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Sample records for aphidius colemani viereck

  1. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jennifer J.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid’s reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  2. Resource Provisioning as a Habitat Manipulation Tactic to Enhance the Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), and the Plant-Mediated Effects of a Systemic Insecticide, Imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Charles-Tollerup, Jennifer Jean

    2012-01-01

    Resource provisioning as a habitat manipulation tactic to control the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, by the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani, was investigated in the ornamental, potted-plant nursery using the shrub Photinia x fraseri as a plant host. Floral food resources from an invasive, Conium maculatum, an ornamental, P. x fraseri, and a native, Salvia apiana considerably improved the longevity and fecundity of A. colemani in laboratory experiments. Additionally, floral nec...

  3. Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies and abiotic (climate and lighting. For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels.

  4. Grain Diversity Effects on Banker Plant Growth and Parasitism by Aphidius colemani

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    Travis McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system consists of grain “banker plants” infested with R. padi, an alternative hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Thus A. colemani can reproduce on the banker plant when M. persicae populations are low. This system can increase pest suppression; however, like other biological control tools, efficacy is inconsistent. One reason is because several different grain species have been used. Our studies determined if there were benefits to planting interspecific mixture banker plants, similar to when open agricultural systems use mixed cropping. Our study found that although banker plants grow larger when planted as mixtures this added plant growth does not increase in the number of aphids, or mummies an individual banker plant can sustain. Rye banker plants grew larger, and sustained more mummies than the other species we tested, but barley banker plants resulted in a similar number of aphids in a more condensed area. Ultimately, we did not see any differences in pest suppression between monoculture banker plants, mixture banker plants, or our augmentative release treatment. However, using banker plants resulted in more female parasitoids than the augmentative release, a benefit to using banker plant systems.

  5. Grain Diversity Effects on Banker Plant Growth and Parasitism by Aphidius colemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Travis; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system consists of grain "banker plants" infested with R. padi, an alternative hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Thus A. colemani can reproduce on the banker plant when M. persicae populations are low. This system can increase pest suppression; however, like other biological control tools, efficacy is inconsistent. One reason is because several different grain species have been used. Our studies determined if there were benefits to planting interspecific mixture banker plants, similar to when open agricultural systems use mixed cropping. Our study found that although banker plants grow larger when planted as mixtures this added plant growth does not increase in the number of aphids, or mummies an individual banker plant can sustain. Rye banker plants grew larger, and sustained more mummies than the other species we tested, but barley banker plants resulted in a similar number of aphids in a more condensed area. Ultimately, we did not see any differences in pest suppression between monoculture banker plants, mixture banker plants, or our augmentative release treatment. However, using banker plants resulted in more female parasitoids than the augmentative release, a benefit to using banker plant systems. PMID:26463416

  6. Molecular and morphological variability within the Aphidius colemani group with redescription of Aphidius platensis Brethes ( Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanović, Ž.; Petrović, A.; Mitrović, M.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Rakhshanipour, M.; Popović, A.; Shukshuk, A. H.; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2014), s. 552-565. ISSN 0007-4853 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid parasitoids * Aphidius * mtCOI Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2014

  7. Aphidius gifuensis: a promising parasitoid for biological control of two important aphid species in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis is able to parasitize both the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani in sweet pepper. In a greenhouse experiment we showed that rates of parasitism on green peach aphids alone were equal to the commonly used Aphidius colemani, bu

  8. Dinámica poblacional de parasitoides Aphidiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera) en cultivos de pimiento de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Quinto Cánovas, Javier; Pineda Gómez, Ana María; Michelena Saval, José Manuel; Marcos García, María Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la composición de especies y dinámica poblacional de parasitoides de pulgón en invernaderos de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) del sureste de España durante dos años. Se utilizaron trampas Malaise modificadas para evaluar las poblaciones de afidiinos en el interior y exterior de los invernaderos, abarcando dos ciclos del cultivo de pimiento. Las principales especies dentro y fuera de los invernaderos fueron Aphidius matricariae (Haliday), Aphidius colemani Viereck, Aphidius ervi Ha...

  9. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea V. Andorno; Silvia N. López; Eduardo N. Botto

    2007-01-01

    Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae) se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday,...

  10. Aphid parasitoids that occur on wheat crops of Northeast of the Parana State with recovery of Aphidius rhopalosiphi in BrazilParasitoides de pulgões-do-trigo que ocorrem no Norte do estado do Paraná e recaptura de Aphidius rhopalosiphi no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Thibes Hoshino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae are the main pest of wheat (Hemiptera: Aphididae in several countries. In Brazil, the Biological Control of Wheat Aphids released millions of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Aphelinidae on wheat fields and in the present moment the chemical control is rarely necessary. However, since the 80’s few studies was carried out to evaluate the species established in Brazil. For this reason, the aim of this study was to record the species of aphid parasitoids that occur in wheat in the northern region of Parana state, Brazil. Four commercial wheat fields were investigated in the agricultural years of 2008 and 2009. The aphid parasitoids were captured with traps (Moericke and Malaise and aphid mummified were collected. In total, six species of parasitoids were found, Aphidius colemani, A. uzbekistanicus, A. ervi, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Diaeretiella rapae e Lysiphlebus testaceipes. These results contribute with the register of three exotic species in Parana, and confirm the establishment of A. rhopalosiphi in the country. We emphasize the need for further studies in other regions of the country, as other species introduced also need to have their establishment confirmed.Os pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae são pragas de extrema importância em cereais de inverno no mundo todo. No Brasil, o programa Controle Biológico de Pulgões do Trigo liberou milhões de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae e Aphelinidae nas áreas tritícolas, reduzindo expressivamente a população da praga, e atualmente raramente o controle químico se faz necessário. Entretanto, desde a década de 80 poucos trabalhos de campo tem sido realizados para verificar as espécies efetivamente estabelecidas no País. Por esta razão, este estudo objetivou registrar as espécies de parasitoides de pulgões ocorrentes em lavouras de trigo na região Norte no Paraná. O trabalho foi realizado em quatro áreas comerciais de trigo, durante as safras

  11. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera Aphidius and Lysaphidus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) with description of Aphidius iranicus sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanovic, Ž.; Rakhshani, E.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Stanisavljevic, L. Ž.; Žikic, V.; Athanassiou, CH. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 139, - (2007), s. 297-307. ISSN 0008-347X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidius iran icus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.843, year: 2007

  13. The relationship between molecular variation and variation in the wing shape of three aphid parasitoid species. Aphidius uzbekistanicus Luzhetzki, Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani Perez and Aphidius avenaphis (Fitch) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanović, Ž.; Kos, K.; Petrović, A.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Žikić, V.; Jakše, J.; Trdan, S.; Ivanović, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2013), s. 41-47. ISSN 0044-5231 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P4-0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ceral aphid parasitoid * Aphidius variation * mitochondrial COI gene Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044523112000162

  14. Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from Slovenia, with description of a new Aphidius species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kos, K.; Trdan, S.; Petrović, A.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Tomanović, Ž.

