Sample records for apheresis blood products

  1. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products]. (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E


    high population density and thereby reduce the theoretical advantage of ATK (but definitely would not nullify it!). It is equally plausible, however, that this agent would behave like a prion, non-sexual transmission, or like a West-Nil virus, a non-contagious vector-transmitted agent. For PTK this would mean a relative risk up to 4 times (PTK from 4 BCs) or 5 times (PTK from 5 BCs) higher than the risk estimated by the Robert-Koch-Institute. If, taking the passive surveillance data and the changing variables (donor frequency, donor population, and donor location) into account, the risk of transmission of an infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) with HIV, HCV, and HBV moves closer to the higher risk of PTK (exposure to 4 or 8 donors, in case of double ATK per patient), this result of the risk model calculation by no means indicates any equivalency between PTK and ATK with respect to the risk of transmission of infection. The modifiable variables of donor frequency, donor population, and donor location need to be modified, as scientific deductions, in such a way that the avoidable risk of ATK which is influenced by these variables can be corrected to the minimum risk of a transmission of infection of HIV, HBV, and HCV via ATK in comparison to PTK. The minimum risk of a possible transmission of infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) is the basic intrinsic risk of each individual blood donation. The basic intrinsic risk increases relative to the number of blood donations or exposure to donors (PtK has an unalterable, production-dependent exposure to 4 or 8 donors). Let us consider a 1:1.000 prevalence for a new pathogen, which is spread equally in each donor population (apheresis and whole blood) and the present case of approximately 500,000 transfused platelet concentrates in Germany. This means that for the production of 4 PTK about 2 million donations are processed, 2,000 infectious Buffy-Coats are obtained and, thereby, 2,000 infectious PTK. In the case of ATK

  2. Comparison of Platelet Transfusion as Fresh Whole Blood Versus Apheresis Platelets for Massively Transfused Combat Trauma patients (United States)


    T R A N S F U S I O N P R A C T I C E Comparison of platelet transfusion as fresh whole blood versus apheresis platelets for massively able to provide blood products to include apheresis platelets (aPLT), but also has extensive experience using fresh whole blood (FWB). In massively...bleeding, resuscitation with blood products is an ABBREVIATIONS: AIS(s) = Abbreviated Injury Scale(s); aPLT = apheresis platelets; ARDS = adult

  3. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis? (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F


    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  4. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors. (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P


    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  5. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells. (United States)

    Moog, Rainer


    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis-Therapeutic apheresis in cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L; Cooper, Leslie T; Ratcliffe, Nora R; Wu, Yanyun; Moriarty, Patrick M


    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with the American Society for Apheresis, convened a State of the Science Symposium in November of 2012 due to the expanding application of therapeutic apheresis despite the lack of well-designed research to address its efficacy. This article reviews the opportunities that were presented at this meeting in the area of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically the use of columns to adsorb autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy or damaging lipids in peripheral vascular disease. Understanding how absorption of these pathologic substances alters the inflammatory response in these disorders is important for the application of these technologies to the treatment of CVD.

  7. Namibia's transition from whole blood-derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.


    BACKGROUNDFew African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT

  8. Effects of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis on systemic cytokine levels in patients with multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Akkök, Ciğdem Akalin; Hervig, Tor; Stamnesfet, Siren; Nesthus, Ingerid; Melve, Guro K; Lassalle, Philippe; Bruserud, Oystein


    BACKGROUND AIMS. Pro-angiogenic cytokines can affect myeloma cell proliferation directly and indirectly through stimulation of cancer-associated angiogenesis. METHODS. We investigated how peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection affected plasma angioregulatory cytokine levels in 15 consecutive myeloma patients. RESULTS. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly increased prior to apheresis in patients compared with donors, and a further increase was detected immediately after PBSC apheresis. HGF levels decreased within 24 h, but were still higher than the levels in healthy donors, whose HGF levels were not altered by platelet apheresis. Pre-apheresis levels of other angioregulatory cytokines, angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also increased in patients, whereas angiopoietin-1, angiogenin and basic fibroblast growth factor levels did not differ from healthy controls. PBSC harvesting decreased angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels, increased the microvascular endothelial cell marker endocan levels but did not affect the other mediators. CONCLUSIONS. Our results show that PBSC apheresis alters systemic angioregulatory profiles in myeloma patients. This cytokine modulation is not a general characteristic of all apheresis procedures and was not seen in healthy platelet donors.

  9. Calculations in apheresis. (United States)

    Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans


    It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators.

  10. [Multiple apheresis]. (United States)

    Coffe, C


    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  11. Practical considerations for planning a therapeutic apheresis procedure. (United States)

    Shelat, Suresh G


    The general medicine and critical care services often care for patients that require therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis procedures are performed for various hematologic, neurological, renal, autoimmune, metabolic, and other indications. To facilitate a prompt start to the procedure, the clinical team must coordinate efforts with several services, including those that perform the apheresis procedure, establish venous access, and provide blood or replacement products, in addition to the pharmacy and clinical laboratory. Some of these tasks are performed typically by the clinical teams, while others are performed typically by the apheresis team. Presented and discussed are the indications for therapeutic apheresis, calculations for the ordering of blood products, and several important and practical details to consider, thus preventing delays in starting the apheresis procedure.

  12. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate. (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne


    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  13. The first results demonstrating efficiency and safety of a double-column whole blood method of LDL-apheresis. (United States)

    Hequet, O; Le, Q H; Rigal, D; Mekhloufi, F; Jaeger, S; Sassolas, A; Groisne, L; Moulin, P


    LDL-apheresis is a treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia in addition to diet and drug therapy. In the past, LDL-apheresis techniques consisted in separating plasma from blood and adsorbing plasma LDL-C whereas recent methods remove LDL-C directly from whole blood. The whole blood system developed by Kaneka consists of a single-column (Liposorber DL-75) treatment (SCWB) but a double-column whole blood (DCWB) method has recently been developed (Liposorber DL-50 x 2). When 1.6 blood volumes (plus 1l) were processed, acute reductions of total cholesterol and LDL-C were 67.9+/-6% and 80.2+/-4.5%, respectively. The performances of the DCWB method were compared to other LDL-apheresis methods. Assessed in 10 patients, the DCWB method is more efficient than the SCWB method with higher reduction rates of LDL-C (79.7+/-4.9 vs. 68.2+/-5.0% papheresis method consisting of preliminary plasma separation followed by plasma LDL-C adsorption and used as first line apheresis therapy (80.5+/-4.5 vs. 79.0+/-5.9%). The safety of DCWB was demonstrated in 12 patients with only a low frequency of mild and transient adverse effects (4%). In conclusion, the DCWB LDL-apheresis method provides efficient removal of LDL-C, a low level of adverse effects, and a shortened duration of the procedure.

  14. The ABC of apheresis. (United States)

    Dierickx, D; Macken, E


    Apheresis is a collective term for several activities in which a desirable specific blood component is separated and collected or a harmful component is removed. During the last decades the application of apheresis has expanded to a broad spectrum of diseases due to various studies on the clinical efficacy of this therapy as well as the innovation of new techniques. However, adverse events quite often occur during apheresis. In this article we will give a brief overview on general principles, indications and complications of apheresis.

  15. 双份机采血小板采集前后血常规结果分析%Study on the changes of the donor's blood cell counts before and after double apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍娟; 孙革; 庄乃保; 熊恺轩; 王霞; 孙雄飞


    Objective To study the changes of the donor's blood routine indexes before and after double apheresis platelets, and then to explore the efficiency and the safety of double apheresis platelets. Methods The blood cell counts of 50 donors were examined by blood counting instrument before and after double apheresis plate-lets, and the data was analyzed on Paired Samples t-Test. Results After double apheresis platelets, PLT was signifi-cantly lower than that before double apheresis platelets (P0.05). And examination confirmed that the quality of the apheresis platelets products was up to specification, with the amount of platelets reaching 250 × 109/L and the qualification rate of 100%. Conclusion Double apheresis platelets can improve the efficiency and safety of platelets donation, and it would not affect the blood routine indexes of the donors.%目的:通过分析捐献双份机采血小板捐献者捐献前后血常规参数的变化,评价捐献双份机采血小板的效率和安全性。方法随机抽取本中心双份机采血小板捐献者50例,应用血细胞计数仪分别检测其献血前后血常规主要参数水平,并进行配对t检验。结果献血前与献血后PLT计数比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05),采集的血小板均能达到250×109/L,机采血小板合格率为100%,献血者无不适反应。结论双份机采血小板可以提高血小板采集效率,但不会明显影响捐献者血常规各主要参数的水平,机采双份血小板对捐献者不会有明显影响。

  16. Pancytopenia with severe thrombocytopenia in a patient treated with twice-weekly LDL-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood. (United States)

    Nowack, Rainer; Wiedemann, Günther


    Pancytopenia with severe thrombocytopenia occurred in a patient treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood, after treatment frequency had been increased from once to twice a week. Cell counts recovered with discontinuation of LDL-apheresis, but thrombocytopenia recurred after resumption of twice-weekly treatments. Thrombocyte counts remained stable following the replacement of polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood by double-filtration plasmapheresis. The complications' close coincidence with twice-weekly polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood suggests a causal relationship, although by a still unknown mechanism. Monitoring of thrombocytes should be advised in patients treated with LDL-apheresis by polyacrylate adsorption from whole blood.

  17. The Italian SIdEM registry for apheresis: an overview of the 2005 statistics. (United States)

    De Silvestro, G; Bagatella, P; Vicarioto, M; Tison, T; Marson, P


    Data collection on apheresis activities in Italy throughout 2005 including techniques, types of blood cell separators, clinical indications and adverse effects was performed by means of a standardized questionnaire. These data provided by 83 Apheresis Units from 16 Italian regions, albeit rough, are sufficiently informative, mainly in comparison with previous surveys on these statistics (1997 and 2000). In 2005 a total number of 204,746 apheresis procedures were carried out, with a clear-cut prevalence of apheresis production (87.7%), performed by 66 out of 83 Apheresis Units (79.5). Lombardy, Veneto and Tuscany were the most active regions for therapeutic apheresis (51.1% of the total national procedures). An increasing number in extracorporeal photochemotherapy as compared to the 2000 national survey (3,386 vs. 704 procedures) is the most striking observation to emerge from the 2005 data collection on therapeutic apheresis in Italy. Adverse effects, predominantly mild ones (i.e., paresthesia due to citrate-induced hypocalcemia), occurred in 0.12% of apheresis production and 6.04 of therapeutic sessions, particularly in the course of peripheral blood stem cell collection (20.79%), as already reported in the 2000 national survey.

  18. Apheresis activity in Venezuela. (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane


    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  19. Cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor presenting stroke mimic symptoms: a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. (United States)

    Terabe, Satomi; Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Okuno, Shingo; Harada, Yasuhiko; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Iwasaki, Toshihiro; Sugiura, Isamu


    Peripheral blood stem cell apheresis from a healthy donor is indispensable for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Here, we report a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. A female sibling donor, aged 61 years with an unremarkable medical history, complained of pain in the left neck and shoulder and numbness in the left upper limb 1 h after the end of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. Paralysis of the left upper and lower limbs appeared consecutively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed no abnormalities. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated according to the standard treatment of atherothrombotic brain infarction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical cord on the following day revealed a cervical epidural hematoma. An emergency C4-C5 laminectomy was performed, and the paralysis was improved immediately after surgery. This report is the first case of cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor who underwent peripheral blood stem cell apheresis and presented symptoms confusingly similar to those of brain infarction.

  20. The effect of different apheresis modalities on coagulation factor XIII level during antibody removal in ABO-blood type incompatible living related renal transplantation. (United States)

    Hanafusa, Norio; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Kawarasaki, Hiroo; Kido, Ryo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Ishikawa, Akira; Enomoto, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Noiri, Eisei; Nangaku, Masaomi


    Apheresis therapy is used to remove pathogenic antibodies within the recipient blood during ABO-incompatible living related renal transplantation (LRRT). Factor XIII (FXIII) is a coagulating factor. Its deficiency reportedly engenders perioperative bleeding. This study compared apheresis modalities from the perspective of the FXIII level. Cases 1-3 were treated only with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) without (case 1) or with (cases 2 and 3) fresh frozen plasma (FFP) supplementation. Cases 4 and 5 were treated with simple plasma exchange (PEx) with FFP supplementation for the last session. Cases 1-3 showed a marked (case 1, 8.6%) or moderate (case 2, 26.2%; case 3, 28.4%) decrease in FXIII on the day before the procedure after the last apheresis session, although cases 4 (81.9%) and 5 (66.2%) did not. Case 1 experienced perioperative bleeding. The last session is usually performed the day before the surgical procedure. Therefore, FXIII elimination by DFPP might cause bleeding complications because of its slow recovery. The fact warrants that the last apheresis modality during the course might be PEx from the viewpoint of FXIII depletion.

  1. Consistency and proportionality in policy decision-making in blood safety: the case for an all-apheresis platelet supply in Germany. (United States)

    Vamvakas, E C; Hitzler, W E


    Recently, German investigators presented the first mathematical model finding a significant increase in the risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission when pools of 4 whole-blood-derived buffy-coat platelets, rather than 1 single-donor (apheresis) component, are used to provide one platelet dose. Based, in both cases, on mathematical models employing the incidence/window-period method, the relative risk of transmission from pooled versus apheresis platelets (2.2 or 2.75 for HIV, 2.7 or 3.375 for HCV, and 3.2 or 4.0 for HBV, with pools of 4 or 5 concentrates, respectively) is similar to the difference in risk before (versus after) introduction of HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening. The absolute increase in the risk from pools (1 to 2 HIV-, HCV-, or HBV-infectious platelet doses annually) is much smaller than the yield from HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening projected in the 1990s, but it becomes similar to that yield (with up to 88 infectious platelet doses intercepted) when we consider the next transfusion-transmitted pathogen to emerge in the future. Although pathogen reduction (PR) of platelets would eliminate the difference in risk between pooled and apheresis platelets vis-a-vis viral transmission, PR is not ready for implementation because the safety of PR needs to be investigated further. German transfusion guidelines should be revised to indicate the difference in risk associated with pooled versus apheresis platelets, and transition toward an all-apheresis platelet supply should commence. These actions are consistent with and proportionate to the action taken in the 1990s when screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA was implemented.

  2. Stem cell factor leads to reduced blood processing during apheresis or the use of whole blood aliquots to support dose-intensive chemotherapy. (United States)

    Weaver, A; Testa, N G


    The addition of stem cell factor (SCF) to G-CSF and chemotherapy results in a dose-dependent, significantly increased mobilisation of peripheral blood progenitor cells compared with the use of chemotherapy and G-CSF alone. The enhanced mobilisation may benefit patients in several ways. Firstly, in clinical settings where currently multiple aphereses are having to be performed to obtain a specified target number of cells, the addition of SCF may lead to a reduction in this number. Alternatively, when only a single apheresis is currently being performed to obtain sufficient cells then the addition of SCF to the mobilisation regimen would allow between 5- and 8-fold reduction in the volume of blood required to be processed during the apheresis procedure to obtain a specified target of GM-CFC, CD34+ cells and LTC-IC for those receiving the highest dose of SCF (20 microg/kg) plus G-CSF following chemotherapy compared with those patients receiving G-CSF alone following chemotherapy. The increased mobilisation resulting from the addition of SCF to the regimen makes feasible the use of whole blood aliquots to support dose-intensive therapy. We have calculated that in patients mobilised using cyclophosphamide 3 g/m2, SCF 20 microg/kg and G-CSF 5 microg/kg a median 512 ml aliquot of whole blood would contain 2 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells and over 3.7 x 10(5)/kg GM-CFC. This aliquot would be sufficient to rescue the patient following a myeloablative therapy. Significantly, because less individual variation was seen after the administration of SCF the patient who showed the worst mobilisation in that group would have the usually required content of 2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg and 1 x 10(5) GM-CFC/kg in only 731 ml of blood.

  3. Peripheral Blood CD64 Levels Decrease in Crohn’s Disease following Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimi Chiba


    Full Text Available Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA is reportedly useful as induction therapy for Crohn’s disease (CD. However, the effects of GMA on CD64 have not been well characterized. We report here our assessment of CD64 expression on neutrophils before and after treatment with GMA in two patients with CD. The severity of CD was assessed with the CD activity index (CDAI. The duration of each GMA session was 60 min at a flow rate of 30 ml/min as per protocol. CD64 expression on neutrophils was measured by analyzing whole blood with a FACScan flow cytometer. In case 1, CD64 levels after each session of GMA tended to decrease compared to pretreatment levels, whereas in case 2, CD64 levels dropped significantly after treatment. The CDAI decreased after GMA in both cases 1 and 2. A significant correlation was noted between CDAI scores and CD64 levels in both cases. In conclusion, GMA reduced blood CD64 levels, which would be an important factor for the decrease of CDAI scores.

  4. [Risk Assessment of Single-Donor (Apheresis) Platelet Concentrates and Pooled Whole-Blood-Derived Platelet Concentrates]. (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wartensleben, Herbert


    According to the risk estimates of the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) an equivalence cannot be assumed to exist between the two different platelet preparations. Differences between single-donor (apheresis) platelet concentrates (ATK) and pooled whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates (PTK) result from donor populations, donation intervals, and preparation techniques. There are no prospective randomized studies with regard to the clinical efficacy, which would unambiguously demonstrate equivalence of the therapeutic efficacy of PTK (buffy coat method) in comparison to ATK. The German Association of Blood Transfusion Services (StKB) points out that, due to the non-equivalence of PTK and ATK, it is incumbent on the transfusion physician to select the platelet concentrate, make the appropriate disclosures, and assume treatment responsibility. Proper compensation for ATK and PTK must be ensured by the health insurance companies, whereby a special indication for the selection of either PTK or ATK is not given. Exceptions are patients with known HLA antibodies in which only selected platelet concentrates may be administered. Otherwise, no indication exists in the selection of the different platelet concentrates (Article is in German).

  5. Analysis of Red Blood Cell Spill over in Platelet Apheresis Collection%机采血小板红细胞混入量超标原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓岩; 张轶


    Objective Proper process controls should be applied to decrease percentage of red blood cell spill over, to avoid loss of platelet products, and to maintain a high quality of platelet apheresis collection. Methods Using a statistical method to analyze 33 cases of red cell spill over tested out of the total 18019 platelet apheresis products in Taiyuan Blood Center from 2005 to 2009. Results Red cell spill over is related to the process of platelet apheresis collection and the maintenance condition of relevant machine. Conclusion Good pre-screening based on practical experience as a first pass, excellent technical operation to ensure whole collection process and careful maintenance of apheresis machine could help minimize the chance of red cell spill over and guarantee the effectiveness of platelets product.%目的 在机采血小板采集工作中采取相应措施,减少产品冲红几率,避免制品在二次分离出红细胞的同时丢失血小板,确保机采血小板的质量.方法 通过对2005 ~ 2009年太原血液中心机采血小板18019人次中33例红细胞混入量超标的原因经统计学处理进行分析.结果 献血者的筛选、操作人员技术的熟练程度、仪器设备是否处于良好的运行状态与血小板制品的冲红有关.结论 根据实际工作经验力争在献血者筛选上把好第一关,在仪器设备的维护保养上做到细致到位,在工作人员操作技术上做到精益求精,将血小板制品冲红几率降到最低,确保机采血小板的有效成分.

  6. Red blood cell exchange: 2015 American Society for Apheresis consensus conference on the management of patients with sickle cell disease. (United States)

    Sarode, Ravi; Ballas, Samir K; Garcia, Alicia; Kim, Haewon C; King, Karen; Sachais, Bruce; Williams, Lance A


    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) conducted a one-day consensus conference on red blood cell exchange (RBCx) in sickle cell disease (SCD) during its annual meeting in San Antonio, TX, on May 5, 2015. The authors of this article, a subcommittee of ASFA's Clinical Applications Committee, developed several questions with regard to pathophysiology of SCD and use of RBCx in the management of various complications. These questions were provided to the seven invited speakers who are the experts in the field of SCD. Two experts in the field moderated the proceedings of the conference, which was attended by more than 150 participants. After each presentation, there was a summary of the main points by the moderators and an open discussion with questions from the audience. A video recording of the proceedings, as well as each presentation, was made available to the authors. Each author's summary was reviewed and approved by the respective speaker before submission of this manuscript. The subcommittee also developed several key questions to generate a consensus amongst the speakers on key issues for using RBCx for patients with SCD.

  7. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets? (United States)

    Pietersz, R N I


    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  8. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey


    in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled...... platelet concentrates (PCs) with plasma and 414 apheresis PCs in platelet additive solution (PAS), and (c) apheresis PCs before and after transportation, gamma irradiation, and pathogen inactivation (N = 8, 7, and 12 respectively). ThromboLUX-measured MPC in donor PRP and their corresponding apheresis PC...... samples were highly correlated (r = 0.82, P = .001). The average MPC in pooled PC was slightly lower than that in apheresis PC and substantially lower in apheresis PC stored with PAS rather than plasma. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction treatment significantly increased MPC with age. Thus, MPC measured in donor...

  9. Types of Blood Donations (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  10. Therapeutic apheresis in autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambauer R


    Full Text Available Rolf Bambauer,1 Reinhard Latza,2 Carolin Bambauer,3 Daniel Burgard,4 Ralf Schiel5 1Institute for Blood Purification, Homburg, 2Laboratorium of Medicine, St Ingbert, 3Main Hospital Darmstadt, Darmstadt, 4Herz Zentrum, Cardiology, Völklingen, 5Inselklinik Heringsdorf GmbH, Seeheilbad Heringsdorf, Germany Abstract: Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a bad prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 35 years. Here we provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that therapeutic apheresis can be a supportive therapy in some systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory eye disease. With the introduction of novel and effective biologic agents, therapeutic apheresis is indicated only in severe cases, such as in rapid progression despite immunosuppressive therapy and/or biologic agents, and in patients with renal involvement, acute generalized vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, pulmonary, cardiac, or cerebral involvement. In mild forms of autoimmune disease, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies and/or biologic agents seems to be sufficient. The prognosis of autoimmune diseases with varying organ manifestations has improved considerably in recent years, due in part to very aggressive therapy schemes. Keywords: therapeutic apheresis, autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory eye disease

  11. 单双份机采血小板采集前后血常规对比分析%Contrastive analysis of blood routine results before and after single and double apheresis platelet in donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍娟; 熊恺轩; 孙革; 王霞; 田怡; 张琳; 孙雄飞


    Objective To evaluate the efficiency and safety of double apheresis platelets by analyzing the changes of blood routine parameters results before and after single and double apheresis platelet in donors. Methods Each 50 donors of sin-gle and double apheresis platelet were respectively extracted in the Shenzhen Municipal Blood Center from June 2013 to June 2014 and the levels of blood routine main parameters were detected by the blood counting instrument before and after double a-pheresis platelets. The obtained data were performed the contrastive analysis by the SPSS software. Results The peripheral blood WBC count had no statistical difference between before and after single and double apheresis platelet (P>0.05),while Hb concen-tration,peripheral red blood cell(RBC) count,Hct and Plt had statistical differences(P0.05);WBC,Hb,RBC and Hct after single and double aphere sis platelets also had no statistical differences(P>0.05),but Plt had statistical difference between single and double apheresis platelet(P0.05),而血红蛋白浓度(Hb)、外周血红细胞计数(RBC)、血细胞比容(Hct)、血小板计数(Plt)比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);单、双份机采血小板前,WBC、Hb、RBC、Hct、Plt比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);单、双份机采血小板后,WBC、Hb、RBC、Hct比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),而二者Plt比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。单、双份机采血小板合格率均达到100%,且献血者无不适反应。结论定期双份机采血小板对献血者是安全的,可以提高血小板采集效率,但不会明显影响献血者血常规各主要参数的水平。

  12. A single apheresis procedure in the donor may be enough to complete an allograft using the “Mexican Method” of non-ablative allografting (United States)

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J.; Gutiérrez-Riveroll, Karla I.; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César H.; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Eyzaguirre-Zapata, Renee; Priesca-Marin, Manuel; González-Carrillo, Martha L.; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J.


    Background Since 1999, in Mexico we have been using a regimen to conduct allografts that involves non-myeloablative conditioning and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and have introduced some changes with the main goal of decreasing the cost of the procedure. Materials and methods We analysed the salient apheresis features of a group of 175 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants conducted in two institutions in a 7-year period. The grafts were conducted using the “Mexican” non-myelo ablative conditioning regimen employing oral busulphan, i.v. cyclophosphamide and i.v. fludarabine. In all instances, the apheresis machine employed was the Baxter CS3000 Plus and donors were mobilised with filgrastim. The apheresis procedures were performed on days 0, +1 and +2, the end-point of collection being 5,000 mL of blood/m2 in each procedure. Three apheresis sessions were planned but the number was adjusted according to the cell yield. Results The final number of allografted CD34 cells ranged between 0.5 and 25.4 × 106/Kg of the recipient’s body weight (median, 5.2 × 106/Kg). One to three apheresis procedures were needed to obtain a product containing more than 0.5 × 106 CD34 cells/Kg of the recipient, the median being two procedures; in 72 cases (41%) a single apheresis procedure was sufficient to obtain the target number of CD34 cells. The volumes of apheresis ranged between 50 and 600 mL (median, 400 mL). Conclusions Since the median cost of each apheresis procedure is 900 USD, the fact that two apheresis procedures was spared in 72 cases and one apheresis was spared in another 65 cases, led to a total saving of approximately 188,100 USD. It can be concluded that, in many cases, allogeneic transplants can be completed with a single apheresis session and that there are considerable financial benefits from this practice. PMID:19503634

  13. Comparison of the quality of fresh frozen plasma prepared by apheresis and that from whole blood%单采与手工制备的新鲜冰冻血浆的质量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世春; 李兵; 赵树铭


    Objective To compare the quality of fresh frozen plasma prepared by apheresis and that from whole blood. Methods Plasma prepared from apheresis (n =20) and donated whole blood (n =20) were stored in -30℃ refrigerator before testing. Coagulation factors ( FⅧ,Fib),biochemical parameters (TP,LDH,K+ ,Na+ ,Cl-+ , FHb,pH) and Plt counts were determined. Results There were significant differences between the levels of FHb,K+ ,Na+ ,Cl- ,Plt counts,but all could meet the current quality standards. In comparison to plasma prepared by centrifugation of donated whole blood,apheresis plasma showed a higher FⅧ. Conclusion There is no significant quality difference between apheresis fresh frozen plasma and the fresh frozen plasma prepared by centrifugation of donated whole blood. The levels of coagulation factors in the former are even higher than those of the latter.%目的 探讨单采和手工新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)的质量差异.方法 运用常规检验方法测定单采和手工FFP(各20份)的凝血因子(Fib及FⅧ)、部分生化指标(TP、LDH、K+、Na+及Cl-)、游离血红蛋白(FHb)及pH,并进行对比分析.结果 2种冰冻血浆FHb、K+、Na+、Cl-及Plt含量差异具统计学意义,其他检测指标在两者间差异不具统计学意义,单采FFPFⅧ活性比手工FFP略高.结论 单采与手工FFP具有相同的质量,单采FFP的凝血因子活性略优于手工FFP.

  14. The selective therapeutic apheresis procedures. (United States)

    Sanchez, Amber P; Cunard, Robyn; Ward, David M


    Selective apheresis procedures have been developed to target specific molecules, antibodies, or cellular elements in a variety of diseases. The advantage of the selective apheresis procedures over conventional therapeutic plasmapheresis is preservation of other essential plasma components such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and clotting factors. These procedures are more commonly employed in Europe and Japan, and few are available in the USA. Apheresis procedures discussed in this review include the various technologies available for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), cryofiltration, immunoadsorption procedures, adsorption resins that process plasma, extracorporeal photopheresis, and leukocyte apheresis.

  15. [LDL apheresis in the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia]. (United States)

    Coker, Mahmut


    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is one of the main therapeutic models for homozygous and severe heterozygous form of the familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of apheresis has positive effects on prevention of cardiovascular disease by improving of the tissue perfusion. Blood LDL cholesterol levels, response to medical therapy, presence or severity of the coronary heart disease are the main determinants of the apheresis indications. Except bleeding tendency and heparin sensitivity, there are no contraindications. In parallel with low body weight, pediatric practice could be more risky; however, there is also a 3.5-year-old apheresis application without problems. The first successful plasmapherisis for the removal of LDL cholesterol in circulation was performed in 1975. Plasmapheresis, today, is only emergency treatment model in cases of life-threatening hyperchylomicronemia. New apheresis techniques have rather high selectivity for atherogenic lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein-B100. If existing apheresis technique has low effectiveness (acute decrease of LDL cholesterol apheresis treatment significantly reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in children and adult patients with homozygous or severe heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Use of laboratory tests to guide initiation of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell collection by apheresis: results from the multicenter hematopoietic progenitor cell collection by Apheresis Laboratory Trigger Survey. (United States)

    Makar, Robert S; Padmanabhan, Anand; Kim, Haewon C; Anderson, Christina; Sugrue, Michele W; Linenberger, Michael


    Limited literature describes the value of laboratory "triggers" to guide collection of peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) by apheresis [HPC(A)]. We used a web-based survey to determine which parameters are used to initiate autologous HPC(A) collection in adult and pediatric patients and to identify common practice patterns. Members of the AABB Cellular Therapy Product Collection and Clinical Practices Subsection and the American Society for Apheresis HPC Donor Subcommittee drafted and developed relevant survey questions. A web link to the survey was distributed by electronic newsletter or email. Responses from 67 programs that perform autologous HPC(A) collections, including academic medical centers (n = 46), blood centers (n = 10), community hospitals (n = 5), and a variety of other medical institutions (n = 6), were analyzed. Ninety-three percent (62/67) of programs used a laboratory parameter to initiate HPC(A) collection. In both adult (40/54, 74%) and pediatric (29/38, 76%) patients, the PB CD34+ cell count was the most common parameter used to initiate HPC(A) collection. The median PB CD34+ trigger value was 10/μL for both patient populations. Among centers routinely using the PB CD34+ cell count to initiate apheresis, 51% (22/43) first sent the test before the patient presented for collection. Although more than 90% of centers used a laboratory test to trigger apheresis in cytokine-mobilized (44/48) or chemomobilized patients (50/53), only 57% (30/53) used a laboratory trigger if the patient was mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus plerixafor. Forty-two percent (21/50) of programs that routinely measured the PB CD34+ count before collection and discontinued further HPC(A) collection based on product CD34+ cell yield also stopped if the PB CD34+ value before apheresis was considered too low to proceed. Most programs use the PB CD34+ cell count to trigger autologous HPC(A) collection. Some centers also use this

  17. 多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化%The changes of peripheral blood indexes in donors donating blood several times for apheresis platelet concentrates*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛健民; 赵宏祥; 任素玲; 袁秀珍


    Objective To study the changes of peripheral blood several times indexes in donors donating blood for apheresis platelet concentrates. Methods 20 donors who donated blood for apheresis platelet concentrates 10 38 times (interval: 1- 2 months), were enrolled and detected for peripheral blood indexes respectively before the first and the last time for donating platelet,and the results were analyzed. Results Of all enrolled donors, the platelet number, red blood cell number, white blood cell number and haemoglobin concentrates and the average value before the last donating blood were not statistical different with those before the first donating(P>0.05) ,but mean platelet volume and platelet large cell rate were decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion Blood do nation could promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow,and might not be harmful to the body health.%目的 研究多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化情况.方法 选择20名自愿捐献机采血小板达10~38次的献血者(每次间隔期为1~2个月),在首次和末次采集血小板前分别进行外周血象的检测,进行统计分析.结果 多次捐献机采血小板的献血者,末次采集前外周血小板数(PLT)与首次采集前PLT、正常值均数相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),外周血中的红细胞数(RBC)、白细胞数(WBC)、血红蛋白浓度(Hb)并未发生明显的变化,但血小板分布宽度(PDW)增加,血小板平均体积(MPV)、大形血小板比例(P-LCR)下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 献血可以促进骨髓的造血功能,对机体并无明显不利的影响.

  18. 攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血研究%Study on Apheresis Platelets under Mutual Assistance Blood Donation Pat-tern in Panzhihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet in Panzhihua City and provide basis for recruitment strategy on apheresis platelet. Methods The situations of 1089 cases of apheresis platelet blood donation from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results The retest failure rate for the 476 case of apheresis platelet blood donation under mutual assistance pattern was 3.15%, and that for the 613 cases under voluntary pattern was 0.82%. The former is significantly higher than the latter (χ2=8.107,P<0.01), among which the difference in anti-TP failure rate was statistically significant (χ2=10.379,P<0.005). The initial blood donation ratio for mutual assistance blood donation pattern reached 71.46%(341/476), while that for the voluntary apheresis platelet blood donation pattern was 0.98%(6/613), which differed significantly (χ2=616.180,P<0.001). Conclusion Blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet relieves the shortage situation in platelet by certain degree, but also brings some hidden safety hazards.%目的:研究攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血模式的利弊,为机采血小板招募策略提供依据。方法对2008-2013年1089人次机采血小板献血情况进行回顾性分析。结果机采互助献血者476人次复检不合格率3.15%,自愿机采献血者613人次复检不合格率0.82%,前者明显大于后者(χ2=8.107,P<0.01),其中抗-TP不合格率差异有显著意义(χ2=10.379,P<0.005)。机采互助献血中初次献血率达71.64%(341/476),自愿机采献血中初次献血率仅0.98%(6/613),两种献血者的初次献血率差异有显著意义(χ2=616.180,P<0.001)。结论机采血小板互助献血在一定程度上缓解了血小板紧缺的状况,也带来一些安全隐患。

  19. [Apheresis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)]. (United States)

    De Silvestro, Giustina; Tison, Tiziana; Marson, Piero


    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical disorder characterized by thromboembolic manifestations and/or obstetric complications. Along with the clinical symptoms and signs, serum antiphospholipid antibodies have to be detected. APS can be primary, i.e., without any concomitant disorders, or secondary to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Criteria for the diagnosis of APS have been clearly established. Hyperacute APS (or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome), often with a poor prognosis, must meet four criteria: involvement of three or more organs, rapid evolution of clinical manifestations, microangiopathic occlusion of small blood vessels at biopsy, and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The rationale for apheresis treatment is the removal of pathogenetic antibodies involved in the development of tissue damage. Our experience includes 23 patients, in particular 15 women treated for 19 pregnancies. According to the National Guidelines Program, the effectiveness of apheresis in catastrophic syndrome has a level of evidence of V/VI, with a strength of recommendation A; in highrisk pregnancy it has a level of evidence of V with a strength of recommendation B. It will be necessary to better define the prognosis of various categories of pregnant patients with APS, as well as useful laboratory parameters to monitor its clinical course and anticipate any complications of pregnancy.

  20. Thrombelastographic evaluation of the influence of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system. (United States)

    Akay, Olga Meltem; Karagulle, Mustafa; Kus, Gokhan; Mutlu, Fezan Sahın; Gunduz, Eren


    Rotation thrombelastogram (ROTEM®/TEG®) assays allow rapid global assessment of hemostatic function using whole blood. Since published data about the effects of automated red cell collection on coagulation system are scarce, we aimed to investigate the effects of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system using ROTEM® assays. In INTEM assay, CFT was significantly shortened 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p=0.001 and papheresis compared with baseline value (papheresis.

  1. Prevention and Nursing to the Side Effects in Therapeutic Blood Cell Apheresis%治疗性血细胞单采术中不良反应的预防及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟丽; 刘淑萍; 曲志刚; 何伟红


    It sums up the prevention and nursing to the complications in 65 cases of blood disease in therapeutic blood cell apheresis. The common complications ate: punctured part hematoncus, citrate toxin poisoning, overloading of micro-circulation and allergic reaction, etc.; the nurses take active measures, make well pie-operation mental nursing and strengthen supervising lift sign and disease state, and make intervention to complication as early as possible, which are of key meaning to the blood cell apheresis treatment.%总结65例血液病患者行治疗性血细胞单采术治疗中并发症的预防及护理.常见的并发症有穿刺部位的血肿、枸橼酸盐中毒、循环负荷过重、过敏反应等.护士积极有效地采取护理措施,做好术前心理护理,术中加强生命体征及病情监测,并对出现的并发症给予及早的干预,对提高血液病患者血细胞单采术治疗的疗效有着重要的意义.

  2. 威海市机采献血者与全血献血者人群特征比较%Character comparison of Weihai apheresis donors with whole blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明静; 常爱荣; 谭玲丽


    目的:比较威海市机采献血者与全血献血者人群特征,为献血者招募提供参考。方法利用血站信息管理系统对无偿献血者信息进行统计整理,利用SPSS18.0统计软件对2013年威海市1674名机采血小板捐献者、32089名全血捐献者人群结构、献血经历和血液检测结果进行分析。结果威海市机采献血者与全血献血者统计指标中,性别、年龄、文化程度、职业、献血经历、血液检测结果差异均具有统计学意义。结论机采献血者中35岁以下年轻男性比例明显高于全血献血者,分析原因与男性身体特征及工作人员针对性招募有关,机采献血者与全血献血者文化程度与职业的差异在于团体献血工作的开展。血站可根据本地特点,因地制宜地制订宣传策略,开展有针对性的招募,可以极大提高招募成功率,使机采献血者队伍进入良性循环。%Objective Population characteristics of apheresis donors is compared with that of whole blood donors in Weihai to provide reference for blood donor recruitment. Methods Voluntary blood donors information is organized by using information management system in blood station, the population structure, experiences and blood test results of 1674 apheresis platelet donors and 32089 whole blood donors in 2013 are analyzed by using statistical software spss18.0. Results Comparing apheresis donors with whole blood donors ,the differences of gender, age, educational level, occupation, experience of blood donation and blood test results have statistical significance. Conclusion The persent of apheresis donors under 35 years old is larger than that of whole blood donors, because of male physical characteristics and targeted recruitment. Differences in educational level and in occupation are caused by group blood donations. According to local conditions, blood station can develop promotional strategies and targeted recruitment in order to

  3. Blood Donation Process (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  4. State Analysis of the Apheresis Platelet Donors in Dali Blood Center%大理州中心血站机采血小板献血者结构状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑波; 杨天富; 王永均; 杨宇珠; 季雯婕


    目的:了解大理州无偿机采血小板献血人群的结构及分布特征,为无偿献血招募提供科学依据,确保本地区机采血小板的临床供应.方法:用穿越血站管理信息系统中统计模块收集2005年至2013年在血站无偿捐献机采血小板的献血者资料,进行数据统计分析.结果:2005年至2013年共有机采血小板献血者889人次.其中,男性显著多于女性,占89.31%;年龄以25~35岁、36~45岁两个年龄段为主;初中及以下学历所占比例较大,占66.14%;职业以农民为主,占62.77%;血型分布特征为A>O>B>AB.结论:有针对性地做好无偿机采血小板献血宣传招募工作,建立一支稳定的机采血小板献血者队伍,以满足临床需要.%Objective:To understand the state and distribution of the voluntary apheresis platelet donors in Dali;to provide scientific basis for the recruitment of blood donation without compensation; and to ensure the local clinical supply of the apheresis platelet. Methods: The statistical module in the through blood stations management information system was used to collect the data from the apheresis platelet donors who voluntarily donated in our blood bank from 2005 to 2013 for statistical analysis. Results:The number of the blood donors from 2005 to 2013 is 889. Among them, the number of the men is obviously larger than that of women , accounting for 89.31%. There are two main age groups:aged from 25 to 35 and from 36 to 45. Most of them are junior school graduates and below, accounting for 66.14%;About 62.77%of them are famers;The characteristic of blood type distribution is A>O>B>AB. Conclusion:To satisfy clinical needs good recruitment of free donors and stable donation populator are important.

