19. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and Finding of... supplement to an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to an oral rabies.... Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7, Concord...

  20. 75 FR 70712 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY: Animal and... Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year period. The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that.... Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, Suite 101, 1498 Klondike...

  1. 77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew... the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, USDA, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094; (770) 922-3496...

  2. 76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General Conference... Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike Road, Suite 101, Conyers, GA 30094-5104; (770) 922-3496...

  3. 77 FR 1051 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The meeting will be... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS...

  4. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  5. 77 FR 42257 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership AGENCY... regional membership for the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS...

  6. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...] Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY... participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management..., audit-based compliance assistance program known as the Biotechnology Quality Management System Program...

  7. 78 FR 37775 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0104] Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service proposes to add a system of records to its inventory of records systems subject...

  8. 78 FR 13301 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Spring Viremia of Carp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... no U.S.-approved vaccines or treatments for the virus. In accordance with the regulations, APHIS..., which was adjusted from 12,010 to 1,072. The estimated total annual burden hours has now decreased from... Washington, DC, this 20th day of February 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

  9. 78 FR 18307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-0362. Summary of Collection: APHIS Student Outreach Program to help students learn about careers in... Program is to: (1) Provide students an opportunity to live on a university campus while learning about..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  10. 7 CFR 301.89-15 - Compensation for growers, handlers, and seed companies in the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Karnal bunt after purchase by the handler or seed company, as long as the price to be paid by the handler... the intention of producing certified wheat seed. (1) Growers. Growers of wheat in an area under the... prior to sale, or that was tested by APHIS and found positive for Karnal bunt after sale and the price...

  11. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or..., Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... governing the importation of live birds and poultry and poultry meat and products from the APHIS-defined EU...

  12. A Surveillance Society and the Conflict State: Leveraging Ubiquitous Surveillance and Biometrics Technology to Improve Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    of Industrial Organizations AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ANSI: American National Standards Institute APHIS: Animal, Plant, and Health...between a specific person and an impostor than any other type of identification technique. They provide the additional, convenient security...preferable to an impostor being able to defeat the system (Ashbourn, p. 56). Retina scanning systems are resistant to fraud since duplicate artificial

  13. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  14. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... 90 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY... notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health... animal health. DATES: The meeting will be held September 23, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight...

  15. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring... Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150...

  16. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0009] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the... importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  17. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0058] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will consider all... for approving the importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can...

  18. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... engineered for herbicide tolerance without the use of plant pest components, does not meet the definition of... Environmental Analysis Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 147, Riverdale... introduction of a plant pest or noxious weed into the United States or dissemination of a plant pest or noxious...

  19. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... petition for a determination of nonregulated status, our analysis of publically available scientific data... environmental impact statement and plant pest risk assessment. This notice also announces the availability of... Environmental Protection Specialist, Environmental Risk Analysis Programs, BRS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147...

  20. 75 FR 26707 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Pomegranates and Baby Kiwi from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more..., APHIS publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis... pest risk analysis; (2) the comments on the pest risk analysis revealed that no changes to the pest...

  1. 7 CFR 319.5 - Requirements for submitting requests to change the regulations in 7 CFR part 319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required in order to complete a pest risk analysis in accordance with international standards for pest risk... efficiency of monitoring implementation. (8) Existing documentation: Relevant pest risk analyses... Analysis and Operations, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 140, Riverdale, MD 20737. (d) Information. The...

  2. 75 FR 52302 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0074] Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for the... spinach from Colombia. We are making these pest risk analyses available to the public for review and..., based on the findings of a pest- risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the...

  3. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... of Cruelty to Animals, the American Horse Protection Association, Inc., Friends of Sound Horses, Inc... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0006] Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  4. 78 FR 17181 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... against all inspect pest including fruit flies, the mango seed weevil, and others. Need and Use of the... collection of information on those who are to respond, including through the use of appropriate automated... Regulations and part 360 of Title 7, Code of Federal Regulations. Need and Use of the Information: APHIS will...