    -, č. 3456 (2012), s. 36-50. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidius * new species * tritrophic associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03456p050f.pdf

  15. Fusion–fission experiments in Aphidius: evolutionary split without isolation in response to environmental bimodality

    OpenAIRE

    Emelianov, I; Hernandes-Lopez, A; Torrence, M; Watts, N

    2010-01-01

    Studying host-based divergence naturally maintained by a balance between selection and gene flow can provide valuable insights into genetic underpinnings of host adaptation and ecological speciation in parasites. Selection-gene flow balance is often postulated in sympatric host races, but direct experimental evidence is scarce. In this study, we present such evidence obtained in host races of Aphidius ervi, an important hymenopteran agent of biological control of aphids in agriculture, using ...

  16. Trade-Off Between Fitness Gain and Cost Determines Profitability of a Peach Aphid Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Diwas; He, Xiong Z; Wang, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is commercially produced and utilized for biological control of peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse crops in many countries. To provide knowledge for the evaluation of parasitoid-host interactions and development of effective mass rearing programs, we investigated how and why host age or size affected fitness gain in A. colemani We show that the parasitoid was significantly more likely to encounter larger hosts and that an encounter almost always triggered an attack attempt. However, the attack attempt did not proportionally translate into oviposition because larger aphids had greater ability to defend themselves and the parasitoid spent more time in handling larger aphids. The host age at parasitization had no effect on emergence rates and sex ratio of parasitoid progeny, suggesting that pupae and larvae have similar survival rate in hosts of different ages and/or the parasitoid females do not adjust sex allocation based on host size. When parasitizing mid-aged hosts, the parasitoid gained maximum fitness for their progeny in developmental period, body size, and parasitism. Taking all findings together, we suggest that parasitizing mid-aged green peach aphid nymphs is most profitable for A. colemani. PMID:27289084

  17. Effects of a bifenthrin-treated net on the natural enemies Aphidius colemani (Haliday) and Adalia bipunctata L. in a cucumber crop in Central Spain. Semi-field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Garzón Hidalgo, Agustín; Fernández Gallego, Mª del Mar; Morales, Ignacio; Fereres Castiel, Alberto; Smagghe, Guy; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Pest management practices that rely on pesticides are growing increasingly less effective and environmentally inappropriate in many cases and the search of alternatives is under focus nowadays. Exclusion of pests from the crop by means of pesticide-treated screens can be an eco-friendly method to protect crops, especially if pests are vectors of important diseases. The mesh size of nets is crucial to determine if insects can eventually cross the barrier or exclude them because there is a gre...

  18. A review of Aphidius Nees (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Aphidiinae) in Iran: host associations, distribution and taxonomic notes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Talebi, A. A.; Starý, Petr; Tomanovic, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Manzari, S.

    -, č. 1767 (2008), s. 37-54. ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant ostatní: Serbian Ministry of Science(CS) 143006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidius * parasitoids * aphids Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008

  19. Parasitization of commercially available parasitoid species against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G; Skovgård, H; Enkegaard, A

    2014-12-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. Little documentation exists for the control efficacy of aphid parasitoids against N. ribisnigri. This laboratory study evaluated three commercially available parasitoid species: Aphidius colemani (Viereck), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), and Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) for their mortality impact on N. ribisnigri. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was included as a reference aphid. The study showed that A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 39 and 13% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. persicae, respectively, within a 24-h exposure period. In contrast, none of the lettuce aphids exposed to Ap. colemani or L. testaceipes were successfully parasitized, whereas 60 and 3.5% of M. persicae, respectively, were successfully parasitized within a 6-h exposure period. Lettuce aphid mortality due to incomplete parasitization was 26 and 31% when exposed to Ap. colemani and L. testaceipes, respectively, with corresponding values for M. persicae being 5 and 10%, respectively. Mortality as a result of incomplete parasitization when aphids were exposed to A. abdominalis was low for both aphid species. The total mortality inflicted by A. abdominalis within a 24-h exposure period was 51% for the lettuce aphids and significantly less (19%) for green peach aphids. In contrast, Ap. colemani inflicted a higher mortality in M. persicae (65%) compared with N. ribisnigri (26%) within a 6-h exposure period. L. testaceipes caused a greater mortality in N. ribisnigri as compared with M. persicae. This study concludes that A. abdominalis has the potential to be used against N. ribisnigri in inoculative biocontrol programs as compared with the other parasitoid species based on successful parasitization. PMID:25290653

  20. Ribosomal DNA of Aphidius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Nees: Structure and intraspecific variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation is being carried out on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) molecular organization of closely related Arphidiinae species belonging to the genus Aphidius Nees, of relevant interest in biological control, with the aim of evaluating the variability within and between species. After construction of a restriction map of the most represented A. ervi rDNA cistrons, the molecular organization of the rDNA repeating units of single individuals and populations was studied in Southern blot analyses. Heterogeneity within the A. ervi rDNA cistrons and between populations of different geographical origin was identified. This approach allowed the conclusion to be reached that differences in the rDNA cistrons can be diagnostic of species and populations, therefore providing a useful tool in biological control programmes. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  1. A new species of Aphidius Nees, 1818 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking Uroleucon aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) from Iran and Iraq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Talebi, A. A.; Starý, Petr; Tomanovic, Ž.; Manzari, S.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Cetkovic, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 40, 32-34 (2006), s. 1923-1929. ISSN 0022-2933 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidiinae * Aphidius * Iran Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2006

  2. Placenta-Like structure of the aphid endoparasitic wasp aphidius ervi : A strategy of optimal resources acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Sabri; Thierry Hance; Leroy, Pascal D.; Isabelle Frère; Eric Haubruge; Jacqueline Destain; Philippe Compère; Philippe Thonart

    2011-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather c...

  3. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population. PMID:22546445

  4. Further contributions to the tritrophic plant-aphid-parasitoid associations in Malta with special reference to Aphis nerii (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) as a prevalent refugium of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Zammit, Mark; Stary, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Four species of aphid parasitoids, namely Aphidius colemani, Binodoxys angelicae, Lysiphlebus fabarum and Lysiphlebus testaceipes were reared from Aphis nerii on Nerium oleander and/or Stephanotis floribunda in Malta. Aphidius colemani was the most abundant, occurring in different habitat types. Binodoxys angelicae represents a confirmation of a doubtful past record, while Lysiphlebus testaceipes is a new record for Malta. Aphis nerii is evaluated as a refugium of several aphid parasitoids in...