  5. Analysis on reasons of unqualified blood test results on apheresis platelets donors%机采血小板献血者血液检测不合格原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹韬; 杨松; 陈臻


    ObjectiveTo analyze the reasons of unqualified blood test results on apheresis platelets donors in Nanchong; to improve the recruitment strategy and pre-donor screening program.MethodsBlood test results on apheresis platelets donors in Nanchong from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed and counted.ResultsTotal unqualified rate of blood test on platelet from 2010 to 2014 was 2.09%, wherein unqualified rate of new donors was 5.51% and that of repeated donors was 1.36%. Unqualified rates of ALT, HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and anti-TP were 0.87%, 0.51%, 0.13%, 0.21% and 0.44%.ConclusionsApheresis platelets donors are recruited from stationary voluntary unpaid donors. Strengthening blood screening of blood donors can decrease unqualified rate of platelet detection.%目的:分析南充市机采血小板血液检测不合格原因,改进招募策略和献血前筛查方案。方法:对本市2010-2014年机采血小板血液检测结果进行分析统计。结果:2010-2014年血小板血液检测总不合格率为2.09%,其中首次献血者的不合格率为5.51%,重复献血者的不合格率为1.36%,不合格原因中ALT、HBsAg、抗-HCV、抗-HIV、抗-TP的不合格率分别为0.87%、0.51%、0.13%、0.21%、0.44%。结论:从固定自愿无偿献血者中招募机采血小板献血者、加强献血者血液筛查可降低机采血小板检测不合格率。

  6. 献血者机采血小板后外周血细胞的变化分析%Analysis of the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春媛; 赵庆伟; 庞桂芝


    目的:分析机采血小板后献血者外周血细胞的变化情况,保障捐献者安全。方法随机选择51名机采血小板捐献者,对比分析机采血小板前后捐献者外周血液中WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、RKW、PLT、MPV、PKW等指标。结果机采血小板后献血者WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、PLT降低,MPV变大,PKW、RKW升高,但都在不影响捐献者个体健康的可控范围内,并且10 d后上述指标基本上都恢复到献血前的水平。结论机采血小板献血不会影响捐献者身体健康,可以促进骨髓的造血功能和血液的新陈代谢。%Objective To analyze the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation for protecting the safety of donors. Methods Fifty -one healthy donors were selected and detected WBC,RBC,Hct,HGB, RKW,PLT,MPV,PKW before and after donation. Results WBC, RBC,Hct,HGB and PLT were decreased,MPV,PKW and RKW of all enrolled donors were increased after donation. But it did not affect donors’health within a controllable range,and peripher-al blood indexes restored to pre-donation levels at 10th day after donation. Conclusion Apheresis platelet donation has no bad effect on the health of individuals and can promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow and the metabolism of blood.

  7. The causes and coping manners in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet%机采血小板献血反应的原因分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菊; 桑列勇; 杜冬芬; 李素娥


    Objective To investigate the causes and the treatments in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet. Methods The intervention and nursing measures of 9 903 cases of apheresis platelet donors from January 2012 to November 2015 were summarized. A total of 53 blood donation responders′ data such as gender were collected, and the data were analyzed. Results From January 2012 to November 2015 blood donation reaction rate was 0.54% (53/903), which was lower than that reported in the literature. Among them, 41 cases were female and 12 were male, female blood donation reaction rate was higher than the male (χ2=78.36,P0.05). Blood donation reactions occurred in 34 cases within 5 minutes before the end of the program, accounting for 64.2%(34/53) of the total. Conclusions The sex and blood cell separator and coping of blood volume and the spiritual factors are related to blood donation reaction. Providing quality nursing and services, and creating a good environment for blood donors are conducive to prevent and reduce the occurrence of blood donation reaction.%目的:探讨机采血小板献血反应的发生原因及对策。方法总结2012年1月至2015年11月9903人次机采血小板献血者的干预及护理方法,收集53人次献血反应者性别等资料进行统计分析。结果2012年1月至2015年11月献血反应发生率为0.54%(53/9903);其中男12人次,女41人次,女性献血反应发生率高于男性(χ2=78.36,P0.05)。程序运行结束前5 min内发生献血反应34人次占64.2%。结论献血反应与性别、分离机型、处理血量、精神因素等有关,为献血者提供优质护理和服务,创造良好的献血环境,有利于预防和减少献血反应的发生。

  8. Red blood cell production (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  9. 献血者血小板数量及血容量对机采血小板采集量的影响%The Influence on Apheresis Platelets Collection Quantity of Platelets Counts and Blood Volume of Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋靓; 曹维娟; 王明元


    目的:分析献血员血小板数量及处理血量对机采血小板采集量的影响。方法应用Trima血细胞分离机采集100名献血者的双份血小板。结果通过多元回归分析发现,献血者采前的血小板计数(Plt)和血容量(BV)与血小板采集量之间存在回归关系,其标准偏回归系数β值分别为-0.370和-0.201,P<0.01。结论对采前的Plt和BV水平较低的献血者,可采用Trima血细胞分离机进行采集。%Objective To analyze the influence on apheresis platelets collection quantity of platelets count (Plt) and blood volume (BV) of donors. Methods Double platelets were collected from 100 donors using the Trima blood separator. Results By multivariate linear regression analysis, it was found that there were regression relationships between donors' Plt and BV before donation and platelets collection quantity (β=-0.370 and-0.201, P<0.01). Conclusion For donors with low level Plt or BV, Trima blood separator can be used.

  10. Role of apheresis and dialysis in pediatric living donor liver transplantation: a single center retrospective study. (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Mizuta, Koichi; Urahashi, Taizen; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Okada, Noriki; Yamada, Naoya; Koinuma, Toshitaka; Koyama, Kansuke; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Misawa, Kazuhide; Wada, Masahiko; Nunomiya, Shin; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Kawarasaki, Hideo


    In the field of pediatric living donor liver transplantation, the indications for apheresis and dialysis, and its efficacy and safety are still a matter of debate. In this study, we performed a retrospective investigation of these aspects, and considered its roles. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 73 living donor liver transplantations were performed in our department. Twenty seven courses of apheresis and dialysis were performed for 19 of those patients (19/73; 26.0%). The indications were ABO incompatible-liver transplantation in 11 courses, fluid management in seven, acute liver failure in three, renal replacement therapy in two, endotoxin removal in two, cytokine removal in one, and liver allograft dysfunction in one. Sixteen courses of apheresis and dialysis were performed prior to liver transplantation for 14 patients. The median IgM antibody titers before and after apheresis for ABO blood type-incompatible liver transplantation was 128 and eight, respectively (P apheresis and dialysis were performed post liver transplantation for 10 patients. The median PaO2/FiO2 ratio before and after dialysis for fluid overload was 159 and 339, respectively (P apheresis and dialysis occurred. The 1-year survival rate of the patients was 100%. Apheresis and dialysis in pediatric living donor liver transplantation are effective for antibody removal in ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, and fluid management for acute respiratory failure.

  11. Medications and therapeutic apheresis procedures: are we doing our best? (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rami B; Balogun, Rasheed Abiodun


    Therapeutic apheresis refers to a group of extracorporeal therapies commonly used in the treatment of a variety of neurological, renal, hematological, and other systemic diseases caused by circulating "toxic agents" that cannot be cleared by other means. This article presents an overview of the concepts underlying the effect of therapeutic apheresis procedures on prescription drugs taken by patients and describes key drug-related and procedure-related factors that may impact drug disposition during therapeutic apheresis. Therapeutic apheresis, and specifically therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), is the process involving the extracorporeal separation of plasma from the cellular components of blood, discarding the plasma and exchanging it with replacement physiologic fluids such as albumin or fresh frozen plasma to maintain oncotic pressure and blood volume, and then returning this and the original cellular components of blood back to the patient's circulatory system (Ibrahim and Balogun, Semin Dial 2012;25:176-189). Over the last 4 decades, modern therapeutic apheresis has been used clinically for the treatment of a host of renal, hematological, and neurological diseases such as Goodpasture's syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and myasthenia gravis to name a few (Ibrahim et al., Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:1529-1549). Because of its ability to remove plasma, TPE can extract circulating drugs residing in this compartment, thereby affecting their disposition and potentially their therapeutic action (Ibrahim and Balogun, Semin Dial 2012;25:176-189; Ibrahim et al., Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:1529-1549; Kale-Pradhan and Woo, Pharmacotherapy 1997;17:684-695; Kintzel et al., J Clin Apher 2003;18:194-205). The aim of this article is to shed light on drug-related and TPE-related factors that may influence drug removal by TPE. Emphasis is put on areas needing improvement in the way of assessing drug removal by TPE. In addition, a call for an expanded investigation of TPEs

  12. The Percentage Variation of Platelets in Multiple Donator Apheresis Platelets in Peripheral Blood Reticulocytes%多次单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱国; 李继红; 周宁; 孟德伍; 祝峰; 范恩勇


    目的:了解单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化情况。方法按照单采血小板捐献情况分为2组,实验组为参加过单采血小板的献血者153例,对照组为以往无献血史,首次来血站献血且符合献血条件,共189例,利用全自动血球分析仪检测WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PDW、PCT、MPV及IPF比例等项目。结果与对照组相比,实验组中男性献血者WBC、PCT的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05),PDW、MPV、IPF下降,有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组中女性献血者WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PCT、MPV的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),PDW、IPF明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论多次进行单采血小板捐献,对于男性献血者除加快RBC、PLT的骨髓造血功能外,并未加速IPF上升,相反促进PLT成熟。对于女性献血者则由于自身早期的生理性周期性失血,女性献血者的RBC、PLT等指标已受自身免疫负反馈调节而耐受,但对于多次捐献血小板的女性献血者,可能血小板生成能力较男性献血小板者增加有关。%Objective To understand reticulated platelet level changes in apheresis platelet donors. Methods The platelets donators were divided into experimental group (A) and control group(B). Group A comprised 153 cases of apheresis platelet donors and group B included 189 cases without the experience of blood donation. Automated blood analyzer was used for testing WBC,RBC,Hb,HCT,PLT,PDW,PCT,MPV and IPF proportions and other items. Results No significant difference was seen of WBC and PCT(P>0.05) in the male blood donors in Group A,whereas RBC,Hb,HCT,and PLT were obviously elavated(P0.05)whereas PDW and IPF were significantly increased(P<0.05). Conclusion Repeated apheresis platelet donations may accelerate RBC and PLT rather than IPF production in bone marrow

  13. Evaluation of storage performance of special plastic blood bags for apheresis platelets%血小板保存专用塑料血袋的储存性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷熙; 韩颖; 周倩; 刘敏霞; 王艳; 柴丽娜; 卓海龙; 易晓阳; 周建伟; 王建卫


    Objective To evaluate the storage performance of storage bags for apheresis platelets produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co .,Ltd ( experimental bags ) with Trima set platelet storage bags produced by the U .S. Gambro BCT as the control .Method One unit of apheresis platelets was divided into two equal parts , added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively .All samples were stored at ( 22 ±2 )℃ with consecutive oscillation . The platelets′count, mean volume, aggregate activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydro-genase concentration , hypotonic shock reaction , expression of CD62P and phosphatidyl serine on surface of cell membrane were detected at 0,3,5 and 7 d respectively.Results There was no significant difference in platelet quality after five days of storage between the experimental group and the control group (t-test, P>0.05).Conclusion Two types of platelet stor-age blood bags have similar storage performance for apheresis platelets .%目的:以美国Gambro BCT公司生产的Trima set血小板保存袋为对照,评价山东威高集团医用高分子制品股份有限公司生产的血小板保存袋对单采血小板的储存性能。方法将1U单采血小板平分成两份,分别加入实验血袋和对照血袋中,于血小板恒温振荡保存箱中保存。分别于保存0、3、5、7d取样,比较分析两组的血小板含量和血小板平均体积、pH值、体外聚集活性、氧分压和二氧化碳分压、葡萄糖、乳酸和乳酸脱氢酶浓度、低渗休克反应、血小板活化和凋亡、血小板形态结构及细菌培养试验。结果两种保存袋保存的血小板在保存期内,相同保存时间实验组与对照组之间各项检测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);无菌试验均为阴性。结论国产血小板专用塑料血袋与美国Trima set血小板保存袋对该实验使用的15份单采血小板具有相似的储存性能。

  14. Indian Society for Apheresis and apheresis tourism in India--is there a future? (United States)

    Srivastava, R


    Apheresis has now become an internationally popular mode of treatment for multiple immune complex disorders. However, the treatment remains quite expensive in Western Europe and the US. Apheresis tourism is a part of medical tourism or medical tourism specially related to therapeutic apheresis (TA) treatment in a foreign country on a cost effective basis. In the last couple of years, 'Medical Tourism' has become an upcoming and growing enterprise in India. The Indian Society for Apheresis (ISA) has taken a plunge at the opportune time and is trying to promote apheresis tourism in India. ISA is a member of various international apheresis organizations globally including the World Apheresis Association (WAA), the International Society for Apheresis (ISFA), the International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO) and an associate of other national apheresis societies. The Indian Society for Apheresis (ISA) and the Ludhiana MediCiti (LMC) at Ludhiana Punjab are taking a big step in this direction. The therapeutic apheresis (TA) center at LMC is being set up as a Therapeutic Apheresis Institute and Research Center of excellence. The potential future impacts on the apheresis scenario are summarized.

  15. 延续护理对单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果研究%Study on effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of apheresis platelets donators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽霞; 龙雪芳; 骆小青; 林巧核


    Objective:To discuss effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of first - time apheresis platelets donators. Methods:Selected 120 first - time apheresis platelets donators in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015,and randomly divided these study objects into control group and experimental group equally;control group donors received usual nursing while experimental group donors received intervention nursing under the continuing nursing mode,which included cognitive intervention,mental intervention and behavioral intervention. Sustained blood donation conditions of both groups were assessed within one year after the interventions. The assessed fields included number of platelet donors,number of volunteers,number of successfully recruited blood donors,number of donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and number of donors who no longer donated platelets. Then changes in life styles of both group donors and their masteries of relevant knowledge were observed through analysis reports,so as to know about intervention effects. Results:Within 1 year after interventions,experimental group had more sustained apheresis platelets donator,volunteers,successfully recruited do-nors,but fewer donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and donors who no longer donated platelets,the differences had statistical signifi-cances(P < 0. 05). Cognitive behaviors of donors,masteries of relevant knowledge and changes in life styles were compared between both groups,and the comparisons had statistical differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Continuing nursing can encourage sustained blood donations of apheresis platelets donators, help them to change unhealthy living habits and increase their compliances. It plays an active role in recruitment,call back and conservation of donors.%目的:探讨延续护理对首次单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果。方法:选取我院2014年8月~2015年8月120名首次单采血小板献血

  16. Apheresis in developing countries around the World. (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B


    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  17. Certification of donor apheresis nurses: keys to develop an effective training program. (United States)

    Vrielink, H; van den Burg, P J M; van Antwerpen, C; van Dongen, R; Durant, M; de Fijter, A; van de Griendt, A; Kivit, R; Lubberdink, A; de Kort, W L A M


    Within Sanquin Blood Supply, a training program to train apheresis nurses was developed. The parts of the work for which qualification should be necessary was analysed. Based on this analysis, a modular program with theoretical and practical information and knowledge was developed. The modular program consists of two sections: a theoretical and technical / practical. The theoretical section consists of by the project group identified themes including basic hematology (e.g. the characteristics, kinetics, physiology and function of blood cells), basic apheresis physiology, indications for apheresis procedures, criteria for donors apheresis, difficulties and risks of procedures as well as the actions to be taken in case of side effects, and introduction to the apheresis machine available, including the mechanism of the machine. The program for the technical / practical section consists of machine and procedure knowledge (in theory and practise) and troubleshooting. To conclude each individual module, tests in theory and capability to perform procedures are taken. Each trainee needs to demonstrate to have sufficient insight and skill to master all the relevant critical features of the work. Also a text-book for the trainee was written. This educational program provides an approach to educate and test apheresis donor nurses. The combination of theoretical and practical components and monitoring of the progression are an important basis.

  18. Single Double Apheresis Platelets Collected Before and After the Change of Blood Routine%单双份机采血小板采集前后血常规变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 龚宏伟


    Objective Through the monitoring of the single and double apheresis platelet donors before and after blood collection, evaluation of effects of one or two of platelet donors. Methods From the station in 2015 September, a single double apheresis platelet donors in 30 cases, were measured before and after blood collection with platelet count instrument, And the main parameters of the blood platelet (Hb, Hct, Plt) analysis.Results Blood collection by one or two platelets before and after blood were compared respectively, the hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), there was no statistically signiifcant difference (P>0.05), The difference of platelet count (Plt) was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05), especially double platelets, peripheral blood platelet decreased more, but still in the normal range.Conclusion The acquisition of one or two platelets is reasonable and feasible, there was no signiifcant effect on the health of blood, has important signiifcance to relieve the tension of clinical platelet supply.%目的:通过对单份、双份机采血小板的献血者采集前、后血常规的监测,评价采单份或双份血小板对献血者的影响。方法抽取本站2015年9月份的单份、双份机采血小板的献血者各30例,用血小板计数仪分别检测其采集前、后的血常规,并对血小板血常规的主要参数(Hb、Hct、Plt)进行分析。结果采单份或双份血小板的献血者采集前、后的血常规分别比较,其中血红蛋浓度(Hb)、红细胞比容(Hct),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),血小板计数(Plt)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),特别是采双份血小板,外周血的血小板相对下降较多,但仍在正常范围。结论采集单份或双份血小板都是合理可行的,对献血者身体健康无明显影响,对缓解临床血小板供应的紧张局面具有重要意义。

  19. Removal of Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 by Dextran Sulfate Apheresis in Preeclampsia. (United States)

    Thadhani, Ravi; Hagmann, Henning; Schaarschmidt, Wiebke; Roth, Bernhard; Cingoez, Tuelay; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Wenger, Julia; Lucchesi, Kathryn J; Tamez, Hector; Lindner, Tom; Fridman, Alexander; Thome, Ulrich; Kribs, Angela; Danner, Marco; Hamacher, Stefanie; Mallmann, Peter; Stepan, Holger; Benzing, Thomas


    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is an antiangiogenic protein believed to mediate the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. We conducted an open pilot study to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of therapeutic apheresis with a plasma-specific dextran sulfate column to remove circulating sFlt-1 in 11 pregnant women (20-38 years of age) with very preterm preeclampsia (23-32 weeks of gestation, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, new onset protein/creatinine ratio >0.30 g/g, and sFlt-1/placental growth factor ratio >85). We evaluated the extent of sFlt-1 removal, proteinuria reduction, pregnancy continuation, and neonatal and fetal safety of apheresis after one (n=6), two (n=4), or three (n=1) apheresis treatments. Mean sFlt-1 levels were reduced by 18% (range 7%-28%) with concomitant reductions of 44% in protein/creatinine ratios. Pregnancy continued for 8 days (range 2-11) and 15 days (range 11-21) in women treated once and multiple times, respectively, compared with 3 days (range 0-14) in untreated contemporaneous preeclampsia controls (n=22). Transient maternal BP reduction during apheresis was managed by withholding pre-apheresis antihypertensive therapy, saline prehydration, and reducing blood flow through the apheresis column. Compared with infants born prematurely to untreated women with and without preeclampsia (n=22 per group), no adverse effects of apheresis were observed. In conclusion, therapeutic apheresis reduced circulating sFlt-1 and proteinuria in women with very preterm preeclampsia and appeared to prolong pregnancy without major adverse maternal or fetal consequences. A controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Therapeutic apheresis in autoimmune diseases (United States)

    Bambauer, Rolf; Latza, Reinhard; Bambauer, Carolin; Burgard, Daniel; Schiel, Ralf


    Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a bad prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 35 years. Here we provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that therapeutic apheresis can be a supportive therapy in some systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory eye disease. With the introduction of novel and effective biologic agents, therapeutic apheresis is indicated only in severe cases, such as in rapid progression despite immunosuppressive therapy and/or biologic agents, and in patients with renal involvement, acute generalized vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, pulmonary, cardiac, or cerebral involvement. In mild forms of autoimmune disease, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies and/or biologic agents seems to be sufficient. The prognosis of autoimmune diseases with varying organ manifestations has improved considerably in recent years, due in part to very aggressive therapy schemes.

  1. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.


    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  2. Effect of Massive Apheresis on Blood Clotting Function for 16 Patients Undergoing Surgery%外科手术大量成分输血对凝血功能的影向(附16例分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 蒋学兵; 李文静; 王燕菊; 陈丽


    Objective To summarize the reasonable application in massive transfusion by apheresis in order to improve the clinical transfusion safety. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical data of 16 patients with massive transfusion ( >5000 ml) during operations during January 2011 and December 2011 , the blood coltting function was detected, and the dosage and species of blood transfusion before and after a blood transfusion were counted. Results The blood clotting of 13 cases in 16 cases were normal before operation. 3 cases were abnormal due to liver dysfunction. Blood transfusion average of intraoperative and postoperation were (6404. 38 ± 1973.60) ml. The erythrocyte suspension average was (17.75 ±6.95) units, refrigerated plasma average was (25.63 ±7.67) units, blood platelets average was (1.31 ± 1.25) units. 8 h after transfusion, the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time of 16 cases were prolonged and the fibrinogen, blood platetets of 16 cases decreased when compared with that before blood transfusion, the results had statistical significance (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Patients may suffer from blood clotting functional disorder in massive transfusion , and physicians should be careful in choosing blood composition according to pathogenetic condition and the results of laboratory examinton, in order to reduce adverse rections and improve safety of surgical safety.%目的 探讨成分输血在大量输血中的合理应用,以提高临床输血安全性.方法 回顾性分析我院2011年1~12月手术大量输血(>5000ml)16例的临床资料,输血前后检测凝血功能,并统计输血剂量和血液制品种类.结果 16例中13例术前凝血功能正常,3例行肝移植术由于肝脏功能异常导致术前凝血功能差.16例平均输血(6404.38±1973.60)ml,其中输注红细胞悬液平均(17.75±6.95)单位,冰冻血浆平均(25.63±7.67)单位,机采血小板平均(1.31±1.25)单位.输血后8h

  3. Special Blood Donation Procedures (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  4. 血液病患者单采血小板输注无效的原因及对策%Reasons for apheresis platelet transfusion refractory on patients with blood disorder and its countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈胜建; 赵明峰; 张宇辰


    目的:探讨血液病患者单采血小板输注无效( PTR)发生率及其影响因素,为临床正确应用血小板制剂提供指导。方法回顾性分析单采血小板输注的70例患者318例次输注资料,通过计算血小板计数增加指数和血小板恢复百分率结合患者出血状况有无改善,判断血小板输注有效性,并讨论其影响因素及处理措施。结果急性白血病、再生障碍性贫血、骨髓异常综合征和特发性血小板减少性紫癜患者PTR发生率分别为22.1%、25.5%、38.3%和51.2%,四种类型的血液病患者血小板PTR发生率差别有统计学意义(P均<0.05);同种疾病无并发症患者PTR发生率低于有并发症者(P<0.05);无并发症患者PTR发生率随着输注次数的增加而上升(P<0.05)。未过滤白细胞与过滤白细胞患者PTR发生率比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论疾病类型、有无并发症等因素影响血液病患者血小板输注的治疗效果,减少并发症、过滤白细胞可提高血小板的输注效果。%Objective To explore incidence rate and influence factor of apheresis platelet transfusion refractory ( PTR) on patients with blood disorder .Methods The data of 318 infusions for 70 patients subject to apheresis platelet infusion were retrospectively analyzed , by calculating corrected Count increment ( CCI ) and percent platelet recovery ( PPR) and combining hemorrhage improvement condition in patients , the effect of platelet transfusion were determined and influence factors and treatment measures were discussed .Results ①The PTR occurrence rate of acute leukemia (AL), aplastic anemia (AA), bone marrow abnormalities syndrome (MDS) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in patients hit 22.1%, 25.5%, 38.3%and 22.1%respectively, the difference in platelet PTR rate in four types of blood diseases was statistically significant (P<0.05).②The difference

  5. Case of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 apheresis in severe pre-eclampsia developed at 15 weeks' gestation. (United States)

    Nakakita, Baku; Mogami, Haruta; Kondoh, Eiji; Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Yanagita, Motoko; Konishi, Ikuo


    Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1), a circulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 antagonist, is associated with the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Extracorporeal removal of sFlt1 (sFlt1 apheresis) is emerging as a treatment for pre-eclampsia. We performed sFlt1 apheresis for a patient with very early onset pre-eclampsia, beginning at 15 weeks' gestation. She underwent sFlt1 apheresis 13 times from 19 to 23 weeks' gestation. The series of treatments lowered circulating sFlt1, stabilized blood pressure, reduced urinary protein, and preserved renal function, which contributed to a successful prolongation of pregnancy for 4 weeks and a live birth at 23(+3) weeks' gestation. Further studies are necessary for clinical application of sFlt1 apheresis as sFlt1 might have a protective function for the placenta and fetus in pre-eclampsia.

  6. Vascular access considerations for therapeutic apheresis procedures. (United States)

    Okafor, Chidi; Kalantarinia, Kambiz


    The success of therapeutic apheresis (TA), similar to hemodialysis, depends on the integrity of the extracorporeal circuit as well as a reliable vascular access. However, unlike hemodialysis, which requires high flow of blood around 400 mL/minute through the extracorporeal circuit for effective clearance, TA is usually carried out with much lower blood flow rates (<100 ml/minute). Therefore, even peripheral venous access can be considered for TA. The main determinants of the choice of vascular access for TA is the duration of the planned treatment and, to a certain degree, the indication for its use. While peripheral venous access and temporary central venous catheters are sufficient for short-term TA, tunnelled catheters and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are usually used for long-term treatments. Because of the large body of evidence in the hemodialysis literature on the advantages of AVF over tunnelled catheters and AV grafts, they should be considered as the preferred access for chronic TA as well. However, advance planning for the care of AVF after creation is of critical importance especially since many of the healthcare providers dealing with TA are less familiar with caring for AVF than nephrologists and dialysis nurses. In this article we first review the similarities and differences between HD and TA procedures. The pros and cons of different vascular access options are discussed next. Finally, we have included a list of recommendations on maintenance of AVF created for TA based on our own experience.

  7. NHLBI state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis: Knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the area of hematology-oncology. (United States)

    Karafin, Matthew S; Sachais, Bruce S; Connelly-Smith, Laura; Field, Joshua J; Linenberger, Michael L; Padmanabhan, Anand


    The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) hosted a two-day state of the science symposium on therapeutic apheresis in Bethesda, MD on November 28th-29th, 2012. The purpose of the symposium was multifaceted, and included the following aims: (a) To discuss this state of research and key scientific questions in apheresis medicine; (b) To identify gaps in knowledge for relevant cardiovascular diseases, hematological and oncological diseases, infectious diseases and sepsis, renal diseases, and neurological diseases where there may be strong therapeutic rationale for the application of apheresis treatments; (c) To explore ways of coordinating therapeutic apheresis with other medical disciplines and treatment modalities; (d) To identify and prioritize the most important research questions to be answered in apheresis medicine; and (e) To offer NHLBI suggestions on how a structured research approach can be applied to the therapeutic apheresis research agenda in future years. The following document summarizes three such key proposals presented at the meeting for evaluating apheresis therapy for the treatment of pain in sickle cell disease, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, and leukostasis from acute myeloid leukemia. The challenges and limitations regarding apheresis therapy for each disease are discussed, and avenues for future investigation for each disease are outlined.

  8. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products. (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A


    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  9. Apheresis activity in Spain: a survey of the Spanish Apheresis Group. (United States)

    Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Areal, Carlos; Romon, Iñigo; Muncunill, Josep


    The Spanish Apheresis Group is a scientific association of physicians and nurses representing most of the medical centers in the country that are involved in apheresis. The group developed a survey in order to get information about the types and number of apheresis procedures performed in Spain. We received responses from 66 centers and we were able to collect data from at least one center of each autonomous region. There were 7 centers (11%) that did not perform any kind of apheresis procedures, 26 (39%) centers performed therapeutic apheresis procedures only, 18 (27%) centers performed apheresis donations only, and 15 (23%) centers performed both types of apheresis procedures. Regarding therapeutic apheresis in adult patients, plasma exchange (34%) and stem cell collections (30%) were the two therapeutic procedures most frequently reported, followed by erythrocytapheresis (13%) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (11%). Regarding apheresis donation, our survey showed that the most frequent was multicomponent donation (45%) followed by plasmapheresis (28%) and single plateletapheresis (21%). When analyzing the current instrumentation for performing apheresis procedures, centers used the Spectra, Optia, and Trima devices (TerumoBCT) as the most frequent ones, followed by the MCS+(Haemonetics), Amicus (Fenwal), and Fresenius devices. In conclusion, we report here the first nationwide survey performed in Spain in order to get information about apheresis activities in our country. The survey is representative of Spain because we were able to collect data from at least one center from each of the different 17 autonomous regions, and we found a wide variety of therapeutic and donation procedures, as well as instrumentation used.

  10. Role of lipid apheresis in changing times. (United States)

    Schuff-Werner, Peter; Fenger, Sebastian; Kohlschein, Peter


    During the last decades, LDL-apheresis was established as an extracorporeal treatment option for patients with severe heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) that is resistant to conventional treatment strategies such as diet, drugs, and changes in lifestyle. Nearly half a century ago, the first LDL-apheresis treatment was performed by plasma exchange in a child with homozygous FH. At the beginning of the 1970s, the clinical advantage of regular extracorporeal LDL-elimination was demonstrated in siblings suffering from homozygous FH. These findings encouraged researchers especially from Germany and Japan to develop extracorporeal devices to selectively eliminate LDL-cholesterol in the 1980s. Although the selectivity of the currently available LDL-apheresis devices is different, the efficacy of LDL-elimination during a single treatment is rather similar and ranges between 55 and 65 % of the pretreatment LDL plasma concentration.In the 1990s, the patients regularly treated by extracorporeal LDL-elimination, diet, and drugs were included in regression studies assessed by angiography. It was shown that the combined treatment with LDL-apheresis, diet, and drugs resulted in less progression of coronary lesions than drugs and/or diet alone. However, although a tendency was evident, results did not reach criteria for significance. During the last decade, apheresis registries were established to collect data on efficiency, safety, and clinical outcome of regular long-term LDL-apheresis. The evaluation of registry data will certainly permit further insights in the therapeutic benefit of this expensive and time-consuming therapeutic approach. Furthermore, the future of LDL-apheresis will depend upon the availability of highly efficient new drugs and molecular genetic approaches such as RNA silencing of the apoB gene, whereas the liver transplantation and gene therapy of the LDL-receptor deficiency will not replace LDL-apheresis in severe familial

  11. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony. (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R


    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis by membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) via arteriovenous fistula performed in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. (United States)

    Gülle, Saniye; Bak, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Can, Demet; Karabay, Ozalp


    Membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) is an apheresis technique by which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In this study, we aim to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed by providing alternative vascular routes in two siblings with familial hypercholesterolemia who did not respond to medical treatment and diet. Of the two siblings, one was nine years old and the other one was three-and-a-half years old. Of the total of 78 apheresis processes performed, 24 were done via a permanent subclavian catheter, 36 were done via a subsequently provided arteriovenous fistula, and 18 were done via an arteriovenous graft. We observed a mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (61.6%), LDL cholesterol (65.5%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (38.6%). We noted that cascade filtration apheresis was effective in decreasing the LDL cholesterol in plasma, and no serious complications were noted. The success of the apheresis program depends on well-functioning blood access. An arteriovenous fistula may be the best route for the long-term treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, which requires complication-free apheresis treatments.

  13. Evaluation of platelets prepared by apheresis and stored for 5 days. In vitro and in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanwell, A.; Gulliksson, H.; Berg, B.K.; Jansson, B.A.; Svensson, L.A.


    To evaluate the effect of storage on apheresis platelets collected with a closed-system blood cell separator, an in vitro investigation was performed, with measurements of pH, lactate, ATP, the ratio of ATP to the total adenine nucleotide content, and adenylate kinase. Unmodified apheresis platelets and apheresis platelets with plasma added were compared with conventional platelets stored in PL-1240 or PL-732 plastic containers. During 6 days of storage, there were similar changes in all variables with one exception: the extracellular activity of adenylate kinase was lower in apheresis platelets with plasma than in the other three groups (p less than 0.01). In vivo studies were carried out with 111Indium-labeled autologous platelets in eight volunteers. Apheresis platelets with 100 mL of plasma added were stored in two 1000-mL containers (PL-732) at 22 degrees C during agitation. Platelets from one of the containers were labeled with 111Indium and transfused into the volunteer within 24 hours. Platelets from the other container were labeled after 5 days of storage and transfused into the same donor. There were no significant differences between apheresis platelets stored for 1 day and those stored for 5 days: the mean percentage of recovery was 58.4 and 57.6 percent, t1/2 was 69 and 67 hours, and the survival time was 5.5 and 5.6 days, respectively.

  14. American Society for Apheresis guidelines on the use of apheresis in clinical practice: practical, concise, evidence-based recommendations for the apheresis practitioner. (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L


    The 6th Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice published by the American Society of Apheresis provide practical, concise, and evidence based guidance for the apheresis medicine practitioner. The overall format of the Guidelines has remained unchanged with the 6th edition, compared to the 5th edition, with enhancements in the committee process of creating the guidelines. Because of changes in the writing committee structure, a number of changes have occurred in the ASFA category and recommendation grade for the use of apheresis in the treatment for a number of previously categorized clinical indications. In addition, eight new indications for apheresis, twenty three new clinical situations for previously categorized diseases, and ten new apheresis treatments for previously categorized disorders have been added. The 6th Guidelines continue to be an invaluable resource for those involved in apheresis medicine.

  15. Application of the extended nursing care in blood donors after the first apheresis platelet col ection%延续护理在首次单采血小板后献血者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙雪芳; 卢丽霞; 黎添华; 梁静仪; 赖许肖


    Objective:To explore the application of the extended nursing care in blood donors after the first apheresis platelet collection. Methods:120 blood donors were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group(60 donors in each group),the routine nursing care was given to the donors in the control group and the extra extended nursing care was provided in the observation group,the change of thrombopoietin and platelet activating factor,life quality and satisfaction of the donors were compared between the two groups. Results:There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the change of thrombopoietin and platelet activating factor be-tween the two groups before and after the intervention(P ﹤ 0. 05);the scores of life quality of the donors were superior in the observation group to the control group(P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion:The extended nursing care can relieve the psychological concerns of blood donors and improve their safety.%目的:探讨延续护理在首次单采血小板后献血者中的应用。探讨延续护理对首次单采血小板后献血者血小板生成素与血小板活化因子的影响。方法:将120名首次单采血小板献血者随机分为观察组和对照组各60名。对照组采用常规护理方式,观察组在此基础上采用延续护理模式,比较两组血小板生成素、血小板活化因子变化情况、干预后生活质量及服务满意度。结果:观察组干预前后血小板生成素及血小板活化因子变化比较差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05),观察组生活质量评分优于对照组(P ﹤0.01);观察组满意度较高。结论:通过延续护理可提高献血者献血安全,不会引起献血者的身体伤害,解除献血者心理顾虑,对招募起积极作用。

  16. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska


    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.



    Puntoni, Mariarita; Sbrana, Francesco; Bigazzi, Federico; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Sampietro, Tiziana


    Objective: Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) have increased cardiovascular events. Clinical trials have demonstrated that lowering circulating lipid levels by LDL-apheresis has beneficial effects on prognosis. However, whether apheresis vascular effects in FH are related to modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and whether the combination of apheresis with atorvastatin is able to enhance the putative anti-inflammatory effect of apheresis remains unknown. We examin...

  18. [Mode and size of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor bank in Chinese Han population]. (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Dong


    This study was purposed to determine the mode and size of human platelet antigens (HPA) typed platelet apheresis donor bank. The published data of HPA distribution collected from Chinese Han population of 16 provinces were analyzed. The combined data were tested with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed that the bb homozygote was not detected in HPA-1, -4, -6, -10, and b gene was not found in HPA-7-9, 11-14, -16. There were 648 combined HPA 1-16 genotypes in Chinese Han population, and the cumulative frequency of 42 combinations higher than 0.001 were 0.9763. The highest frequency (0.2012) in combination was HPA-(7-8-9-11-12-13-14-16) aa - (1-4-5-6-10) aa-2aa-3ab-15ab. The probability of HPA dual antigen mismatch in HPA-15, -3 and -2 was higher than the 0.1, and the probability in the HPA-1, -5, and -6 was between 0.01 - 0.1. The probability of full-match in HPA1-16 antigens was 0.3195 in Chinese Han population after the random blood transfusion. According to the curve drawn by donor number (N) versus frequency (F), the regression equation LogN = -0.4394 x Ln (F) +0.4324 was derived at P = 95%. If the derived frequency (product of HPA frequency and ABO frequency) is 0.005, then the N should be 576.07 at least in Chinese Han population. It is concluded that the mode of regional, multi-center database of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor bank may be acceptable in Chinese Han population, and the suitable number of HPA-typed platelet donor in one bank may be 600. Therefore, the bank can be used to treat the platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) caused by HPA-15, 3 and 2 mismatch mainly, and can be expanded effectively in similar genetic background to deal with the low-frequency HPA antigens mismatch. The number of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor influences not only on the frequency of HPA, but also on the frequency of ABO group.

  19. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer


    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application.

  20. 联合输注血小板与冷沉淀治疗急性大失血的疗效探讨%Therapeutic Effect of Co-infusion of Apheresis Platelets and Cryoprecipitate in Treatment of Patients with Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To discuss the therapeutic effects of co-infusion of apheresis platelets and cryoprecipitate in the treatment of patients with acute massive blood loss. Methods 90 patients losing over 3000mL blood because of different causes who were admitted to our hospital from April 2011 to April 2014 were divided into three groups (A, B, C). The group A was co-infused with apheresis platelets and cryoprecipitate (n=30), the group B with apheresis platelets (n=30) alone, and the group C with cryoprecipitate (n=30) alone. The coagulation indicators before and after infusion were compared between the three groups. Results After 6-24 hours, the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and the average bleeding time were all shorter in the group A than group B and group C with statistically signifi-cant difference (P3000 mL的患者分成A、B、C 3组,每组30例,A组联合输注单采血小板和冷沉淀;B组单独输注单采血小板;C组单独输注冷沉淀,并对三组患者输注前后的凝血指标进行比较分析。结果联合输注组6~24 h后,患者的凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)较单独治疗组均明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);纤维蛋白原(Fbg)较单独输注血小板组有所增加,血小板(PLT)较单独冷沉淀输注组有所增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。与单独输注血小板和单独输注冷沉淀比较,联合输注组的平均止血时间明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论在急性大失血患者治疗中,联合输注单釆血小板和冷沉淀比单独输注具有更显著的止血效果。

  1. Apheresis training for nurses and physicians around the World. (United States)

    Neyrinck, Marleen; Vrielink, Hans


    A training program for apheresis nurses in leukocyte collection and therapeutic apheresis was developed by the Joint Task Force for Apheresis Education and Certification. This is a modular program with theoretical and practical information and knowledge. On request of the Indonesian authorities, in the capital of Indonesia Jakarta, a certification course for apheresis nurses/operators based on the training program described above was organized in December 2013. The course existed of themes related to apheresis, such as hematology, anatomy, physiology, calculations, adverse events, basics of apheresis, nursing aspects, quality, collection of cells for cellular therapies, pediatrics, and therapeutic collections (cell reductions and exchange procedures). A pretest and post-test regarding the knowledge and judgment in the themes described was taken in Bahasa Indonesia or in English. In total, 38 apheresis nurses and 32 physicians participated in the course. In the post-test, the nurses scored in a mean 72/100 and the physicians 77/100 (nurses vs. physicians: P = 0.005), which was significantly better than the results of the pretest (54/100 and 53/100, respectively (P nurses/operators proved a significant increase of knowledge in the theory behind apheresis. This educational program provides an approach to educate and certificate apheresis nurses. It is also shown that also for physicians working in the field of apheresis, this course is of use increasing their knowledge regarding apheresis.