  5. 78 FR 33325 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Inspection Service Title: Cut Flowers from Countries with Chrysanthemum White Rust. OMB Control Number: 0579... and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle from Mexico. OMB... and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) ability to compete in the global market of animal and...

  6. 78 FR 50022 - Environmental Impact Statement; Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... submit comments regarding the environmental impact statement by either of the following methods: Federal..., Environmental Protection Specialist, Environmental and Risk Analysis Services, PPD, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...] Environmental Impact Statement; Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  7. Whole genome sequence of two Rathayibacter toxicus strains reveals a tunicamycin biosynthetic cluster similar to Streptomyces chartreusis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a forage grass associated Gram-positive bacterium of major concern to food safety and agriculture. The species is listed by USDA-APHIS as a plant pathogen select agent due to the fact that it produces a tunicamycin-like toxin that is lethal to livestock. The complete genomes...

  8. 78 FR 15680 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...] Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... stakeholders regarding cross-Agency strategic priorities. We are also announcing that APHIS is hosting a public... opportunity for stakeholders to ask questions and share their perspective. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  9. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ..., Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118, Riverdale, MD..., placed in a 20-mesh sieve on top of a 200-mesh sieve, sprinkled with a liquid soap and water solution... repeated. The contents of the 200- mesh sieve would then be placed on a petri dish and analyzed for the...

  10. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    .... APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY... nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties in New York from the list of... nematode, and we determined that regulation of these areas was no longer necessary. As a result of that...

  11. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode... infested areas. Surveys have shown that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and...

  12. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... APHIS-2006-0168] RIN 0579-AC49 Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the commercial transportation of equines to slaughter to add a definition of equine for slaughter... of equines in commercial transportation to slaughter are met. DATES: Effective Date: October 7, 2011...

  13. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... double strength skim milk.\\9\\ Seal the sterile containers and promptly refrigerate them at 2 to 4 [deg]C... strength skim milk from USDA-APHIS ``Recommended Sample Collection Methods for Environmental Samples...

  14. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk... Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. The articles listed in...(b), pending the completion of an evaluation by APHIS of the potential pest risks associated with the...

  15. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and... are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle... prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States. As a...

  16. 76 FR 1337 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    .... APHIS-2009-0014] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian..., MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB...

  17. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY...: We are amending the Asian longhorned beetle regulations to make changes to the list of quarantined... the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States and to...

  18. 76 FR 33191 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Plant and Health Inspection Service Title: Environmental Monitoring Form. OMB Control Number: 0579-0117. Summary of Collection: The mission of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is to provide leadership in ensuring the health and care of animals and plants, to improve the agricultural productivity...

  19. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...

  20. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    .... APHIS-2008-0126] RIN 0579-AC93 Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... to allow the importation of Hass avocados from Peru into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, Hass avocados from Peru will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach...

  1. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... peer review of safety tests, and health effects of genetically modified organisms and glyphosate. APHIS...] Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a Modified... that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such genetically engineered organisms and products are...

  2. Aerial Application of Acetaminophen treated Baits for Control of Brown Treesnakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    This procedure followed NWRC Analytical Method 96B -Determination of Acetaminophen in Tablets. Brown tree snake and non-target animal carcasses ...274 viii ACRONYM LIST APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ATOC Aviation and Training Operations Center...native rodent abundance, and impacts to non-target animals . TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION Thawed DNM were treated by inserting an 80 mg acetaminophen

  3. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0.... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY... its review under Executive Order 12866. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 301 Agricultural commodities...

  4. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  5. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  6. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Agricultural Waste Disposal Workshop After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    bacterial mastitis thus not caretaking for their young. In summary, FMD is highly contagious and has profound impact on animal health and animal...regarding the distinction between FMD and Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Also, there is confusion and hesitation regarding the consumption...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Centers for Disease

  7. 77 FR 70412 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... a Federal law to protect such animals. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS... 2002 is the primary Federal law governing the protection of animal health. The law gives the Secretary... 1995, Public Law 104-13. Comments regarding (a) Whether the collection of information is necessary for...