  5. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  6. Antennal structure of male and female Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani-Peres (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): description and morphological alterations after cold storage or heat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Delphine; Vernon, Philippe; Krespi, Liliane; Le Lannic, Jo; Van Baaren, Joan

    2006-12-01

    Several species of the genus Aphidius are used in biological control programs against aphid pests throughout the world and their behavior and physiology are well studied. But despite knowing the importance of sensory organs in their behavior, their antennal structure has never been described. We describe here the types and distribution of antennal sensilla in Aphidius rhopalosiphi, a larval parasitoid of several aphid species and observe how this antennal structure is modified after cold storage or heat exposure. Six types of sensilla were found on both male and female antennae. Male and female antennae differed in the total number of antennomeres (16 in males, 14 in females) and in the number and distribution of three of the six types of sensilla. After cold storage or heat exposure, we observed the appearance of a small number of abnormal sensilla. PMID:17019677

  7. Placenta-like structure of the aphid endoparasitic wasp Aphidius ervi: a strategy of optimal resources acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sabri

    Full Text Available Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to divert host resources and allowing nutrition and respiration of embryo. Such interspecific invasion, at the cellular level, recalls mammal's trophoblasts that anchors maternal uterine wall and underlines the high adaptation of A. ervi to develop in the host body.

  8. Effects of some Insecticides Applied in Sublethal Concentrations on the Survival and Longevity of Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Adults Efecto de algunos Insecticidas Aplicados en Concentraciones Subletales en la Supervivencia y Longevidad de Adultos de Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime E. Araya; Manuel Araya; María Angélica Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    The effects of four insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, and spinosad) applied in an ST4 Potter tower at sublethal concentrations (50% of those recommended commercially for aphid control) were studied in the laboratory on aphidiid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) adults, an important parasitoid of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). The most selective treatment on the hymenopteran was imidacloprid, followed in decreasing order by spinosad, pirimicarb, and finally dimethoate, whi...

  9. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

  10. Pre-pupation behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and its consequences for pre-imaginal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Villagra, Cristian A.; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-07-01

    Olfactory learning may occur at different stages of insect ontogeny. In parasitoid wasps, it has been mostly shown at adult emergence, whilst it remains controversial at pre-imaginal stages. We followed larval growth of the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi Haliday, inside the host aphid, Acyrthosiphom pisum Harris, and characterised in detail the behaviour of third instar larvae. We found that just before cocoon spinning begins, the third instar larva bites a hole through the ventral side of the mummified aphid exoskeleton. We then evaluated whether this period of exposure to the external environment represented a sensitive stage for olfactory learning. In our first experiment, the third instar larvae were allowed to spin their cocoon on the host plant ( Vicia faba L.) surface or on a plastic plate covering the portion of the host plant exposed to the ventral opening. Recently emerged adults of the first group showed a preference for plant volatiles in a glass Y-olfactometer, whereas no preference was found in adults of the second group. In a second experiment, during the period in which the aphid carcass remains open or is being sealed by cocoon spinning, third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to either vanilla odours or water vapours as control. In this experiment, half of the parasitoid larvae were later excised from the mummy to avoid further exposure to vanilla. Adult parasitoids exposed to vanilla during the larval ventral opening of the mummy showed a significant preference for vanilla odours in the olfactometer, regardless of excision from the mummy. The larval behaviour described and the results of the manipulations performed are discussed as evidences for the acquisition of olfactory memory during the larval stage and its persistence through metamorphosis.

  11. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Cristian A.; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less

  12. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management. PMID:25627388

  13. 烟田常用杀虫剂对烟蚜茧蜂的毒力及其保护酶的影响%Effects of Conventional Insecticides onAphidius Gifuensis Ashmead and Its Protective Enzymes in Tobacco Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱先志; 刘勇; 田雷; 刘莉; 宗浩; 高强; 徐蕊; 李兰芬; 张伟娜

    2015-01-01

    In order to screen for safer insecticides toAphidius gifuensis Ashmead and know about the effects of conventional insecticides on protective enzymes ofAphidius gifuensis Ashmead in tobacco fields, toxicity of three conventional insecticides to Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead was determined via the residual film method. Effects of different concentrations of imidacloprid on SOD, POD and CAT activities ofAphidius gifuensis Ashmead was also determined. The results showed that the order from high toxicity to low toxicity was: acetamiprid >lambda-cyhalothrin >imidacloprid. In terms of the effects of different concentrations of imidacloprid on the life activities ofAphidius gifuensis Ashmead and their defense mechanisms, all the treatments showed inhibition on enzyme activities except that the LC10 concentration of imidacloprid improved POD activities in adults and CAT activities increased significantly in adults after 12h treatment of three concentrations. This result provides theory basis for understanding the defense mechanisms ofAphidius gifuensis Ashmead against insecticides.%为了筛选对烟蚜茧蜂安全性高的药剂并明确烟田常用杀虫剂对烟蚜茧蜂保护酶的影响,测定了3种烟田常用杀虫剂对烟蚜茧蜂成虫的毒力以及不同浓度的吡虫啉对烟蚜茧蜂成虫体内超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶活性的影响。结果表明,杀虫剂对烟蚜茧蜂成虫的毒力大小顺序为:啶虫脒>高效氯氟氰菊酯>吡虫啉;从不同浓度的吡虫啉对烟蚜茧蜂生命活动和防御机制的影响来看,除LC10浓度吡虫啉促进烟蚜茧蜂成虫体内POD活性提高和3个浓度处理后12 h成虫CAT活性显著提高外,其余处理浓度和时间对3种酶的活性呈现抑制作用。此结果为探明烟蚜茧蜂对杀虫剂的防御机制提供了一定的理论依据。

  14. Effects of some Insecticides Applied in Sublethal Concentrations on the Survival and Longevity of Aphidius ervi (Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae Adults Efecto de algunos Insecticidas Aplicados en Concentraciones Subletales en la Supervivencia y Longevidad de Adultos de Aphidius ervi (Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Araya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, and spinosad applied in an ST4 Potter tower at sublethal concentrations (50% of those recommended commercially for aphid control were studied in the laboratory on aphidiid Aphidius ervi (Haliday adults, an important parasitoid of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris. The most selective treatment on the hymenopteran was imidacloprid, followed in decreasing order by spinosad, pirimicarb, and finally dimethoate, which quickly eliminated the parasitoid and thus its capacity to produce progeny. Three toxicity groups were distinguished in the study. The least damaging treatment to adults of A. ervi was imidacloprid, followed by a group of medium toxicity made up of spinosad and pirimicarb, and lastly dimethoate, which was extremely toxic to A. pisum.Se evaluaron en laboratorio los efectos de cuatro insecticidas (dimetoato, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, y spinosad aplicados en torre Potter ST4 en concentraciones subletales (50% de las dosis comerciales recomendadas para el control de áfidos sobre adultos del afídido Aphidius ervi Haliday, un importante parasitoide del pulgón de la arveja Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris. El tratamiento más selectivo sobre el himenóptero fue imidacloprid, seguido en orden decreciente por spinosad, pirimicarb, y finalmente dimetoato, compuesto que eliminó rápidamente al parasitoide y su capacidad de producir descendencia. Se distinguieron tres grupos de toxicidad. El tratamiento menos dañino para los adultos de A. ervi fue imidacloprid; seguido por un grupo de selectividad media formado por spinosad y pirimicarb; y por último dimetoato, que fue extremadamente tóxico.