  2. Significant changes in the 6th edition of FACT-JACIE standards affecting apheresis facilities. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph


    FACT-JACIE cellular therapy standards are being revised every 3years and currently in their 6th edition. Significant changes in the 6th edition of the standards that affect apheresis facilities participating in cellular therapy product collections are presented.

  3. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium. (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P


    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  4. Costing blood products and services. (United States)

    Wallace, E L


    At present, blood centers and transfusion services have limited alternatives for offsetting the ever-rising costs of health care inputs. In the face of current revenue constraints, cost reduction or cost containment through efficiency improvements or service reduction is the principal available means. Such methods ought to be pursued vigorously by blood bankers with the aid of well-designed costing and other physical measurements systems. Experience indicates, however, that blood bankers, in their attempts to reduce or contain costs, are likely to place undue reliance on cost accounting systems as the means of capturing sought-for benefits. Management must learn enough about methods of costing to judge directly the uses and limitations of the information produced. Such understanding begins with recognition that all costs and cost comparisons should be specific to the purpose for which they are developed. No costing procedure is capable of producing measures generally applicable to all management decisions. A measure relevant to a planning decision is unlikely to be appropriate for performance evaluation. Useful comparisons among sets of organizations of costs, or of measures of physical inputs and outputs, require assurance that the methods of measurement employed are the same and that the sets of organizations from which the measures are drawn are reasonably comparable.

  5. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today. (United States)

    Lindholm, A


    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  6. Apheresis medicine state of the art in 2010: American Society for Apheresis fifth special edition of the Journal of Clinical Apheresis. (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L


    The quality of evidence supporting the use of apheresis in the treatment of individual diseases and disorders is often limited. For most diseases and disorders, randomized controlled trials of the use of apheresis have not been performed and for many, due to rarity of the condition, it is unlikely that they will ever be performed. In keeping with its vision, the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) has created and regularly updated guidelines on the use of apheresis in the treatment of disease. These guidelines seek to summarize the literature on the use of apheresis in treating diseases, provide a critical review of this literature, and give practical guidance to apheresis practitioners. The most recent ASFA guidelines were published in 2010. This article reviews the history of the ASFA guidelines, the changes that were made in the 2010 guidelines, and future directions and plans for these guidelines. The 2010 ASFA guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice represent the state of the art in apheresis medicine in 2010.

  7. 77 FR 20643 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... following links. Blood Products Advisory Committee Web Cast Link May 15...

  8. 77 FR 67013 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... links: December 4, 2012: Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 1:...

  9. Usefulness of Lipid Apheresis in the Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lui


    Full Text Available Lipid apheresis is used to treat patients with severe hyperlipidemia by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. This study examines the effect of apheresis on the lipid panel and cardiac event rates before and after apheresis. An electronic health record screen of ambulatory patients identified 11 active patients undergoing lipid apheresis with 10/11 carrying a diagnosis of FH. Baseline demographics, pre- and postapheresis lipid levels, highest recorded LDL-C, cardiac events, current medications, and first apheresis treatment were recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire and self-reported risk factors and interest in alternative treatment. There were significant reductions in mean total cholesterol (−58.4%, LDL-C (−71.9%, triglycerides (−51%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (−9.3%, and non-HDL (−68.2% values. Thirty-four cardiac events were documented in 8 patients before apheresis, compared with 9 events in 5 patients after apheresis. Our survey showed a high prevalence of statin intolerance (64%, with the majority (90% of participants indicating an interest in alternative treatment options. Our results have shown that lipid apheresis primary effect is a marked reduction in LDL-C cholesterol levels and may reduce the recurrence of cardiac events. Apheresis should be compared to the newer alternative treatment modalities in a randomized fashion due to patient interest in alternative options.

  10. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry. (United States)

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill


    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England. (United States)

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N


    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain.

  12. Granulocytes and monocytes apheresis induces upregulation of TGFβ1 in patients with active ulcerative colitis: A possible involvement of soluble HLA-I. (United States)

    Contini, Paola; Negrini, Simone; Bodini, Giorgia; Trucchi, Cecilia; Ubezio, Gianluca; Strada, Paolo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Ghio, Massimo


    Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis has been used in different immune-mediated disorders, mainly inflammatory bowel diseases. The removal of activated leukocytes and several additional immunomodulatory mechanisms have been so far suggested to explain the anti-inflammatory effects of the treatment. Recent data indicate that, during centrifugation based apheresis, sHLA-I adsorbed to plastic circuits is able to induce TGFβ1 production in activated leukocytes. On these bases, the present study was aimed at analyzing if this model could be applied to a noncentrifugation based apheresis, such as granulocyte and monocyte apheresis. Ten patients with ulcerative colitis were enrolled. Every patient received 5 weekly apheresis treatments. Cellulose acetate beads removed from the column post-GMA were stained by fluorescent anticlass I mAb and examined by fluorescent microscope. Moreover, sFasL plasma concentration, TGFβ1 plasma levels, and the percentage of TGFβ1 positive neutrophils were evaluated before and immediately after each single apheresis. Immunofluorescent images revealed a homogeneous layer of a sHLA-I adsorbed to the surface of the beads recovered following the procedure. sFasL plasma concentration progressively increased both following the procedures and during inter-procedure periods. Consistently, also TGFβ1 plasma levels and the percentage of TGFβ1 positive neutrophils increased during the procedures with a meaningful relationship with sFasL plasma levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the immunosuppressive effects attributed to granulocyte and monocyte apheresis might depend, at least in part, on the sensitivity of activated leucocytes to the bioactivity of sHLA-I molecules. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:49-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New Options of Apheresis in Renal Diseases: How and When? (United States)

    Korsak, Jolanta; Wańkowicz, Zofia


    The 100-year anniversary of the first experimental apheresis performed by John Abel on uremic dogs in 1914 provides the opportunity for discussion on the current state of classic apheresis as well as technological progress and clinical experiences with its new options presented in the world literature in the last 15 years, such as the following: double filtration, plasma adsorption and immunoadsorption, leuko- and cytapheresis and low-density lipoprotein apheresis. In our review, we highlight the potential limitations for further development of those highly promising techniques, such as the following: the lack of multicenter, controlled clinical studies; insufficient knowledge of the mechanisms of those techniques and last but not least, the restricted access to apheresis, caused both by high expenditure and organizational negligence, even in highly developed countries. Special attention was paid to the most recent recommendations by the American Society of Apheresis in primary and secondary renal diseases, which are the subject of our professional interest.

  14. Low Titer Group O Whole Blood in Emergency Situations (United States)


    A randomized controlled pilot trial sponsored by the US Department of Defense comparing components to modified WB plus apheresis platelet indicated...the ABO blood group of the recipient. In case of WB or apheresis platelets, each unit usually contains about 200 to 300 mL of plasma. A transfusion...Benson K: Evaluation of changes in hemoglobin levels associated with ABO-incompatible plasma in apheresis platelets. Transfusion 38(1):51 55, 1998. 14

  15. Increasing demands on today's blood donors


    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  16. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik


    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  17. 77 FR 7588 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Cancellation (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Blood Products...

  18. HELP LDL apheresis reduces plasma pentraxin 3 in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Zanetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pentraxin 3 (PTX3, a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, is secreted by vascular cells in response to injury, possibly aiming at tuning arterial activation associated with vascular damage. Severe hypercholesterolemia as in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH promotes vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis; low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is currently the treatment of choice to reduce plasma lipids in FH. HELP LDL apheresis affects pro- and antiinflammatory biomarkers, however its effects on PTX3 levels are unknown. We assessed the impact of FH and of LDL removal by HELP apheresis on PTX3. METHODS: Plasma lipids, PTX3, and CRP were measured in 19 patients with FH undergoing chronic HELP LDL apheresis before and after treatment and in 20 control subjects. In the patients assessment of inflammation and oxidative stress markers included also plasma TNFα, fibrinogen and TBARS. RESULTS: At baseline, FH patients had higher (p = 0.0002 plasma PTX3 than matched control subjects. In FH PTX3 correlated positively (p≤0.05 with age, gender and CRP and negatively (p = 0.01 with HELP LDL apheresis vintage. The latter association was confirmed after correction for age, gender and CRP. HELP LDL apheresis acutely reduced (p≤0.04 plasma PTX3, CRP, fibrinogen, TBARS and lipids, but not TNFα. No association was observed between mean decrease in PTX3 and in LDL cholesterol. PTX3 paralleled lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation markers in time-course study. CONCLUSION: FH is associated with increased plasma PTX3, which is acutely reduced by HELP LDL apheresis independently of LDL cholesterol, as reflected by the lack of association between change in PTX3 and in LDL levels. These results, together with the finding of a negative relationship between PTX3 and duration of treatment suggest that HELP LDL apheresis may influence both acutely and chronically cardiovascular outcomes in FH by modulating PTX3.

  19. Blood platelet production with breaks : optimization by SDP and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; van Dijk, Nico; van der Wal, Jan; Sibinga, Cees Smit


    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is it problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be minimi

  20. 77 FR 4567 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To..., the meeting will also be Web cast. The Blood Products Advisory Committee Web cast will be available...

  1. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.


    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  2. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications. (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N


    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  3. 77 FR 29667 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To..., Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends...

  4. 78 FR 56899 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of... Blot 2.4, a Western Blot intended for use as a confirmatory test for blood donors. In the...

  5. 78 FR 38351 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of..., Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends...

  6. Adverse events and retention of donors of double red cell units by apheresis (United States)

    Keshelashvili, Ketevan; O’Meara, Alix; Stern, Martin; Jirout, Zuzana; Pehlic, Vildana; Holbro, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Sigle, Jörg; Infanti, Laura


    Background Safety of double-erythrocyte (2RBC) collection and reasons for ceasing 2RBC donation were retrospectively analysed in the blood donor population of Basel, Switzerland. Methods Donors with at least 1 2RBC apheresis were included in the study. Minimal requirements were Hb ≥140 g/L and body weight ≥70 kg; serum ferritin (SF) values were measured routinely, but were not part of the selection criteria. 2RBC collections were performed with ALYX devices at 6-month intervals. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded and classified according to the ISBT EHN 2008 criteria. Data of procedures were retrieved from the ALYX software. Demographics, apheresis data and AEs were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Data of 4,377 2RBC aphereses performed in 793 donors (779 males) between 1st January 2003 and 31st May 2015 were evaluated. Mean donor age at first 2RBC donation was 44 years (standard deviation [SD] 21), median number of donations was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 8); 32% of the donors underwent a single procedure. There were 161 AEs, mostly local haematomas (55%) and vasovagal reactions (20%); fatigue was reported in 6% of the cases and was more frequent than citrate toxicity. Two severe AEs were observed. The most frequent reasons for abandoning 2RBC donation were low SF levels and donor choice (both 11%), but most donors simply did not reply to invitations (16%). Overall, procedure-related causes (AEs, low SF levels, no time for apheresis, inadequate venous access) were observed in 14% of the cases. At the end of the observation period, 40% of the donors were still active blood donors, but only 20% were donating 2RBC. Discussion 2RBC donation is overall safe. Donor retention was low over a period of 11 years. An important reason for abandoning 2RBC was the detection of low SF levels. The impact of fatigue on donor retention and the course of iron stores after repeated 6-monthly 2RBC apheresis require further investigation. PMID:27136442

  7. Determination of Rate and Causes of Wastage of Blood and Blood Products in Iranian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mohebbi Far


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate in Qazvin hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors

  8. Comparison of plasma exchange performances between Spectra Optia and COBE Spectra apheresis systems in repeated procedures considering variability and using specific statistical models. (United States)

    Hequet, O; Stocco, V; Assari, S; Drillat, P; Le, Q H; Kassir, A; Rigal, D; Bouzgarrou, R


    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures using centrifugation techniques became a standard therapy in some diseases. As the new device Spectra Optia (SPO; Terumo BCT) was available, we studied its performances in repeated procedures in 20 patients in three apheresis units. First we analysed the performance results obtained by SPO. Second we compared the performances of the SPO device to a standard device, COBE Spectra (CSP; Terumo BCT) in the same patients using statistical method of mixed effects linear regression that considers variability between patients, centres and apheresis procedures. The performances analysed were classified according to plasma removal performances and their consequences on patients whose blood disturbances were assessed. Primary outcome was plasma removal efficiency (PRE) and PRE-anticoagulant corrected which was a more accurate parameter. Secondary outcomes corresponded to the volume of ACD-A consumed, platelets content in waste bag, procedure duration and status of coagulation system observed after TPE sessions. Before comparing the performances of both devices we compared the plasma volumes (PVs) processed in both techniques which showed that the PVs processed in SPO procedures were lower than in CSP procedures. In these conditions the statistical analysis revealed similar performances in both apheresis devices in PRE (p = ns) but better performances with SPO when considering higher PRE corrected by anticoagulant volume used (p apheresis patients' coagulation blood levels were identical before SPO and CSP, we showed identical haemostasis disturbances after SPO and CSP but lower platelet losses and higher fibrinogen post-apheresis blood levels after SPO (p < 0.05). No side effects or technical complications occurred during and after SPO and CSP. This study demonstrated that the Spectra Optia device is an alternative device to today's standard, the COBE Spectra device.

  9. Pathogen inactivation in cellular blood products by photodynamic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trannoy, Laurence Liliane


    The safety of blood transfusion can be increased by introducing methods that eliminate blood-borne pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. In this thesis, the use of photodynamic treatment (PDT) to inactivate pathogens in cellular blood products is described. Various photosensitizers, from phenothia

  10. Italian multicenter study on low-density lipoprotein apheresis Working Group 2009 survey. (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Morozzi, Claudia; Di Giacomo, Serafina


    We present results of the second survey of the Italian Multicenter Study on Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis (IMSLDLa-WG/2). The study involved 18 centers in 2009, treating 66 males and 35 females, mean age 47 ± 18 years. Mean age for initiation of drug treatment before low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDLa) was 31 ± 18 years, mean age to the first LDLa was 37 ± 20 years and average duration of treatment was 9 ± 6 years. The techniques used included direct adsorption of lipids, dextran sulfate cellulose adsorption, heparin-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) precipitation, cascade filtration, and plasma exchange. The mean treated plasma/blood volumes/session were 3127 ± 518 mL and 8666 ± 1384 mL, respectively. The average plasma volume substituted was 3500 ± 300 mL. Lipid therapy before LDLa included ezetimibe, statins, ω-3 fatty acids and fenofibrate. Baseline mean LDL cholesterol (LDLC) levels were 386 ± 223 mg/dL. The mean before/after apheresis LDLC level decreased by 67% from 250 ± 108 mg/dL (P = 0.05 vs. baseline) to 83 ± 37 mg/dL (P = 0.001 vs. before). Baseline mean Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level was 179 ± 136 mg/dL. Mean before/after apheresis Lp(a) level decreased by 71% from 133 ± 120 mg/dL (P = 0.05 vs. baseline) to 39 ± 44 mg/dL (P = 0.001 vs. before). Major and minor side effects occurred in 27 and 62 patients, respectively. Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 62.3% had coronary angiography and 50.4% coronary revascularization before LDLa. Single vessel, double vessel and triple vessel CAD occurred in 19 (30.1%), 15 (23.8%) and 29 (46%) patients, respectively. Both CAD and extra-CAD occurred in 41.5%, 39% had hypertension, 9.9% were smokers, 9.9% consumed alcohol and 42% were physically active. Ischemic cardiovascular events were not observed in any patient over 9 ± 6 years of treatment. Two centers have also treated 34 patients (females: 17/males 17; no. sessions: 36; average plasma volume treated: 3000 mL) for

  11. Efficient removal of platelets from peripheral blood progenitor cell products using a novel micro-chip based acoustophoretic platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Dykes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive collection of platelets is an unwanted side effect in current centrifugation-based peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC apheresis. We investigated a novel microchip-based acoustophoresis technique, utilizing ultrasonic standing wave forces for the removal of platelets from PBPC products. By applying an acoustic standing wave field onto a continuously flowing cell suspension in a micro channel, cells can be separated from the surrounding media depending on their physical properties. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PBPC samples were obtained from patients (n = 15 and healthy donors (n = 6 and sorted on an acoustophoresis-chip. The acoustic force was set to separate leukocytes from platelets into a target fraction and a waste fraction, respectively. The PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions were analysed for cell recovery, purity and functionality. RESULTS: The median separation efficiency of leukocytes to the target fraction was 98% whereas platelets were effectively depleted by 89%. PBPC samples and corresponding target fractions were similar in the percentage of CD34+ hematopoetic progenitor/stem cells as well as leukocyte/lymphocyte subset distributions. Median viability was 98%, 98% and 97% in the PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions, respectively. Results from hematopoietic progenitor cell assays indicated a preserved colony-forming ability post-sorting. Evaluation of platelet activation by P-selectin (CD62P expression revealed a significant increase of CD62P+ platelets in the target (19% and waste fractions (20%, respectively, compared to the PBPC input samples (9%. However, activation was lower when compared to stored blood bank platelet concentrates (48%. CONCLUSION: Acoustophoresis can be utilized to efficiently deplete PBPC samples of platelets, whilst preserving the target stem/progenitor cell and leukocyte cell populations, cell viability and progenitor cell colony-forming ability

  12. 'Blind' transfusion of blood products in exsanguinating trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Demiral, H.; Schaap, N.P.M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Pompe, J.C.; Frolke, J.P.M.


    BACKGROUND: In trauma, as interventions are carried out to stop bleeding, ongoing resuscitation with blood products is of vital importance. As transfusion policy in exsanguinating patients cannot be based on laboratory tests, transfusion of blood products is performed empirically or 'blindly'. The a

  13. 78 FR 2677 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  14. Comparison of two low-density lipoprotein apheresis systems in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Bergeron, Jean; Pelletier, Maude; Laflamme, Nathalie; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick


    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis (LA) is a reliable method to decrease LDL-C concentrations and remains the gold standard therapy in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two LA systems [heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) vs. dextran sulfate adsorption (DS) on the reduction of lipids, inflammatory markers, and adhesion molecules in a sample of genetically defined HoFH subjects (n = 9)]. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after LA. All subjects served as their own control and were first treated with the HELP system then with DS in this single sequence study. Compared with HELP, DS led to significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol (-63.3% vs. -59.9%; P = 0.05), LDL-C (-70.5% vs. -63.0%; P = 0.02), CRP (-75.3% vs. -48.8%; P Apheresis 31:359-367, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments. (United States)

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália


    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  16. Lipoprotein Apheresis for Lipoprotein(a)-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeseler, Eberhard; Julius, Ulrich; Heigl, Franz


    OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) along with progressive cardiovascular disease has been approved as indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany since 2008. We aimed to study the long-term preventive effect of LA and to assess hypothetical clinical correl...

  17. Lipoprotein-apheresis reduces circulating microparticles in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia. (United States)

    Connolly, Katherine D; Willis, Gareth R; Datta, Dev B N; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Guschina, Irina A; Rees, D Aled; James, Philip E


    Lipoprotein-apheresis (apheresis) removes LDL-cholesterol in patients with severe dyslipidemia. However, reduction is transient, indicating that the long-term cardiovascular benefits of apheresis may not solely be due to LDL removal. Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of cells. MPs, particularly platelet-derived MPs, are increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We aimed to characterize the effect of apheresis on MP size, concentration, cellular origin, and fatty acid concentration in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Plasma and MP samples were collected from 12 individuals with FH undergoing routine apheresis. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (np200) and nanoparticle tracking analysis measured a fall in MP concentration (33 and 15%, respectively; P apheresis. Flow cytometry showed MPs were predominantly annexin V positive and of platelet (CD41) origin both pre- (88.9%) and post-apheresis (88.4%). Fatty acid composition of MPs differed from that of plasma, though apheresis affected a similar profile of fatty acids in both compartments, as measured by GC-flame ionization detection. MP concentration was also shown to positively correlate with thrombin generation potential. In conclusion, we show apheresis nonselectively removes annexin V-positive platelet-derived MPs in individuals with FH. These MPs are potent inducers of coagulation and are elevated in CVD; this reduction in pathological MPs could relate to the long-term benefits of apheresis.

  18. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis in a pediatric patient of familial hypercholesterolemia: Primi experientia from a tertiary care center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Dogra


    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutation of apolipoprotein-B receptor gene causing severe dyslipidemia. Lifestyle modification and medical treatment attenuate the disease progression, but as these fail to control the blood cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis comes forth as a treatment option. To the best of our knowledge, the following is the very first case of pediatric FH being treated by LDL-apheresis to be reported from India. A severely malnourished female child presented with yellowish skin lesions over different parts of the body, viz., bilateral Achilles tendon, both knees, elbows, both pinnae, and outer canthus of both eyes. She had a strong family history of borderline hypercholesterolemia and was diagnosed as a case of FH. She was maintained on diet modification. LDL-apheresis was planned as the cholesterol levels were not controlled with the diet modificationt. However, unavailability of an appropriate kit in India for LDL-apheresis led to the use of the modified PL1 kit meant for therapeutic plasma exchange procedures. We conducted two sessions of LDL-apheresis. After the first session, the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C level fell by 75.9% and the total cholesterol fell by 73.5%. A second procedure led to a decline in total cholesterol level by 18.6% and LDL-C by 19.46%. Subsequently, she was advised diet modification and statin therapy with regular follow-up after every 6 months. Thus, the cascade filtration technique is a safe and effective treatment option for removing the undesired lipoproteins.

  19. Caracterização, produção e indicação clínica dos principais hemocomponentes Characterization, production and indication of the principal blood components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda H. Razouk


    Full Text Available A prática da transfusão de sangue é uma ciência que cresce rapidamente, modifica-se continuamente e que apresenta uma grande perspectiva de desenvolvimento futuro. A rotina habitual dos serviços de hemoterapia requer o aperfeiçoamento de técnicas, pois o fracionamento do sangue coletado se faz necessário, uma vez que cada unidade doada pode beneficiar diversos pacientes e permitir que sejam transfundidas grandes quantidades de um determinado componente que o paciente necessite. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar os procedimentos de coleta, produção, armazenamento e a indicação clínica dos principais hemocomponentes, como concentrado de hemácias, concentrado de hemácias lavadas, eritrócitos pobres em leucócitos, concentrado de plaquetas, concentrado de plaquetas por aférese, concentrado de granulócitos, plasma fresco congelado, plasma normal ou comum e crioprecipitado. Perspectivas futuras apontam para mudanças na terapia transfusional, e o maior foco será no aperfeiçoamento da segurança, havendo aumento de produtos manufaturados, desenvolvimento de produtos acelulares, tecnologias em aféreses, atenuação microbiana e proteínas recombinantes do plasma, que poderão substituir produtos derivados plasmáticos dentro de poucas décadas.The practice of blood transfusion is a science which has been showing fast growth, continuous changes and a great perspective of future development. The day-to-day routines of hemotherapy services require the improvement of techniques, as the fractionation of collected blood is necessary and each donated unit may benefit several patients and allow large amounts of a certain component to be transfused. The purpose of the present work is to revise the collection, production and storage procedures and the clinical indication of the main blood components such as concentrated red blood cells, concentrated washed red blood cells, erythrocytes with low numbers of leucocytes, concentrated

  20. Apheresis Medicine education in the United States of America: State of the discipline. (United States)

    Pagano, Monica B; Wehrli, Gay; Cloutier, Darlene; Galvin Karr, Eileen; Lopez-Plaza, Ileana; Schwartz, Joseph; Andrzejewski, Chester; Winters, Jeffrey L; Wong, Edward C C; Wu, Yanyun; Zantek, Nicole D


    Apheresis Medicine is a medical discipline that involves a variety of procedures (based on the targeted component to be removed or collected), indications (therapeutic vs. donation), and personnel (operators, management, and medical oversight). Apheresis services are accredited and/or regulated by a number of agencies and organizations. Given the complexity and the heterogeneity of apheresis services, it has been particularly challenging to formulate educational goals and define curriculums that easily cover all aspects of Apheresis Medicine. This review summarizes the current state of the discipline in the United States of America, and some of the challenges, strategies, and resources that Apheresis Medicine educators have used to ensure that Apheresis Medicine educational programs meet the health care needs of the relevant population within regulatory and accrediting entity frameworks.

  1. Effect of Mirasol pathogen reduction technology system on in vitro quality of MCS+ apheresis platelets. (United States)

    Mastroianni, Maria Adele; Llohn, Abid Hussain; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın; Skogheim, Ruby; Ødegaard, Elna Rathe; Nybruket, Monica Jenssen; Flesland, Annika; Mousavi, Seyed Ali


    Reducing the risk of pathogen transmission to transfusion recipients is one of the great concerns in transfusion medicine. Important among the measures suggested to minimise pathogen transmission is pathogen reduction technology (PRT) systems. The present study examined the effects of Mirasol PRT system on MCS+ apheresis platelets in vitro quality measures during a seven-day storage period at 22°C. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in platelet concentrations between the control and treated platelet concentrates (PCs) during the storage period. Glucose and lactate levels were measured to determine metabolic activities of control and treated platelets. In both control and treated platelets, the amount of glucose consumed and lactate produced increased significantly with storage time, but glucose consumption and lactate production rates were significantly higher in treated platelets compared with control platelets. The mean pH of treated PCs was decreased at all time points relative to control PCs but remained within acceptable limits. The expression of P-selectin was also higher in Mirasol PRT treated platelets throughout the storage period, but differences were not statistically significant on Days 1 and 4. Finally, visual inspection of swirling indicated that Mirasol PRT treatment of platelets is associated with platelet shape change. Overall, our results show that MCS+ apheresis platelets treated with Mirasol PRT can preserve adequate in vitro properties for at least 5 days of storage.

  2. Role of therapeutic apheresis in infectious and inflammatory diseases: Current knowledge and unanswered questions. (United States)

    Sloan, Steven R; Andrzejewski, Chester; Aqui, Nicole A; Kiss, Joseph E; Krause, Peter J; Park, Yara A


    Apheresis can remove pathogens and mediators that contribute to pathogenic inflammatory responses in diseases not generally considered to be "Hematologic." Erythrocytapheresis can remove intracellular pathogens such as Babesiosis. Plasmapheresis can remove mediators of the inflammatory response in conditions such as sepsis, chronic autoimmune urticaria and malignant pertussis. Leukapheresis can remove potentially harmful leukocytes in Crohn's Disease and malignant pertussis. While apheresis can remove all of these substances, the clinical efficacy and pathophysiologic changes that occur during apheresis in these conditions are largely unknown. Hence, the clinical utility of apheresis in these conditions is largely unknown and research in these areas has the potential to benefit many patients with a variety of diseases.

  3. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K


    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  4. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education. (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M


    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education.

  5. Blood Platelet Production: Optimization by Dynamic Programming and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.; Dijk, van N.M.


    Blood platelets are precious, as voluntarily supplied by donors, and highly perishable, with limited lifetimes of 5¿7 days. Demand is highly variable and uncertain. A practical production and inventory rule is strived for that minimizes shortages and spill. The demand and production are periodic, as

  6. Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice-Evidence-Based Approach from the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis: The Seventh Special Issue. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Padmanabhan, Anand; Aqui, Nicole; Balogun, Rasheed A; Connelly-Smith, Laura; Delaney, Meghan; Dunbar, Nancy M; Witt, Volker; Wu, Yanyun; Shaz, Beth H


    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Journal of Clinical Apheresis (JCA) Special Issue Writing Committee is charged with reviewing, updating, and categorizing indications for the evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. Since the 2007 JCA Special Issue (Fourth Edition), the Committee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approaches in the grading and categorization of apheresis indications. This Seventh Edition of the JCA Special Issue continues to maintain this methodology and rigor to make recommendations on the use of apheresis in a wide variety of diseases/conditions. The JCA Seventh Edition, like its predecessor, has consistently applied the category and grading system definitions in the fact sheets. The general layout and concept of a fact sheet that was used since the fourth edition has largely been maintained in this edition. Each fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis in a specific disease entity. The Seventh Edition discusses 87 fact sheets (14 new fact sheets since the Sixth Edition) for therapeutic apheresis diseases and medical conditions, with 179 indications, which are separately graded and categorized within the listed fact sheets. Several diseases that are Category IV which have been described in detail in previous editions and do not have significant new evidence since the last publication are summarized in a separate table. The Seventh Edition of the JCA Special Issue serves as a key resource that guides the utilization of therapeutic apheresis in the treatment of human disease. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:149-162, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;


    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  8. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage]. (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B


    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  9. Effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin expression of apheresis platelets. (United States)

    Xie, Z T; Chen, C; Zhang, S H; Yang, H M; Tao, Z H


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression of apheresis platelets during the retention period. Ten bags of apheresis platelets stored for 1 day (0-24 h) and 10 bags of apheresis platelets stored for 2 days (24-48 h) were used for leukocyte filtration (experimental group). Ten bags of apheresis platelets with the corresponding retention periods but without filtration were used as a negative control (control group). Thereafter, 100 μL of platelet suspensions from apheresis platelets with or without leukocyte filtration were sampled before and after leukocyte filtration for the detection of CD62P surface expression by flow cytometry. No statistical difference in the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets was observed before and after leukocyte filtration (P > 0.05), neither did the CD62P surface expression exhibit any change among the different retention periods. Leukocyte filtration does not affect the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets stored for up to 2 days, which indicates that leukocyte filtration does not damage the activation of apheresis platelets within the retention period.

  10. World apheresis registry data from 2003 to 2007, the pediatric and adolescent side of the registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, Volker; Stegmayr, Bernd; Ptak, Jan; Wikstrom, Bjorn; Berlin, Gosta; Axelsson, C. G.; Griskevicius, A.; Centoni, Paolo Emilio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Molfettini, Pietra; Audzijoniene, Judita; Mokvist, K.; Sojka, B. Nilsson; Norda, Rut; Ramlow, W.; Blaha, Milan; Evergren, M.; Tomaz, J.


    Objectives: Paediatric patients are a special group in apheresis. It is general accepted to use adult indications in paediatric patients, but data in this age group are rare. In order to provide more information of apheresis practise in children and young adults ( Methods: This is a web-based regist

  11. 单采血小板的储存时间对其代谢功能影响的研究%Effect of storage time on metabolic function of apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋自阆; 兰培相; 张洪为


    目的 探讨单采血小板的储存时间对其代谢功能的影响.方法 选择四川自贡市中心血站向医院提供的新鲜单采血小板悬液30袋,每袋包含1治疗量血小板,每袋血小板含量为(2.5~3.0)×1011/袋为研究对象.将其编号后按照数字表法随机平均分为:保存1d组、保存3d组及保存5d组,每组各为10袋.3组分别在保存时间为1,3及5d时取样,检测乳酸、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、葡萄糖含量和pH值等代谢功能相关指标,并进行统计学分析.结果 随着保存时间延长,单采血小板悬液的pH值及葡萄糖含量呈逐渐下降趋势,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而LDH及乳酸含量呈逐渐升高趋势,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 单采血小板悬液在22℃保存5d内,其代谢功能发生明显变化.临床输注的单采血小板在储存时间内,其储存时间越短,质量越好.%Objective To study the effect of storage time on metabolic function of apheresis platelets.Methods Selected a total of 30 bags of apheresis platelets which were collected from 30 cases of voluntary blood donors as research subjects.The volume of each bag of apheresis platelets was one therapeutic dose,and platelet count was (2.5~3.0) × 1011/L.All of 30 bags of apheresis platelets would been stored in storage tank for 5 days at 22 ℃.The 30 bags of apheresis platelets were randomly divided into storage for 1 day group (n=10),storage for 3 days group and storage for 5 days group (n=10) equally by digital table method after being numbered.Content of lactic acid,lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),content of glucose and pH value were detected among 3 groups.Relationship of the metabolic function of apheresis platelets and storage time were analyzed by statistical method.Results The longer the storage duration time of apheresis platelets was,the lower of pH values and content of glucose in apheresis platelets were,and there were significant differences among 3 groups (P<0.05).At

  12. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;


    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  13. Does regular lipid apheresis in patients with isolated elevated lipoprotein(a) levels reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events? (United States)

    Rosada, Adrian; Kassner, Ursula; Vogt, Anja; Willhauck, Michael; Parhofer, Klaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth


    Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Regular lipid apheresis decreases elevated Lp(a) concentrations. However, there is a lack of reliable data regarding the effect of lipid apheresis on cardiovascular endpoints. To assess the effects of apheresis, we compared the occurrence of cardiovascular events in 37 patients treated regularly with lipid apheresis at the time periods of preinitiation of apheresis and during apheresis treatment. A retrospective analysis of 37 patients (35 men and two women; aged 58 years ± 11 [mean ± standard deviation]; body mass index 26 kg/m(2)  ± 3; low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol before apheresis 84 mg/dL ± 21; Lp(a) before apheresis 112 mg/dL ± 34) treated regularly with lipid apheresis was performed. Patients' medical records were screened for cardiovascular events at the preapheresis and during apheresis periods. Apheresis led to a significant reduction of lipid levels (LDL cholesterol -60%; Lp(a) -68%) measured after apheresis. The event-free survival rate after 1 year in the preapheresis period was 38% (22-54%, 95% confidence interval [CI]) vs. 75% (61-89%, 95% CI) in the during-apheresis period with a statistically significant difference (P Apheresis seems to lower the progression of atherosclerosis leading to a reduced number of cardiovascular events in hyperlipoproteinemia(a). Because prospective and controlled trials are lacking, the therapeutic effectiveness of lipid apheresis can only be estimated.

  14. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra


    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  15. Parvovirus transmission by blood products - a cause for concern? (United States)

    Norja, Päivi; Lassila, Riitta; Makris, Mike


    The introduction of dual viral inactivation of clotting factor concentrates has practically eliminated infections by viruses associated with significant pathogenicity over the last 20 years. Despite this, theoretical concerns about transmission of infection have remained, as it is known that currently available viral inactivation methods are unable to eliminate parvovirus B19 or prions from these products. Recently, concern has been raised following the identification of the new parvoviruses, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) and new genotypes of parvovirus B19, in blood products. Parvoviruses do not cause chronic pathogenicity similar to human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, but nevertheless may cause clinical manifestations, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Manufacturers should institute measures, such as minipool polymerase chain reaction testing, to ensure that their products contain no known viruses. So far, human bocavirus, another new genus of parvovirus, has not been detected in fractionated blood products, and unless their presence can be demonstrated, routine testing during manufacture is not essential. Continued surveillance of the patients and of the safety of blood products remains an important ongoing issue.

  16. I am the 9%: Making the case for whole-blood platelets. (United States)

    Seheult, J N; Triulzi, D J; Yazer, M H


    Over the last 15 years, there has been a trend in the United States towards the increasing use of apheresis platelet (AP) concentrates over whole-blood-derived platelets (WBP). Although 1-h- and 24-h-corrected count increments tend to be higher with AP, this does not translate into improved haemostatic efficiency when used to prevent bleeding in haematology/oncology patients. WBP expose the recipient to more donors than apheresis products. However, recent studies have shown no significant differences in the rates of bacterial contamination, human leukocyte antigen alloimmunisation, RhD alloimmunisation, transfusion-related acute lung injury or febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions between these two products. Given the overall low rates of virally contaminated units in the era of nucleic acid testing and rigorous donor screening, the difference in donor exposures of 4-6 vs 1 has minimal clinical relevance. Although studies point to a marginally increased risk of donor adverse events associated with WBP, the absolute risk is too miniscule to act as a deterrent to making whole-blood donations. Both types of platelet concentrates should therefore be considered clinically equivalent; in this light, the most responsible use of the community donor resource pool, which both optimises the utility of a whole-blood donation and meets the clinical needs of thrombocytopenic recipients, is to have a mix of both types of platelet products so as to mitigate the risk of shortages.

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.


    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  18. [Labile blood product traceability: definition, regulation, evaluation, and perspectives]. (United States)

    Pélissier, E; Nguyen, L


    The traceability of blood products is an essential part of hemovigilance and transfusion safety. Law no 94-68 of 24 January 1994 is the legal foundation of the system of traceability. In this article, the structures of the system and the main actors are discussed. An evaluation of the system of traceability showed that it is both feasible and adaptable. An evaluation process is needed to assess the proper functioning of the system and to detect and prevent possible deficiencies.

  19. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Acker


    Full Text Available Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma. Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  20. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion (United States)

    Marks, Denese C.


    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation. PMID:28070448

  1. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion. (United States)

    Acker, Jason P; Marks, Denese C; Sheffield, William P


    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  2. The relationship of platelet yield, donor's characteristic and apheresis instruments in China. (United States)

    Yin, Guomei; Xu, Jian; Shen, Zhuolan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun


    Platelet yield was associated with donor's characteristic and property of apheresis instruments. Here, we have analyzed the relationship of platelet yield, physiologic parameters of donors for different apheresis instruments in China. Data were consecutively retrieved from plateletapheresis donors during March 1, 2007 and March 1, 2012. Three different apheresis instruments MCS+, Amicus, Trima system were used for plateletapheresis and defined as group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Totally 77,091 Plateletapheresis donations were performed in this study. 17 donations were finally aborted because of vasovagal reaction with syncope. 5861, 37,036, 34,177 donations were performed in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Hct and platelet values before donations were similar, but platelet yield and collection rate were showed significantly difference (papheresis instruments and donor's characteristic. These data will help to work out suitable apheresis protocol based on the Chinese donor's characteristic.

  3. Use of Vascular Ports for Long-Term Apheresis in Children. (United States)

    Chand, Rajat; Sertic, Madeleine; Nemec, Rose; Tomlin, Keturah; Connolly, Bairbre


    High-flow ports have been used for apheresis in adults. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ports for apheresis in children and to survey satisfaction of patients and their families with their use. A retrospective review of clinical details was combined with a prospective assessment of the experience of patients and their families. Eight patients (mean age, 10.4 y; mean weight, 35 kg) had nine ports placed for long-term apheresis. All 246 treatment sessions were completed successfully. Access difficulties occurred in eight of 246 sessions (3%). Alarms occurred in 40 of 246 sessions (16%), resulting in delays in 10 of 246 sessions (4%). A survey of early experience indicated overall satisfaction with and a preference for ports for apheresis.

  4. Leukocyte apheresis in the management of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Ahmed


    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the colon and rectum. Its pathogenesis is probably multifactorial including the influx of certain cytokines into the colonic mucosa, causing disease activity and relapse. The hypothesis of removing such cytokines from the circulation by leukocytapheresis was implemented to reduce disease activity, maintain remission, and prevent relapse. Many recent reports not only in Japan, but also in the West, have highlighted its beneficial effects in both adult and pediatric patients. Large placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm the available data in this regard. In this article, we shed some light on the use of leukocyte apheresis in the management of autoimmune diseases, especially ulcerative colitis.