  8. Two-year oscillation cycle in abundance of soybean aphid in Indiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rhainds, M.; Yoo, H. J. S.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Voegtlin, D.; Castillo, D.; Rutledge, C.; Sadof, C.; Yaninek, S.; O'Neil, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), s. 251-257 ISSN 1461-9555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Aphididae * Aphis glycines * autumn migration * Hemiptera * heteroecy * Rhamnus * seesaw effect * soybean aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.484, year: 2010

  9. 78 FR 13286 - Sharing Certain Business Information Regarding the Introduction of Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... increase public confidence in Federal, State and Tribal oversight of introductions of regulated articles... agencies, APHIS will deploy a system that conforms to all appropriate Federal cyber security requirements... notifications. In some cases, a State or Tribal regulatory official could assess citizen, consumer, or grower...

  10. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... stakeholders in several areas having to do with our partnerships with businesses, academia, and other levels of... 5 minutes prior to the start of the meeting. A recording of the Webcast will be posted to the APHIS... station is the Smithsonian station on the Blue/Orange Lines, which is within easy walking distance. Done...

  11. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0047... foster communication and collaboration among those involved in diverse agricultural production systems in... comment on how the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) can best foster communication and collaboration...

  12. 7 CFR 371.8 - International Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (4) Developing and maintaining cooperative relationships and programs with other Federal agencies...) Maintaining and administering the foreign service personnel system for employees of APHIS in accordance with... the provisions of § 2.51(a)(1) of this title. (3) Developing and maintaining systems for monitoring...

  13. 9 CFR 121.19 - Notification of theft, loss, or release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of theft, loss, or..., USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.19 Notification of theft, loss, or release. (a) An individual or entity must immediately notify APHIS or CDC upon discovery of the theft or loss of a select...

  14. 7 CFR 331.19 - Notification of theft, loss, or release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of theft, loss, or release. 331.19... TOXINS § 331.19 Notification of theft, loss, or release. (a) An individual or entity must immediately notify APHIS or CDC upon discovery of the theft or loss of a select agent or toxin. Thefts or losses must...

  15. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  16. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  17. 76 FR 52548 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited... accredited in the National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Todd Behre, National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS...

  18. 78 FR 1824 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents... associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the bovine spongiform..., Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3511. For copies of more...

  19. 78 FR 66329 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of French...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Collection; Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From Kenya Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with the regulations for the importation of French beans and runner beans... French beans and runner beans from Kenya, contact Mr. Dennis Martin, Trade Director, PPQ, APHIS, 4700...

  20. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0072] Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri..., Japan, Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Taiwan, and Canada, eventually kills healthy ash trees after it...

  1. 76 FR 37054 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Longan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0053... Taiwan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of longan from Taiwan...

  2. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  3. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  4. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  5. 75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Washington, DC, this 14\\th\\ day of June 2010. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0063...; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit from Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  6. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., this 14th day of October 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0092] Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative Monitoring and...

  7. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Unshu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Washington, DC, this 5th day of June 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0027... From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of...

  8. 78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013-05141... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0060... for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  9. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013-13686... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0022... Philippines AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an...

  10. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... April 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  11. 76 FR 30091 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2011-12751... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0026... Facilities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an...

  12. 78 FR 79658 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ..., DC, this 20th day of December 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0025] Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment...

  13. 78 FR 66892 - BASF Plant Science LP; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    .... Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013-26701 Filed 11-6-13... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0028] BASF Plant Science LP; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

  14. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    .... Done in Washington, DC, this 6th day of November 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0007... AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are affirming our...

  15. 78 FR 32233 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... Done in Washington, DC, this 22nd day of May 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0036... Dwarfed Plants AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of...

  16. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., DC, this 31st day of July 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

  17. 76 FR 65163 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... October 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2011... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0097... and Easter Cactus in Growing Media From the Netherlands and Denmark AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  18. 78 FR 79636 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... in Washington, DC, this 20th day of December 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011] RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for...

  19. 77 FR 50982 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Foreign Quarantine Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... August 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2012... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0062... AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an information...

  20. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...). Done in Washington, DC, this 13th day of July 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0029... for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...