  15. Nonlinearities lead to qualitative differences in population dynamics of predator-prey systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M C C Ameixa

    Full Text Available Since typically there are many predators feeding on most herbivores in natural communities, understanding multiple predator effects is critical for both community and applied ecology. Experiments of multiple predator effects on prey populations are extremely demanding, as the number of treatments and the amount of labour associated with these experiments increases exponentially with the number of species in question. Therefore, researchers tend to vary only presence/absence of the species and use only one (supposedly realistic combination of their numbers in experiments. However, nonlinearities in density dependence, functional responses, interactions between natural enemies etc. are typical for such systems, and nonlinear models of population dynamics generally predict qualitatively different results, if initial absolute densities of the species studied differ, even if their relative densities are maintained. Therefore, testing combinations of natural enemies without varying their densities may not be sufficient. Here we test this prediction experimentally. We show that the population dynamics of a system consisting of 2 natural enemies (aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (L., and aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck and their shared prey (peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer are strongly affected by the absolute initial densities of the species in question. Even if their relative densities are kept constant, the natural enemy species or combination thereof that most effectively suppresses the prey may depend on the absolute initial densities used in the experiment. Future empirical studies of multiple predator - one prey interactions should therefore use a two-dimensional array of initial densities of the studied species. Varying only combinations of natural enemies without varying their densities is not sufficient and can lead to misleading results.

  16. Technical Obstacles and Solutions for Myzus persicae Control by Large-scale Reproduction of Aphidius gifuensis%规模化应用烟蚜茧蜂防治烟蚜的主要技术障碍及应对方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子方; 任伟; 周冀衡; 邓小刚; 李春明; 陈发荣; 沈晗; 孙耿

    2011-01-01

    烟蚜Myzus persicae(Sulzer)是危害烟草Nicotina tobaccum L.的一种主要害虫,烟蚜茧蜂是烟蚜的优势寄生天敌.对烟蚜茧蜂控制烟蚜能力、繁殖技术、保护应用及规模化应用中需要研究的主要技术问题进行了分析,并总结了一些可供规模化应用烟蚜茧蜂防治烟蚜的解决方案.%Myzus persicae ( Sulzer) is a major pest for Nicotina tobaccum L. , while Aphidius gifuensis Aphidiidae is the parasitic natural enemy of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). The paper analyzes gome technical problems, such as the control capacity, reproductive technology, protection and large-scale application of Aphidius gifuensis, and introduces some available solutions to the large-scale application of Aphidius gifuensis in controlling M. Persicae.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in the parasitoid wasps Aphidius balcanicus, Aphidius rosae, and Aphidius urticae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2014), s. 1027-1032. ISSN 0013-8746 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : geometric morphometric * parasitoid wasp * sexual size dimorphism Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  18. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  19. Regional tritrophic relationship patterns of five aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in agroecosystem-dominated landscapes of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanović, Zeljko; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Stanisavljević, Ljubisa Z; Cetković, Aleksandar; Stamenković, Srdjan; Jovanović, Slobodan; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2009-06-01

    . Even with these complexities taken into account, the overall trend is that noncrop habitats support more parasitoid-aphid combinations and more so in the continental than in Mediterranean regions, although not always statistically significant. As mentioned, large number of noncrop aphid hosts, especially for Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall), Praon volucre (Haliday) and Aphidius colemani Viereck, can significantly enhance the population buildup for these important parasitoids around agroecosystems. These facts can be important in biological aphid pest control in the region. Although not easily quantified, the overall positive effects of larger parasitoid diversity in noncrop habitats are undoubtedly related to the distribution and structure of noncrop habitat patches in agroecosystems at a landscape scale. PMID:19610396

  20. 不同漂浮烟苗密度对繁殖烟蚜及烟蚜茧蜂的影响研究%Density of Floating Tobacco Seedling to Reproduce Myzus periscae(Sulzer)and Aphidius gifuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕娅维; 李宏光; 刘春明; 梁兵; 白崇禄; 王超; 吴伟

    2014-01-01

    为了筛选漂浮烟苗繁殖烟蚜及烟蚜茧蜂的最佳烟苗密度,采用漂浮育苗的方法,研究了4种烟苗密度处理(密度Ⅰ:162株/盘,密度Ⅱ:90株/盘,密度Ⅲ:81株/盘,密度Ⅳ:54株/盘)对烟蚜繁殖的影响。结果表明:密度Ⅱ处理的漂浮烟苗盘蚜量最大值显著高于密度Ⅲ处理和密度Ⅳ处理,与密度Ⅰ处理无显著差异;而密度Ⅱ处理的单株蚜量、有效繁蚜叶数量、有效繁蚜叶载蚜量以及僵蚜数量,均显著高于密度Ⅰ处理,且其患病烟蚜、死亡烟蚜数量低于密度Ⅰ处理。因此,以密度Ⅱ处理培育烟苗可获得最佳的繁蚜效益,进而为大量繁殖烟蚜茧蜂提供基础。%The effect of four density treatments of tobacco seedling (Density Ⅰ:transplanting 162 tobacco seedlings in per floating plate,Density Ⅱ:transplanting 90 tobacco seedlings in per floating plate,DensityⅢ:transplanting 81 tobacco seedlings in per floating plate,Density Ⅳ:transplanting 54 tobacco seedlings in per floating plate) on numbers of Myzus periscae(Sulzer) was studied using floating tobacco seedling technology in order to select the best density of tobacco seedling for reproducing M.periscae and Aphidius gifuensis. The results showed that there was no difference between the maximum per floating plate num-bers of aphid for Density Ⅰ treatment and Density Ⅱ treatment,and they were significantly higher than Density Ⅲ treatment and Density Ⅳ treatment.However,maximum per plant numbers of aphid,numbers of aphid mummies of A.gifuensis,numbers of leaf for effective reproducing aphid and numbers of aphid on leaf for effective reproducing aphid for Density Ⅱ treatment were significantly higher than Density Ⅰ treat-ment.Numbers of diseased aphid and numbers of dead aphid for Density Ⅱ treatment were lower than Den-sity Ⅰ treatment.In conclusion,we can achieve the best feeding quantities of aphid,when we used Density