  5. Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis for Generalized Pustular Psoriasis: Therapeutic Outcomes in Three Refractory Patients. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Satoko; Mizutani, Yoko; Doi, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Ogura, Shinji; Seishima, Mariko


    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a type of neutrophilic dermatosis that is sometimes resistant to medications. In patients with neutrophilic skin diseases, granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) has been demonstrated to selectively and efficiently eliminate myeloid-lineage leukocytes from the peripheral blood. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of repeated GMA therapy in three refractory GPP patients. Three GPP patients refractory to previous therapies received weekly GMA with five sessions per course, which was repeated when the symptoms reappeared. The efficacy was assessed by the disease severity scores 2 weeks after each course of GMA. The GPP severity scores of all three patients were reduced in all courses (N = 9); they were reduced by more than 3 points in six courses and by 2 points in three courses. After the first GMA course, the GPP severity scores were reduced by more than 3 points in all three patients. On average, the GPP severity scores were reduced by 4.67 and 3.67 points after the first course and repeated courses, respectively. The severity of edema and pustules were particularly improved in all patients and no adverse effects were observed. GMA showed efficacy for the treatment of refractory GPP patients as a non-pharmacologic intervention without any associated adverse effects, and was particularly effective in the first course, but also effective in the subsequent courses.

  6. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human... (United States)


    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms... permit any blood bank or similar establishment to ship blood products in interstate commerce. (b)...

  7. Patient condition affects the collection of peripheral blood progenitors after priming with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. (United States)

    Chabannon, C; Le Coroller, A G; Faucher, C; Novakovitch, G; Blaise, D; Moatti, J P; Maraninchi, D; Mannoni, P


    A total of 258 aphereses were performed in 79 patients with nonmyeloid malignancies after mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Apheresis products were examined for viable mononuclear cell (VMC), CD34+ cell, and clonogenic cell contents. The number of progenitors in aphereses differs in subgroups of patients with different diagnoses. However, the number of CD34+ or clonogenic cells is dependent on age and amount of chemotherapy delivered to patients before collection rather than on the nature of the disease itself. In addition, the actual dose of rhG-CSF used to mobilize PBSC and the number of VMC in aphereses influenced the clonogenicity of CD34+ cells, although the daily dose of rhG-CSF seems to play little role on the number of clonogenic cells in each individual apheresis product. CD34+ cell and CFU-C (or CFU-GM) numbers are related parameters, and the relation can be described as linear. However, the linear relation varies in different patient groups, and most of the linearity is induced by the highest sets of values. We conclude that mobilization with low doses of rhG-CSF alone is feasible and that the probability of collecting a high number of peripheral blood progenitors is increased in young patients undergoing apheresis early in the course of the disease. Although the relationship between CD34+ cells and CFUs can be described as linear in well-defined situations, its relevance may be limited because it is not a universal finding.

  8. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood... (United States)


    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  9. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.


    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa

  10. The Effect of LDL-Apheresis and Rheohaemapheresis Treatment on Vitamin E. (United States)

    Solichová, Dagmar; Bláha, Milan; Aufartová, Jana; Krcmová, Lenka Kujovská; Plíšek, Jirí; Honegrová, Barbora; Kasalová, Eva; Lánská, Miriam; Urbánek, Lubor; Sobotka, Luboš


    Lipid apheresis (extracorporeal lipoprotein elimination) is administered to patients with familial hypercholesterolemia who fail to respond to standard therapy. The nature of the treatment process raises the suspicion that it decreases not only cholesterol but also antioxidants. A group of 12 patients (average age 47±17 y, 4 homozygous and 8 heterozygous individuals) with familial hypercholesterolemia treated by LDL-apheresis or rheohaemapheresis for 3-12 y was included in the study. In addition to cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, vitamin E and vitamin A and also other markers of antioxidant activity were investigated. Nevertheless, the most important determined parameter was the vitamin E/cholesterol ratio in serum and lipoproteins. The results indicate that both extracorporeal elimination methods are effective and suitable ways to treat severe familial hypercholesterolemia, as the LDL fraction of cholesterol decreased by approximately 77% and 66% following LDL-apheresis and rheohaemapheresis, respectively. In addition, the serum vitamin E decreased by 54% and 57% and the decrease of the serum vitamin A was approximately 20%. However, the main marker of antioxidant capacity, vitamin E/cholesterol ratio, in the serum, VLDL and LDL significantly increased. The increase of vitamin E levels in the erythrocyte membranes of 2% following LDL-apheresis and a significant increase of 4% following rheohaemapheresis were confirmed. The presented results indicate that LDL-apheresis and rheohaemapheresis can be considered to be safe procedures according to the antioxidant capacity of the serum, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein fractions and the erythrocyte membrane.

  11. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood. (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E


    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  12. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  13. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel


    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors.......Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors....

  14. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lion


    Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking.

  15. Pregnancy in a Woman with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Not on Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed


    Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH has been rarely reported and might pose risks on the mother and her fetus. Although most reported cases remained on low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis, there are no clear guidelines regarding the management of this entity. We report the first case of an uncomplicated pregnancy in a 24-year-old homozygous FH woman who was not maintained on LDL apheresis. FH expresses a wide variability in the phenotype, and management of homozygous FH cases who desire to become pregnant should be individualized based on preconceptional assessment with frequent antenatal follow-up. Decisions on management should be made after weighing the risks versus benefits of LDL apheresis.

  16. 机采血小板报废原因分析%Analysis the cause of the scrap of apheresis-collected platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:统计我站几年间机采血小板报废情况,分析报废原因。方法对2010年1月~2014年10月机采血小板报废情况进行统计和分析。结果9617例机采血小板中检测结果不合格33例,占0.34%。其中ALT检测不合格22例,占0.23%,不合格率最高。2010~2014年献血次数淘汰率呈逐年下降趋势。22例ALT项目报废的机采血小板献血者中,男性多于女性,年龄段集中于25~40岁。结论强化试剂进入的质量控制,严格控制血小板采集到应用的各个环节,避免机采血小板资源的浪费。%Objective To summarize the data of scrap of apheresis-collected platelet in our station in few years,and to analyze the causes of scrap.MethodsThe data of scrap of apheresis-collected platelet from 2010 January to 2014 October were summarized and analyzed.Results 33 cases of apheresis-collected platelet in total 9617 cases were tested unqualified, accounting for 0.34%,which included 22 cases of the unqualified ALT detection,accounting for 0.23%,that was the highest unqualified rate.Blood donation elimination rate assumed a declining trend year by year from 2010 to 2014.There were more men than women in 22 cases of ALT scrap,who were concentrated in the 25 to 40 years of age.Conclusion It's to strengthen quality control of reagent entering,and to control strictly all steps from collection of platelets to application,so as to avoid the waste of resources of apheresis platelets.

  17. Knowledge of appropriate blood product use in perioperative patients among clinicians at a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Yudelowitz


    Conclusion: Clinician's knowledge of risks, resources, costs and ordering of blood products for perioperative patients is poor. Transfusion triggers and administration protocols had an acceptable correct response rate.

  18. Characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of chronic lipid apheresis patients as assessed by In Vivo High-Resolution CMR - a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Jochen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of carotid atherosclerotic plaques can reliably be identified and quantified using high resolution in vivo 3-Tesla CMR. It is suspected that lipid apheresis therapy in addition to lowering serum lipid levels also has an influence on development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic lipid apheresis (LA on the composition of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Methods 32 arteries of 16 patients during chronic LA-therapy with carotid plaques and stenosis of 1–80% were matched according to degree of stenosis with 32 patients, who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke. Of these patients only the asymptomatic carotid artery was analyzed. All patients underwent black-blood 3 T CMR of the carotids using parallel imaging and dedicated surface coils. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Morphology and composition of carotid plaques were evaluated. For statistical evaluation Fisher’s Exact and unpaired t-test were used. A p-value Results Patients in the LA-group were younger (63.5 vs. 73.9. years, p2, p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that, despite a severer risk profile for cardiovascular complications in LA-patients, chronic LA is associated with significantly lower lipid content in carotid plaques compared to plaques of patients without LA with similar degrees of stenosis, which is characteristic of clinically stable plaques.

  19. 低密度脂蛋白体外去除方法及材料概述%Review of Low Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Methods and Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连江; 李伟; 孙康


    心血管疾病是危害人类健康的主要疾病之一,它与血液中低密度脂蛋白(LDL)浓度过高引发的动脉粥样硬化密切相关.因此,对LDL的去除可以有效地预防与治疗心血管疾病.近年来,LDL的体外去除法因其直接高效的特点广受重视.LDL体外去除法的核心-LDL吸附材料也得到了迅速的发展.目前已制备了多种LDL吸附材料,其中有些已经应用于临床.综述了LDL体外去除法及LDL吸附材料的研究进展.%Cardiovascular disease is a major threaten to the human health, and it has a close relationship with atherosclerosis which is caused by the abnormally high concentration of low density lipoprotein ( LDL) in human blood, so the removal of LDL would effectively prevent and treat the cardiovascular disease. LDL apheresis methods have attracted more attention in recent years for its efficiency and directness in LDL removal, and LDL adsorbents have been subsequently developed. Some of these adsorbents are applied in clinic already. The research progress of LDL apheresis methods and LDL adsorbents are reviewed.

  20. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.


    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  1. In vitro viability effects on apheresis and buffy-coat derived platelets administered through infusion pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandgren P


    Full Text Available Per Sandgren,1,2 Veronica Berggren,3 Carl Westling,1,2 Viveka Stiller1 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Neonatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Different infusion pump systems as well as gravity infusion have been widely used in neonatal transfusion. However, the limited number of published studies describing the use of infusion pumps on platelets illustrates the necessity for more robust data.Methods: To evaluate the potential in vitro effects on the cellular, metabolic, functional and phenotypic properties of platelets, we set up a four-arm paired study simultaneously comparing the use of different infusion pumps (Alaris® CC/GP with unexposed platelets. The platelet units (n=8 were either produced by the apheresis technique and suspended in 100% plasma or derived from buffy coats to yield platelet units stored in approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+. Fresh and 5-day old platelets were tested.Results: Regardless of the production system or storage time used, no significant differences were observed in glucose and lactate concentration, pH, adenosine triphosphate levels, response to extent of shape change, hypotonic shock response reactivity, and CD62P expression. Similarly, no differences were observed in expression of the conformational epitope on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, determined using procaspase-activating compound 1, or in the expression of CD42b and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in a comparison between platelets administered through infusion pumps versus unexposed platelets.Conclusion: Using Alaris CC/GP infusion pumps had no influence on the cellular, functional, and phenotypic in vitro properties of platelets. This fact seems not to be affected by different production systems or storage time.Keywords: platelets, neonatal platelet transfusion

  2. Analysis on the Safety of Collecting Two Therapeutic Doses of Apheresis Platelet%单采2个治疗量血小板的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦; 符雪丽; 梁若鹄


    目的 探讨献血者单采2个治疗量的血小板(PLT)的安全性及个体影响因素,以建立科学、合理、安全的献血者筛选标准.方法 选择2011年6月至2012年6月,于本站行单采2个治疗量PLT的389例献血者为研究对象.按献血者献血前PLT计数(PLT前)不同,将其分为3组:A组(PLT前<250×109,n=118);B组[PLT前为(250~299)×109,n=150];C组(PLT前≥300×109,n=121).以1个治疗量PLT产品的PLT,红细胞(RBC),白细胞(WBC)计数作为产品质量目标;献血者采血后PLT,红细胞比容(HCT),处理全血量作为献血者安全性评价指标,考察献血者献血前PLT高低对PLT产品质量和献血者安全性指标的影响.结果 本研究389例献血者中安全性指标达标率为97.17%;各组安全性评价指标之间差异,有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).采血后,献血者的PLT,HCT,RBC显著下降(P值均<0.05),但仍在安全范围内.12例献血者发生献血反应,发生率为3.08%.2个治疗剂量PLT产品中,383袋合格,合格率为98.46%.结论选择体重≥60 kg,PLT前≥220×109,HCT前为0.40~0.48的献血者,采用智能化血细胞分离机,1位供者单采2个治疗量血小板安全可行.%Objective To explore the safety of blood donors who donated two therapeutic doses of apheresis platelet (PLT),and set up a scientific,reasonable and safe screening standard of blood donors.Method From June 2011 to June 2012,a total of 389 blood donors who donated two therapeutic doses of apheresis PLT in our blood station were included in this study.According to the different of PLT count before donation,all the donors were divided into three groups,such as:A group (PLT<250 × 109,n=118),Bgroup [PLT were (250-299)×109,n=150] and C group (PLT≥300× 109,n=121).The influnence of blood donors' PLT level on PLT product quality and safety indicators of donors were investigated.Results In this study,the safety index compliance rate of 389 cases of blood donors was 97.17 % ; each

  3. Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice-evidence-based approach from the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis: the sixth special issue. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Winters, Jeffrey L; Padmanabhan, Anand; Balogun, Rasheed A; Delaney, Meghan; Linenberger, Michael L; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Williams, Mark E; Wu, Yanyun; Shaz, Beth H


    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) JCA Special Issue Writing Committee is charged with reviewing, updating and categorizating indications for therapeutic apheresis. Beginning with the 2007 ASFA Special Issue (Fourth Edition), the committee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approach in the grading and categorization of indications. This Sixth Edition of the ASFA Special Issue has further improved the process of using evidence-based medicine in the recommendations by consistently applying the category and GRADE system definitions, but eliminating the "level of evidence" criteria (from the University HealthCare Consortium) utilized in prior editions given redundancy between GRADE and University HealthCare Consortium systems. The general layout and concept of a fact sheet that was utilized in the Fourth and Fifth Editions, has been largely maintained in this edition. Each fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis in a specific disease entity. This article consists of 78 fact sheets (increased from 2010) for therapeutic indications in ASFA categories I through IV, with many diseases categorized having multiple clinical presentations/situations which are individually graded and categorized.

  4. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration. (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark


    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  5. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;


    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating...... of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  6. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells]. (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin


    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  7. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  8. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K.; Quere, S.; Winkel, P.


    components produced and gives an example of how to meet EU legislative requirements in a small-scale production centre. Data included quality control measurements in 363 units of red blood cells, 79 units of platelets produced by an occasional staff with 11 technologists and 79 units of platelets produced......Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... occasional component manufacturing staff to an experienced regular manufacturing staff. Production of blood products is a semi-automated process in which the manual steps may be difficult to control. This study was performed in an ongoing effort to improve the control and optimize the quality of the blood...

  9. Apheresis therapy in children: an overview of key technical aspects and a review of experience in pediatric renal disease. (United States)

    Hunt, Elizabeth A K; Jain, Namrata G; Somers, Michael J G


    Although there is less experience with its use in children than adults, apheresis can be a life-saving treatment modality in certain pediatric diseases. With attention to specific technical aspects of the treatment, especially circuit volume, apheresis can be safely performed in children of any age or size. Even in pediatric diseases where it is recognized as an important part of therapy, apheresis is unfortunately still underutilized in North America and there needs to be increased awareness of its role and its availability within the pediatric community. Apheresis has been used particularly in children with certain renal diseases, notably ANCA-associated nephritis, anti-GBM disease, and atypical HUS. In addition, it can improve outcomes in transplantation of children with FSGS and can be part of a pre-transplant strategy for children who are highly sensitized and at high risk for graft failure.

  10. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng


    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  11. 茂名地区机采血小板的临床应用及疗效评价%Clinical application and therapeutic effect evaluation of apheresis platelets in Maoming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To research the clinical application and therapeutic effect evaluation of the apheresis platelets in Maoming area. Methods:The MCS+blood cell separator was used to collect the platelet.The clinical application of apheresis platelets which was col-lected from January 2013 to May 2014 in a hospital in Maoming was analyzed.And the therapeutic effect of the 375 patients of different kinds who were infused the apheresis platelets was researched.Results:The infusion effect of the apheresis platelets was remarkable.The efficiency of the first infusion was as high as 93.5%.The average efficiency was 85.3%.Through the analysis, it was found that the infu-sion efficiency gradually decreased as the infusion times increased.Conclusion:When the apheresis platelet transfusions might be applied to clinical prevention and treatment of different kinds of bleeding caused by thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction, its therapeutic effect should be remarkable .But the medical workers should be cautious enough when using it .%目的:对茂名地区机采血小板的临床应用与疗效评价进行研究。方法:使用MCS+血细胞分离机采集血小板,统计分析2013年1月~2014年5月茂名某医院机采血小板的临床应用情况,观察机采血小板输注给375例各类患者的疗效。结果:机采血小板输注疗效显著,首次输注有效率可达93.5%,平均有效率85.3%。经分析发现,随着输注次数的增加,输注有效率逐渐下降。结论:机采血小板输注用于临床防治各类因血小板减少或血小板功能异常引发出血疗效显著,医护人员在使用过程中需谨慎对待。

  12. 机采血小板检测前过程质量控制的研究%A study on quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨图深; 朱业华; 陈亦明


    目的:探讨机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制。方法留取机采单份血小板、机采双份血小板样本各100份,以1∶1、1∶3及1∶7稀释度进行稀释,采用全自动血液细胞计数仪检测血小板计数。另采集机采血小板样本100份,室温下静置0、30、60、90、120 min ,以1∶3稀释后,检测其血小板计数。结果机采单份或双份血小板样本以1∶1与1∶3稀释后检测血小板计数的差异及1∶3与1∶7稀释后检测的差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。静置0、30 min检测的血小板计数与静置60、90、120 min的检测值的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制对采集后的血小板计数十分重要。%Objective To study the quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection .Methods Single and double apheresis platelets each of 100 samples were collected and were diluted 1∶1 ,1∶3 and 1∶7 .Aautomatic Blood Cell Count-er was employed to detect the platelet count .Another 100 samples of apheresis platelets were collected and stand at room tempera-ture for 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 ,120 min ,After 1∶3 dilution ,the platelet counts were detected .Results Differences of platelet counts be-tween 1∶1 and 1∶3 dilution ,1∶3 and 1∶7 dilution of single or double apheresis platelets showed statistically significant differ-ences(P<0 .05) .Differences of platelet counts between standing for 0 ,30 min and standing for 60 ,90 ,120 min were found statis-tically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection is very important for platelet count after collection .

  13. Fibrinogen is not a prognostic factor for response to HELP-apheresis in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). (United States)

    Berger, T; Kaiser, T; Scholz, M; Bachmann, A; Ceglarek, U; Hesse, G; Hagemeyer, B; Stumvoll, M; Thiery, J; Dietz, A


    Higher levels of fibrinogen or cholesterol were associated with improved hearing recovery in SSHL patients after treatment with HELP-apheresis (Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation apheresis). The present trial was performed to demonstrate HELP-related effects on relevant metabolic and inflammatory parameters in the context of SSHL treatment. In the framework of a single arm non-controlled trial, we investigated the variation of metabolic and inflammatory parameters using HELP-apheresis for a defined group of 100 patients with SSHL. Based on cut off inclusion criteria (Serum LDL-cholesterol >1.6 g/l and/or fibrinogen >2.0 g/l, SSHL in minimum three frequencies more than 30 dB, time after event not longer than 6 days), the protocol followed a strict time line with one single shot HELP-apheresis and follow-up monitoring including laboratory parameters at six defined time points. If HELP-apheresis could not effect improvement of hearing on day 5, additional corticosteroid treatment was applied. Concentration of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased while other proinflammatory parameters declined. Serum levels of all measured sterols and apolipoproteins decreased significantly. None of the investigated parameters were suitable to predict hearing improvement of the patients. Levels of fibrinogen and LDL-cholesterol were not prognostic for outcome after HELP-apheresis. A significant (p apheresis was notable, while most of the proinflammatory parameters declined. Despite the limited validity of a single arm non-controlled trial, these alterations on immune modulating factors indicate possible secondary pleiotropic effects caused by HELP-apheresis.

  14. The effect of cromoglycate on time-dependent histamine and serotonin concentrations in stored blood products. (United States)

    Konca, Kamuran; Tiftik, E Naci; Aslan, Gönül; Kanik, Arzu; Yalçin, Atilla


    Biogenic amines, having vascular and inflammatory effects, are accepted as a potential threat for some non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent histamine/serotonin levels in stored blood products and to see whether cromoglycate has any effect on these mediators. Either for platelet or whole blood, 10-fold concentrations of cromoglycate (1 microg ml(-1), 10 microg ml(-1), 100 microg ml(-1)) with controls prepared as pairs of replicate bags collected from two healthy subjects, separately. By using enzyme immunoassay, histamine and serotonin levels were determined in platelet or blood replicates. Histamine levels increased significantly with time but serotonin remained unchanged during the storage of platelet or blood specimens. Cromoglycate had no effect on these biogenic amines except an increase of serotonin in whole blood specimens containing 100 microg ml(-1) of it. So, cromoglycate cannot protect blood products against rising levels of histamine or serotonin.

  15. A native whole blood test for the evaluation of blood-surface interaction: determination of thromboxane production. (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Marconi, W; Cebo, B; Togna, A R; Togna, G; Caprino, L


    The method developed to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial materials involves the determination of thromboxane production during the clotting of rabbit blood, in test tubes of different materials. The concentration of serum TXB2 obtained after incubation of whole blood in glass test tubes, for 40 min at 37 degrees C, averaged 416.8 +/- 23.3 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Polymethylpentene, recognised as having a relatively poor blood compatibility, elicited 309.5 +/- 17.2 ng/ml of serum TXB2, while silicone and Avcothane, considered of better hemocompatibility, showed thromboxane levels of 276.2 +/- 28.2 and 222.9 +/- 31.5 ng/ml, respectively. These values validate the usefulness of the proposed method as a preliminary in vitro screening test of artificial materials intended for biomedical application.

  16. Titers of ABO antibodies in group O blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Dallaval Galvão de França


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma components of group O blood donations are rarely submitted to ABO antibody titrations even though it is well known that passively acquired antibodies may destroy the recipient's own red cells and tissue grafts. OBJECTIVE: Thus, group O donations stratified by gender and age were randomly titrated to identify the best source of products for apheresis and exsanguinous transfusion. METHODS: Samples from 603 blood donors were tested by ABO antibody titration using the conventional tube technique at room temperature. ABO antibody levels higher than 64 were considered high. After correction for gender, statistical analyses were performed using the Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Most donors in the blood bank were male (65.7%. ABO antibody titers ranged from 1 to 2048. The estimations of prevalence for the titers were: anti-A,B 128 = 2.16%; Anti-A > 128 = 9.29% and anti-B > 128 = 4.81%. Low mean titers for both anti-A and anti-B antibodies were found in over 50-year-old men (p-value = 0.040. High anti-B antibody levels were found in young women (p-value = 0.002. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that over 50-year-old O group men should be selected as blood donors in non-identical ABO transfusion situations. Also, titration of ABO antibodies in blood banks will increase safety in non-identical ABO transfusions.

  17. Safety and clinical efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis therapy for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto; Satoru Umegae; Koichi Matsumoto


    Active ulcerative colitis (UC) is frequently associated with infiltration of a large number of leukocytes into the bowel mucosa. Therefore, removal of activated circulating leukocytes by apheresis has the potential for improving UC. In Japan, since April 2000, leukocytapheresis using Adacolumn has been approved as the treatment for active UC by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Adacolumn is an extracorporeal leukocyte apheresis device filled with cellulose acetate beads, and selectively adsorbs granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. To assess the safety and clinical efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMCAP) for UC, we reviewed 10 open trials of the use of GMCAP to treat UC. One apheresis session (session time, 60 min) per week for five consecutive weeks (a total of five apheresis sessions) has been a standard protocol. Several studies used modified protocols with two sessions per week, with 90-min session, or with a total of 10 apheresis sessions.Typical adverse reactions were dizziness, nausea,headache, flushing, and fever. No serious adverse effects were reported during and after GMCAP therapy, and almost all the patients could complete the treatment course. GMCAP is safe and well-tolerated. In the majority of patients, GMCAP therapy achieved clinical remission or improvement. GMCAP is a useful alternative therapy for patients with steroid-refractory or -dependent UC.GMCAP should have the potential to allow tapering the dose of steroids, and is useful for shortening the time to remission and avoiding re-administration of steroids at the time of relapse. Furthermore, GMCAP may have efficacy as the first-line therapy for steroid-naive patients or patients who have the first attack of UC. However,most of the previous studies were uncontrolled trials. To assess a definite efficacy of GMCAP, randomized, doubleblind, sham-controlled trials are necessary. A seriousproblem with GMCAP is cost; a single session costs (¥)145 000 ($1 300

  18. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia A


    Full Text Available Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.Keywords: indications, emerging countries, patient blood management

  19. [Production of interleukin-2 by peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with soft tissue sarcomas]. (United States)

    Berezhnaia, N M; Goretskiĭ, B A; Konovalenko, V F; Palivets, A Iu; Tolstopiatov, B A


    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was studied in 9 healthy subjects and 19 patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Mean IL-2 production by PBL in 19 patients was significantly diminished as compared with the control. Surgery leads to an increase of IL-2 production, however, the levels observed in the control do not restore completely.

  20. Infliximab- and Immunosuppressant-Resistant Crohn’s Disease Successfully Treated with Adsorptive Granulocyte Apheresis Combined with Prednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munenori Itagaki


    Full Text Available Activated granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets appear to be closely involved in active Crohn’s disease (CD. Adsorptive granulocyte apheresis (GCAP is a new treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. GCAP was used to treat a 23-year-old female patient with CD resistant to both infliximab (IFX and azathioprine (AZA. At 16 years of age, the patient underwent a partial ileal resection for peritonitis caused by perforative ileitis. On pathological examination of the resected specimen, the diagnosis was CD. Mesalazine was started, but the patient did not comply with therapy. She was admitted to our hospital again in 2007 due to an acute exacerbation. IFX induction therapy was started. The combination of both AZA daily and IFX every 8 weeks was continued as maintenance therapy. However, she developed severe abdominal pain in September 2009. Computed tomography revealed ileitis and ascending colitis, and blood tests showed high inflammatory response marker levels. She was considered to have IFX- and AZA-resistant CD. Initial intravenous steroid therapy did not result in any improvement. Therefore, weekly GCAP therapy was given for 5 weeks, which immediately improved the inflammatory response markers. GCAP combined with prednisolone could be effective for IFX- and AZA-refractory CD.

  1. The effect of pneumatic tube system on complete blood count parameters and thrombocyte donation in healthy donors. (United States)

    Sari, Ismail; Arslan, Aliriza; Ozlu, Can; Hacioglu, Sibel; Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Isler, Kamil; Keskin, Ali


    This paper is the first report whether or not pneumatic tube system affects the selection of apheresis donors according to the results of complete blood count. According to the apheresis guidelines, hemoglobin level must be ≥12.5g/dL and platelet level ≥150/μL to be a donor. Paired blood samples of 26 healthy volunteers were transported by either hand delivered or a pneumatic tube system to the laboratory. No statistically significant differences were observed in order to mean values of routine complete blood cell count and white cell differential parameters that were send for selection of apheresis donor before the procedure. Therefore, all healthy volunteers decided as a donor according to the laboratory results independent from transport method.

  2. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood. (United States)

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci


    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  3. Lipoprotein apheresis and new therapies for severe familial hypercholesterolemia in adults and children. (United States)

    Page, Michael M; Bell, Damon A; Hooper, Amanda J; Watts, Gerald F; Burnett, John R


    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the most common and severe monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, is an autosomal co-dominant disease characterized by an increased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The clinical phenotype depends on the gene involved and severity of mutation (or mutations) present. Patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous FH have severe hypercholesterolemia (LDL-cholesterol >13 mmol/L) due to a gene dosing effect and without treatment have accelerated atherosclerotic CHD from birth, and frequently die of CHD before age 30. Cholesterol-lowering therapies have been shown to reduce both mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with FH. Lipoprotein apheresis concomitant with lipid-lowering therapy is the treatment of choice for homozygous FH. This article describes the rationale and role of lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of severe FH and outlines the recent advances in new pharmacotherapies for this condition.

  4. 76 FR 39405 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    .... Location: Hilton Hotel, Washington, DC North Gaithersburg, 620 Perry Pkwy., Gaithersburg, MD 20877, 301-977... procoagulant activity in immune globulin products; and summary of the August 1-2, 2011,...

  5. Hemostatic Function of Apheresis Platelets Stored at 4 deg C and 22 deg C (United States)


    activation: CD62P is released from platelet !- granules ; PS is externalized from the inner leaflet of the platelet membrane; and CD40L is a FIG. 4. Enzyme...HEMOSTATIC FUNCTION OF APHERESIS PLATELETS STORED AT 4-C AND 22-C Kristin M. Reddoch,* Heather F. Pidcoke,† Robbie K. Montgomery,† Chriselda G. final form 23 Oct 2013 ABSTRACT Introduction: Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better

  6. Simulation-optimization model for production planning in the blood supply chain. (United States)

    Osorio, Andres F; Brailsford, Sally C; Smith, Honora K; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A


    Production planning in the blood supply chain is a challenging task. Many complex factors such as uncertain supply and demand, blood group proportions, shelf life constraints and different collection and production methods have to be taken into account, and thus advanced methodologies are required for decision making. This paper presents an integrated simulation-optimization model to support both strategic and operational decisions in production planning. Discrete-event simulation is used to represent the flows through the supply chain, incorporating collection, production, storing and distribution. On the other hand, an integer linear optimization model running over a rolling planning horizon is used to support daily decisions, such as the required number of donors, collection methods and production planning. This approach is evaluated using real data from a blood center in Colombia. The results show that, using the proposed model, key indicators such as shortages, outdated units, donors required and cost are improved.

  7. Molecular surgery for the treatment of malignant tumors: bioincompatible material apheresis for cancer therapy? (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Ohta, Kazuhide; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Takaba, Junji; Natsume, Kuniaki


    Controlled immunological shock, induced by bioincompatible material apheresis for cancer (BIC MAC) therapy, produces an immunoactive status in experimental subjects. However, in order to provide a safe, painless, effective, and reproducible BIC MAC therapy, it is mandatory to provide general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation not only during apheresis procedures of 1-h duration but also for an additional 5 h. Using this procedure, there was no mortality experienced during animal experiments. Also, there were no procedurally related physical or sensory abnormalities demonstrated. This general anesthesia of 6 h covered not only the initial 30 min of the hypotension and hypoxic stages but also the recovery stages to hemodynamically normalize the experimental animals. After 6 h, the accumulated leukocytes in the lung are released back to the systemic circulation. In general, granulocytes decreased almost 100% while lymphocytes decreased only 40-50%. During these 6 h, increases of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, etc.) sometimes up to 1000 times occurred. After the 6-h procedure, leukocytes returned nearly to preoperative levels but tended to be continuously increased. After the fourth day, leukocyte counts more than doubled. These cellular and humoral activations were normalized after 2 weeks. These studies were conducted on six normal mongrel dogs. Currently, similar studies are planned to be conducted on tumor-bearing experimental animals. This procedurally induced immunoactivation by apheresis may be able to produce effective apoptosis in malignant tumor cells.

  8. Open label trial of granulocyte apheresis suggests therapeutic efficacy in chronically active steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kruis; Robert L(o)fberg; Axel Dignass; Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen; Julia Morgenstern; Joachim M(o)ssner; Stephan Schreiber; Maurizio Vecchi; Alberto Malesci; Max Reinshagen


    AIM:To study the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of a granulocyte adsorptive type apheresis system for the treatment of patients with chronically active ulcerative colitis despite standard therapy.METHODS: An open label multicenter study was carried out in 39 patients with active ulcerative colitis (CAI6-8) despite continuous use of steroids (a minimum total dose of 400 mg prednisone within the last 4 wk).Patients received a total of five aphereses using a granulocyte adsorptive technique (Adacolumn(R), Otsuka Pharmaceutical Europe, UK). Assessments at wk 6 and during follow-up until 4 mo comprised clinical (CAI) and endoscopic (EI) activity index, histology, quality of life(IBDQ), and laboratory tests.RESULTS: Thirty-five out of thirty-nine patients were qualified for intent-to-treat analysis. After the apheresis treatment at wk 6, 13/35 (37.1%) patients achieved clinical remission and 10/35 (28.6%) patients had endoscopic remission (CAI<4, EI<4). Quality of life (IBDQ) increased significantly (24 points, P<0.01)at wk 6. Apheresis could be performed in all but one patient. Aphereses were well tolerated, only one patient experienced anemia.CONCLUSION: In patients with steroid refractory ulcerative colitis, five aphereses with a granulocyte/monocyte depleting filter show potential short-term efficacy. Tolerability and technical feasibility of the procedure are excellent.

  9. Retrospective Single Center Study of Granulocyte Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Treatment in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (United States)

    Edfors, Kajsa; Ståhlberg, Dagny; Söderman, Charlotte


    Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have elevated and activated myeloid leukocytes, which infiltrate the intestinal mucosa. A significant proportion of IBD patients do not respond adequately to conventional treatment regimes. Studies have suggested that treatment with granulocyte monocyte apheresis (GMA) could be a safe and efficacious alternative for these patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis in patients with IBD in a retrospective cohort study, conducted from a single center in Stockholm. Clinical details from consecutive apheresis treated patients were retrospectively reviewed from 2004 to 2012. A total of 37 patients were included, 23 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 14 with Crohn's disease (CD). Clinical response was seen in 11 patients (30%) and complete remission in 11 patients (30%). The remission rate was higher in UC patients compared to CD patients, 39% (N = 9) and 14% (N = 2) respectively. A total of 9 patients experienced adverse events. Most frequently reported was headache (N = 4). GMA seems to be a valuable adjuvant treatment regime in the care of patients with refractory IBD.

  10. Apheresis research-more abstracts should be published as full manuscripts to provide more evidence for clinical practice guidelines. (United States)

    Pham, Huy P; Jiang, Ning; Pan, Zhi; Williams, Lance A; Marques, Marisa B


    High-quality evidence to support clinical practice is lacking in apheresis medicine compared to other therapeutic modalities. A potential source of evidence comes from the abstracts submitted to the Annual Meetings of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA). Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine the proportion of abstracts from the 2005 to 2012 ASFA Annual Meetings that subsequently became PubMed-indexed publications. Furthermore, we sought to determine the factor(s) that were associated with the likelihood of abstracts to be published as full manuscripts. During the 8-year study period, 684 abstracts were available for analysis (median: 82/year, range: 64-118). Most abstracts (74%) were from US institutions, and 67% of first authors were affiliated with academic centers. There were more abstracts (64%) on therapeutic versus donor apheresis (20%) and cellular therapy (16%). Overall, 16% of the abstracts have been published in PubMed-indexed journals, with a median time of 17 months from the ASFA Annual Meeting (range: 1-96 months). Abstracts whose first authors were affiliated with academic institutions were 3.14 times more likely to have been published than abstracts with ones affiliated with an apheresis organization and/or a community hospital. However, neither the first author's location nor the type of apheresis procedure significantly affected the publication rate after adjusting for other covariates. In conclusion, the rate of publication is low and authors should be encouraged to follow their presentations at the meeting with peer-reviewed manuscripts. This change is essential to provide more published evidence for future apheresis practice guidelines. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:353-358, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retrospective analysis of apheresis platelet detection results in Jiaozuo city%焦作市机采血小板检测结果回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩惠云; 张华; 来祝檩


    Objective To explore the reasons and countermeasures for scrap of apheresis platelet caused by unqualified test result,Apheresis platelet test results of unpaid donors were retrospectively analyzed. Methods Test results of apheresis platelets from 2011.1~2013.12 were used for statistical analysis,the blood donors who's blood was duplicate detection unqualified were trace observed. Results (1)There are 4508 apheresis platelet donors,a total of 30 cases of blood was discarded because test result is unqualified,Non-qualified rate is 0.67%,1 case was anti-HIV positive,the remaining 29 cases were weakly reactive.8 cases were HBsAg weakly reactive,7 were anti-HCV weakly reactive,3 were anti-HIV weakly reactive, 11 were TP weakly reactive.(2)We found 7 cases apheresis platelet donors of repeated weakly reactive,the weak reactive project are the same as the former one,and the times interval of unqualified was short,mostly in 6 months. Conclusion Scrap caused by unqualified test results were in Enzymes from four,and mostly in the grey area.Setting the gray zone reasonable under laboratory conditions,at the same time using high sensitivity,good specificity detection reagent,can both ensure the accuracy of test results,and reduce the blood discarding caused by nonspecificity false positive reaction.(2)We should strengthen the management For apheresis platelets donors,take various measures to reduce the scrap caused by failed testing results,and save the limited blood resources and expensive reagent.%目的:对无偿献血者机采血小板检测结果进行回顾性分析,探讨机采血小板因检测结果不合格而造成报废的原因及对策。方法对2011年1月~2013年12月机采血小板的检测结果进行统计分析,对重复检测结果不合格的献血者进行跟踪观察。结果(1)机采血小板献血者4508例,共有30例因检测结果不合格而报废,不合格率为0.67%,其中抗-HIV阳性1例,其余29例均为

  12. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B


    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  13. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J


    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  14. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation. (United States)

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary


    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The objective of this study was to assess the use of blood products and artificial colloids in six commonly performed elective surgical procedures in 43 teaching hospitals in 10 European countries. 7,195 patient data were analysed. For each product wide differences were found between hospitals, both

  16. Apheresis application of predeposit auotransfusion in surgical operation%单采自体输血在外科手术中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卉; 贾菲; 师红梅; 王彦; 汪德清


    Objective To explore the apheresis application of predeposit auotransfusion in surgical operation. Method According to international predeposit auotransfusion standard, 8 ASA Ⅰ~ Ⅱ patients with a greater estimated blood loss were selected. The blood sample ( Red Blood Cell 3 ~6U, Apheresis Platelets 1U) was collected by the blood cell separator at sepluce or diet tert( total volume, 500 ~ 800ml). The patients were rapidly intravenously infused 0.9% NaCl solution (500 ~ 1000ml) while apheresis. Auotransfusion was started when large volumes of blood loss occurred and systolic blood pressure (SBP) fell to below 90mmHg and completed before the end of operation. Allogeneic blood transfusion was performed when autotransfusion could not meet the requirement of blood transfusion. Hemoglobin ( Hb ), hematocrit ( Hct) and platelet count (PLT) were detected before and after predeposit blood collection by the blood cell separator, before and after operation. Result 8 patients received autotransfusion but no one received allogeneic blood transfusion. The levels of Hb, Hct and PLT after predeposit blood collection and after operation were lower than those before predeposit blood collection. The range the blood loss was 300 ~ 1200ml, accounting for 7% ~ 26.49% of total blood volume. The infused solution volume was 1500 ~ 3000ml at the end of operation. The levels of SPB, DPB, HR at the end of operation were normal. Conclusion Apheresis application of predeposit auotransfusion is safe and effective in surgical operation, for the more, predeposit blood collection by the blood cell separator can ensure auotransfusion when excessive blood loss occurs during operation.%目的 探讨术前单采自体血液在外科手术中的临床应用.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,估计术中出血量较大,符合国内外预存自体输血标准的外科择期手术患者8例,入院后第2、3天下午采用血细胞分离机单采,单采压积红细胞3~6U(来源于800 ~ 1200ml静脉

  17. Production of lipase from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid and thereof for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides and lysis of red blood cells. (United States)

    Ramani, K; Sekaran, G


    The study demonstrates the production of lipase (LIP) from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid as the substrate for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipase was purified with the specific activity of 828 U/mg protein and the molecular weight of 56 kDa. The maximum lipase activity was observed at the pH 7.0 and the temperature 37 °C. The amino acid composition of purified lipase was determined by HPLC. The mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) was used for the immobilization of lipase for the repeated use of the enzyme catalyst. The K (m) value of immobilized lipase (MAC-LIP) and the free lipase (LIP) was 0.182 and 1.96 mM, respectively. The V (max) value of MAC-LIP and LIP was 1.33 and 1.26 mM/min, respectively. The MAC and MAC-LIP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrolysis study showed 78 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for LIP and 84 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for MAC-LIP at the reaction time of 1 h. The effect of lipase on cell wall lysis was carried out on the RBCs of blood plasma. Interestingly, 99.9% lysis of RBCs was observed within 2 h. SEM images and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the lysis of RBCs. This work provides a potential biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides.

  18. Comparison of performance of Trima and Amicus blood cell separators%Trima与Amicus两种血细胞分离机的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 陈麟凤; 师红梅; 李卉; 汪德清


    Objective To contrastively analyze the performance of two kinds of blood cell separators for apheresis platelets . Methods 80 blood donors were selected from 4 234 healthy apheresis platelet donors and their data before and after apheresis platelets were respectively collected by using two kinds of different blood cell separators Trima and Amicus .The product quality during the collection process ,residual WBC and RBC count ,acquisition time ,collection efficiency ,scrapping situation and safety were performed the comparative analysis between the two kinds of blood cell separator .Results In the case of the difference of the basic parameters before apheresis platelet having no statistical significance ,the two kinds of blood cell separator had no differences in the aspects of product quality ,processing blood amount and the use amount of anticoagulants(P>0 .05);but there were statisti‐cal differences in the aspects of acquisition time ,collection efficiency and pipeline residual blood amount (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Two kinds of blood cell separators have their own advantages and disadvantages during the use process ,so the blood cell separator should be selected according to the physical quality and their own characteristics of blood donors .%目的:对比分析两种血细胞分离机单采血小板的性能。方法从健康机采血小板献血员4234名中,选取80名献血员前后使用两种不同血细胞分离机T rima和Amicus采集数据,比较分析两种不同的血细胞分离机采集过程中的产品质量、残余白细胞和红细胞计数、采集时间、采集效率、报废情况及安全性等方面。结果在两种血细胞分离机的献血员采集前基本参数差异无统计学意义的情况下,两种血细胞分离机采集的产品质量方面、处理血量和抗凝剂使用量方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但是两种血细胞分离机在采集时间、采集效率和管道残余血量方面进行比

  19. Evaluation of the human blood entropy production: a new thermodynamic approach. (United States)

    Farsaci, F; Tellone, E; Galtieri, A; Russo, A; Ficarra, S


    In this paper, we follow the thermodynamic theory with internal variables of Kluitenberg evaluating the entropy production of red blood cell in saline solution and whole blood, respectively, when they are subjected to an ultrasound wave. From a thermodynamic point of view, blood is an open system; so to fully represent the entropy variation as function of frequency perturbation we employ phenomenological coefficients which allow us to qualitatively discriminate among classes of phenomena which cannot be observed in any other way. Therefore, a correlation between these coefficients and quantities experimentally measurable allows to a deeper knowledge of biological phenomena.

  20. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Quere, S; Winkel, P


    Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... by an experienced staff with four technologists. We applied statistical process control to examine if time series of quality control values were in statistical control. Leucocyte count in red blood cells was out of statistical control. Platelet concentration and volume of the platelets produced by the occasional...

  1. 护理美学理论在单采血小板中的应用%Application of care aesthetic theory in apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞; 单晓丽; 单玉


    Objective:To discuss the application of care aesthetic theory in apheresis platelets.Methods:Using the nursing aesthetics theory to apheresis platelet,with good occupation image,noble morality,specification language,the exquisite technical service to blood donors,to complete its blood donation in the best physical and mental condition.Results:In 2014 the service window satisfaction,department of environmental health,blood donation rate respectively increased 15.50%,4.10%,14.34%. Compared to the same period in 2013,the rate of adverse reaction decreased by 0.50%.Conclusion:Using the theory of beauty of nursing,attracting and retaining the blood donors to quality service,making the proportion of blood donation growth,team stability.%目的:探讨护理美学理论在无偿捐献血小板中的应用。方法:将护理美学相关理论应用到单采血小板工作中的每个环节,以良好的职业形象、高尚的道德情操、规范的语言、精湛的技术服务于献血者,使其在最佳身心状态下完成献血。结果:2014年服务窗口满意度、科室环境卫生满意度、再次献血率比2013年同期分别增长15.50%、4.10%、14.34%,献血反应发生率降低0.50%。结论:应用护理美学理论,以优质的服务吸引和保留献血者,再次献血人数比例增长,献血队伍稳定。

  2. Ebola virus convalescent blood products: where we are now and where we may need to go. (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Seghatchian, Jerard


    The world is regularly exposed to emerging infections with the potential to burst into a pandemic. One possible way to treat patients, when no other treatment is yet developed,is passive immunization performed by transfusing blood, plasma or plasma immunoglobul infractions obtained from convalescent donors who have recovered from the disease and have developed protective antibodies. The most recent on-going epidemic is caused by the Ebola virus, a filovirus responsible for Ebola virus disease, a severe, often lethal, hemorrhagic fever. Recently, the use of convalescent blood products was proposed by the WHO as one early option for treating patients with Ebola virus disease. This publication provides an overview of the various convalescent blood products and technological options that could theoretically be considered when there is a need to rely on this therapeutic approach.In countries without access to advanced blood-processing technologies, the choice may initially be restricted to convalescent whole blood or plasma. In technologically advanced countries, additional options for convalescent blood products are available, including virally inactivated plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins. The preparation of minipool immunoglobulins is also a realistic option to consider.

  3. Lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of elevated circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): a critical literature review (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.


    Lipoprotein(a), which consists of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle linked to an apolipoprotein(a) moiety, is currently considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its atherogenic (LDL-like) and prothrombotic (plasminogen-like) properties. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and newer therapies for lowering increased lipoprotein(a) levels, focusing on lipoprotein apheresis. After a systematic literature search, we identified ten studies which, overall, documented that lipoprotein apheresis is effective in reducing increased lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events. PMID:26710351

  4. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  5. PVC-plasticizer DEHP in medical products: do thin coatings really reduce DEHP leaching into blood? (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Sibylle L; Lehmann, Hans-Dieter; Wodarz, Roman; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P


    The hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces in extracorporeal blood circulation systems can be improved by coatings. According to the literature, heparin coatings should avoid the leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) into the blood from components made from plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). DEHP and its metabolites are known to impair the fertility of male rodents; effects on human fertility are assumed. Three different surface coatings with and without heparin were examined in a Chandler Loop model at 37 degrees C using fresh human blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility and barrier property to plasticizer. The levels of toxic oxidation products of DEHP generated in the blood, particularly, were found as high as in the uncoated tubing. The coatings improved the hemocompatibility, but are not safe protection against the hazardous metabolites of DEHP. For pregnant women, neonates and children, we would recommend using the available surface-coated plasticized PVC tubing sets, but free of DEHP.

  6. Use of a pneumatic tube system for delivery of blood bank products and specimens. (United States)

    Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H; Abram, M C; Richardson, L D


    This study evaluated the effect of pneumatic tube transport on blood bank specimens and products. No important differences were found between aliquots transported in the tube system and those stored in the laboratory as controls. ABO, Rh, antibody detection or identification, direct antiglobulin testing, and elution were studied. Further, no differences in plasma hemoglobin and potassium concentration were found between units of whole blood and packed cells handled in either manner. Platelet counts in platelet concentrates were not decreased and coagulation factor levels in units of fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate did not decrease after pneumatic transport. The system tested is currently providing expeditious transport of specimens and blood between blood banks and patient care areas.

  7. First level prevention instead of third level intervention-review of research to improve biocompatibility and performance of capillary membrane apheresis in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Russ, Martin; Bedarf, Janis R; Grosch-Ott, Sascha; Haltern, Claudia; Rossaint, Rolf; Unger, Juliane K


    In intensive care medicine, convection-based apheresis is of growing interest. Applying extracorporeal systems in the critically ill patient can cause severe complications like nosocomial infections and bleeding, which can be worsened or even initialized by the anticoagulation protocol used. Furthermore, the filter modules (hemo- and plasmafilters) often tend to a fast blockage. A decrease in sieving performance due to membrane fouling may be tolerable for some time, but the complete blockage of high percentages of hollow fibers, which is named "clotting," often requires the immediate exchange of the filter. Extracorporeal detoxification and high clearance renal replacement regimes both require high blood flow and filtration rates. As a consequence, filter clotting and anticoagulation-associated bleeding are the most sensitive aspects in these applications. We were interested in the paradox phenomenon of the parallel occurrence of intra vitam bleeding and filter clotting in critically ill patients. Through stepwise investigations based on in vitro and animal experiments, we identified a stasis of blood flow followed by blood cell sedimentation and aggregation ("clogging") as the main factor of hollow fiber blockage in hemo- and plasma filters. As a result, various aspects which increase the risk of stasis inside the hollow fibers were investigated, for example, patient's hemorheology, configuration of an extracorporeal treatment system including interaction of catheter features with the filtration procedure, and basic therapeutic approaches such as colloidal volume substitutes and tolerated acidosis. Finally, an etiological triad for the blockage of hollow fibers due to filter clogging and consecutive filter failure was formed.

  8. Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weichao; Xie Hui; Ou Lailiang; Wang Lianyong; Yu Yaoting; Kong Deling [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Lisha, E-mail:, E-mail: [General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052 (China)


    A new low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent with phosphate groups as the ligand was prepared in this study. Macroporous poly(vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) microspheres were prepared using a free-radical suspension polymerization method. A hydrolysis reaction in sodium hydroxide/methanol changed the materials into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres. Further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride in anhydrous DMF led to the LDL adsorbent PVA-phosphate microspheres. The preparation conditions such as reaction time, temperature and the amount of phosphorus oxychloride were optimized. The adsorption of plasma lipoproteins was examined by in vitro adsorption assays. The influence of adsorption time, plasma volume and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The circulation adsorption showed that the pathogenic lipoproteins in the plasma such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL and triglyceride (TG) could be removed markedly, in which the removal percentages were 42.9%, 45.0% and 44.74%, respectively. However, the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other normal plasma components was very slight. For in vivo experiment, rabbits were fed with high-cholesterol food to develop a hyperlipidemia model and treated by extracorporeal blood perfusion using the PVA-phosphate columns. Eight hyperlipidemia rabbits were treated with the PVA-phosphate adsorbent, and the removal of TC, LDL and TG was 45.03 +- 6.64%, 48.97 +- 9.92% and 35.42 +- 14.17%, respectively. The sterilization and storage tests showed that the adsorbent was chemically and functionally stable. It could be easily sterilized by a common method and stored for months without loss of adsorption capacity. Therefore, this new PVA-phosphate-based LDL adsorbent may have potential for application in LDL apheresis.

  9. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.


    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review a

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Peripheral Blood Neutrophils of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients


    Guoda Pilkauskaite; Skaidrius Miliauskas; Raimundas Sakalauskas


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as obesity is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophils produce great amounts of ROS. The aim was to evaluate peripheral blood neutrophils ROS production in men with OSA and to establish relations with disease severity and obesity. Methods. Forty-six men with OSA and 10 controls were investigated. OSA was confirmed by polysomnography (PSG), when apnea/hypopnea index was >5/h. Body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Ne...

  11. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.


    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  12. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.


    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  13. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  14. Using Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Plus Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Mobilize and Apheresis Granulocyte%重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子加地塞米松磷酸钠动员单采粒细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨采用动员剂和血细胞分离机采集粒细胞的效果.方法 选择2011年12月至2012年9月,于本血站行无偿献血的52名献血者作为研究对象.采用重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子(G-CSF)联合地塞米松磷酸钠动员献血者外周血粒细胞,用血细胞分离机采集粒细胞,分析动员剂的动员效果及影响采集效量的因素.、结果 采用动员剂动员后,献血者外周血白细胞(WBC)和中性粒细胞计数(NEUT)分别提高了4和7倍,动员前后比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).本组52份粒细胞平均采集耗时为(201±83)min,处理抗凝全血为(4209±806)mL,抗凝剂枸橼酸枸橼酸钠-葡萄糖A方用量为(394±83)mL,粒细胞制品体积为(283±46)mL,制品粒细胞含量为(2.18±0.81)×1010.女性献血者粒细胞制品含量为(1.77±0.82)×1010,男性为(2.48±0.67)×1010,男性献血者粒细胞采集量高于女性献血者(t=3.331,P=0.002),单因素线形回归分析结果显示献血者采集前血细胞比容(HCT)、血红蛋白含量(Hb)、WBC计数和NEUT水平与粒细胞采集量之间呈正相关关系(P<0.05);多因素线形回归分析结果显示粒细胞采集量与献血者采集前Hb(P=0.030)和NEUT(P=0.037)相关.结论 重组人G-CSF联合地塞米松磷酸钠能有效动员献血者外周血粒细胞,采用血细胞分离机可采集足够剂量的粒细胞用于临床输注.%Objective To explore the effect of mobilization agents and blood cell separator for apheresis granulocyte.Methods From December 2011 to September 2012,52 donors who donated blood in our station were included into this study.Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus dexamethasone sodium phosphate were used mobilizing donors' granulocyte,and apheresis granulocyte were performed on the blood cell separator.The mobilization effective and the factors that effected product content were analyzed.Results After using mobilizing agent,the peripheral blood

  15. Effect of polyclonal activators on cytokine production by blood cells and by malignant breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Kunts, T A; Karpukhina, K V; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V


    The production of cytokines by peripheral blood cells and biopsy specimens of tumors stimulated by polyclonal activators (PAs) was evaluated in 34 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive correlation between the stimulation index of polyclonal activators (SIPA) for IL-18 production by the tumor and the relative content of poorly differentiated cells was revealed. The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with the numbers of normal and pathologic mitoses and the degree of malignancy. Cancer cells can produce IL-18, which is involved in the process of angiogenesis, stimulates invasion and metastasis. Decrease in SIPA for the production of IL-6 and GCSF by peripheral blood cells could serve as an indicator of malignant progression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

  16. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products



    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  17. Risk Management Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations (United States)


    Combat Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicole Powell-Dunford, Jose F. Quesada , Robert F...Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations Nicole Powell-Dunford , Jose F. Quesada , Robert F. Malsby , Victoria...Schofi eld Barracks, Wahiawa, HI; Jose F. Quesada , M.S., M.D., 440th Blood Support Detachment, and Robert Gerhardt, M.D., M.P.H., FACEP, U.S. Army

  18. Hemopoietic stem cell processing: comparison of progenitor cell recovery using the Cobe 2991 cell washer and the Haemonetics V50 apheresis system. (United States)

    Preti, R A; Ahmed, T; Ayello, J; Helson, L; Argani, I; Wuest, D; Ciavarella, D


    Using 24 bone marrow (BM) harvests intended for cryopreservation and transplantation, we compared the use of the Cobe 2991 cell washer (2991) and the Haemonetics V50 apheresis system (HV50) for automated BM processing. Our in vitro data indicate that while the mononuclear cell (MNC) concentration of the HV50 product was significantly greater than that of the 2991, the overall MNC recovery of the two products was equivalent. In addition, although the concentration of CFU-GM and BFU-E in the products was equivalent, recovery of these progenitors in the 2991 product was significantly greater than those of the HV50 product. There was no significant difference in either the final product concentration or the overall recovery of cells bearing the primitive myeloid antigens, CD33 or CD34, between the two methods. The HV50 product volume, the red cell and the granulocyte mass were significantly lower than those of the 2991. We conclude that the advantages gained through the use of each machine should be evaluated within the context of the specific intention for the graft. Future advances in the identification and understanding of the primitive stem cell will aid in attempts to evaluate the methods used to isolate these cells.

  19. Granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: results, practical issues, safety, and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruuska, T; Wewer, V; Lindgren, F


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to collect data on granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) for the treatment of corticosteroid-dependent (SD) or corticosteroid-resistant (SR) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children from 3 Nordic countries to evaluate its efficacy and safety...

  20. Single Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Does Not Improve Vascular Endothelial Function in Chronically Treated Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Ballard


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate vascular endothelial function (VEF responses to a single low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis session in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic treatment. Methods. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD, plasma lipids, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol, markers of oxidative/nitrative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA and nitro-γ-tocopherol (NGT, and regulators of NO metabolism (arginine (ARG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA prior to (Pre and immediately following (Post LDL apheresis and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d Post in 5 hypercholesterolemic patients (52 ± 11 y. Results. Relative to Pre, total cholesterol (7.8±1.5 mmol/L and LDL-cholesterol (6.2±1.2 mmol/L were 61% and 70% lower (P<0.01, respectively, at Post and returned to Pre levels at 14 d. Brachial FMD responses (6.9 ± 3.6% and plasma MDA, ARG, and ADMA concentrations were unaffected by LDL apheresis. Plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and NGT concentrations were 52–69% lower at Post (P<0.01, and α-tocopherol remained 36% lower at 1 d whereas NGT remained 41% lower at d 3. Conclusions. Acute cholesterol reduction by LDL apheresis does not alter VEF, oxidative stress, or NO homeostasis in patients treated chronically for hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Measuring the quality of therapeutic apheresis care in the pediatric intensive care unit. (United States)

    Sussmane, Jeffrey B; Torbati, Dan; Gitlow, Howard S


    Our goal was to measure the quality of care provided in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during Therapeutic Apheresis (TA). We described the care as a step by step process. We designed a flow chart to carefully document each step of the process. We then defined each step with a unique clinical indictor (CI) that represented the exact task we felt provided quality care. These CIs were studied and modified for 1 year. We measured our performance in this process by the number of times we accomplished the CI vs. the total number of CIs that were to be performed. The degree of compliance, with these clinical indicators, was analyzed and used as a metric for quality by calculating how close the process is running exactly as planned or "in control." The Apheresis Process was in control (compliance) for 47% of the indicators, as measured in the aggregate for the first observational year. We then applied the theory of Total Quality Management (TQM) through our Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) model. We were able to improve the process and bring it into control by increasing the compliance to > 99.74%, in the aggregate, for the third and fourth quarter of the second year. We have implemented TQM to increase compliance, thus control, of a highly complex and multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care therapy. We have shown a reproducible and scalable measure of quality for a complex clinical process in the PICU, without additional capital expenditure.

  2. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy treated with LDL-apheresis (Heparin-induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation system: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivasi Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lipoprotein glomerulopathy is a glomerulonephritis which was described for the first time by Saito in 1989 and is currently acknowledged as a separate nosological entity. It is histologically characterized by a marked dilatation of the glomerular capillaries and the presence of lipoprotein thrombi in the glomerular lumens. The dyslipidemic profile is similar to that of type III dyslipoproteinemia with Apolipoprotein E values that are often high; proteinuria and renal dysfunction are present. Proteinuria often does not respond to steroid and cytostatic treatments. The phenotypic expression of lipoprotein glomerulopathy is most probably correlated to a genetic alteration of the lipoprotein metabolism (mutation of the Apolipoprotein E coding gene. In literature, lipoprotein glomerulopathies have mainly been reported in Japanese and Chinese subjects, except for three cases in the Caucasian race, reported in France and the USA. Case presentation We describe the case of a 60-year-old female, Caucasian patient suffering from lipoprotein glomerulopathy, carrier of a new mutation on the Apolipoprotein E gene (Apolipoprotein EMODENA, and treated successfully with low density lipoprotein-apheresis with the Heparin induced extracorporeal lipoprotein precipitation system. After a first phase of therapeutic protocol with statins, the patient was admitted for nephrotic syndrome, renal failure and hypertension. Since conventional treatment alone was not able to control dyslipidemia, aphaeretic treatment with heparin-induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation - apheresis (HELP-apheresis was started to maintain angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy for the treatment of hypertension. Treatment with HELP-apheresis led to a complete remission of the proteinuria in a very short time (four months, as well as control of hypercholesterolemia and renal function recovery. Conclusion According to this case of lipoprotein glomerulopathy

  3. Comparison of local Salmonella pullorum antigen with imported product in whole blood agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyani Medewewa

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is considered as one of the most important diseases in poultry as it causes devastating losses in chicken industry. Proper identification of the infected and carrier birds is required to control the disease among chickens. In field situation whole blood agglutination test is performed in order to identify carriers of Pullorum and Fowl typhoid particularly, in breeder operations. In this test, serum antibodies are detected by using a specially made antigen for this purpose. In Sri Lanka, three antigen products are used commonly in whole blood agglutination test. Objectives: This study was carried out to compare these two locally available S. Pullorum antigen products and to determine any difference in the efficacy. Methods:“Shaver Brown” commercial layer birds (70 in number were used in the experiment. Birds were inoculated orally with 1.8X109cfu/ml of S. Pullorum at 16 weeks age. After Three weeks post inoculation, blood was collected from each bird and Whole blood agglutination test was performed using both antigen products. Fifteen (15 inoculated hens were selected randomly and cloacal swabs were cultured on cultured Agar on same day of serum collected. Results: In this study, there was no significant difference observed between two antigens to detect carrier birds by whole blood agglutination test. Salmonella was not isolated from cloacal swabs since no observed excretion of Salmonella Pullorum through faces. All cloacal swabs gave negative results, when cultured on artificial Agar. Conclusion: Both antigen can be used effectively to detect carrier birds under the control program in country. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 546-548

  4. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men. (United States)

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J


    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  5. Analysis of lipophilic fluorescent products in blood of Alzheimer's disease patients


    Chmátalová, Zuzana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Skoumalová, Alice


    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline. Prodromal stage of AD, also called mild cognitive impairment (MCI), especially its amnestic type (aMCI), precedes dementia stage of AD. There are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers of AD in the blood. Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by increased oxidative stress in brain, which leads to oxidative damage and accumulation of free radical reaction end‐products. In our study, s...

  6. Leukoreduced blood components: Advantages and strategies for its implementation in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R


    Full Text Available Removal of leucocytes from various blood products has been shown to minimize Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, HLA alloimmunization, platelet refractoriness in multitransfused patients and prevention of transmission of leukotropic viruses such as EBV and CMV. Rapidly growing size of hemato-oncological patients in our country requiring multiple transfusion of blood and components during the course of their management pose a great challenge to transfusion services to provide them red cell and platelet antigen matched products in alloimmunized subjects. Thus removal of leucocytes below a certain threshold, ≤ 5 x 10 6 in a blood component certainly helps in prevention of alloimmunization and associated risks in these patients. Currently the best Leucoreduction can be achieved with the help of 3rd and 4th generation leukofilters, both in laboratory and patient bed side, and state of the art apheresis devices. The present article briefly reviews the current literature for pros and cons of leucofilteration and its scope of implementation in the cost constrained settings.

  7. Clinical analysis of leukodepleted apheresis platelet%去白细胞机采血小板的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of leukodepleted apheresis platelet. Methods Clinical a-nalysis on 653 cases of leukodepleted apheresis platelet and apheresis platelet. Results The effective rate of leukodepleted apheresis platelet was 91. 6% ,the effective rate of apheresis platelet was 89. 9% ;The transfusion reaction of leukodepleted apheresis platelet group was lower than that of the apheresis platelet group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions The therapeutic effect of leukodepleted apheresis platelet transfusion was better and safer.%目的 探讨分析去白细胞机采血小板与单纯机采血小板的临床治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市血液中心653例去白细胞机采血小板与单纯机采血小板的治疗效果.结果 去白细胞机采血小板组输注总有效率为91.6%,单纯机采血小板组为89.9%;去白细胞机采血小板组发生输血反应及血小板无效输注低于单纯机采血小板组(P<0.05).结论 去白细胞机采血小板输注疗效较手工分离血小板更为安全有效.

  8. Observation on Clinical Curative Effect of Therapeutic Apheresis in Treatment of Haematological Disease%血液成分单采治疗血液病的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨在血液病治疗中,血液成分单采治疗的应用效果。方法选取我院近年收治的36例血液病患者,采用血细胞分离机与一次性密闭式管道,以ACA-A作为抗凝剂,选择TPE程序行血浆置换程序;选取MNC程序行白细胞单采术;选取ELP程序行血小板单采;选取RBC程序行红细胞单采治疗。观测与分析各血液成分单采治疗的效果。结果18例白细胞单采术中,有1例患者出现四肢、口唇麻木;7例血小板单采术患者均未表现出任何不良反应;5例患者应用治疗性红细胞单采术,高黏滞综合征得到了改善,无任何不良反应;6例血浆置换患者中,5例效果显著,1例转行化疗。结论在血液病治疗中,血液成分单采可有效改善患者临床效果。%Objective To explore the clinical curative effect of therapeutic apheresis in the treatment of haematological disease.MethodsSelect 36 patients with blood disease admitted in our hospital in recent years,use the blood cel separator and one-time closed pipeline with anticoagulants ACA-A,select TPE program to run plasma exchange program,select MNC program to run white solid,select ELP program to run platelet solid,select RBC program to run red blood cels solid. Observe and analyse the effect of therapeutic apheresis.Results18 patients with leukocyte apheresis surgery,1 case of patients with limbs,lips numbness,7 cases of platelet apheresis patients did not show any adverse reactions,5 patients used therapeutic red solid, high viscous syndrome is improved,without any adverse reaction. 5 patients used therapeutic red solid,high viscous syndrome is improved,without any adverse reaction. In 6 patients with plasma exchange,5 cases have remarkable effect and 1 case turned to chemotherapy.ConclusionIn the blood disease treatment,blood component list can effectively improve the clinical effect.

  9. Do blood components affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by equine synovial cells in vitro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Brossi


    Full Text Available Blood-derived products are commonly administered to horses and humans to treat many musculoskeletal diseases, due to their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, antioxidant effects have never been shown upon horse synovial fluid cells in vitro. If proved, this could give a new perspective to justify the clinical application of blood-derived products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of two blood-derived products - plasma (unconditioned blood product - UBP and a commercial blood preparation (conditioned blood product - CBP¹ - upon stimulated equine synovial fluid cells. Healthy tarsocrural joints (60 were tapped to obtain synovial fluid cells; these cells were pooled, processed, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and evaluated by flow cytometry for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Upon addition of any blood-derived product here used - UBP and CBP - there was a significant decrease in the oxidative burst of synovial fluid cells (P<0.05. There was no difference between UBP and CBP effects. In conclusion, treatment of stimulated equine synovial cells with either UBP or CBP efficiently restored their redox equilibrium.

  10. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges. (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc


    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients.

  11. Ulcerative colitis and granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis: safety and efficacy of maintenance therapy during pregnancy. (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Valeria; Meo, Donatella; Gozer, Maria; Bazuro, Marco E; Vernia, Piero


    Inflammatory bowel disease characteristically affects young adults in their reproductive ages. Thus the medication used for the treatment of active disease should not compromise fertility and, also, should not have teratogenic effect on baby. A lot of data are available about effects of steroids, antibiotics, and mesalazine but no data are available about safety and efficacy of granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) during pregnancy. In this case report, the 37 year-old pregnant woman with chronically active and steroid dependent ulcerative colitis (UC), at risk of abortion, refused more aggressive pharmacological therapeutic options and gave the informed consent to GMA. To minimize symptoms and the risk of severe clinical relapse, a maintenance GMA treatment was performed throughout pregnancy. The course of pregnancy was uneventful with no side effects; the mother and the baby were all healthy and well at the delivery.

  12. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis as an effective treatment for Reiter disease. (United States)

    Yoshifuku, A; Oyama, K; Ibusuki, A; Kawasaki, M; Sakanoue, M; Matsushita, S; Kawai, K; Kawahara, K; Maruyama, I; Kanekura, T


    Reiter disease (RD) is characterized by a triad of sterile arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The conditions occur concomitantly or sequentially, and are associated with mucocutaneous features such as circinate balanitis and stomatitis. Arthritis usually occurs in attacks followed by recovery, but it sometimes progresses to permanent damage of the affected joints. Because the symptoms of this disorder are attributable to activated neutrophils, we assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) in a 73-year-old man with RD who had skin rashes on his penis, scrotum and right hand, with severe arthralgia. The patient's skin rash and joint pain responded dramatically to five sessions of GCAP delivered at intervals of 5 days. We present a detailed description of the patient and discuss the mechanisms of GCAP, and suggest that GCAP may be useful for treating RD.

  13. Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomomi; Tawada, Chisato; Mizutani, Yoko; Doi, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Ogura, Shinji; Seishima, Mariko


    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is characterized by neutrophilic pustules with erythema, which are limited to the hands and feet. Although granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) has shown remarkable effects on generalized pustular psoriasis, there are few reports of PPP treated with GMA. We treated three refractory PPP patients using GMA weekly for 5 weeks. The skin eruptions were assessed by a 5-grade score for scales, pustules, and erythema. GMA decreased the total grade from 9 to 2 in patients 1 and 2, and from 7 to 3 in patient 3. The GMA effects were estimated to be excellent in all three patients. Pustule formation and pain disappeared in all cases. The treatment effect lasted for at least 5 months after GMA. GMA was also effective for relieving the arthralgia in one patient, but it recurred at 6 weeks. Based on these findings, GMA could be an effective therapy for refractory PPP.

  14. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina;


    Since the approval of recombinant insulin from Escherichia coli for its clinical use in the early 1980s, the amount of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins obtained by microbial fermentations has significantly increased. The recent advances in genomics together with high throughput analysis...... techniques (the so-called—omics approaches) and integrative approaches (systems biology) allow the development of novel microbial cell factories as valuable platforms for large scale production of therapeutic proteins. This review summarizes the main achievements and the current situation in the field...

  15. Brazilian propolis: a natural product that improved the fungicidal activity by blood phagocytes. (United States)

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza


    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  16. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryllo Mendes Possamai


    Full Text Available Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  17. The chemical and sensory qualities of smoked blood sausage made with the edible by-products of goat slaughter. (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Dalmás, P S; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Beltrão Filho, E M; Moreira, R T; Madruga, M S


    The aim was to evaluate smoked blood sausage prepared using goat blood (50%), viscera (10%) and meat fragments (20%). Microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluations were conducted. The quality analyses showed that smoked goat blood sausage is rich in high biological value proteins, amino acids, essential fatty acids, and iron (26.65mg/100g). The smoked goat blood sausage was rated to have a sensory acceptance of greater than 80%. The use of edible by-products from the slaughter of goats in the formulation of smoked blood sausage is viable because it uses low-cost raw materials; furthermore, the utilisation of these by-products can generate income for producers, allowing them to offer a meat product of high nutritional and sensory quality.

  18. Defect in lectin-induced interleukin 2 production by peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubeník, J; Kieler, J; Tromholt, V


    The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 21 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (BTCC) and 16 control blood donors was measured with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay based on the dual...

  19. A mathematical model of thrombin production in blood coagulation, Part I: The sparsely covered membrane case. (United States)

    Baldwin, S A; Basmadjian, D


    This paper presents the first attempt to model the blood coagulation reactions in flowing blood. The model focuses on the common pathway and includes activation of factor X and prothrombin, including feedback activation of cofactors VIII and V by thrombin, and plasma inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin. In this paper, the first of two, the sparsely covered membrane (SCM) case is presented. This considers the limiting situation where platelet membrane binding sites are in excess, such that no membrane saturation or binding competition occurs. Under these conditions, the model predicts that the two positive feedback loops lead to multiple steady-state behavior in the range of intermediate mass transfer rates. It will be shown that this results in three parameter regions exhibiting very different thrombin production patterns. The model predicts the effect of flow on steady-state and dynamic thrombin production and attempts to explain the difference between venous and arterial thrombi. The reliance of thrombin production on precursor procoagulant protein concentrations is also assessed.

  20. Ventricular Assist Devices and Increased Blood Product Utilization for Cardiac Transplantation (United States)

    Stone, Matthew L.; LaPar, Damien J.; Benrashid, Ehsan; Scalzo, David C.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Bergin, James D.; Blank, Randal S.; Kern, John A.


    Background and Aim of Study The purpose of this study was to examine whether blood product utilization, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival significantly differ for ventricular assist device (VAD patients compared to non-VAD (NVAD) patients following cardiac transplantation. Methods From July 2004 to August 2011, 79 patients underwent cardiac transplantation at a single institution. Following exclusion of patients bridged to transplantation with VADs other than the HeartMate II® LVAD (n = 10), patients were stratified by VAD presence at transplantation: VAD patients (n = 35, age: 54.0 [48.0–59.0] years) vs. NVAD patients (n = 34, age: 52.5 [42.8–59.3] years). The primary outcomes of interest were blood product transfusion requirements, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival post-transplantation. Results Preoperative patient characteristics were similar for VAD and NVAD patients. NVAD patients presented with higher median preoperative creatinine levels compared to VAD patients (1.3 [1.1–1.6] vs. 1.1 [0.9–1.4], p = 0.004). VAD patients accrued higher intraoperative transfusion of all blood products (all p ≤ 0.001) compared to NVAD patients. The incidence of clinically significant cell-mediated rejection within the first posttransplant year was higher in VAD compared to NVAD patients (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.02). During a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.0, 6.3) years, VAD patients demonstrated an increased postoperative mortality that did not reach statistical significance (20.0% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.20). Conclusions During the initial era as a bridge to transplantation, the HeartMate II® LVAD significantly increased blood product utilization and one-year cell-mediated rejection rates for cardiac transplantation. Further study is warranted to optimize anticoagulation strategies and to define causal relationships between these factors for the current era of cardiac transplantation. PMID:25529999

  1. The harmonization of the regulation of blood products: a European perspective. (United States)

    Seitz, R; Heiden, M; Nübling, C M; Unger, G; Löwer, J


    The development of blood products as medicines initially took place on the national level in various countries, which resulted in considerable diversity of mechanisms and stringency of regulatory oversight. The scenario changed dramatically with the catastrophic experience that severe virus infections had been transmitted by blood products world-wide. Blood products, which had been regulated differently in the member states, became subject to the European pharmaceutical legislation in 1989. A specialized directive regulating the blood transfusion sector and the collection of plasma for fractionation was enacted in 2002. The European Community, particularly the Commission and the European Medicines Agency, is continuously refining the requirements, providing detailed technical and scientific guidance. In addition, institutions of the Council of Europe play an important role in the transfusion sector, the elaboration of the European Pharmacopoeia prescriptions, and the co-ordination of Official Medicines Control Laboratory or Laboratories batch release. However, further and sustained efforts towards international harmonization are needed. There are already important mechanisms in place, such as the International Conference on Harmonization initiative, which is producing internationally recognized guidelines on central issues. Another important achievement is the common technical document format, which enables the use of uniform applications for marketing authorization. However, there is still room for progress, for example, questions regarding regulatory requirements for licensing of in vitro diagnostic devices, or mutual recognition of inspections. The World Health Organization continues to play an important role in harmonization, both substantially by the production of high-level guidance documents or the establishment of physical international standard preparations, and in a more general sense by providing a platform for international collaboration. A very

  2. [Blood donation in urban areas]. (United States)

    Charpentier, F


    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  3. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu


    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  4. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A


    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal.

  5. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)


    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  6. 机采血小板细菌16s rRNA基因检测的临床研究%Clinical study of bacterial 16s rRNA gene detection in apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周火根; 池妤


    目的 探讨快速、可靠的检测机采血小板(PLT)细菌污染的新方法.方法 用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增1 308份献血员机采PLT 16s rRNA基因,以乙型肝炎病毒-脱氧核糖核酸(HBV DNA)、白假丝酵母菌和人类基因组DNA为对照,检测该方法的特异性;采用10倍倍比稀释法进行该方法的敏感性检测.结果 检测1308份献血员机采PLT,其中7份16s rRNA基因为阳性,阳性率为0.54%(7/1 308).而与HBV DNA、白假丝酵母菌和人基因组DNA无交叉反应;PCR最低能检测1.5 × 10~4cfu/L大肠埃希菌.结论 献血员机采PLT板细菌污染的阳性率为0.54%;利用PCR检测献血员机采PLT细菌16s rRNA基因的方法具有特异性、快速性和敏感性高等特点.%Objective To explore a rapid and reliable method for the detection of bacterial contamination in the apheresis platelets. Methods The fragment of bacterial 16s rRNA gene,taken from apheresis platelets of 1 308 blood donors, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Using HBV DNA, Candida albicans and human genome DNA as controls,the specificity was tested. The sensitivity test was performed by the method of 10 gradual dilution. Results 7 of 1 308 alpheresis platelets samples showed 16s rRNA gene positive and the bacterial contamination ratio of apheresis platelets was 0.54%. The cross-reaction with the HBV DNA, Candida albicans and human genome DNA was negative. PCR exhibited sensitivity as low as 1.5 × 10_4 cfu/L Escherichia coli. Conclusions The bacterial detection method of 16s rRNA gene offers the adventages of high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity.

  7. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  8. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  9. Effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Byeong Hwa; KIM Cuk Seong; KIM Hoe-Suk; PARK Jin-Bong; NAM Ki Yeul; CHANG Seok Jong


    AIM: To investigate the effect of crude saponin and nonsaponin fraction of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the blood pressure and nitric oxide (NO) production in the conscious rats and cultured endothelial cell line, FCV 304 cells. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in the conscious rats. Nitric oxide levels and the expression of nitric oxide synthase were measured by a spectrophotometric assay using Griess reagents and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric-oxide synthase activity was measured based on the conversion rate of [3H]arginine to [3H]citmlline. RESUITS: Systolic blood pressure was decreased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, iv) of KRG in the conscious control and one-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive (1K, 1C-GBH) rats. The hypotensive effect induced by crude saponin of KRG reached maximum at 2 - 4 min and slowly recovered after 20 min to the initial level in both groups. Crude saponin of KRG induced tacliycardia in the conscious rats but induced bradycardia in the anesthetized rats. In contrast to crude saponin of KRG, hypotensive effect induced by saponin-free fraction was minimal. Nitric oxide concentrations were increased by the treaunent of crude saponin in conscious rats as well as in the cultured FCV 304 cells. The protein expression level of endothelial constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, ip for 3 d). However, nitric-oxide synthase activity was increased by crude saponin of KRG in the aortic homogenate of rats. CONCLUSION: The hypotensive effect of red ginseng is mainly due to saponin fraction of KRG in the conscious rats, and this effect may be due to an increase in the nitric-oxide production by KRG.

  10. Production of intravenous human dengue immunoglobulin from Brazilian-blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Leite Gouveia


    Full Text Available Dengue represents an important health problem in Brazil and therefore there is a great need to develop a vaccine or treatment. The neutralization of the dengue virus by a specific antibody can potentially be applied to therapy. The present paper describes, for the first time, the preparation of Immunoglobulin specific for the dengue virus (anti-DENV IgG, collected from screened Brazilian blood-donations. Production was performed using the classic Cohn-Oncley process with minor modifications. The anti-DENV IgG was biochemically and biophysically characterized and fulfilled the requirements defined by the European Pharmacopoeia. The finished product was able to neutralize different virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, while a commercial IgG collected from American blood donations was found to have low anti-dengue antibody titers. Overall, this anti-DENV IgG represents an important step in the study of the therapeutic potential and safety of a specific antibody that neutralizes the dengue virus in humans.

  11. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells. (United States)

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G


    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  12. Determinants of ABH expression on human blood platelets. (United States)

    Cooling, Laura L W; Kelly, Kathleen; Barton, James; Hwang, Debbie; Koerner, Theodore A W; Olson, John D


    Platelets express ABH antigens, which can adversely effect platelet transfusion recovery and survival in ABH-incompatible recipients. To date, there has been no large, comprehensive study comparing specific donor factors with ABH expression on platelet membranes and glycoconjugates. We studied ABH expression in 166 group A apheresis platelet donors by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin layer chromatography relative to donor age, sex, A1/A2 subgroup, and Lewis phenotype. Overall, A antigen on platelet membranes, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids was linked to an A1 red blood cell (RBC) phenotype. Among A1 donors, platelet ABH varied significantly between donors (0%-87%). Intradonor variability, however, was minimal, suggesting that platelet ABH expression is a stable, donor-specific characteristic, with 5% of A1 donors typing as either ABH high- or low-expressers. Group A2 donors, in contrast, possessed a Bombay-like phenotype, lacking both A and H antigens. Unlike RBCs, ABH expression on platelets may be determined primarily by H-glycosyltransferase (FUT1) activity. Identification of A2 and A1 low expressers may increase the availability and selection of crossmatched and HLA-matched platelets. Platelets from group A2 may also be a superior product for patients undergoing A/O major mismatch allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation.