  1. On the identity of cereal aphid parasitoid wasps Aphidius uzbekistanicus, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, and Aphidius avenaphis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae) by examination of COI mitochondrial gene, geometric morphometrics and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kos, K.; Petrović, A.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Ivanović, A.; Toševski, I.; Jakše, J.; Trdan, S.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2011), s. 1221-1232. ISSN 0013-8746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1940 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P4-0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphidiine wasps * morphological * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2011

  2. Tritrophic interactions between parasitoids and cereal aphids are mediated by nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueel, Muhammad A; Raza, Abu-bakar M; Balal, Rashad M; Shahid, Muhammad A; Mustafa, Irfan; Javaid, Muhammad M; Leather, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Host plant nutritional quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic levels. The aphid-parasitoid relationship provides an ideal system to investigate tritrophic interactions (as the parasitoids are completely dependent for their development upon their hosts) and assess the bottom up forces operating at different concentrations of nitrogen applications. The effects of varying nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of Aphidius colemani (V.) reared on Sitobion avenae (F.) and Aphidius rhopalosiphi (D.) reared on Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) were measured. Parasitism and percent emergence of parasitoids were positively affected by nitrogen fertilizer treatments while developmental duration (egg, larval, and pupal stages) was not affected by increasing nitrogen inputs. In males and females of both parasitoid species, adult longevity increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Hind tibia length and mummy weight of both parasitoid species increased with nitrogen fertilizer concentrations, as a result of larger aphids. This study showed that nitrogen application to the soil can have important consequences for aboveground multitrophic interactions. PMID:24623663

  3. Host-range Evolutin in Aphidius Parasitiods: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Lee Mason

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental objective in biology is to understand the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to patterns of diversity. Specialized insect-host relationships have long been suspected of facilitating evolutionary diversification due to the intimate relationship parasites share with their hosts and the potential for disruptive selection when utilizing different host species resulting in genetic divergence. However, the vast majority of research investigating insect-host specialization...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15499-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l cytoch... 40 9.9 2 ( AY262769 ) Aphidius ervi clone Japan1 mitochondrial cytochro... 40 9.9 2 ( AY262768 ) Aphidius ervi clone Germ...any mitochondrial cytochr... 40 9.9 2 ( AY262767 ) Aphidius ervi clone Israel mitoc

  5. Summarize on the Using and Reproducing of Aphidius gifuensis(Aphidiidae)%烟蚜茧蜂繁殖利用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴富

    2007-01-01

    烟蚜Myzus persicae(Sulzer)是为害烟草Nicotina tobaccum L.的一种主要害虫,目前生产上还是以化学杀虫剂为主控制该虫的为害.烟蚜茧蜂是烟蚜的优势寄生天敌,对烟蚜茧蜂寄主、繁殖技术和对烟蚜的控制作用及其规模化应用等方面的研究进展情况进行了概述,并对制约烟蚜茧蜂规模化繁殖利用的主要技术因素进行了探讨,以期为烟蚜茧蜂的规模化繁殖利用研究提供参考.

  6. Two new species of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Žikić, V.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Ž.

    -, č. 2895 (2011), s. 58-64. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidius chaetosiphonis sp. n. * Aphidius balcanicus sp. n. * tritrophic associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011

  7. Control potential of three hymenopteran parasitoid species against the bean weevil in stored beans: The effect of adult parasitoid nutrition on longevity and progeny production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the longevity and progeny production of three hymenopteran parasitoids of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) when kept with or without food sources. In absence of adult food, Dinarmus basalis Ashm. (Pteromalidae) and Heterospilus prosopidis (Viereck) (Braconidae) liv

  8. Control potential of three hymenopteran parasitoid species against the bean weevil in stored beans: the effect of adult parasitoid nutrition on longevity and progeny production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the longevity and progeny production of three hymenopteran parasitoids of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) when kept with or without food sources. In absence of adult food, Dinarmus basalis Ashm. (Pteromalidae) and Heterospilus prosopidis (Viereck) (Braconidae) liv

  9. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Valverde; D. Carolina Berta; Marcelo Geronimo Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  10. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  11. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, with an identification key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, C. azteca, C. clypealis, C. costaricensis, C. jalisciensis, C. mariae, C. oaxaquensis, and C. olgae are described. C. fenestratus (Viereck is synonymized with C. nigriceps (Cresson. C. melanopleurus (Ashmead is recognized as a valid species.

  12. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems. PMID:26558625

  13. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J.-P.; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  14. Taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the genera and species Euaphidius and Remaudierea (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) analyzed using molecular markers and geometric morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ilić Milošević, M.; Petrović, A.; Stanković, S. S.; Črkić, J.; Starý, Petr; Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2015), s. 435-445. ISSN 0013-8746 Grant ostatní: The Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphidius * Euaphidius * Remaudierea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04919-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig-U04919-1 no gap 341 1 1318150 1318479 PLUS 3 3 U04919 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Show Co ... tochr... 44 3.3 1 ( AY262767 ) Aphidius ervi clone Israel ... mitochondrial cytochro... 44 3.3 1 ( AY262766 ) Ap ...

  16. Effects of a commercial formulation of a plant resistance elicitor on non-target organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Buenotesta, Raphaël; Schiffers, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of Fyto11, a plant resistance elicitor commercial formulation used to increase the natural resistance of Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, zucchini and melon) and Solanaceae (tomato and sweet pepper) against powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions, has been assessed on several beneficial arthropods: the honeybee Apis mellifera, the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri, the aphid parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi and the aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus. Tested at 0.5% and 1.0% spra...

  17. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D.; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate s...

  18. Aphidiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Macrosiphoniella aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the western Palaearctic region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Ilić, M.; Stanković, S. S.; Rajabi-Mazhar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, 41-42 (2011), s. 2559-2575. ISSN 0022-2933 Grant ostatní: Univeristy of Zabol(IR) 86-19; The Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Macrosiphoniella * western Palaearctic region * Aphidius stigmatus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.953, year: 2011

  19. 25. Sitzung des FAO/WHO Codex-Alimentarius-Komitees für Fische und Fischereierzeugnisse

    OpenAIRE

    Schubring, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Die 25. Sitzung des Komitees für Fische und Fischereierzeugnisse fand vom 3. bis 7. Juni 2002 in Aales und, Norwegen, statt. Die Tagung wurde von 131 Delegierten und Beobachtern aus 41 Mitgliedsstaaten und 2 internationalen Organisationen sowie FAO- und WHO-Personal (4)besucht. Die größten Delegationen stellten Frankreich (7), Thailand (7), USA (10) und Norwegen als Gastgeber (13).Die deutsche Delegation wurde von Dr. Achim Viereck(BMVEL) geleitet. Weitere Mitglieder waren Prof. Jörg Oehlensc...