  13. The GRADE approach for assessing new technologies as applied to apheresis devices in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabriada-Nuño Jose


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, a new non-pharmacological treatment, termed apheresis, has been developed to lessen the burden of ulcerative colitis (UC. Several methods can be used to establish treatment recommendations, but over the last decade an informal collaboration group of guideline developers, methodologists, and clinicians has developed a more sensible and transparent approach known as the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. GRADE has mainly been used in clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews. The aim of the present study is to describe the use of this approach in the development of recommendations for a new health technology, and to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats found when doing so. Methods A systematic review of the use of apheresis for UC treatment was performed in June 2004 and updated in May 2008. Two related clinical questions were selected, the outcomes of interest defined, and the quality of the evidence assessed. Finally, the overall quality of each question was taken into account to formulate recommendations following the GRADE approach. To evaluate this experience, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed to enable a comparison with our previous experience with the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. Results Application of the GRADE approach allowed recommendations to be formulated and the method to be clarified and made more explicit and transparent. Two weak recommendations were proposed to answer to the formulated questions. Some challenges, such as the limited number of studies found for the new technology and the difficulties encountered when searching for the results for the selected outcomes, none of which are specific to GRADE, were identified. GRADE was considered to be a more time-consuming method, although it has the advantage of taking into account patient

  14. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  15. The GRADE approach for assessing new technologies as applied to apheresis devices in ulcerative colitis (United States)


    Background In the last few years, a new non-pharmacological treatment, termed apheresis, has been developed to lessen the burden of ulcerative colitis (UC). Several methods can be used to establish treatment recommendations, but over the last decade an informal collaboration group of guideline developers, methodologists, and clinicians has developed a more sensible and transparent approach known as the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). GRADE has mainly been used in clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews. The aim of the present study is to describe the use of this approach in the development of recommendations for a new health technology, and to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats found when doing so. Methods A systematic review of the use of apheresis for UC treatment was performed in June 2004 and updated in May 2008. Two related clinical questions were selected, the outcomes of interest defined, and the quality of the evidence assessed. Finally, the overall quality of each question was taken into account to formulate recommendations following the GRADE approach. To evaluate this experience, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was performed to enable a comparison with our previous experience with the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) method. Results Application of the GRADE approach allowed recommendations to be formulated and the method to be clarified and made more explicit and transparent. Two weak recommendations were proposed to answer to the formulated questions. Some challenges, such as the limited number of studies found for the new technology and the difficulties encountered when searching for the results for the selected outcomes, none of which are specific to GRADE, were identified. GRADE was considered to be a more time-consuming method, although it has the advantage of taking into account patient values when defining and

  16. [Recent circumstances in the supply and demand of various blood products in Japan, and appropriate use of blood components or plasma protein derivatives]. (United States)

    Tohyama, H


    In Japan, as in the United States and several other advanced countries, the use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and albumin has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Especially in Japan the increase has been at least tenfold, and half of this usage has been for surgery. Most reviews of albumin usage acknowledge that there is a high ratio of wastage, or use in clinical circumstances without a firm scientific basis. Recently Japan has imported an enormous volume of various plasma fraction products such as albumin, Factor VIII etc., or plasma as raw material from foreign countries, especially the United States. As a result, Japan has come to monopolized a quarter of the albumin manufactured in the world, and has therefore received much internal and external criticism from or ethical standpoint. As countermeasures against shortage of these blood products, it will be necessary for doctors to use these blood products more sparingly and to increase the yield of volunteer donor's blood, especially plasma. More red blood cell concentrate should be utilized for hemorrhage in routine surgical operations. Because whole blood transfusion is rarely used except in cases of massive bleeding that cannot be stopped immediately, exchange transfusion has been performed in the United States and European countries recently. Transfusion of FFP is appropriately used only for replacement of coagulation factor deficiencies, massive transfusion etc. in the United States. It should be particularly noted that these carry the risk of transmission of diseases such as hepatitis and possibly AIDS. Albumin is an effective oncotic agent in the treatment of acute shock and in the maintenance of intravascular volume and cardiac output. However, albumin and FFP have no demonstrable effect in the general supportive management of chronic hypoproteinemia and undernutrition.

  17. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products. (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J


    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  18. Safety of human blood products: inactivation of retroviruses by heat treatment at 60 degrees C. (United States)

    Hilfenhaus, J; Mauler, R; Friis, R; Bauer, H


    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be transferred to patients by blood transfusions or human blood preparations, such as cryoprecipitates or factor VIII concentrates. Retroviruses have been discussed as infectious AIDS agents and more recently human T-lymphotropic retroviruses designated as HTLV type III and LAV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus) have been isolated from AIDS patients. Whether heat treatment at 60 degrees C (pasteurization) of liquid human plasma protein preparations inactivates retroviruses was therefore investigated. Pasteurization had already been included in the routine manufacturing process of human plasma protein preparations in order to guarantee safety with regard to hepatitis B. Since high titer preparations of human retroviruses were not available, heat inactivation was studied using Rous sarcoma virus added to the various plasma protein preparations tested. This retrovirus which was obtained in preparations of 6.0 log10 FFU/ml was shown to be at least as heat stable as two mammalian retroviruses studied, i.e., feline and simian sarcoma virus. In all of eight different plasma protein preparations tested, Rous sarcoma virus was completely inactivated after a heat treatment lasting no longer than 4 hr. It is thus concluded that pasteurization of liquid plasma protein preparations at 60 degrees C over a period of 10 hr must confer safety to these products with respect to AIDS, provided that the AIDS agents are retroviruses of comparable heat stability as Rous sarcoma virus and the mammalian retroviruses tested.

  19. Determination of personal care products -benzophenones and parabens- in human menstrual blood. (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Iribarne-Durán, L M; Ocón, O; Salamanca, E; Fernández, M F; Olea, N; Barranco, E


    Benzophenones and parabens are synthetic chemicals used in many personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Benzophenones are used to protect the skin and materials from the adverse effects of UV-radiation, and parabens are used as preservatives. Despite their widespread occurrence and proven endocrine disrupting activity, relatively little is known about human exposure to these compounds. In the present work, an analytical method based on sample treatment using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, -2, -3, -6, -8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) and four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl- paraben) from human menstrual blood samples, followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, is proposed and validated. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.3ngmL(-1), with recoveries of 93.8% to 108.9%, and precision (evaluated as relative standard deviation) lower than 14% for all selected compounds. This method was successfully applied for the determination of the target compounds in 25 samples of human menstrual blood. Methylparaben and benzophenone-3 were the most frequently detected compounds (96%).

  20. RFID in the blood supply chain--increasing productivity, quality and patient safety. (United States)

    Briggs, Lynne; Davis, Rodeina; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Kopetsky, Matthew; Young, Kassandra; Veeramani, Raj


    As part of an overall design of a new, standardized RFID-enabled blood transfusion medicine supply chain, an assessment was conducted for two hospitals: the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) and Mississippi Baptist Health System (MBHS). The main objectives of the study were to assess RFID technological and economic feasibility, along with possible impacts to productivity, quality and patient safety. A step-by-step process analysis focused on the factors contributing to process "pain points" (errors, inefficiency, product losses). A process re-engineering exercise produced blueprints of RFID-enabled processes to alleviate or eliminate those pain-points. In addition, an innovative model quantifying the potential reduction in adverse patient effects as a result of RFID implementation was created, allowing improvement initiatives to focus on process areas with the greatest potential impact to patient safety. The study concluded that it is feasible to implement RFID-enabled processes, with tangible improvements to productivity and safety expected. Based on a comprehensive cost/benefit model, it is estimated for a large hospital (UIHC) to recover investment from implementation within two to three years, while smaller hospitals may need longer to realize ROI. More importantly, the study estimated that RFID technology could reduce morbidity and mortality effects substantially among patients receiving transfusions.

  1. Prostacyclin production by blood-contacting surfaces of endothelialized vascular prostheses. (United States)

    Greisler, H P; Klosak, J J; McGurrin, J F; Endean, E D; Ellinger, J; Pozar, J D; Henderson, S C; Kim, D U


    This study examines prostacyclin production by blood-contacting surfaces within woven vascular prostheses of polydioxanone (PDS), polyglactin 910 (PG910), or Dacron interposed into rabbit infrarenal aortas. Grafts and normal aortic segments were explanted after 1, 3, and 6 months for pulsatile perfusion with Medium-199 for 60 minutes. Aliquots were removed serially for 6-keto-PGF1 alpha assay. After 30 minutes sodium arachidonate (10 micrograms/ml) was added. Specimens were studied by light microscopy, SEM and TEM. Patency in all three groups exceeded 90%. All three showed re-endothelialization at one month. Normal aorta produced low basal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha with a marked evanescent post arachidonate increase. Dacron did not differ from normal aorta. PG910 and PDS both produced significantly less 6-keto-PGF1 alpha post arachidonate at one month but both increased to normal by three months.

  2. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia


    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  3. Transfusion audit of blood products using the World Health Organization Basic Information Sheet in Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran. (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, H; Kani, C; Fallah-Abed, P; Lalooha, F; Mohammadi, N


    We assessed the practicality of using the transfusion Basic Information Sheet (BIS) for data collection, to determine the overall adequacy of physician documentation of blood product transfusion, and to make an audit of the appropriateness of blood product transfusion. The transfusion process and clinical indications for transfusions administered to adult hospitalized patients in 3 tertiary care teaching hospitals in Qazvin were prospectively reviewed. Adequate documentation was achieved in 62.6% of all transfusion episodes, range 41%-73%, depending on the medical specialty; 15.7% of red blood cells and whole blood requests, 40.8% of platelet requests and 34.1% of fresh frozen plasma requests were inappropriate. BIS-based information along with data collection can be used to provide feedback regarding the effectiveness of and compliance with local and national transfusion guidelines.

  4. Effects of combined lipoic acid and pyridoxine on albuminuria, advanced glycation end-products, and blood pressure in diabetic nephropathy. (United States)

    Noori, Nazanin; Tabibi, Hadi; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Hedayati, Mehdi; Nafar, Mohsen


    This study was designed to investigate the effects of combined administration of lipoic acid and pyridoxine on albuminuria, oxidative stress, blood pressure, serum advanced glycation end-products, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned to either a supplement group or a placebo group. The patients in the supplement group received 800 mg lipoic acid and 80 mg pyridoxine daily for 12 weeks, whereas the placebo group received corresponding placebos. Urinary albumin, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the supplement group compared to the placebo group (p blood pressure. The present study indicates that combined administration of lipoic acid and pyridoxine improves albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy by reducing oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products, and systolic blood pressure. The reduction in microalbuminuria may be of benefit in retarding the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  5. The lipid-lowering effects of lomitapide are unaffected by adjunctive apheresis in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia – a post-hoc analysis of a Phase 3, single-arm, open-label trial (United States)

    Stefanutti, C; Blom, DJ; Averna, MR; Meagher, EA; Theron, HdT; Marais, AD; Hegele, RA; Sirtori, CR; Shah, PK; Gaudet, D; Vigna, GB; Sachais, BS; Di Giacomo, S; du Plessis, AME; Bloedon, LT; Balser, J; Rader, DJ; Cuchel, M


    Objective Lomitapide (a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor) is an adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH), a rare genetic condition characterised by elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and premature, severe, accelerated atherosclerosis. Standard of care for HoFH includes lipid-lowering drugs and lipoprotein apheresis. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from a Phase 3 study to assess whether concomitant apheresis affected the lipid-lowering efficacy of lomitapide. Methods Existing lipid-lowering therapy, including apheresis, was to remain stable from Week −6 to Week 26. Lomitapide dose was escalated on the basis of individual safety/tolerability from 5 mg to 60 mg a day (maximum). The primary endpoint was mean percent change in LDL-C from baseline to Week 26 (efficacy phase), after which patients remained on lomitapide through Week 78 for safety assessment and further evaluation of efficacy. During this latter period, apheresis could be adjusted. We analysed the impact of apheresis on LDL-C reductions in patients receiving lomitapide. Results Of the 29 patients that entered the efficacy phase, 18 (62%) were receiving apheresis at baseline. Twenty-three patients (13 receiving apheresis) completed the Week 26 evaluation. Of the six patients who discontinued in the first 26 weeks, five were receiving apheresis. There were no significant differences in percent change from baseline of LDL-C at Week 26 in patients treated (−48%) and not treated (−55%) with apheresis (p=0.545). Changes in Lp(a) levels were modest and not different between groups (p=0.436). Conclusion The LDL-C lowering efficacy of lomitapide is unaffected by lipoprotein apheresis. PMID:25897792

  6. Increased blood concentration of isopropanol in ketotic dairy cows and isopropanol production from acetone in the rumen. (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi


    To evaluate acetone and isopropanol metabolism in bovine ketosis, the blood concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and other metabolites were analyzed in 12 healthy controls and 15 ketotic dairy cows including fatty liver and inferior prognosis after laparotomy for displaced abomasum. In ruminal fluid taken from 6 ketotic cows, ruminal isopropanol and acetone were also analyzed. Ketotic cows showed higher concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, 3-HB and nonesterified fatty acid, and higher activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase than control cows. Blood samples had higher concentration of isopropanol accompanied by increased acetone. In the ketotic cows, acetone was detected not only in blood but also in ruminal fluid, while higher ruminal isopropanol did not necessarily accompany its elevation in the blood. Using 2 steers with rumen cannula, all ruminal content was emptied and then substituted with artificial saliva to evaluate the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production. Under each condition of intact and emptied rumen, acetone was infused into the rumen and blood isopropanol was analyzed. The elevation in the blood isopropanol concentration after acetone infusion was markedly inhibited by the emptying. Here, increased blood concentrations of isopropanol and acetone were observed in ketotic cows, and the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production was confirmed.

  7. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.


    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  8. Successful treatment of three cases of generalized pustular psoriasis with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis. (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Haruna, Kunitaka; Mizuno, Yuki; Kuwae, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Yuka; Okumura, Kazuko; Negi, Osamu; Kon, Yasuko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Takamori, Kenji; Ikeda, Shigaku; Suga, Yasushi


    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of variable numbers of sterile pustules appearing in erythematous and scaly lesions, which are associated with moderate to severe constitutional symptoms. It can be life-threatening especially in the elderly; therefore, medical care must be performed in rapid succession of treatment especially in refractory cases. We have performed granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) on three GPP cases associated with several systemic and laboratory findings. As a result, the edema, erythema and numbers of sterile pustules on the skin lesions were reduced dramatically in all three patients after the first sessions of GCAP therapy. The sizes of the psoriatic lesions were reduced in all three patients following a weekly GCAP treatment for 5 consecutive weeks. Psoriasis area and severity index on discharge had improved in all three patients. No serious adverse effects were observed for up to at least 8 months after treatment. We therefore considered GCAP as one effective alternative to currently existing therapies, especially for recalcitrant cases of GPP.

  9. In vivo traffic of indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes collected by automated apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, E.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Carter, C.S.; Yolles, P.S.; Davey, R.J. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    The in vivo traffic patterns of autologous lymphocytes were studied in five normal human volunteers using lymphocytes obtained by automated apheresis, separated on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, and labeled ex vivo with {sup 111}In-oxine. Final lymphocyte infusions contained 1.8-3.1 X 10(9) cells and 270-390 microCi (9.99-14.43 MBq) {sup 111}In, or 11-17 microCi (0.41-0.63 MBq) per 10(8) lymphocytes. Gamma imaging showed transient lung uptake and significant retention of radioactivity in the liver and spleen. Progressive uptake of activity in normal, nonpalpable axillary and inguinal lymph nodes was seen from 24 to 96 hr. Accumulation of radioactivity also was demonstrated at the forearm skin test site, as well as in its associated epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes, in a subject who had been tested for delayed hypersensitivity with tetanus toxoid. Indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes may provide a useful tool for future studies of normal and abnormal lymphocyte traffic.

  10. Cytokine contents and apoptosis in apheresis platelets during storage%单采血小板储存期病变的分子表达和凋亡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 俞丽; 秦斐; 杨劲; 吕杭军


    目的 探索单采血小板储存期内细胞因子变化、血小板活化和凋亡的情况.方法 采用MCS+血细胞分离机采集18份SDP,在标准贮存条件下分别于第1、3、5、7d取样,采用ELISA法检测白介素8(IL-8)、T细胞表达与分泌调控蛋白(regulated upon activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted,RANTES)、CD154 和肿瘤生长因子β1(TGF-β1)、血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)的含量.利用流式细胞仪检测血小板活化及凋亡情况.结果 在储存期间IL-8、CD154、TGF-β1及VEGF含量随时间延长逐渐增高,而RANTES含量无明显变化.在第ld、3d、5d、7d的血小板活化指数分别为42%、74%、115%、113%,在第1d、3d、5d血小板的凋亡率分别为0.77%、0.88%和7.49%.结论 随着单采血小板储存时间延长,部分细胞因子有升高的趋势,而血小板活化和凋亡逐渐增多,提示存在血小板储存损伤.%Objective To investigate the changes of cytokine conten ts,activation and apoptosis of apheresis platelets during storage.Methods Eighteen portions of apheresis platelets were collected by MCS + separators and preserved in standard condition of blood bank.The levels of cytokines such as IL-8,regulated upon activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES),CD154,TGF-β1 and VEGF were detected by ELISA on the 1st day,the 3rd day,the 5th day and the 7th day during storage.Activation and apoptosis of platelets were detected by flow cytometry.Results The results showed that the levels of IL-8,CD154,TGF-β1 and VEGF in apheresis platelets gradually increased with prolonging the time during storage,but the level of RANTES had no significant change.The activation index of platelets was 42%,74%,115%,113% on the 1st day,the 3rd day,the 5th day and the 7th day.Apoptosis rates of platelets were 0.77%,0.88% and 7.49% on the 1st day,the 3rd day and the 5th day.Conclusion All collected apheresis platelets mentioned above express IL-8,CD154,TGF

  11. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood. (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi


    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  12. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats. (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B


    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  13. Whole-blood culture is a valid low-cost method to measure monocytic cytokines - A comparison of cytokine production in cultures of human whole-blood, mononuclear cells and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Calder, Philip C.


    assessed the intra- and inter-individual variation in cytokine production. In 64 healthy men (age 19-40 years) IL-6, TNF and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in supernatants from whole-blood, PBMC and monocytes cultured 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or UV-killed L acidophilus......Whole-blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures are used as non-validated surrogate measures of monocytic cytokine production. The aim of this investigation was to compare ex vivo cytokine production from human whole-blood and PBMC with that from isolated monocytes. We also...

  14. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates. (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari


    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  15. 机采血小板志愿无偿献血人群结构分析及招募策略应对%Population structure analysis and recruitment strategy for voluntary apheresis platelet donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小伊; 杨婷婷; 曾芬; 邹海玉; 叶有玩


    Objective To plan recruitment strategy suitable for local region,keep the voluntary blood donors stable and ensure the safety of blood supply, by analyzing voluntary apheresis platelet donors population structure form central blood station of Longgang district Shenzhen city from 2011 to 2013. Methods On the basic of information from voluntary blood donors registration, population structure was analyzed for 3 368 voluntary apheresis platelet donors from the station. Results The voluntary apheresis platelet donors population structure from our station in this period remained stability. By gender statistics, the male donors was 3 069 times(91.12%), while the female donors was 299 times(8.87%). The male female ratio was 10.2∶1, most of the donors were male. According to age, 18 to 25 was 259 times(7.69%), 26 to 45 was 2 513 times(74.61%), 46 to 55 was 596 times(17.69%). It concluded that the age of voluntary apheresis platelet donors were mainly distributed in 26 to 45. According to degree of education, the most more was senior high school which occupied 1 134 times and 33.66%, while the secend most was junior high school which owned 873 times and 25.92%. By profession, worker which occupyed 569 times and 16.89% was the secend most, clerk was 534 times and 15.85%, the other was the most which owned 2 156 times and 64.01%. Conclusion The voluntary apheresis platelet donors population from our station was mainly distributed in male, senior high school and junior high school in education, 26 to 45 in age. It needed a powerful targeted publicity to females, high education people, and civil servants who rarely donated blood, and different recruitment strategy and service process must be made to different population.%目的:通过分析深圳市龙岗区中心血站2011—2013年机采血小板志愿无偿献血人群结构情况,制定适合本地区的招募策略,更好地保留献血者,保障供血安全。方法根据《无偿献血登记表献血者基本

  16. [Modifying effect of the blood serum from patients with soft-tissue sarcomas on interleukin-2 production and activity]. (United States)

    Goretskiĭ, B A; Berezhnaia, N M; Palivets, A Iu; Konovalenko, V F


    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by lymphocytes of a peripheral blood (LPB) in patients with soft tissue sarcomas is considerably lower in comparison with that in donors. Autological serum had either suppressive or stimulative effect on LPB IL-2 production in the observed patients. The investigated serum affected LPB of donors in the same way. Serum of patients with soft tissue sarcomas had the same dual effect on the ability of the active drug IL-2 to proliferate human T-lymphoblasts. Moreover serum-inhibitors of production acted as IL-2 activity stimulators, while serum-stimulators of IL-2 production inhibited the mediator effects.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor production and natural killer cell activity in peripheral blood during treatment with recombinant tumour necrosis factor


    Männel, Daniela N.; Kist, A.; Ho, A D; Räth, U.; Reichardt, P; Wiedenmann, B; Schlick, E.; Kirchner, H.


    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has been found to be an important immunomodulator. Among other functions TNF activates natural killer (NK) cells and stimulates monocytes/macrophages in an autocrine fashion. TNF production and NK activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined in a clinical phase I study in which recombinant human (rh) TNF was administered as a continuous infusion weekly for a period of 8 weeks. Even though TNF production and NK activity were significantly reduced ...

  18. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.


    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a pr

  19. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  20. Mathematical model of blood and interstitial flow and lymph production in the liver. (United States)

    Siggers, Jennifer H; Leungchavaphongse, Kritsada; Ho, Chong Hang; Repetto, Rodolfo


    We present a mathematical model of blood and interstitial flow in the liver. The liver is treated as a lattice of hexagonal 'classic' lobules, which are assumed to be long enough that end effects may be neglected and a two-dimensional problem considered. Since sinusoids and lymphatic vessels are numerous and small compared to the lobule, we use a homogenized approach, describing the sinusoidal and interstitial spaces as porous media. We model plasma filtration from sinusoids to the interstitium, lymph uptake by lymphatic ducts, and lymph outflow from the liver surface. Our results show that the effect of the liver surface only penetrates a depth of a few lobules' thickness into the tissue. Thus, we separately consider a single lobule lying sufficiently far from all external boundaries that we may regard it as being in an infinite lattice, and also a model of the region near the liver surface. The model predicts that slightly more lymph is produced by interstitial fluid flowing through the liver surface than that taken up by the lymphatic vessels in the liver and that the non-peritonealized region of the surface of the liver results in the total lymph production (uptake by lymphatics plus fluid crossing surface) being about 5% more than if the entire surface were covered by the Glisson-peritoneal membrane. Estimates of lymph outflow through the surface of the liver are in good agreement with experimental data. We also study the effect of non-physiological values of the controlling parameters, particularly focusing on the conditions of portal hypertension and ascites. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model lymph production in the liver. The model provides clinically relevant information about lymph outflow pathways and predicts the systemic response to pathological variations.

  1. A cord blood monocyte–derived cell therapy product accelerates brain remyelination (United States)

    Buntz, Susan; Scotland, Paula; Xu, Li; Noeldner, Pamela; Patel, Sachit; Wollish, Amy; Gunaratne, Aruni; Gentry, Tracy; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Balber, Andrew E.


    Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14+ monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14+ monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice following cuprizone feeding–mediated demyelination. The corpus callosum of mice intracranially injected with DUOC-01 showed enhanced myelination, a higher proportion of fully myelinated axons, decreased gliosis and cellular infiltration, and more proliferating oligodendrocyte lineage cells than those of mice receiving excipient. Uncultured CB CD14+ monocytes also accelerated remyelination, but to a significantly lesser extent than DUOC-01 cells. Microarray analysis, quantitative PCR studies, Western blotting, and flow cytometry demonstrated that expression of factors that promote remyelination including PDGF-AA, stem cell factor, IGF1, MMP9, MMP12, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 were upregulated in DUOC-01 compared to CB CD14+ monocytes. Collectively, our results show that DUOC-01 accelerates brain remyelination by multiple mechanisms and could be beneficial in treating demyelinating conditions. PMID:27699230

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines Can Induce Prostaglandin E2 Production from Human Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana P. Grekova


    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis of a wide range of malignancies. The protumorigenic properties of COX-2 are generally thought to be mediated by its product, PGE2, which is shown to promote tumor spread and growth by multiple mechanisms but most importantly through modulation of the local immune response in the tumor. Pancreatic tumor cells produce various amounts of PGE2, some of them being even deficient in COX enzymes or other PGE2 synthases. Here we describe that, beside pancreatic tumor cells or stromal fibroblasts, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can also produce PGE2 upon coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. Stimulating of cellular cPLA2 within PBMCs by secreted factors, presumably sPLA2, from tumor cells appeared crucial, while the direct contact between PBMCs and PDACs seemed to be dispensable for this effect. Our data is emphasizing the complex interactions participating in the formation of the tolerogenic immune milieu within pancreatic tumors.

  3. Productive infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by feline immunodeficiency virus: implications for vector development. (United States)

    Johnston, J; Power, C


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 10(1.3) to 10(2.1) 50% tissue culture infective doses/10(6) cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy.

  4. High blood pressure-lowering and vasoprotective effects of milk products in experimental hypertension. (United States)

    Ehlers, Pauliina I; Kivimäki, Anne S; Turpeinen, Anu M; Korpela, Riitta; Vapaatalo, Heikki


    Milk casein-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) have been shown to have antihypertensive effects in human subjects and to attenuate the development of hypertension in experimental models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro and plant sterols on already established hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and aortic gene expression. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 195 mmHg were given either active milk (tripeptides and plant sterols), milk or water ad libitum for 6 weeks. SBP was measured weekly by the tail-cuff method. The endothelial function of mesenteric arteries was investigated at the end of the study. Aortas were collected for DNA microarray study (Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Array). The main finding was that active milk decreased SBP by 16 mmHg compared with water (178 (SEM 3) v. 195 (SEM 3) mmHg; P 1.2 and P < 0.05, the most affected (down-regulated) signalling pathways were hedgehog, chemokine and leucocyte transendothelial migration pathways. ACE expression was also slightly decreased (fc 0.86; P = 0.047). In conclusion, long-term treatment with fermented milk enriched with tripeptides and plant sterols decreases SBP, improves endothelial dysfunction and affects signalling pathways related to inflammatory responses in SHR.

  5. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar


    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  6. Endogenous Nitric Oxide Production and Pulmonary Blood Flow : during different experimental lung conditions


    Nilsson, Manja


    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of pulmonary blood flow and attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Nitric oxide is synthesized enzymatically in a number of tissues, including the lungs, and can also be generated from reduction of nitrite during hypoxia and acidosis. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator, with no effects on systemic arterial blood pressure due to inactivation by hemoglobin in the blood. INO has distant effects both within the...

  7. Chemokine production and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) expression in whole blood stimulated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (United States)

    Møller, Anne-Sophie W; Ovstebø, Reidun; Haug, Kari Bente F; Joø, Gun Britt; Westvik, Ase-Brit; Kierulf, Peter


    Recognition of conserved bacterial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), may lead to induction of a variety of "early immediate genes" such as chemokines. In the current study, we have in an ex vivo whole blood model studied the induction of the chemokines MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and IL-8 by various PAMPs. The rate of appearance of Escherichia coli-Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced chemokines differed. The production of MIP-1alpha and IL-8 was after 1 h of stimulation significantly higher when compared to unstimulated whole blood, whereas MCP-1 was not significantly elevated until after 3 h. At peak levels the MIP-1alpha concentration induced by E. coli-LPS was 3-5-fold higher than MCP-1 and IL-8. By specific cell depletion, we demonstrated that all three chemokines were mainly produced by monocytes. However, the mRNA results showed that IL-8 was induced in both monocytes and granulocytes. The production of all three chemokines, induced by the E. coli-LPS and Neisseria meningitidis-LPS, was significantly inhibited by antibodies against CD14 and TLR4, implying these receptors to be of importance for the effects of LPS in whole blood. The chemokine production induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and non-mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (AraLAM) was, however, less efficiently blocked by antibodies against CD14 and TLR2. E. coli-LPS and LTA induced a dose-dependent increase of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on monocytes in whole blood. These data show that PAMPs may induce chemokine production in whole blood and that antibodies against PRRs inhibit the production to different extent.

  8. Repeat Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Replacement for Recurrent Mitral Stenosis after OMC in Patients Who Decline Blood Product Transfusion for Religious Reasons. (United States)

    Ito, Yujiro; Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Tagusari, Osamu; Yoshida, Shigehiko


    Cardiac surgery for Jehovah's Witness (JW) patients is considered to be high risk because of patients' refusal to receive blood transfusion. We report a successful mitral valve replacement for recurrent mitral stenosis after OMC with minimally invasive right thoracotomy, without any transfusion of allogeneic blood or blood products. This minimally invasive mitral valve replacement through right thoracotomy was an excellent approach for JW patients.

  9. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.


    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  10. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  11. 葡萄糖酸钙口服液在预防机采血小板献血不良反应中的应用%Preventive Efficacy of Calcium Gluconate Oral Liquid against Apheresis Platelet Donation-induced Adverse Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the preventive efficacy of calcium gluconate oral liquid against apheresis platelet donation-induced adverse reaction.METHODS:From July 2012 to June 2013 , a total of 248 cases of apheresis platelet donors in our blood center were assigned to control group giving none treatment during blood collection, with 1 treatment unit of blood collected once in 140 cases and 2 treatment units of blood collected once in 108 cases; from July 2013 to June 2014, another 288 cases of apheresis platelet donors in the observation group were administered with calcium gluconate oral liquid before blood collection, with 1 treatment unit of blood collected once in 152 cases and 2 treatment units of blood collected once in 136 cases.The incidence of adverse reactions was compared between the two groups.RESULTS:Adverse reactions were noted in 2.63% ( 4/152 ) of the one treatment unit apheresis platelet donors, 3.68%(5/136) of the two treatment units apheresis platelet donors and 3.13%(9/288) of the total patients in the observation group, which were significantly less than in the control group [ 22.14%(31/140), 35.19%(38/108) and 27.82% (69/248) respectively] (P<0.05).The incidence of citrate reaction in the observation group was significantly less than in the control group [55.56%(5/9) vs.81.16%(56/69);P<0.05].CONCLUSIONS:Citrate reaction is the predominant adverse reaction in apheresis platelet donors.Administration of calcium gluconate oral liquid before platelet collection can significantly prevent or reduce the incidence of apheresis platelet donation-induced adverse reaction, which thus is worthy of clinical recommendation.%目的:观察葡萄糖酸钙口服液预防机采血小板献血不良反应的效果。方法:选择惠州市中心血站2012年7月—2013年6月248例机采血小板献血者作为对照组,采血期间不做任何处理,其中140例1次采1个治疗单位,108例1次采2个治疗单位;选择2013年7月—2014年6月288例采

  12. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Muso


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LDL apheresis (LDL-A is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods: Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results: A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7% showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP level Conclusions: Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome.

  13. Effect of Apheresis for ABO and HLA Desensitization on Anti-Measles Antibody Titers in Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Schönermarck


    Full Text Available Desensitization strategies for ABO-incompatible renal transplants with plasma exchange (PE or specific immunoadsorption (IA decrease immunoglobulin levels. After recent measles outbreak and decreasing vaccination rates, we studied the impact of apheresis on anti-measles antibodies. Anti-measles antibodies were measured before desensitization, before transplantation and during followup in 12 patients with ABO incompatibility (2x PE only, 8x IA only, and 2x IA and PE and 3 patients with donor-specific HLA antibodies (all PE. Patients received rituximab, IVIG, and standard immunosuppressive therapy. All patients had detectable anti-measles antibodies before desensitization (mean 3238 mU/l, range 560–8100. After 3–6 PE sessions, titers decreased significantly to 1710 mU/l (<0.05, in one patient to nondetectable values, while IA only maintained protective titers. After a median followup of 64 days, anti-measles antibodies returned to baseline in all patients. Immunity against measles was temporarily reduced by apheresis but remained detectable in most patients at time of transplantation. Desensitization maintains long-term protective immunity against measles.

  14. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model. (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep N; Gelderman, Monique P; Lewis, Emily M A; Farrel, John; Wood, Francine; Strader, Michael Brad; Alayash, Abdu I; Vostal, Jaroslav G


    Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs) is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle) under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  15. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio


    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow.

  16. Central and peripheral blood pressures in relation to plasma advanced glycation end products in a Chinese population. (United States)

    Huang, Q-F; Sheng, C-S; Kang, Y-Y; Zhang, L; Wang, S; Li, F-K; Cheng, Y-B; Guo, Q-H; Li, Y; Wang, J-G


    We investigated the association of plasma AGE (advanced glycation end product) concentration with central and peripheral blood pressures and central-to-brachial blood pressure amplification in a Chinese population. The study subjects were from a newly established residential area in the suburb of Shanghai. Using the SphygmoCor system, we recorded radial arterial waveforms and derived aortic waveforms by a generalized transfer function and central systolic and pulse pressure by calibration for brachial blood pressure measured with an oscillometric device. The central-to-brachial pressure amplification was expressed as the central-to-brachial systolic blood pressure difference and pulse pressure difference and ratio. Plasma AGE concentration was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and logarithmically transformed for statistical analysis. The 1051 participants (age, 55.1±13.1 years) included 663 women. After adjustment for sex, age and other confounding factors, plasma AGE concentration was associated with central but not peripheral blood pressures and with some of the pressure amplification indexes. Indeed, each 10-fold increase in plasma AGE concentration was associated with 2.94 mm Hg (P=0.04) higher central systolic blood pressure and 2.39% lower central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio (P=0.03). In further subgroup analyses, the association was more prominent in the presence of hypercholesterolemia (+8.11 mm Hg, P=0.008) for central systolic blood pressure and in the presence of overweight and obesity (-4.89%, P=0.009), diabetes and prediabetes (-6.26%, P=0.10) or current smoking (-6.68%, P=0.045) for central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio. In conclusion, plasma AGE concentration is independently associated with central systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure amplification, especially in the presence of several modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Rhesus Negative Woman Transfused With Rhesus Positive Blood: Subsequent Normal Pregnancy Without Anti D production. (United States)

    Maya, E T; Buntugu, K A; Pobee, F; Srofenyoh, E K


    Clinicians sometimes are confronted with the challenge of transfusing haemorrhaging Rhesus (Rh) D negative patients with Rh D positive blood to save their lives. There are concerns about alloimmunization and future haemolytic disease of the newborn in women of the reproductive age. Another fear is transfusion reaction if they receive another Rh D positive blood in future. We present a 32-year-old Rh D negative woman, who had postpartum haemorrhage in her first pregnancy and was transfused with Rh D positive blood because of unavailability of Rh D negative blood. She did not receive anti D immunoglobin but subsequently had a normal term pregnancy of an Rh positive fetus without any detectable anti D antibodies throughout the pregnancy. In life threatening situations from obstetric haemorrhage, transfusion of Rh D negative women with Rh D positive blood should be considered as the last resort.

  18. The impact of lipoprotein apheresis in patients with refractory angina and raised lipoprotein(a): Objectives and methods of a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Khan, Tina Z; Pottle, Alison; Pennell, Dudley J; Barbir, Mahmoud S


    It is well established that Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events. Lipoprotein apheresis is currently the most effective approved treatment available, with minimal effect conferred by conventional lipid lowering agents. A growing body of evidence suggests that aggressively lowering raised Lp(a) may improve cardiovascular and clinical outcomes, although more prospective research is required in this field. Angina which is refractory to conventional medical therapy and revascularisation is extremely challenging to manage. There is a significant unmet need to establish therapeutic options. Our goal is to determine the impact of lipoprotein apheresis on clinical parameters and symptoms of patients with refractory angina secondary to advanced coronary disease and raised Lp(a). Determining whether we should aggressively lower Lp(a) in such patients remains a very important question, which could potentially impact on the management of a large population. We will also gain insight into how this treatment works and the mechanisms via which Lp(a) increases cardiovascular risk. We are currently conducting a prospective, randomised controlled crossover study of patients with refractory angina and raised Lp(a), randomised to undergoing three months of weekly lipoprotein apheresis or sham apheresis. Patients will then crossover to the opposite study arm after a 1 month wash-out phase. We will assess myocardial perfusion, carotid atherosclerosis, endothelial vascular function, thrombogenesis, oxidised LDL and their antibodies, exercise capacity, angina and quality of life at the beginning and end of treatment, to determine the net true treatment effect on the above parameters. This is a novel area of research, as previous studies have not assessed the role of lipoprotein apheresis in patients with refractory angina and raised Lp(a) in a prospective randomised controlled manner.

  19. Comparison of two double red cell collection settings on Fenwal Alyx apheresis instrument. (United States)

    Burgstaler, Edwin A; Duffy, Kimberly J; Gandhi, Manish J


    The Fenwal Alyx for collecting double red cell products has two red cell volume collection settings: fixed collection target of 360 ml (180 ml/unit) and a variable target of collecting either 400 or 360 ml (200 or 180 ml/unit), where the machine aims for the higher possible collection target. We retrospectively compared the two collection targets for the RBC content, donor time, technician time, and collection efficiency. We compared 18 fixed (F) target collections to 40 variable (V) target collections. All collections were performed as per the manufacturer's recommendations on Alyx and donors met the manufacturer's eligibility criteria. There was no significant difference in average whole blood processed (F: 963 ml, V: 1,000 ml); donor time (F: 43 min, V: 45 min) or technician time (F: 64 min, V: 64 min). There was a significant difference in unit volume (F: 283 ml, V: 300 ml); grams Hb/unit (F: 53 g, V: 57 g); ml RBC/unit (F: 157 ml, V: 167 ml); and RBC recovery (F: 87.8%, V: 88.9%). The fixed target had a significantly lower frequency of products with ≥51 g Hb (80.6%) than variable target (96.3%) and ≥153 ml RBC/unit (F: 55.6%, V: 96.3%). In conclusion, the variable target efficiently allows collections of products with higher red cell volume and hemoglobin without a significant increase in collection and processing time.