  20. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  1. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  2. New species and additional evidence of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae) from India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Barahoei, H.; Ahmed, Z.; Tomanović, Ž.; Janković, M.; Petrović, A.; Bodlah, I.; Starý, Petr

    -, č. 3397 (2012), s. 45-54. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198; Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidiinae * Aphidius bifurcatus sp. n. * Ephedrus longiarticulatus sp. n. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012 http://216.92.149.63/zootaxa/2012/f/z03397p054f.pdf

  3. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Godfray, H Charles J

    2015-07-22

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae).We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  4. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided. PMID:26249881

  5. Aspectos bionômicos de Eois tegularia (Guenée e Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae e seus parasitóides Bionomic aspects of Eois tegularia (Guenée and Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae and their parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Pasenow Braga

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eois tegularia (Guenée, [1858] and Eois glauculata (Walker, [1863] larvae were studied by one year in semidec iduous forest at Canchim Farm (EMBRAPA, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were hosted by species of Piper Linnaeus (Piperaceae: P. mollicomum Kunth, P. amalogo Linnaeus, P. glabratum Kunth and P. gaudichaudianum Kunth. Some parasitoids were reared from the larvae of Eois Hübner, 1818 species, as follow. Hymenoptera: Cotesia Cameron, 1891, Apanteles Foerster, 1862, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904, Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911, Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Braconidae; Mesochorus Gravenhorst, 1829, Venturia Schrottky, 1902 (Ichneumonidae; Elachertus Spinola, 1811 (Eulophidae; Perilampus Latreille, 1809 (Perilampidae, Diptera: Myiopharus Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (Tachinidae.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15349-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Paramecium bursaria Chlorella vi... 69 3e-10 BC142553_1( BC142553 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis hypothetical prote...thetical protein all2748 [imported] - Nostoc ... 80 2e-13 (Q5GIG6) RecName: Full=Serine/threonine-prote...me sequen... 69 5e-10 T17495( T17495 ) ankyrin repeat protein A5R - Chlorella virus PBCV... 69 5e-10 FN35736...entris clone LB4-57B20, complete se... 46 3.1 1 ( AY949180 ) Aphidius transcaspicus clone At004 microsatellite...in alr7243 [imported] - Nostoc ... 75 6e-12 AY142108_1( AY142108 |pid:none) Gallus gallus tan

  7. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  8. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sally V; Burrack, Hannah J; Roe, R Michael; Bacheler, Jack S; Sorenson, Clyde E

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  9. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  10. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  11. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids. PMID:25197882

  12. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  13. Parasitic wasps as natural enemies of aphid populations in the Mashhad region of Iran: New data from DNA barcodes and SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darsouei Reyhaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a modern method for the identification of different species, including insects. Among animals, the major emphasis of DNA barcoding is on insects. Due to this global trend we addressed this approach for surveying a group of insects. The parasitic wasps (including primary and hyperparasitoids of pome fruit orchard aphids were collected from Iran-Mashhad during 2009-2010. Preliminary identification of this group was performed by using morphological and morphometric characters and SEM. The COI gene in the specimens was amplified and sequenced. In this survey, Aphidius matricariae, Binodoxys angelicae, Diaeretiella rapae, Ephedrus persicae, Lysiphlebus fabarum and Praon volucre parasitoids and Alloxysta sp., Asaphes suspensus, Dendrocerus carpenteri, Pachyneuron aphidis, Syrphophagus aphidivorus hyperparasitoids were studied. Based on intra-interspecies distances and phylogenetic analysis using NJ, all species possess diagnostic barcode sequences. The results of this study show that the COI sequence could be useful in identification study of this group of insects. Here we have provided the first GenBank data for the COI gene of the above-mentioned hyperparasitoids as well as an initial attempt toward preparing DNA barcodes for Iranian parasitoid and hyperparasitoid aphids.

  14. Species Composition and Distribution of Wheat Aphids and Their Parasitoids in Shiraz Region, and Seasonal Dynamics of the Dominant Species

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    M.S. Mossadegh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In a study of aphids and their parasitoids in wheat fields of Shiraz region, the species composition, distribution and seasonal dynamics of the dominant species were monitored during 2004-5.Collections were made from 1-3 hectare fields in 10 locations within 50 Km radius around Shiraz city. Species density was estimated by counting individuals present on 40 winter wheat tillers taken at random along 2 transects 5 m apart in the fields. Eight aphid and 3 parasitoid species were identified through this survey. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. and Metopolophium dirhodum (Wlk. with relative abundances of 33.94 and 31.33%, Aphidius rhopalosipi De Stefani-Perez and Praon volucre (Hal. with relative abundances of 55.53 and 39.90%, were the dominant species of aphids and parasitoids, respectively. Seasonal dynamics of the above species were also studied in Badjgah, located 15 Km north of Shiraz city. Peak populations of the dominant aphids occurred between late May and first of June 2004-5, and those of parasitoids were seen 1-3 weeks later. A comparison between seasonal parasitism of the dominant parasitoids showed significant preferences of A. rhopalosiphi on R. padi, and P. volucre on M. dirhodum. Since the total parasitism of both wasps was nearly 30% of the two aphid hosts, attention should be paid to chemical control programs of wheat pests (such as Sunn pest so that it does not disturb the efficiency of the aphid parasitoids.

  15. 烟蚜茧蜂规模化繁殖和释放技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树会; 魏佳宁

    2006-01-01

    烟蚜(桃蚜)Myzus persicaeSulzer是危害云南省烟草Nicotina tobaccumL.的一种主要害虫.生产中还是以杀虫剂为主控制该虫危害.然而,近年来地方政府、科技人员和农户都在寻求以生物防治的方法控制烟蚜危害.烟蚜茧蜂是自然界控制烟蚜的一种优势天敌.作者在云南省玉溪烟区经过5 a的研究和推广,形成的烟蚜茧蜂(Aphidius gifuensisAshmead)大规模繁殖和释放技术.对大量繁蜂的设备和成本核算以及相关的一些技术问题进行了一定的探讨.