  20. 去白细胞机采血小板膜表面CD62P及血栓弹力图变化分析%Analysis on changes of CD62P and thrombelastogram of leukocytes reduced apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丙全; 刘名霞; 焦安秀; 延义玲


    Objective To research the function changes of leukocytes reduced apheresis platelets during storage period and to guide the reasonable clinical usage of leukocytes reduced apheresis platelets.Methods From May 2010 to January 2014,a total of 30 cases of blood donors' blood sample in Rizhao Blood Center were included into this study.Male donors were 21 cases and female were 9 cases.Donors'ages were 19 to 42 years old,and average age was 25.2 years old.All donors were confirmed by the "Requirements of Donor Health Examination" (GB18467-2011).Informed consent was obtained from all donors before blood collection.Leukocytes reduced apheresis platelets were prepared through leukocytes filtration method and were preserved at (22 ± 2) ℃ for 7 days.The expression of CD62P and the test of thrombelastogram (TEG) were used to evaluate the function changes of leukocytes reduced apheresis platelets during storage period.Results (①) Before preservation,residual leukocytes of freshly collected platelets were (5.9±2.1) × 105/bag,but it decreased at the first 5 and 7 days of storage compared with before preservation and the differences were statistically different (P< 0.05).② Before preservation,CD62P expression of freshly collected platelets only was (10.3 ± 2.3)%.But it increased significantly in the first 3,5 and 7 days of storage compared with before preservation and the differences were statistically different (P<0.05).③The parameter R value of TEG increased obviously during storage period compared with before preservation,and the differences were statistically different (P<0.05).While the parameter K value and α angle did not changed obviously during the whole storage period compared with before preservation,and the differences were not statistically different (P> 0.05).The parameter MA value decreased significantly in the first 5 and 7 days during storage compared with before preservation and the differences were statistically different (P< 0

  1. Signal pathways underlying homocysteine-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun ZENG; You-fei GUAN; Daniel G REMICK; Xian WANG


    Aim: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying homocysteine (Hcy)-induced chemokine production. Methods: Human whole blood was pretreated with inhibitors of calmodulin (CaM), protein kinase C (PKC), protein tyrosine kinase(PTK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB and activators of PPARγ for 60 min followed by incubation with Hcy 100 μmol/L for 32 h. The levels of mitogen chemokine protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Inhibitors of PKC (calphostin C, 50-500 nmol/L and RO-31-8220, 10-100 nmol/L), CaM(W7, 28-280 μmol/L), ERK1/2 MAPK (PD 98059, 2-20 μmol/L), p38 MAPK(SB 203580, 0.6-6 μmol/L), JNK MAPK (curcumin, 2-10 μmol/L), and NF-κB(PDTC, 10-100 nmol/L) markedly reduced Hcy 100 μmol/L-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in human cultured whole blood, but the inhibitors of PTK(genistein, 2.6-26 μmol/L and tyrphostin, 0.5-5 μmol/L) had no obvious effect on MCP-1 and IL-8 production. PPARγ activators (ciglitazone 30 μmol/L and troglitazone 10 μmol/L) depressed the Hcy-induced MCP-1 production but not IL-8 production in the cultured whole blood. Conclusion: Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 production is mediated by activated signaling pathways such as PKC,CaM, MAPK, and NF-κB. Our results not only provide clues for the signal transduction pathways mediating Hcy-induced chemokine production, but also offer a plausible explanation for a pathogenic role of hyperhomocysteinemia in these diseases.

  2. Topical application of THC containing products is not able to cause positive cannabinoid finding in blood or urine. (United States)

    Hess, C; Krämer, M; Madea, B


    A male driver was checked during a traffic stop. A blood sample was collected 35min later and contained 7.3ng/mL THC, 3.5ng/mL 11-hydroxy-THC and 44.6ng/mL 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. The subject claimed to have used two commercially produced products topically that contained 1.7ng and 102ng THC per mg, respectively. In an experiment, three volunteers (25, 26 and 34 years) applied both types of salves over a period of 3days every 2-4h. The application was extensive (50-100cm(2)). Each volunteer applied the products to different parts of the body (neck, arm/leg and trunk, respectively). After the first application blood and urine samples of the participants were taken every 2-4h until 15h after the last application (overall n=10 urine and n=10 blood samples, respectively, for each participant). All of these blood and urine samples were tested negative for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC by a GC-MS method (LoD (THC)=0.40ng/mL; LoD (11-hydroxy-THC)=0.28ng/mL; LoD (THC-COOH)=1.6ng/mL;. LoD (THC-COOH in urine)=1.2ng/mL). According to our studies and further literature research on in vitro testing of transdermal uptake of THC, the exclusive application of (these two) topically applied products did not produce cannabinoid findings in blood or urine.

  3. The effects of aprotinin on blood product transfusion associated with thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seigne, P W


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aprotinin on blood product use and postoperative complications in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients who underwent elective or urgent thoracic aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The total number of units of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was significantly less in the group that received aprotinin (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01). The intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells and platelets, collection and retransfusion of cell saver, and postoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were also significantly less in the aprotinin group (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.05). No patient in either group sustained renal dysfunction or a myocardial infarction. Two patients who had not received aprotinin suffered from chronic postoperative seizures, and one patient who had received aprotinin sustained a perioperative stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose aprotinin administration significantly decreases blood product transfusion requirements in the setting of thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and it does not appear to be associated with renal or myocardial dysfunction.

  4. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts. (United States)

    Dufner, Annette


    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies.

  5. 冰冻血小板与新鲜血小板的疗效比较%A comparative study on curative effect of transfusion of freezing platelets and fresh apheresis platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学英; 李玲玲; 韩志勇


    Objective To explore the clinical effect of transfusion of frozen apheresis platelets in order to make up the deficiency of fresh apheresis platelets during the emergency rescue. Methods Patients were randomly allocated into two groups receiving transfusion of fresh or frozen apheresis platelets. The clinical efficacy and increment of platelet count before and after transfusion of apheresis platelets were compared between these two groups. Results After transfusion of platelets, the clinical efficacy and increment of platelet count were raised in these two groups, and their difference was significant ( P 〈 0.05 ). In 564 cases, the increment of platelet count after transfusion of fresh apheresis platelets was much higher than that with frozen apheresis platelets, and the difference between these two groups was significant ( P 〈0.05 ). Conclusion The transfusion of fresh or frozen apheresis platelets can control and prevent the bleeding and increase the number of platelet count. Although the efficacy of fresh apheresis platelets is better than that of frozen apheresis platelets, but transfusion of frozen apheresis platelets can replace fresh a-pheresis platelets in rescue of critically ill patients.%目的 比较冰冻血小板和新制备的血小板的在临床上的应用效果.方法 选268例新制备的血小板与296例冰冻的血小板输注病例,观察两组输注血小板前后的临床表现并进行血小板的计数.结果 在564例病案中,输注新制备血小板后的患者外周血血小板上升的程度和总有效率明显高于输注冰冻血小板的患者,两者之间差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 输注新鲜血小板或冰冻血小板均能达到控制及预防出血的治疗作用,并且提升机体血小板数值,虽然新鲜血小板的疗效优于冰冻血小板,但冰冻血小板可以在抢救危重患者时代替机采新鲜血小板.

  6. [Effect of polymer material thermal destruction products on external respiration and acid-base status of blood]. (United States)

    Tavolzhanova, T I; Rozova, K V


    In experiments on white laboratory rats the influence of fluor-, cyan- and sulfur-containing gaseous products, formed under thermodestruction of synthetic materials in normal and high environmental temperature on external respiration and some parameters of acid-base blood values was investigated. It was shown, that external respiration, due to considerable it depression, could not compensate neither hypoxic state, accompanied by hypoxemia, nor hypercapnia and acidosis, developed under the influence of toxic agents both in normal environmental temperature and in hyperthermia.

  7. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens. (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J


    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  8. Fibrinolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Bacillus cereus SRM-001 with enhanced in-vitro blood clot lysis potential. (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manoj Kumar; Chandrasekaran, Muthukumaran; Rajesh, Mathur


    The discovery of plasmin-like microbial fibrinolytic enzymes having high specificity and negligible side effects is crucial for thrombolytic therapy. Herein, we report one such extra-cellular fibrinolytic enzyme producing Bacillus cereus SRM-001 isolated from the blood-laden soil of a chicken dump yard. The potency of the enzyme was established with fibrin plate assay and in-vitro blood clot lysis assay. The shake-flask operating parameters and media composition were optimized for maximizing the productivity of the enzyme. The operating parameters, pH 7, 37°C, 1% inoculum volume and 24 h inoculum age, were found to be the optimum. The levels of media components, corn flour (0.3% w/v), soyabean powder (1.9% w/v) and MnSO4 (11.5 mM) were optimized by statistical analysis using Box-Behnken design derived RSM. This resulted in an almost 1.8 fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme productivity. The 3D response surface plots showed soyabean powder and MnSO4 to be the key ingredients for enhancing the enzyme productivity, whereas corn flour had a marginal effect. The in-vitro blood clot lysis assay conducted at near physiological pH 7 at 37°C showed the enzyme to be a potential therapeutic thrombolytic agent.

  9. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  10. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta


    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  11. Recombinant human thrombopoietin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells, increases peripheral blood platelet concentration, and accelerates hematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. (United States)

    Somlo, G; Sniecinski, I; ter Veer, A; Longmate, J; Knutson, G; Vuk-Pavlovic, S; Bhatia, R; Chow, W; Leong, L; Morgan, R; Margolin, K; Raschko, J; Shibata, S; Tetef, M; Yen, Y; Forman, S; Jones, D; Ashby, M; Fyfe, G; Hellmann, S; Doroshow, J H


    Lineage-specific growth factors mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and accelerate hematopoietic recovery after high-dose chemotherapy. Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) may further increase the progenitor-cell content and regenerating potential of PBPC products. We evaluated the safety and activity of rhTPO as a PBPC mobilizer in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in 29 breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by PBPC reinfusion. Initially, patients received escalating single doses of rhTPO intravenously (IV) at 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 micrograms/kg, on day 1. Subsequent patients received rhTPO 0.6 or 0.3 micrograms/kg on days -3, -1, and 1, or 0.6 micrograms/kg on days -1 and 1. G-CSF, 5 micrograms/kg IV or subcutaneously (SC) twice daily, was started on day 3 and continued through aphereses. Twenty comparable, concurrently and identically treated patients (who were eligible and would have been treated on protocol but for the lack of study opening) mobilized with G-CSF alone served as comparisons. CD34(+) cell yields were substantially higher with the first apheresis following rhTPO and G-CSF versus G-CSF alone: 4.1 x 10(6)/kg (range, 1.3 to 17.6) versus 0.8 x 10(6)/ kg (range, 0.3 to 4.2), P =.0003. The targeted minimum yield of 3 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg was procured following a single apheresis procedure in 61% of the rhTPO and G-CSF-mobilized group versus 10% of G-CSF-mobilized patients (P =.001). In rhTPO and G-CSF mobilized patients, granulocyte (day 8 v 9, P =.0001) and platelet recovery (day 9 v 10, P =.07) were accelerated, and fewer erythrocyte (3 v 4, P =.02) and platelet (4 v 5, P =.02) transfusions were needed compared with G-CSF-mobilized patients. Peripheral blood platelet counts, following rhTPO and G-CSF, were increased by greater than 100% and the platelet content of PBPC products by 60% to 110% on the first and second days of aphereses (P rhTPO at 0.6 microgram/kg. rhTPO is

  12. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy. (United States)

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes


    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women.

  13. Is viscosity important in the production of blood-brain barrier disruption by intracarotid contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, J.; Sage, M.R.


    A canine model was used to investigate the effects of intracarotid methylglucamine iothalamate (280 mgI/ml) at different viscosities on the normal blood-brain barrier. To alter viscosity, without changing physicochemical parameters, injections were made at either 23/sup 0/C or 37/sup 0/C. The degree of blood-brain barrier damage was assessed using Evans' Blue dye as a visual marker and by contrast enhancement measured by a computed tomographic (CT) scanner. It was found that methylglucamine iothalamate caused more blood-brain barrier damage at 23/sup 0/C than at 37/sup 0/C (p<0.1). Control studies at each temperature using intracarotid injections of physiological saline showed no temperature effect (p>0.1). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Timing and Location of Blood Product Transfusion and Outcomes in Massively Transfused Combat Casualties (United States)


    blood components in a 1:1:1 ratio of platelets:fresh frozen plasma:red blood cells (RBCs) is based on analyses of massive transfusion (MT, Q10 RBC units in 24 hours). These 24-hour analyses are weakened by survival bias and do not describe the timing and location of transfusions. Mortality outcomes associated with early (first 6 hours) resuscitation incorporating platelets, for combat casualties requiring MT, have not been reported. METHODS: We analyzed records for 8,618 casualties treated at the United States military hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2004 and

  15. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P


    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  16. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  17. 捐献机采血小板预约新模式的建立与应用研究%Establishment and application of new reservation mode about the apheresis platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳艳; 朱为刚; 孙革; 梁延连; 王霞


    目的:探讨捐献机采血小板预约的新模式对满足临床机采新鲜血小板需求的可行性。方法通过采血现场预约、电话沟通预约、网站平台预约、微信平台预约等方法,制定血小板库存量、采集标准、审核反馈预约信息。结果新模式运行后,预约捐献机采血小板比例达到76.16%,其中现场预约下次捐献者占4.5%,网站平台预约占6.9%,电话沟通预约占59%,微信平台预约占5.76%。预约捐献机采血小板新模式与传统模式相比在保证临床新鲜血小板供给及血小板捐献者队伍建设方面有显著性差异。结论本研究建立的捐献机采血小板预约模式是全新的血小板捐献模式,具有效率高、灵活性强、主动性好等优势,可以满足临床对新鲜血小板的需求,免去冰冻血小板的环节,值得深化发展与全面推广。%Objective To investigate the feasibility of a new reservation mode of apheresis platelet to meet the clinical needs. Methods Blood donation site reservation,telephone communication platform,website platform and WeChat platform were used to collect the information of platelet stock size,collection standards and audit feedback reservation. Results After the new mode per-formed,the apheresis platelet ratio reached 76.16%,while the site reservation for next donor accounted for 4.5%,website platform reservation accounted for 6.9%,telephone reservation accounted for 59%,WeChat platform reservation accounted for 5.76%. Com-pared with the traditional model,the new mode for reservation apheresis platelet made a significant difference in the clinical fresh platelet supply and platelet donors’ pool. Conclusion The platelet donation reservation mode,is a new mode with the advantages of high efficiency,strong flexibility and initiative capacity,could meet the clinical demand for fresh platelets.

  18. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E;


    was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I...

  19. Ex-vivo response to blood products and haemostatic agents after paediatric cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Andreasen, Jo B; Christiansen, Kirsten


    of fibrinogen concentrate, FFP or tranexamic acid improved clot stability significantly. Whole blood coagulation was significantly impaired after cardiac surgery in children. Ex-vivo studies showed a total reversal of the coagulopathy after addition of pooled platelets and significantly improved clot stability...

  20. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion. (United States)

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L


    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  1. Changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens due to growth hormone and testosterone injection. (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z


    The experiment was designed to study the changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens after injection of different doses of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (Ts). A total of 160 old laying hens (HyLine W-36) at 73 weeks of age were weighed individually and randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Growth hormone and Ts hormones were injected subcutaneously. Treatment groups were as follows: treatment 1: injection of 100 μl distiled water (control group), treatment 2: injection of 500 μg Ts/kg live-weight + 50 μgGH/kg live-weight, treatment 3: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 100 μgGH/kg live-weight and treatment 4: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 150 μgGH/kg live-weight. Plasma levels of oestradiol, T4 , LDL, HDL and cholesterol significantly increased in treatment 3 in relation to the control group. All injected hens showed significantly higher levels of glucose in relation to control group. The results showed the positive effects of GH and Ts administration on production performance and blood parameters which are associated with egg production potentiality and in turn may improve reproductivity (egg production) in old laying hens. The positive results of the study may be useful in animal selection and breeding programmes.

  2. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.


    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.

  3. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service? (United States)

    Moog, R; Fourné, K


    of donation, e.g. whole blood donation or apheresis donation. Information about the use of the donated blood products, remuneration and laboratory tests performed were also required. The Internet is an important new tool for the recruitment of prospective donors. Donors want to be informed about organizational details of the donation. In the meantime, we have implemented a homepage for our transfusion service meeting the demands of prospective donors.

  4. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  5. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry. (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias


    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  6. Effects of recombinant trout leptin in superoxide production and NF-κB/MAPK phosphorylation in blood leukocytes. (United States)

    Mariano, Giovanna; Stilo, Romania; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Coccia, Elena; Vito, Pasquale; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina


    Studies in mammals indicate that leptin is a multifunctional cytokine involved in regulation of energy metabolism and the modulation of the immune function. However, evidence for an immunomodulatory effect of leptin in fish is still missing. At least in part, this lack of knowledge is due to the absence of materials and models. In this study, we produced trout recombinant leptin (rt-lep) and tested its capacity to trigger cellular pathways, usually active in mammal immune system cells. STAT3, NF-κB, and the three major MAPK cascades (JNK, p38 and ERK), were activated by rt-lep in in vitro incubations with blood leucocytes of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. We also showed that rt-lep causes a decrease in superoxide anion production in trout blood leucocytes. Thus our data indicate that as in mammals also in teleosts leptin plays pleiotropic activities. Importantly, its actions in fishes do not always conform to the picture emerging for mammals.

  7. SNP may modify the effect of vitamin A supplementation at birth on cytokine production in a whole blood culture assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Erikstrup, Christian


    Within a neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) trial, we investigated the effect of VAS on TNF-a, IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 production after lipopolysaccharide, purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phytohaemagglutinin stimulation using a whole blood culture protocol....... We found that VAS recipients had lower unstimulated TNF-a concentrations than placebo recipients. In the present paper, we investigated whether the SNP TNF-a - 308, TNF-a - 238, IL-10 - 592, IL-10 - 1082 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)+896 modified the effect of VAS on cytokine production. DNA...... and cytokine concentrations were available from 291 children. We found a significant interaction between TNF-a - 308 genotype and VAS for the unstimulated TNF-a production (Pinteraction = 0·04); among G homozygotes, TNF-a concentrations were significantly lower after VAS compared with placebo, whereas...

  8. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method


    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.


    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yiel...

  9. Effects of striatal nitric oxide production on regional cerebral blood flow and seizure development in rats exposed to extreme hyperoxia. (United States)

    Gasier, Heath G; Demchenko, Ivan T; Allen, Barry W; Piantadosi, Claude A


    The endogenous vasodilator and signaling molecule nitric oxide has been implicated in cerebral hyperemia, sympathoexcitation, and seizures induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA). It is unknown whether these events in the onset of central nervous system oxygen toxicity originate within specific brain structures and whether blood flow is diverted to the brain from peripheral organs with high basal flow, such as the kidney. To explore these questions, total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in brain structures of the central autonomic network in anesthetized rats in HBO2 at 6 ATA. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and renal blood flow (RBF) were also monitored. As expected, mean arterial blood pressure and total and regional CBF increased preceding EEG spikes while RBF was unaltered. Of the brain structures examined, the earliest rise in CBF occurred in the striatum, suggesting increased neuronal activation. Continuous unilateral or bilateral striatal infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated CBF responses in that structure, but global EEG discharges persisted and did not differ from controls. Our novel findings indicate that: 1) cerebral hyperemia in extreme HBO2 in rats does not occur at the expense of renal perfusion, highlighting the remarkable autoregulatory capability of the kidney, and 2) in spite of a sentinel increase in striatal blood flow, additional brain structure(s) likely govern the pathogenesis of HBO2-induced seizures because EEG discharge latency was unchanged by local blockade of striatal nitric oxide production and concomitant hyperemia.

  10. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators


    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun


    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  11. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, H; van der Tuuk Adriani, WPA; van de Ven, LI; Bosch, EH; de Natris, T; Sibinga, CTS


    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions wi

  12. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin


    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  13. Production of good manufacturing practice-grade human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic use. (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Phan, Ngoc Kim


    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be differentiated into several specific cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts. They also were demonstrated to trans-differentiate into other cell lineages such as muscle cells and neurons. Thus, they are considered a promising stem cell source for therapeutic use. Here, we describe a method for production of good manufacturing practice-grade human UCB-MSCs for therapeutic use. The obtained UCB-MSCs are free of allogenous or xenogenous proteins. In addition, these MSCs could maintain the MSC phenotype in long-term culture.

  14. Ex vivo measurement of calpain activation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski


    Full Text Available Limited proteolysis of multiple intracellular proteins by endogenous Ca-dependent cysteine proteases--calpains--is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, apoptosis etc. Its importance for cellular functions is stressed by existence of endogenous calpain inhibitors--calpastatins. The calpain-calpastatin system within living cells is in a fragile balance, which depends on both partners. The interdependence of calpain--a protease--and calpastatin--an endogenous inhibitor and at the same time a substrate for this enzyme makes any assessment of actual activity of this enzyme in the cells very difficult. In this work we made an attempt to estimate and compare the activity of calpain in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by assessing the levels of limited proteolysis of calpastatin in these cells by western blot, while at the same time the levels of calpain protein inside these cells was measured by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that it is possible to compare (semi-quantitatively the activities of calpain in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes from various donors that way. Preliminary results showed that calpain activity is increased in the CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to control lymphocytes. Extremely high intrinsic activity of calpain was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CD19+ cells. All this confirms the detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin as a good maker of endogenous calpain activity.

  15. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali


    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide, being quite complicated, with respect to diagnostics and postoperative prognosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved into CRC pathogenesis. However, the changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, a known regulator of cytokine production, still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to compare contents and production of a2-MG and several pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum and supernates from short-term blood cell cultures. The samples were taken from the patients with CRC at initial terms and after surgical removal of the tumor.Studies of cytokines and a2-MG concentrations in serum and supernates of 24-h blood cell cultures from the patients with verified CRC (stages T2-3N0-1M0 and T4N0-1M0 have shown some sufficient differences from healthy volunteers (control group. Pre-surgery IL-6 and TNFα contents in blood of CRC patients was significantly increased agains healthy controls (respectively, 29.9±5.4 and 3.4±1.5 pg/mL versus control group (1.0±0.3 and 0 pg/mL, respectively. Following surgical treatment, the cytokine levels were decreased by 40- 60% after the operation, however, without significant differences from initial values.The supernates of blood cultures stimulated with polyclonal mitogens exhibited significant reduction of IFNγ levels prior to surgery (273±123 pg/ml versus 804±154 pg/mL, and elevated IL-6 levels (14412±2570 pg/mL versus 1970±457 pg/mL. The mean α2-MG concentrations before CRC surgery comprised 1.96±0.11 g/L for blood serum, 0.0304±0.0047 g/L, for non-stimulated blood cell cultures, and 0.0300±0.0052 g/L in mitogen-induced cultures. These parameters did not significantly differ from control values (2.21±0.17 g/L, 0.0328±0.0018 g/L, and 0.0314±0.0019 g/L, respectively. Similar results have been yielded with the samples obtained after surgical treatment of the CRC patients.The obtained data indicate that surgical

  17. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows. (United States)

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed


    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows.

  18. Effect of Korea red ginseng on cerebral blood flow and superoxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk Seong KIM; Jin Bong PARK; Kwang-Jin KIM; Seok Jong CHANG; Sung-Woo RYOO; Byeong Hwa JEON


    AIM: To investigate the effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) on the cerebral perfusion rate in the rats and the generation of superoxide anion in the endothelial cells. METHODS: The cerebral perfusion rate was measured using laser-doppler flowmetry before and after the administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the anesthetized rats. The superoxide generation was measured by the method based on lucigeninenhanced chemiluminescence in the cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: The relative cerebral perfusion rate (rCBF) was significantly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of CS (100 mg/kg) in the rats, but SFF had no effect on the rCBF. Chronic treatment with CS for 7 d significantly inhibited the decrease of forebrain cerebral blood flow induced by clamping both carotid arteries in the rats. Furthermore, CS (0.1 g/L) significantly suppressed NADPH-induced superoxide generation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that crude saponin fraction of KRG enhanced cerebral blood flow in rats. Furthermore, crude saponin fraction of KRG abrogated the NADPH-driven superoxide generation in endothelial cells.

  19. Diminished production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with vascular involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otylia Kowal-Bielecka


    Full Text Available Widespread vasculopathy and profound fibrosis are key features of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc. We hypothesized that the TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, a recently recognized multifunctional cytokine which regulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, may play a role in the development of SSc. The production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated, by means of ELISA, in 24 SSc patients and 14 healthy subjects. Moreover, production of TWEAK was correlated with clinical features of SSc. PBMC were isolated using density gradient centrifugation on Histopaque and were cultured in FCS supplemented RPMI medium at 37 degrees C under 5% CO2. Production of TWEAK by PBMC was significantly diminished in patients with more severe microvascular damage, as indicated by the presence of "active" capillaroscopic pattern, compared with SSc patients with less pronounced microangiopathy ("slow" pattern, and healthy subjects. Moreover production of TWEAK correlated inversely with duration of Raynaud's phenomenon. PBMC from patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease tended to produce lower amounts of TWEAK compared with SSc patients without lung involvement but the difference was not significant. The results of our study suggest that diminished production of TWEAK might play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular injury in SSc patients. Whether TWEAK may represent a new therapeutic target in SSc requires further studies.

  20. Production of cytokine and chemokines by human mononuclear cells and whole blood cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rezende-Oliveira


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response is the first mechanism of protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, and the interaction of inflammatory cells with parasite molecules may activate this response and modulate the adaptive immune system. This study aimed to analyze the levels of cytokines and chemokines synthesized by the whole blood cells (WBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of individuals seronegative for Chagas disease after interaction with live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. METHODS: IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL-5, CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-9 were measured by ELISA. Nitrite was determined by the Griess method. RESULTS: IL-10 was produced at high levels by WBC compared with PBMC, even after incubation with live trypomastigotes. Production of TNF-α by both PBMC and WBC was significantly higher after stimulation with trypomastigotes. Only PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-12 after parasite stimulation. Stimulation of cultures with trypomastigotes induced an increase of CXCL-9 levels produced by WBC. Nitrite levels produced by PBMC increased after the addition of parasites to the culture. CONCLUSIONS: Surface molecules of T. cruzi may induce the production of cytokines and chemokines by cells of the innate immune system through the activation of specific receptors not evaluated in this experiment. The ability to induce IL-12 and TNF-α contributes to shift the adaptive response towards a Th1 profile.

  1. Temporal stochasticity leads to nondeterministic chaos in a model for blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehr, R.; Agur, Z. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Applied Mathematics


    All types of blood cells are formed by differentiation from a small population of pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow. This population should maintain the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, even under severe perturbations, e.g. the massive cell death caused by chemotherapy or irradiation. The authors constructed a cellular-automata model for bone marrow dynamics, which retrieves its homeostatic capabilities even under periodic perturbations with constant or random amplitude. However, temporally stochastic perturbations result in a chaotic-like behavior. Several methods of analysis failed to distinguish between the time series in this case and a chaotic time series, although the chaotic-like behavior has no deterministic source.

  2. Isolation of labile Fcgamma-receptors from human peripheral blood lymphocytes and production of an antiserum. (United States)

    Sandilands, G P; Peel, M G; Froebel, K S; Belch, J J; MacSween, R N


    In this study, we have isolated membranelabile Fcgamma-receptors (i.e. FcgammaR I) from normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and have produced a rabbit antiserum to this protein. Using this antiserum, we have shown that membrane-labile and membrane-stable (i.e. FcgammaR II) Fcgamma-receptors are antigenically distinct and that these two forms of the receptors probably coexist on the same lymphocyte subpopulation. Moreover, it was apparent that lymphocyte FcgammaR Is are distinct from FcgammaRs expressed on other cell types (e.g. monocytes, polymorphs and spermatozoa). Preliminary evidence does suggest, however, that human platelets express an FcgammaR which is antigenically similar to human lymphocyte FcgammaR I.

  3. Transgenic quail production by microinjection of lentiviral vector into the early embryo blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifu Zhang

    Full Text Available Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 13-15 (HH13-15. A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60% were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%. We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1% were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7% were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 13-15 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection.

  4. Transgenic quail production by microinjection of lentiviral vector into the early embryo blood vessels. (United States)

    Zhang, Zifu; Sun, Peng; Yu, Fuxian; Yan, Li; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Wenxin; Wang, Tao; Wan, Zhiyi; Shao, Qiang; Li, Zandong


    Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 13-15 (HH13-15). A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60%) were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%). We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1%) were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7%) were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 13-15 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection.

  5. Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows. (United States)

    Peng, H; Wang, J Q; Kang, H Y; Dong, S H; Sun, P; Bu, D P; Zhou, L Y


    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 29 ± 6 days, parity = 2.8 ± 1.1) were blocked by DIM and parity and then randomly assigned to three treatments (12 per treatment) in a 9-week trial. Cows in control, DFM1 and DFM2 were fed TMR diets supplemented with 0, 6 and 12 g of B. subtilis natto solid-state fermentation product per day per cow respectively. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were lower (p = 0.03) in DFM1 and DFM2 compared with control cows (633 and 639 vs. 685 μm). Ruminal propionate increased (23.9 vs. 26.3 and 26.9/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) and acetate decreased (64.2 vs. 62.7 and 62.1/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) with increasing B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation. DMI of the cows in three treatments was not affected by B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation, but milk yield was 3.1 and 3.2 kg/day higher for DFM1 and DFM2 than that for control cows on average across the 9-week trial, and significant differences were observed during weeks 5-9 of the trial, which resulted in 9.5% and 11.7% increase in feed efficiency. B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation did not affect milk fat percentage and protein yield but increased (p < 0.05) milk fat yield and lactose percentage (p < 0.01) and tended to decrease protein percentage (p = 0.06). The findings show that B. subtilis natto fermentation product was effective in increasing lactation performance of early lactation dairy cows possibly by altering the rumen fermentation pattern without any negative effects on blood metabolites.

  6. Inflammatory cytokines in vitro production are associated with Ala16Val superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Montano, Marco Aurélio Echart; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Krewer, Cristina da Costa; da Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Rosa, Guilherme; Maris, Angélica Francesca; Battiston, Francielle Garghetti; Trott, Alexis; Lera, Juan Pablo Barrio


    Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state associated with a chronic oxidative stress caused by superoxide production (O(2)(-)). The superoxide dismutase manganese dependent (SOD2) catalyzes O(2)(-) in H(2)O(2) into mitochondria and is encoded by a single gene that presents a common polymorphism that results in the replacement of alanine (A) with a valine (V) in the 16 codon. This polymorphism has been implicated in a decreased efficiency of SOD2 transport into targeted mitochondria in V allele carriers. Previous studies described an association between VV genotype and metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. However, the causal mechanisms to explain this association need to be more elucidated. We postulated that the polymorphism could influence the inflammatory response. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carrier's different Ala16Val-SOD2 genotypes (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Additionally, we evaluated if the culture medium glucose, enriched insulin, could influence the cytokine production. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in VV-PBMCs when compared to AA-PBMCs. However, the culture medium glucose and enriched insulin did not affect cytokine production. The results suggest that Ala16Val-SOD2 gene polymorphism could trigger the PBMCs proinflammatory cytokines level. However, discerning if a similar mechanism occurs in fat cells is an open question.

  7. Time to positivity of blood culture association with clinical presentation, prognosis and ESBL-production in Escherichia coli bacteremia. (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Viñas-Castillo, L; Lepe-Jiménez, J A; García-Cabrera, E; Cisneros-Herreros, J M


    The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been associated with increased mortality in bacteremia caused by several microorganisms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between TTP and prognosis, clinical presentation and extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-production in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. This is a retrospective observational study involving 226 adult patients with E. coli bacteremia. Data collected included underlying diseases, clinical presentation, prognosis factors, TTP, ESBL-production and outcome. Thirty-one (14%) patients had severe sepsis and 29 (13%) septic shock at presentation. Thirty-three (14%) strains were ESBL-producers. Thirty-nine (17%) patients died during admission and 17 (7.5%) within 48 hours. The median TTP was 8.3 hours (range, 0.42–76.5). It was significantly shorter in patients with septic shock (6.23 h, range 1.12–47.29 h vs. 8.51 h, range 0.42–76.50 h; p = 0.018). Rapid growth of E. coli, Pitt index >1.5, non-urinary source and Charlson score >2 were selected as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality by the multivariate analysis. ESBL-production was not associated with modifications in TTP. Lower TTP is an independent risk factor for septic shock and poor outcome in episodes of E. coli bacteremia. The TTP in E. coli bacteremia is not significantly modified by ESBL-production.

  8. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production. (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S


    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 2 compared with steers fed 0.03% menthol. Steers fed 0% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 9 compared with steers fed 0.03 and 0.3% menthol, whereas no differences were observed on d 23 or 30. Plasma glucose was similar among treatments until d 23, when steers supplemented with 0.03% menthol had lower glucose concentrations. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments; however, PUN concentrations varied by day. A linear response was detected for BW ( = 0.03), with steers consuming 0% menthol having the greatest BW and steers that consumed 0

  9. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba


    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  10. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. (United States)

    Chang, Chan-Jung; Mitra, Koyel; Koya, Mariko; Velho, Michelle; Desprat, Romain; Lenz, Jack; Bouhassira, Eric E


    We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  11. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Chang

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  12. Correlation between the Female Apheresis Platelet Donors′ Sodium Citrate Toxic Reaction and the Anticoagulant Concentration%女性机采血小板献血者枸橼酸钠中毒与抗凝剂比例的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the relationship of the female apheresis platelet donors' sodium citrate toxic reaction and the anticoagulant concentration. Methods 181 cases of female platelet donors at blood center were randomly divided into group A of 80 cases and group B. Of 101 cases, sodium citrate poisoning cases in anticoagulant/blood ratio of 1:10( group A)and 1: 11( group B )female platelet donors were observed and compared. Results When the ratio of anticoagulant and whole blood was 1=11,1.98% of the female donors of group B had sodium citrate toxicity reactions, which was significantly lower than group A with the ratio of anticoagulant and whole blood 1: 10. The difference of incidence of sodium toxic reactions was statistically significant( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Women in Jiangsu Province generally have smaller body weight,the use of appropriate anticoagulant concentration( the ratio of anticoagulant and whole blood 1 : 11 )can significantly reduce the incidence of sodium citrate toxic reaction of the female apheresis platelet donors, which has important application value.%目的 探讨女性机采血小板献血者枸橼酸钠中毒与抗凝剂比例的关系.方法 对来血液中心进行机采血小板的181例女性献血者随机分为A组80例,B组101例.对比观察抗凝剂与全血比例为1:10(A组)和1:11时(B组)女性机采血小板献血者发生枸橼酸钠中毒的情况.结果 抗凝剂与全血比例为1:11的B组女性献血者枸橼酸钠中毒反应发生率为1.98%,明显低于抗凝剂与全血比例为1:10的A组女性献血者,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 江苏地区女性体质量普遍较轻,采用抗凝剂与全血比例为1:11可明显改善女性机采血小板献血者枸橼酸钠中毒反应的发生率,具有重要的应用价值.

  13. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec


    Full Text Available The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to look at the structure of the stem secondary protective tissue of D. draco to detect anatomical features of the ducts which are responsible for the process of secretion. The studies were carried out with material collected from the stem of D. draco plants growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Warsaw University Botanic Garden. Hand-cut sections of a fresh material as well as microtome sections of the samples embedded in paraffin wax and epon resin were used for the analysis. The sections were examined under the light microscope and in UV light. Characteristics of the cork tissue of the stems at different age were elucidated. In young stems of D. draco the cork cells form radial arrangement similar to that of ‘storied cork’. However, as the stems become older, the groups of cork cells of a common origin are difficult to distinguish. The cells are tangentially stretched and more or less crushed due to the tension of radial growth. The areas that contain red secretory products were detected and anatomically described. Our results are discussed in relation to the anatomy of secondary protective tissues and the secretion structures in coniferous and broadleaved trees.

  14. The Implementation of 2U Platelets Collected at the Huaian Blood Center%2U单采血小板的采集在淮安市中心血站的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕平; 谢峰


    equal to 5×108/ bag, red blood cell is less than or equal to 8×109/bag, all can meet the requirements of the national standard. Conclusion In line with the conditions of blood donors 1 times col-lected double platelet safe feasible, so as to solve the apheresis platelet donors, reduce the number of patients with platelet transfusions of antibody production opportunities, but also greatly save apheresis platelet costs.

  15. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes. (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali


    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  16. Impact of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance of Santa Inês ewes. (United States)

    Morsy, Amr S; Soltan, Yosra A; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Alencar, Severino M; Abdalla, Adibe L


    Twenty Santa Inês ewes used to evaluate effects of oral administration of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance were randomly grouped (n = 10 ewes/group) to control without propolis administration and propolis treated (3 g red propolis extract/ewe/day) 21 days before expected lambing date. Blood samples were collected weekly, and daily milk yield was recorded twice weekly until 7 weeks postpartum. Propolis administration increased (P < 0.05) total leukocyte counts, protein, and globulin and glucose concentrations, decreased (P < 0.05) somatic cell counts, and enhanced (P < 0.05) yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose. Propolis supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain and milk conversion ratio but had no effect on lamb birth and weaning weights. The prepartum administration of propolis extract supported positively the transition of ewes from pregnancy to lactation with health benefits achieved for both of ewes and lambs performances.

  17. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  18. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R


    Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed.

  19. National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis: scientific opportunities in extracorporeal photopheresis. (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nora; Dunbar, Nancy M; Adamski, Jill; Couriel, Daniel; Edelson, Richard; Kitko, Carrie L; Levine, John E; Morgan, Shanna; Schneiderman, Jennifer; Sloan, Steve; Wu, Yanyun; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Cooling, Laura


    The clinical use of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for accepted indications such as graft-versus-host disease, transplant rejection, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma continues to increase. Expanded applications for ECP, such as the treatment of select autoimmune diseases, are being explored. Extracorporeal photopheresis's capacity to both immunotolerize in the autoreactive setting, while immunizing against a lymphoma is unusual and suggestive of a unique mechanism. It is likely that ECP's induction of dendritic cells is key to its efficacy in both of these settings, but exactly how ECP impacts other immune components and their interactions is not fully understood. Further basic science research is necessary to elucidate how these dissimilar cellular activities are functionally integrated. On the clinical side, collaborative multicenter trials designed to recognize the principal variables controlling therapeutic responses and improve prognostic indicators may enable tailoring devices, treatment schedules, and doses to the needs of the individual patients or diseases. This review describes our current understanding of how ECP influences the immune system, reviews the existing clinical applications of ECP, and explores areas for future basic science and clinical research as presented at the National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis in November 2012.

  20. Predictive factors of clinical response in steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis treated with granulocyte-monocyte apheresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria D'Ovidio; Donatella Meo; Angelo Viscido; Giampaolo Bresci; Piero Vernia; Renzo Caprilli


    AIM: To identify factors predicting the clinical response of ulcerative colitis patients to granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA).METHODS: Sixty-nine ulcerative colitis patients (39 F, 30 M) dependent upon/refractory to steroids were treated with GMA.Steroid dependency, clinical activity index (CAI), C reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), values at baseline, use of immunosuppressant, duration of disease, and age and extent of disease were considered for statistical analysis as predictive factors of clinical response.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used.RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, CAI (P = 0.039) and ESR (P = 0.017) levels at baseline were singled out as predictive of clinical remission.In the multivariate analysis steroid dependency [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.390, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.176-0.865, Wald 5.361, P = 0.0160] and low CAI levels at baseline (4 < CAI < 7) (OR = 0.770, 95% CI: 0.425-1.394, Wald 3.747, P = 0.028) proved to be effective as factors predicting clinical response.CONCLUSION: GMA may be a valid therapeutic option for steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis patients with mild-moderate disease and its clinical efficacy seems to persist for 12 mo.