  16. Aphid Parasitoid Mothers Don't Always Know Best through the Whole Host Selection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Quentin; Ameline, Arnaud; Doury, Géraldine; Le Roux, Vincent; Couty, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). The "Mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. We studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid Aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in the intercrop system including Vicia faba as a focal plant and its companion plant Camelina sativa. Dual-choice laboratory bioassays revealed that parasitoid females preferred to orientate towards (1) the plant-aphid complex over the non-infested plant whatever the complex (2) the C. sativa-A. fabae complex over the V. faba-A. fabae complex. In dual choice attack rate bioassays, parasitoid females showed more interest towards the aphids on C. sativa but paradoxically chose to oviposit more in aphids on V. faba. Ultimately, parasitoids that had developed on the V. faba-A. fabae complex exhibited better fitness parameters. By demonstrating that parasitoid females were able to discriminate the aphid host that offered the highest fitness to their offspring but selected beforehand the least suitable plant-aphid complex, we provide key insight into the disruption in their host selection behaviour potentially triggered by diverse habitats. This suggests that the "Mother knows best" hypothesis could be thwarted by increasing the complexity of the studied systems. PMID:26270046

  17. Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'

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    Zuzinaide Vidal Bomfim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp. na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo.Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae

  18. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  19. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  20. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of Lysiphlebus testaceïpes Cresson as biocontrol agent of Aphis gossypii Glover infesting pepper plants

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    M. Ben Halima Kamel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, greenhouse crops are damaged by Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Ben Halima Kamel 1991; Ben Halima Kamel and Ben Hamouda 1993, 1998. These aphids are considered to be the most dangerous pests of pepper because of their biology and biotic potential (Ben Halima Kamel 1991; Blackman and Eastop 2000. There are several ways of controlling these pests with chemical control being the most widely used. This method has more disadvantages than benefits (Gibson et al. 1982. The use of natural enemies to control aphids is an effective way of improving the yield and quality of protected crops. There are many studies on the following naturally occurring enemies of A. gossypii: Aphidius matricariae Haliday, Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer (Ben Halima Kamel and Ben Hamouda 1998 and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Ben Halima Kamel, unpublished data, 1999. It is now important to evaluate the effectiveness of L. testaceipes as a biocontrol agent of A. gossypii. This parasitoďd was introduced into the Mediterranean area (Carver and Franzmann 2001 and is thought to be an important parasite of A. gossypii (Lopes et al. 2007. The aim of this mainly laboratory study was to determine the factors affecting the establishment and success of a biological control agent, in particular the number of L. testaceďpes relative to the initial density of A. gossypii, needed to control the aphid. In addition, the effect of the L. testaceďpes on structure of A. gossypii populations was evaluated. Furthermore, the effectiveness of L. testaceipes in controlling A. gossypii infesting a protected crop of pepper plants and the subsequent effect on the growth of the pepper plants was also evaluated.

  2. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K.; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  3. Survival to parasitoids in an insect hosting defensive symbionts: a multivariate approach to polymorphic traits affecting host use by its natural enemy.

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    Emilie Bilodeau

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids and their insect hosts represent a wide range of parasitic trophic relations that can be used to understand the evolution of biotic diversity on earth. Testing theories of coevolution between hosts and parasites is based on factors directly involved in host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence. We used controlled encounters with potential hosts of the Aphidius ervi wasp to elucidate behavioral and other phenotypic traits of host Acyrthosiphon pisum that most contribute to success or failure of parasitism. The host aphid is at an advanced stage of specialization on different crop plants, and exhibits intra-population polymorphism for traits of parasitoid avoidance and resistance based on clonal variation of color morph and anti-parasitoid bacterial symbionts. Randomly selected aphid clones from alfalfa and clover were matched in 5 minute encounters with wasps of two parasitoid lineages deriving from hosts of each plant biotype in a replicated transplant experimental design. In addition to crop plant affiliation (alfalfa, clover, aphid clones were characterized for color morph (green, pink, Hamiltonella defensa and Regiella insecticola symbionts, and frequently used behaviors in encounters with A. ervi wasps. A total of 12 explanatory variables were examined using redundancy analysis (RDA to predict host survival or failure to A. ervi parasitism. Aphid color was the best univariate predictor, but was poorly predictive in the RDA model. In contrast, aphid host plant and symbionts were not significant univariate predictors, but significant predictors in the multivariate model. Aphid susceptibility to wasp acceptance as reflected in host attacks and oviposition clearly differed from its suitability to parasitism and progeny development. Parasitoid progeny were three times more likely to survive on clover than alfalfa host aphids, which was compensated by behaviorally adjusting eggs invested per host. Strong variation of the

  4. Study of two conditioning methods of parasitoids used in biological control prior to inundative releases in apple orchards

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    Valérie-Anne Dumont

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea Pass., is a major pest in apple orchards in Belgium. Two micro-hymenopteran parasitoids Aphidius matricariae Haliday and Ephedrus cerasicola Stary are potentially capable of controlling this pest. However, when released in orchards the adult parasitoids tend to disperse. Based on the results of previous work it is proposed that the reason is that the artificial diet in which they are raised does not contain the odors that enable the parasitoids to identify the habitat where there are suitable aphid hosts. To optimize the control and make it economically effective it is important to reduce dispersal. This might be done by conditioning parasitoids during rearing by exposing them to the odors associated with orchards. The odor used in this study was a hydrodistillate of apple leaves, the main host-plant of the targeted aphid. Two methods of conditioning were used: 1 soaking mummies of the parasitoid in p ure hydrodistillate, 2 including a defined concentration of hydrodistillate in the artificial diet used for rearing the parasitoid. They were exposed to either a dilution of 100×, 200× and 1000× in two consecutive generations. The response of adult parasitoids to odors was determined using a dual choice olfactometer. Of the E. cerasicola conditioned by soaking the mummies 70–75% of individuals were attracted to the odor of plants infested with D. plantaginea compared to the 55–60% in the controls. The A.matricariae that were conditioned by feeding them artificial diets containing different concentrations of apple odor for one or two generations, showed no preference for the odor of apple leaves. Second generation adults of E. cerasicola exposed to a 200 times dilution of pure hydrodistillate showed a more marked response to apple odor.

  5. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

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    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  6. Qualitative analysis of aphid and primary parasitoid trophic relations of genus Alloxysta (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Suay, Mar; Janković, Marina; Selfa, Jesús; Van Veen, F J Frank; Tomanović, Željko; Kos, Katarina; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2014-12-01

    Charipinae hyperparasitoids affect effectiveness of the primary parasitoids of aphids by decreasing their abundance and modifying their behavior. As a result, increase of aphid populations can cause severe yield losses in some crops. Therefore, ecological studies on the subfamily Charipinae have a great economical and biological importance. Host specificity of these hyperparasitoids is still under debate and for many Charipinae species very little is known about their trophic relations. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of the trophic relationships between the Charipinae species of the genus Alloxysta Förster and their aphid and primary parasitoids hosts, worldwide. Within this subfamily, Alloxysta arcuata (Kieffer), Alloxysta brevis (Thomson), Alloxysta fuscicornis (Hartig), and Alloxysta victrix (Westwood) are the most generalist species sharing many aphid hosts, while for primary parasitoid hosts these are A. arcuata, A. brevis, Alloxysta pleuralis (Cameron), and A. victrix. Alloxysta citripes (Thomson), Alloxysta halterata (Thomson), Alloxysta leunisii (Hartig), and Alloxysta ramulifera (Thomson) appear, up to now, as the most specialized in relation to the primary parasitoid hosts. Primary parasitoids of the genera Aphidius Nees, Lysiphlebus Förster, Praon Haliday, and Trioxys Haliday are the most common hosts for Alloxysta species, and the common host aphid species belong to the genera Aphis L., Uroleucon Mordvilko, Myzus Passerini, and Sitobion Mordvilko. Host range is analyzed for each Alloxysta species, as well as the extent of overlap between them. We used Jaccard's distance and a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the host range dissimilarity. A permutation test has been applied to analyze if the host range dissimilarity is significantly different from what is expected by chance. We have calculated additional qualitative measures that complement well the Alloxysta niche overlap analysis and evaluated their host specificity using different

  7. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

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    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  8. Seismic structure and dynamics of cratons: Stability and modification, continental collision and subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Meier, Thomas; Schaeffer, Andrew J.; Agius, Matthew R.; Adam, Joanne M.-C.

    2014-05-01

    relatively low shear-wave speeds in the mantle lithosphere. This anomaly is present in regions of both Proterozoic and Archean crust, which suggests an alteration of the mantle lithosphere after the formation of the cratons. In orogenies, cratons generally resist deformation and subduction. Collisions of cratonic blocks, such as seen presently in the western part of the India-Asia convergence zone, can change the character of the orogeny, as well as the motions of the entire tectonic plates that are converging. Beneath western Tibet, cratonic Indian lithosphere has been stripped of its upper crust, pushed down underneath the thick Tibetan crust, and is now colliding with the Tarim Craton to the north. This recent deepening of the cold Indian lithosphere explains the exceptionally high shear speeds (up to 5.0 km/s) within it, higher than beneath any stable cratons with steady-state geotherms. High-velocity anomalies beneath central and eastern Tibet require negative thermal anomalies of hundreds of degrees at depths below 120-150 km, indicating, most likely, subducted Indian lithosphere. The active India-Asia convergence zone thus demonstrates different mechanisms of continental convergence, from craton-craton collision to underthrusting of a craton beneath thick orogenic crust and to shallow-angle subduction of cratonic lithosphere. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 4260-4281, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Legendre, C., T. Meier, S. Lebedev, W. Friederich, L. Viereck-Goette. A shear-wave velocity model of the European upper mantle from automated inversion of seismic shear and surface waveforms. Geophys. J. Int. 191, 282-304, 2012. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013.

  9. 江西省烟田主要害虫及其天敌种群动态%Population Dynamics of the Main Pests and Natural Enemies in Tobacco Fields in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昭焕; 罗妹; 喻敏; 张超群; 王建国

    2013-01-01

    通过采用5点调查法,对江西省南昌市烟田主要害虫及其天敌种群数量进行调查并对其进行动态分析。结果显示:烟蚜在烟草整个生长期均有发生,其种群数量动态变化呈双峰曲线,第1个蚜量高峰期出现在6月初,第2个蚜量高峰期出现在6月末至7月初,且蚜量雨后显著降低,雨后高温则又明显增加。烟青虫和斑须蝽在5月初开始发生,其种群数量动态变化均呈单峰曲线。烟青虫虫量高峰期出现在5月末至6月初,斑须蝽虫量高峰期则在6月中旬。烟田内主要天敌有烟蚜茧蜂、蜘蛛类、瓢虫和草蛉。天敌与烟蚜、烟青虫具一定的虫量跟随关系,其中烟蚜茧蜂和草蛉分别在烟草生长前后期与烟蚜跟随关系明显,蜘蛛则在烟青虫发生后与其跟随关系较为明显。%Based on the survey method of five points, we investigated into the population of the pests and natural enemies in tobacco fields in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, and analyzed their dynamic changes. The experimental results indicated that the population of Myzus persicae had two peaks within a year, the first in early June, and the second from the end of June to early July. Also the population of M. persicae decreased significantly after the rain, and then increased significantly after high temperature. The population of Helicoverpa assulta and Dolycoris baccarum, respectively, had one peak within a year. The peak of H. assulta population occurred from the end of May to early June, and the peak of D. baccarum population occurred in the middle of June. The main natural enemies of the pests in tobacco fields included Aphidius gifuensis, spiders, lacewings and lady beetles. These natural enemies showed synchronization with M. persicae and H. assulta. Of the natural enemies, A. gifuensis and lady beetles, respectively, showed obvious synchronization with M. persicae at the early or later period of the tobacco growth, and

  10. Why does the Size of the Laacher See Magma Chamber and its Caldera Size not go together? - New Findings with regard to Active Tectonics in the East Eifel Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Berberich, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    . 2002). Our research findings suggest that due to the slow movement rates of active tectonic faults, an estimated 18 km³ magma chamber within the brittle fracture section of the earth's crust beneath the Laacher See (v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke 1984) cannot be confirmed yet. Another discrepancy is given by a comparison of modeling of caldera evolution (Acocella 2007) with the Laacher See Caldera formation. The Laacher See caldera has a volume of 0.5 km³ with regard to the pre-eruptive surface (Viereck & v.d. Bogaard 1986). According to v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke (1984) a volume of 6.3 km³ dry rock equivalent of lava and basic rock was erupted. This magnitude is contradictory to the calculated 0.5 km³ volume of the Laacher See caldera. A volume compensation of approx. 6 km³ which could have prevented a further subsidence of the magma chamber cannot be a scientific possible explanation. This hypothesis is strengthened by performed sonar recordings of the post-eruptive Laacher See sediment layers which do not show any displacements that might indicate a doming caused by magma. Estimations of the erupted tephra volume provided the basis for the calculation of the size of the Laacher See magma chamber (v.d. Bogaard 1983), but there is no statistical significant data set with regard to spatial distribution of the erupted tephra amount. Our findings show an overestimation of the tephra thickness in published isopach maps of the Westerwald. Therefore, an order of magnitude smaller magma chamber stretched over a longer vertical crustal section can help to better match the given tectonic movement rates and the size of the caldera. To estimate the future development of the East Eifel volcanic field, a good knowledge of the active tectonics is an absolute prerequisite. Along the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault", an area of intensive micro-seismicity and a new seismically active zone with local magnitudes up to 4 has developed over the last 40 years (Hinzen 2003). In the last