  1. Effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil's claw) on COX-1, COX-2 activity and nitric oxide production on whole-blood assay. (United States)

    Anauate, Maria Cecilia; Torres, Luce Maria; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo


    The present study evaluates the effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) on cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) activities and NO production using a whole blood assay. The activity of COX-1 was quantified as platelet thromboxane B(2) production in blood clotting and COX-2 as prostaglandin E(2) production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Total NO(2) (-)/NO(3) (-) concentration was determined by Griess reaction in LPS stimulated blood. Assays were performed by incubation of isolated fractions obtained by flash chromatography monitored with HPLC, TLC and identified by (1)HNMR, containing different amounts of harpagoside with blood from healthy donors. Indomethacin and etoricoxib were the positive controls of COX-1 and COX-2 Inhibition. Data shows that fraction containing the highest concentration of harpagoside inhibited indistinctively COX-1 and COX-2 (37.2 and 29.5% respectively) activity and greatly inhibited NO production (66%). In contrast the fraction including iridoid pool increased COX-2 and did not alter NO and COX-1 activities. The fraction containing cinnamic acid was able to reduce only NO production (67%). Our results demonstrated that the harpagoside fraction is the main responsible for the effect of devils claw on these enzyme activities. However, other components from devil's claw crude extract could antagonize or increase the synthesis of inflammatory mediators.

  2. A method for production and determination of histamine releasing activity from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Poulsen, L K; Reimert, C M


    Histamine releasing factors, i.e. cytokines capable of inducing histamine release from basophils or mast cells, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of, for example, allergic late-phase reactions. Here we describe a controlled method for production and determination of histamine......). The preparations of HRA induced dose- and Ca2+-dependent histamine release from leukocytes. Supernatants of parallel cultures of unstimulated MNC did not induce histamine release. The HRA was neither due to exogenous histamine releasing compounds (e.g. Con A) nor to residual histamine in the preparations of HRA....... The kinetics of HRA induced histamine release (half-maximal release after > 40 min) were slower and more protracted than those of anti-IgE induced histamine release. However, based on a comparison between HRA induced histamine release from leukocytes and purified (97%) basophils, this did not appear to be due...

  3. 小剂量多次口服钙剂在机采血小板过程中致枸橼酸钠中毒的预防效果研究%Study on preventive effect on sodium citrate poisoning caused by multiple low dose oral calcium in apheresis platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:研究钙剂对血细胞分离机采集血小板过程中致患者发生枸橼酸钠中毒的预防效果。方法将400例进行机采血小板的献血者按照随机对照原则分为对照组、A、B、C四组,每组各100例,全部献血者在机采血小板前一周均未应用过阿司匹林类药物,其中对照组在机采过程中未使用钙剂,A组在在口服10 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙后立即进行机采血小板。B组在采集过程中如发生相关口唇麻木等症状时立即口服10 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙。C组在每个循环机采血小板结束后,返输压积红细胞后立刻口服2 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙,共5次,对全部献血者的枸橼酸钠中毒症状种类进行观察统计,并对每组的中毒症状发生率进行比较分析。结果全部献血者中,面部及口唇麻木发生例数位居第一,为102例(25.5%),其次由高至低依次为肢体麻木(25例,6.3%)、心悸(16例,4.0%)、胃肠道反应(6例,1.5%)、腓肠肌痉挛(4例,1.0%)。四组献血者的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率中,对照组的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率高于A、B、C三组,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义,C组的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率低于对照组和A、B三组,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义。结论小剂量多次口服钙剂能有效的减少机采血小板过程中枸橼酸钠中毒的情况。%Objective To study the preventive effect on sodium citrate poisoning caused by multiple low dose oral calcium in apheresis platelet. Methods 400 cases of apheresis platelet blood donors were divided into control group, group A, group B, and group C, with 100 cases in every group. All the donors hadn’t used Aspirin like drugs one week before blood taken, donors of control group hadn’t used calcium in the process of apheresis platelets, apheresis platelets were processed immediately after donors were given 10 ml 10% calcium gluconate in group A. When the associated

  4. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products. (United States)

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L


    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  5. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available GSH (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine is a sulfhydril (-SH antioxidant, antitoxin and enzyme cofactor which is an important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Being water soluble it is found mainly in the cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system and thus constitute one of the most important intracellular antioxidants (10,7,9. GSH plays a role in removing various toxic chemicals and drugs from the body. As a result glutathione levels in the body are reduced by exposure to heavy metals and the chemicals used in chemotherapy (6. Sulfanilamide was the first sulfonamide discovered in this class of antimicrobial agents and its structure is considered to contain the minimum pharmacophore. They prevent or limit bacterial multiplication. Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid, is the basic substance of the salicylates which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Salicylic acid and methyl salicylate (ester (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate are the main therapeutically used substances of this group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a new synthesis product in comparison with the effect of sulfanilamide on GSH values in intraperitonally injected Wistar rats.

  7. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin enhances production and secretion of type IV collagenases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Kageyama, Y; Kawakami, S; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K; Oshima, H


    Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an effective and widely accepted treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Rapid progression of the disease after BCG therapy, however, has been reported in some cases refractory to the treatment. We examined whether BCG treatment and coexistence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) alter the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Production and secretion of two type IV collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP 9, by PBMCs from five healthy donors or bladder cancer cells (T24, JTC 30, and JTC 32) were evaluated by gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, and northern blot analysis. Invasion of bladder cancer cells was also examined using reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). BCG (5, 50, and 500 micrograms/ml) had no effect on secretion of MMP 2 and MMP 9 by bladder cancer cells, but increased the production and secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. The coexistence of PBMCs increased invasion of T24 cells and BCG further enhanced the invasion. Thus, BCG promotes invasion of bladder cancer cells under certain conditions. An increase in the secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs may account in part for the effect.

  8. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combariza, Juan F.


    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  9. Phosphatidylserine exposure on stored red blood cells as a parameter for donor-dependent variation in product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, S.; Peppelman, M.; Raadt, J. van der; Atsma, F.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Joosten, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.


    BACKGROUND: Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outside of red blood cells contributes to recognition and removal of old and damaged cells. The fraction of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells varies between donors, and increases in red blood cell concentrates during storage. The susceptibi

  10. Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Reina Ortiz


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are associated with effects on systemic immune responses that could be caused by alterations in immune homeostasis. To investigate this, we measured the impact in children of STH infections on cytokine responses and gene expression in unstimulated blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty children were classified as having chronic, light, or no STH infections. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in medium for 5 days to measure cytokine accumulation. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood and gene expression analysed using microarrays. Different infection groups were compared for the purpose of analysis: STH infection (combined chronic and light vs. uninfected groups and chronic STH infection (chronic vs. combined light and uninfected groups. The chronic STH infection effect was associated with elevated production of GM-CSF (P=0.007, IL-2 (P=0.03, IL-5 (P=0.01, and IL-10 (P=0.01. Data reduction suggested that chronic infections were primarily associated with an immune phenotype characterized by elevated IL-5 and IL-10, typical of a modified Th2-like response. Chronic STH infections were associated with the up-regulation of genes associated with immune homeostasis (IDO, P=0.03; CCL23, P=0.008, HRK, P=0.005, down-regulation of microRNA hsa-let-7d (P=0.01 and differential regulation of several genes associated with granulocyte-mediated inflammation (IL-8, down-regulated, P=0.0002; RNASE2, up-regulated, P=0.009; RNASE3, up-regulated, p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic STH infections were associated with a cytokine response indicative of a modified Th2 response. There was evidence that STH infections were associated with a pattern of gene expression suggestive of the induction of homeostatic mechanisms, the differential expression of several inflammatory genes and the down-regulation of microRNA has-let-7d. Effects on immune homeostasis and the development of a

  11. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products. (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T


    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  12. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  13. Lipoprotein apheresis in the management of severe hypercholesterolemia and of elevation of lipoprotein(a): current perspectives and patient selection (United States)

    Julius, Ulrich


    This review reports the current situation with respect to therapeutic options (lifestyle and drugs) reducing the concentrations of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]). Three lipoprotein apheresis (LA) principles have been realized: precipitation, filtration, and adsorption. Available LA methods are herein described in detail – major components, pumps, extracorporeal volume, treated volume, and anticoagulation. General features of all LA methods as well as pleotropic effects are elaborated. Indications for LA therapy are quoted: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HCH), severe HCH, and isolated elevation of Lp(a) and progress of atherosclerotic disease. A major focus is on the evidence of the effect of LA on cardiovascular outcome data, and the most important publications are cited in this context. The best studies have been performed in patients with elevated Lp(a) in whom cardiovascular events were reduced by more than 80%. Major adverse effects and contraindications are listed. The impact of an LA therapy on patient quality of life and the requirements they have to fulfill are also highlighted. Finally, the future role of LA in treating high-risk patients with high LDL-C and/or high Lp(a) is discussed. It is probable that the significance of LA for treating patients with elevated LDL-C will decrease (with the exception of homozygous familial HCH) due to the application of PCSK9 inhibitors. The antisense oligonucleotide against apolipoprotein(a) could replace LA in patients with high Lp(a), provided positive outcome data are generated. PMID:27785114

  14. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Levy


    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution′s initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital′s transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater real-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encountered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also

  15. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Hu, Tingting; Song, Xiaofei; Nie, Hong; Chen, Min; Chen, Weixian; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong


    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) and health controls (HC) were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC).In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27612199

  16. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.


    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of thr

  17. Differential mRNA expression and production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of house-dust mite-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, M.P.; Baert, M.R.M.; Vredendaal, A.E.C.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    Summary : Optimal culture conditions were established for the analysis of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interfe-ron-gamma (IFN- ) mRNA expression and protein production, as well as proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These culture conditions permitted the analysis of diff

  18. Biochemical measurements on single erythroid progenitor cells shed light on the combinatorial regulation of red blood cell production. (United States)

    Wang, Weijia; Akbarian, Vahe; Audet, Julie


    Adult bone marrow (BM) erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-Es) are important cellular targets for the treatment of anemia and also for the manufacture of red blood cells (RBCs) ex vivo. We obtained quantitative biochemical measurements from single and small numbers of CFU-Es by isolating and analyzing c-Kit(+)CD71(high)Ter119(-) cells from adult mouse BM and this allowed us to identify two mechanisms that can be manipulated to increase RBC production. As expected, maximum RBC output was obtained when CFU-Es were stimulated with a combination of Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and Erythropoietin (EPO) mainly because SCF supports a transient CFU-E expansion and EPO promotes the survival and terminal differentiation of erythroid progenitors. However, we found that one of the main factors limiting the output in RBCs was that EPO induces a downregulation of c-Kit expression which limits the transient expansion of CFU-Es. In the presence of SCF, the EPO-mediated downregulation of c-Kit on CFU-Es is delayed but still significant. Moreover, treatment of CFU-Es with 1-Naphthyl PP1 could partially inhibit the downregulation of c-Kit induced by EPO, suggesting that this process is dependent on a Src family kinase, v-Src and/or c-Fyn. We also found that CFU-E survival and proliferation was dependent on the level of time-integrated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in these cells, all of which could be significantly increased when SCF and EPO were combined with mouse fetal liver-derived factors. Taken together, these results suggest two novel molecular strategies to increase RBC production and regeneration.

  19. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers. (United States)

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P


    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( consumption and OP were detected, indicating that the OP methodology may be useful to predict growth efficiency.

  20. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens. (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi


    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  1. Porcine blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses to PAMP molecules: comparison of mRNA and protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.


    -α and IL-12 p40, and PGN, LPS and Pam3Cys inducing varying amounts of IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Surprisingly, the ssRNA-mimic poly-U induced IL-6 and IL-1β only. Using CpG, PGN and LPS, the kinetics of cytokine production measured as mRNA (reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR) and protein (ELISA...... the induction of IFN-α, IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 by PAMP-molecules [CpG oligonucleotide D19 (CpG), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3Cys and poly-U] in porcine blood mononuclear cells (BMC) within a 24h period. As expected, cytokine responses were PAMP-specific, CpG inducing IFN......), respectively, correlated well, mRNA responses preceding protein responses. With the exception of IL-1β and IL-6, mRNA-responses were transient, whereas protein responses, except for TNF-α, followed saturation kinetics. Remarkably, LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA was not followed by a protein response. These results...

  2. T-cell depletion and autologous stem cell transplantation in the management of tumour stage mycosis fungoides with peripheral blood involvement. (United States)

    Olavarria, E; Child, F; Woolford, A; Whittaker, S J; Davis, J G; McDonald, C; Chilcott, S; Spittle, M; Grieve, R J; Stewart, S; Apperley, J F; Russell-Jones, R


    Nine patients with tumour stage mycosis fungoides (MF) have been entered into a pilot study of T-cell depletion and autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). Eight patients had detectable rearrangements of the T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma-gene demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in the peripheral blood. The median age was 47 years and the median duration of disease before SCT was 61 months; Peripheral blood progenitor cells were mobilized using high-dose etoposide (1.6 g/m2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The apheresis products underwent rigorous T-cell depletion with immunomagnetic methods. Double CD34-positive and CD4/CD8-negative selection achieved a median reduction of 3.89 log of T cells. All nine patients have been transplanted. Conditioning included carmustine (BCNU), etoposide and melphalan (BEM) in seven patients and total body irradiation plus etoposide or melphalan in two. Eight patients engrafted promptly and one patient died of septicaemia. All survivors entered complete remission. Seven patients have relapsed at a median of 7 months (2-14) post SCT. However, most patients have relapsed into a less aggressive stage, which has responded to conventional therapy. Four out of seven evaluable patients had detectable TCR rearrangements in the T-cell depleted graft. A T-cell clone was also detected in the peripheral blood before relapse in four cases. Autologous SCT is feasible, safe and can result in complete remission in a significant proportion of patients with tumour stage mycosis fungoides. Despite a short relapse-free survival, most patients achieved good disease control at the time of relapse.

  3. Survivability and Infectivity of Viscerotropic Leishmania Tropica from Operation Desert Storm Participants in Human Blood Products Maintained Under Blood Bank Conditions (United States)


    AD-A272 136 PN PAGE OfN Mao_.•. few- ol :i. :1datn ’ o 1. A REPORT TYPE ANdO OATE COVERED 4-TITEuANOSUSTTTU Survivability and Infectivity of Viscero...the kinetics and frequency of peripheral appropriate are ones to prevent transfusion-re- blood parasitemia in humans (donors), the type lated...leucocytes. -Itn J (C1n Pathol 75: 435- hepaticas concomitantes estudiadas en biopsia 438. eon aguja de Vim-Silverman. .Aca .%fed Cos- 15. Nuwavri-Salti

  4. Sestrin2 decreases renal oxidative stress, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Cuevas, Santiago; Yang, Sufei; Villar, Van Anthony; Escano, Crisanto; Asico, Laureano; Yu, Peiying; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Weinman, Edward J; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A


    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) decreases renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates blood pressure, in part, via positive regulation of paraoxonase 2. Sestrin2, a highly conserved antioxidant protein, regulates intracellular ROS level by regenerating hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins. We hypothesized that sestrin2 may be involved in preventing excessive renal ROS production and thus contribute to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Moreover, the D2R may decrease ROS production, in part, through the regulation of sestrin2. Renal sestrin2 expression was lower (-62±13%) in D2R(-/-) than in D2R(+/+) mice. Silencing D2R in human renal proximal tubule cells decreased sestrin2 expression (-53±3%) and increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.9-fold). Stimulation of D2R in renal proximal tubule cells increased sestrin2 expression (1.6-fold), decreased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (-61±3%), and reduced ROS production (-31±4%). Silencing sestrin2 in renal proximal tubule cells increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.1-fold) and ROS production (1.3-fold). Silencing sestrin2 also abolished D2R-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation and partially prevented the inhibitory effect of D2R stimulation on ROS production. Silencing paraoxonase 2 increased sestrin2 ubiquitinylation (2.8-fold), decreased sestrin2 expression (-30±3%), and increased ROS production (1.3-fold), peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation (2.9-fold), and lipid peroxidation (2.3-fold), and blocked the increase in sestrin2 that occurs with D2R stimulation. In vivo renal selective silencing of sestrin2 by the renal subcapsular infusion of sestrin2 small interfering RNA (3 μg/day; 7 days) in mice increased renal oxidative stress (1.3-fold) and blood pressure. These results suggest that the D2R, via paraoxonase 2 and sestrin2, keeps normal renal redox balance, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood pressure.

  5. Cerebral extraction of N-13 ammonia: its dependence on cerebral blood flow and capillary permeability, surface area product. [Dogs; monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Slin, C.


    /sup 13/N-labeled ammonia was used to investigate: (1) the cerebral extraction and clearance of ammonia; (2) the mechanicsm by which capillaries accommodate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF); and (3) its use for the measure of CBF. This was investigated by measuring the single pass extraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ in rhesus monkeys during P/sub a/CO/sub 2/ induced changes in CBF, and with dog studies using in vitro tissue counting techniques to examine /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ extraction in gray and white matter, mixed tissue, and cerebellum during variations in CBF produced by combinations of embolization, local brain compression, and changes in P/sub a/CO/sub 2/. The single pass extraction fraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ varied from about 70 to 20% over a CBF range of 12 to 140cc/min/100gms. Capillary permeability-surface area product (PS) estimates from this data and the dog experiments show PS increasing with CBF. The magnitude and rate of increase in PS with CBF was highest in gray matter > mixed tissue > white matter. Tissue extraction of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ vs CBF relationship was best described by a unidirectional transport model in which CBF increases by both recruitment of capillaries and by increases of blood velocity in open capillaries. Glutamine synthetase, which incorporates /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ into glutamine, appears to be anatomically located in astrocytes in general and specifically in the astrocytic pericapillary end-feet that are in direct contact with gray and white matter capillaries. The net /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ extraction subsequent to an i.v. injection increases nonlinearly with CBF. Doubling or halving basal CBF produced from 40 to 50% changes in the /sup 13/N tissue concentrations with further increases in CBF associated with progressively smaller changes in /sup 13/N concentrations. /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ appears to be a good tracer for the detection of cerebral ischemia with positron tomography but exhibits a poor response at high values of CBF.

  6. Production of Dragon's Blood in Dracaena cambodiana Plants by Inoculation of Fusarium graminearum%真菌诱导海南龙血树生产血竭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小凤; 李尚真; 宋启示


    Dragon's blood is a precious traditional medicine. Physical damage and fungi induction are two main factors affecting the production of dragon's blood. In this study,fungi induction was used to produce dragon's blood. Loureirin A and loureirin B.the major compounds of the dragon's bloods induced, were analyzed by HPLC to evaluate the results of each treatment. The results showed that the contents of loureirin A of the dragon's bloods induced by different treatments were similar, while the contents of loureirin B of the dragon's bloods induced by inoculating fungus Fusarium graminearum and exposing wound was the highest. The treatment of inoculating fungus and exposing wound was the most efficient way to induce dragon's blood. The HPLC fingerprints showed that the dragon's bloods induced were similar to the dragon's blood drug. This may add weight to the feasibility of artificial production of dragon's blood.%血竭是一种名贵的传统中药.影响血竭产生的主要原因是物理损伤和真菌诱导.本研究是以打孔接菌方法诱导生产血竭,并运用高效液相色谱方法检测诱导产生的血竭中主要成分龙血素A和龙血素B的含量,探讨不同处理方法对这两种成分含量的影响,以确定最佳的人工接菌方法.研究结果显示不同的处理方法得到的血竭中龙血素A的含量变化不大,而树体接人镰刀菌属真菌并将伤口暴露于空气得到的血竭中龙血素B的含量最高,诱导效果最好.指纹图谱比对结果显示诱导产生的血竭成分与血竭药品成分相似,进一步说明人工接菌诱导血竭生产具有可行性.

  7. Daily rhythms in renal blood flow and urine production rate in the near-term sheep fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, FMI; Aarnoudse, JG


    Daily rhythmicity of renal blood flow (RBF) and urine flow (UF) was studied in fetal sheep between 121-125 d of gestation. Fetal arterial blood pressure, heart rate, UF, and right RBF were measured continuously for 24-h periods in 10 sheep, Rhythmic variations during a 24-h period were found for all

  8. Antigen induced production of υ-interferon ex vivo, in the peripheral blood of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Zagdyn


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most significant problems in the Russian Health Care. Russia remains on the list of the 22 countries with a high TB incidence and on the third place in the world with a high prevalence of Drug Resistant TB [1]. It is urgently needed to develop new TB diagnostic methods as well as effective measures of the specific TB prevention, including a development of the novel vaccines, so we have to know better about the most immunogenic antigens of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. We studied the Interferon-Q production in the whole blood after stimulating immune response with different proteins of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in patients with active TB. The study results permitted us to evaluate the immunogenicity of the previously known proteins (Ag85a и ESAT-6 in comparison to the recently identified ones (Rv2957, Rv2958c и Rv0447, analyzing simultaneously their relation to tuberculin, as well as to antigens of the different viruses (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Influenza Virus. Protein Rv2958c, unlike protein ESAT-6, showed the high immunogenicity in comparison to tuberculin. The expressed immunogenicity of protein Rv2958c might be indicated a possible greatest specificity of immune response to this antigen in TB patients. Meanwhile, bacillary tuberculosis was strongly associated with low immune response to this protein. Also we were found statistical differences in immune responses of patients to the different Mycobacterium Tuberculosis antigens depending on the drug sensitivity. In addition it was interesting to know about a significantly low immune response of patients with Drug Resistant TB to protein pp65 CMV.

  9. Effect of advanced glycosylation end products on activity of protein kinase C in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objectives TO investigate the effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on the activity of protein kinese C (PKC) in human peripheral bloodmononuclear Cells (PBMC) and to observe whether aminoguanidine (AG) can influence the effect of AGEs. Methods After PBMC were isoiated from human peripheral blood and incubated with different concentrations of AGEs-BSA for various periods, total PKC activity in PBMC was determined by measuring the incorporation of 32P from [γ-32P] ATP=into a special substrate using Prornega PKC assay kit. Results AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC from 83.43±6.57 pmol/min/mg protein to 116.8±13.82 pmol/min/mg protein with a peak at 15 min.AGEs-BSA also increased the total PKC activity in a concentration-dependent manner from 83.1±6.4 pmol/min/mg protein(control) to 119.1±13.3 pmol/min/mg protein (control vs AGEs-BSA 400 mg/L, P<0.01). Furthermore, AGEs-BSA induced an elevation of PKC activity in a glycosylating time-related manner,from 80.9±8.2 (control) to 118.3±11.5 pmol/min/mg protein (glycasytation for 12 wk, P<0.01). The total PKC activity stimulated by AGEs-BSA pretreated with AG (100, 200 mg/L) was markedly lower than that of AGEs-BSA group not pretreated with AG ( P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC in a concentration and incubation time dependent manner. The ability of AGEs-B.SA to stimulate PKC activity was markedly decreased by pretreatment of AGEs-BSA with AG.

  10. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats. (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  11. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks Frank M


    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  12. Retrospective evaluation of adverse transfusion reactions following blood product transfusion from a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary step towards hemovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. Identification of the adverse reactions will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. Aims : To determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of all TRs reported to the blood bank at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, between December 2007 and April 2012 was done. All the TRs were evaluated in the blood bank and classified using standard definitions. Results: During the study period a total of 380,658 bloods and blood components were issued by our blood bank. Out of the total 196 adverse reactions reported under the hemovigilance system, the most common type of reaction observed was allergic 55.1% (n = 108, followed by febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR 35.7% (n = 70. Other less frequently observed reactions were Anaphylactoid reactions 5.1% (n = 10, Acute non-immune HTRs 2.6% (n = 5, Circulatory overload 0.5% (n = 1, Transfusion related acute lung injury 0.5% (n = 1, Delayed HTRs 0.5% (n = 1. Not a single case of bacterial contamination was observed. Conclusion: The frequency of TRs in our patients was found to be 0.05% (196 out of 380,658. This can be an underestimation of the true incidence because of under reporting. It should be the responsibility of the blood transfusion consultant to create awareness amongst their clinical counterpart about safe transfusion practices so that proper hemovigilance system can be achieved to provide better patient care.

  13. Testing of Blood Products in a Polytrauma Model: Results of a Multi-Institutional Randomized Preclinical Trial (United States)


    FFP Weight (kg) 41 1.2 42 1.5 40 1.3 40 1.4 45 1.3 Blood loss (ml/kg body weight) 0 42 0.5 43 0.3 43 0.4 42 0.2 IVF (ml/kg body weight...that was withdrawn during the controlled hemorrhage phase (60% of estimated blood volume). IVF , intravenous fluids; FWB, fresh whole blood; Hextend, 6...after FFP transfusion (plasma has excellent buffering capacity), the lactic acidosis persisted and actually started trending up toward the end of the

  14. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood


    Joanna Jura-Morawiec; Mirela Tulik


    The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood) that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to...

  15. Blood product ratio in acute traumatic coagulopathy--effect on mortality in a Scandinavian level 1 trauma centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirks, Jesper; Jørgensen, Henrik; Jensen, Carsten H;


    Trauma is the leading cause of loss of life expectancy worldwide. In the most seriously injured patients, coagulopathy is often present on admission. Therefore, transfusion strategies to increase the ratio of plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC), simulating whole blood, have...... been introduced. Several studies report that higher ratios improve survival in massively bleeding patients. Here, the aim was to investigate the potential effect of increased FFP and PLT to RBC on mortality in trauma patients....

  16. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components. (United States)

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F


    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  17. Modulation of Cytokine Production by Drugs with Antiepileptic or Mood Stabilizer Properties in Anti-CD3- and Anti-CD40-Stimulated Blood In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Himmerich


    Full Text Available Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM, carbamazepine (CBZ, levetiracetam (LEV, lamotrigine (LTG, VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, topiramate (TPM, phenobarbital (PB, and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α. We performed a whole blood assay with stimulated blood of 14 healthy female subjects. Anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, combined with 5C3 antibody against CD40, was used as stimulant. We found a significant reduction of IL-1 and IL-2 levels with all tested drugs other than lithium in the CD3/5C3-stimulated blood; VPA led to a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α production, which substantiates and adds knowledge to current hypotheses on VPA’s anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;


    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality....... Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  19. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination]. (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E


    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  20. Comparison study on the effect of leukocyte and platelet depletion of apheresis with three filters%3种白细胞滤器对机采血小板白细胞去除效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯倩; 王可; 陈麟凤; 关晓珍; 张晓娟; 罗园园; 张婷; 于洋


    目的 评价3种去白细胞滤器对机采血小板的滤白效果及过滤前后机采血小板质量的变化.方法 随机选取60U机采血小板在(22±2)℃条件下振荡保存24-96 h.分别用3种不同滤器对血小板进行过滤,检测机采血小板过滤前后的血小板计数(PLT)、血小板单位容量、白细胞量、pH值、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)浓度、K+浓度、血小板膜表面CD62p表达率,计算白细胞残留量和血小板回收率.结果 与过滤前相比,各组过滤后机采血小板pH值、LDH浓度、K+浓度和CD62p表达率均无显著差异(P>0.05);白细胞残留量达到了医药行业标准;过滤后3组间血小板膜表面CD62p表达率(均数差为2.8%、5.4%、2.6%)和血小板回收率[(92.6±6.3)%、(82.6±4.4)%、(87.4±2.7)%]有显著差异(P<0.01).结论 3种白细胞滤器均可有效去除机采血小板中的白细胞,过滤后的机采血小板符合血液质量要求.A组滤器过滤后能保持较高的血小板回收率并有效避免血小板激活.%Objective To compare the efficiency of leukocyte and platelet depletion of three filters, and investigate the influence on the quality of apheresis platelets before and after leukocyte depletion. Methods Sixty units of donor apheresis platelets were preserved with agitation at (22±2)℃ for 24~96 h and were randomly assigned to three groups and then filtered using three types of polyester flatbed filters (A、B、C group). The platelet count, volume of apheresis platelets, leukocyte count, pH value, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, K + concentration and CD62p expression level were detected before and after filtration. The rate of leukocyte depletion and platelet recovery were calculated. Results The results showed that the pH value, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, K+ concentration and CD62p expression level were not significantly different between the three groups before and after filtration (P > 0.05). The residual

  1. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  2. Evaluation of Prehospital Blood Products to Attenuate Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma in a Model of Severe Injury and Shock in Anesthetized Pigs. (United States)

    Watts, Sarah; Nordmann, Giles; Brohi, Karim; Midwinter, Mark; Woolley, Tom; Gwyther, Robert; Wilson, Callie; Poon, Henrietta; Kirkman, Emrys


    Acute trauma coagulopathy (ATC) is seen in 30% to 40% of severely injured casualties. Early use of blood products attenuates ATC, but the timing for optimal effect is unknown. Emergent clinical practice has started prehospital deployment of blood products (combined packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma [PRBCs:FFP], and alternatively PRBCs alone), but this is associated with significant logistical burden and some clinical risk. It is therefore imperative to establish whether prehospital use of blood products is likely to confer benefit. This study compared the potential impact of prehospital resuscitation with (PRBCs:FFP 1:1 ratio) versus PRBCs alone versus 0.9% saline (standard of care) in a model of severe injury. Twenty-four terminally anesthetised Large White pigs received controlled soft tissue injury and controlled hemorrhage (35% blood volume) followed by a 30-min shock phase. The animals were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups during a 60-min prehospital evacuation phase: hypotensive resuscitation (target systolic arterial pressure 80 mmHg) using either 0.9% saline (group 1, n = 9), PRBCs:FFP (group 2, n = 9), or PRBCs alone (group 3, n = 6). Following this phase, an in-hospital phase involving resuscitation to a normotensive target (110 mmHg systolic arterial blood pressure) using PRBCs:FFP was performed in all groups. There was no mortality in any group. A coagulopathy developed in group 1 (significant increase in clot initiation and dynamics shown by TEG [thromboelastography] R and K times) that persisted for 60 to 90 min into the in-hospital phase. The coagulopathy was significantly attenuated in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.025 R time and P = 0.035 K time), which were not significantly different from each other. Finally, the volumes of resuscitation fluid required was significantly greater in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0067) (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3 L, respectively). This difference was principally

  3. In vitro large scale production of human mature red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells by coculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. (United States)

    Xi, Jiafei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Ruoyong; Wang, Yunfang; Nan, Xue; He, Lijuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao


    In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 10(9)-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β -globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs) are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  4. 长期单采血小板献血者甲状旁腺激素水平改变及其对献血者免疫功能的影响%Changes of parathyroid hormone level and its impact on immune function in long-term apheresis platelet donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宗祥; 孙颖; 尹涛; 栾希英


    Objective To explore the changes of levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its impact on the immune function in the long-term apheresis platelet donors.Methods From 7th October 2015 to 5th December 2015,a total of 30 blood donors who donated apheresis platelet in Yantai Central Blood Station of Shandong province were included in this study as research objects,and put into the study group (n=30).The study group inclusion criteria were ① donated blood were apheresis platelet;② donate apheresis platelet for 5 years and over 10 times for each year;③ before blood donation,the results of physical examination and blood tests of each donor were in line with Donor Health Inspection Requirements (GB18467-2011).Exclusion criteria were ①any results of physical examination and blood tests before blood donation were incompatible with Donor Health Inspection Requirements (GB18467-2011);② donors who did not want to participate in this trial.According to gender and age,a total of 30 donors who donated whole blood for the first time in the same period were included in control group (n=30).The control group inclusion criteria were ① donated blood were whole blood;② the first blood donation;③ before blood donation,the results of physical examination and blood tests of each donor were in line with Donor Health Inspection Requirements (GB18467-2011).Exclusion criteria were ①any results of physical examination and blood tests before blood donation were incompatible with Donor Health Inspection Requirements (GB18467-2011);② donors who did not want to participate in this trial.Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detected the level of serum PTH and immunoglobulin (Ig) M,IgG and IgA of donors in study group before the blood supply,1,24 h and 7 d after blood supply,and those of control group before the blood supply.Using flow cytometry (FCM) detected CD3+ T cells absolute counts,CD4+ T cells,CD8+ T cells and CD4+ CD8+ T cells of donors in study group before

  5. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Smith


    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10, pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen, and bone homeostasis (25 (OH vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1. A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Identifier: NCT02765945.

  6. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Mastronardi


    Full Text Available The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC, and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (P=0.03, but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality.

  7. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed... (United States)


    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  8. Anemia plus hypoproteinemia in dogs; various proteins in diet show various patterns in blood protein production; beef muscle,. egg, lactalbumin, fibrin, viscera, and supplements. (United States)



    Dogs with sustained anemia plus hypoproteinemia due to bleeding and a continuing low protein or protein-free diet containing abundant iron have been used in the present work to test food proteins and supplements as to their See PDF for Structure capacity to produce new hemoglobin and plasma proteins. The reserve stores of blood protein-producing materials are thus largely depleted in such animals and sustained levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent plasma protein can be maintained for considerable periods of time. The stimulus of double depletion drives the body to use all protein building materials with the utmost conservation. This represents a severe biological test for food and body proteins and its assay value must have significance. Measured by this biological test in these experiments, casein stands well up among the best food proteins. The ratio of plasma protein to hemoglobin is about 40 to 50 per cent, which emphasizes the fact that these dogs produce on most diets about 2 gm. hemoglobin to 1 gm. plasma protein. The reason for this preference for hemoglobin production is obscure. The mass of circulating hemoglobin is greater even in this degree of anemia and the life cycle of hemoglobin is much longer than that of the plasma protein. Egg protein, egg albumin, and lactalbumin all favor the production of more plasma protein and less hemoglobin as compared with casein. The plasma protein to hemoglobin ratio is increased, sometimes above 100 per cent. Supplements to the above proteins of casein digests or several amino acids may return the response toward that which is standard for casein. Histidine as a supplement to egg protein increases the total blood protein output and brings the ratio of plasma protein to hemoglobin toward that of casein. Beef muscle goes to the other extreme and favors new hemoglobin production up to 4 gm. hemoglobin to 1 gm. plasma protein-a ratio of 25 per cent. The total amounts of new blood proteins are

  9. Blood smear (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  10. Blood culture (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Blood Thinners (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  12. Blood transfusions (United States)

    ... this page: // Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  13. [An a priori risk analysis study. Securisation of transfusion of blood product in a hospital: from the reception in the medical unit to its administration]. (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Lévy, R; Boyeldieu, D


    Following an ABO accident after transfusion of red blood cells, an a priori risk analysis study is being performed in a hospital. The scope of this analysis covers from the reception of the blood product in the medical unit to its administration. The risk analysis enables to identify the potentially dangerous situations and the evaluation of the risks in order to propose corrective measures (precautionary or protective) and bring the system back to an acceptable risk level. The innovative concept of an a priori risk analysis in the medical field allows the extension of the analysis of this transfusion risk to other hospitals. In addition, it allows the extension of the use of this approach to other medical fields.

  14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens. (United States)

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H


    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (phen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  15. Surface modification of polypropylene nonwovens with LDV peptidomimetics and their application in the leukodepletion of blood products. (United States)

    Gérard, Estelle; Bessy, Emilie; Hénard, Grégory; Verpoort, Thierry; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline


    For clinical indications and according to European standards, a depletion of the leukocytes from whole blood has to be realized before transfusion to a patient. In this study, the surface of a layer of meltblown oxygen-plasma treated polypropylene nonwoven (O(2)-PP), making part of the composition of leukodepletion filters, was modified with bioactive molecules to enhance the adhesion of leukocytes. These synthetic small molecules (called peptidomimetics) mimic the "Leu-Asp-Val" (LDV) tripeptide sequence recognized by the α(4)β(1) integrin, a receptor expressed on leukocytes. Their activity, as ligands of the α(4)β(1) integrin, was confirmed through cell adhesion assays. The peptidomimetics were covalently immobilized on O(2)-PP nonwoven via activation of the hydroxyl- and carboxyl-functions displayed on the polymer surface with trifluoro-triazine reagent, or were simply deposited on the O(2)-PP surface. The treated materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wettability, and morphological analyses, before and after steam sterilization. Experimental filters composed of 10 layers of O(2)-PP nonwovens and a last layer modified with the peptidomimetics were evaluated, using whole blood filtration assays, for their leukodepletion efficiency, the recovery of red cells and platelets and the waste of blood, with an objective to design new filters fulfilling practical and medical criteria.

  16. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  17. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Regan, Andrew D; Cohen, Rebecca D; Whittaker, Gary R


    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). The lethal pathology associated with FIP (granulomatous inflammation and T-cell lymphopenia) is thought to be mediated by aberrant modulation of the immune system due to infection of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs in cats with FIP, and has been suggested to play a significant role in the disease process. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Here we show that infection of primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells by FIPV WSU 79-1146 and FIPV-DF2 leads to rapid activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and that this activation regulates production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors SB 203580 and SC 409 in a dose-dependent manner. FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation was observed in primary feline blood-derived mononuclear cells individually purified from multiple SPF cats, as was the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors.

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholines: bioactive lipids generated during storage of blood components. (United States)

    Maślanka, Krystyna; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Michur, Halina; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Lachert, Elżbieta; Brojer, Ewa


    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is suggested to be a "two hit" event, resulting from priming and activation of pulmonary neutrophils. It is known that neutrophil activation may result from infusion of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) accumulated during storage of blood components. The aim of our study was to verify whether the LysoPCs are released into the storage medium of blood components. We measured the LysoPCs concentration in the supernatants from stored apheresis platelet concentrates (PLTs), packed non-leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (RBCs), leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (L-RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and donor plasma (control). Lipids were separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography, detected by primulin spray and quantified by photodensitometric scanning. The LysoPCs concentration in donor plasma was similar to that in FFP. During storage the LysoPCs content in PLTs increased almost two-fold as compared to the fresh isolated platelets. In RBCs and L-RBCs the LysoPC level was very low or below detection limit and did not increase throughout the storage period. According to our observations bioactive LysoPCs may be considered a neutrophil-activating factor only following PLT transfusions but not RBCs transfusions.

  19. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro. (United States)

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E


    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities.

  20. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows. (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad


    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  1. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province


    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were m...

  2. Development and Administration in Blood Source of Platelet Apheresis%单采血小板的血源发展与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩; 方瑞峰; 杨志夏; 闫慧芝; 辛美


    @@ 对于各种原因引起的血小板减少或功能异常、受损所致的临床出血,输注血小板是特异性治疗的方法之一,而一个低危稳定的无偿单采献血队伍是保证临床需要的重要条件.

  3. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator; Evaluacion de un medio dispersor para la irradiacion de hemoderivados en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Falero, B.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F. J.


    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  4. Effects of long-term dietary supplementation of monensin or saccharomyces cerevisiae on blood acid-base and productive performance in growing feedlot steers. (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Benedito, José Luis; Méndez, Jesús; García-Partida, Paulino; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; López-Alonso, Marta; Hernández, Joaquín


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two dietary supplements (monensin and a live yeast culture) on acid-base balance in steers maintained in a commercial feedlot system, considering effects over the growing period (14 to 23 weeks of age). A 63-day feedlot study was performed using 42 double-muscled Belgian Blue steers. Steers were allotted randomly to one of the three study groups: (1) control group [no supplementation, C], (2) monensin supplementation [MON] at a concentration of 30 mg/kg (DM basis), and (3) live Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain supplementation [SACC] at a dose of 500 mg/kg (DM basis). Venous blood samples were collected for the measurement of acid-base parameters and L-lactate. Production parameters were also used as a complementary tool for understanding the internal changes associated with supplementation. Our results show that during the study period no statistical differences were observed between supplemented and control steers, although non-supplemented animals tended to gain more efficiently than those fed monensin or yeast. Nevertheless, taking into account blood parameters, these control animals showed a greater risk of acid overload due to a more marked decline in blood buffer levels over time in comparison with supplemented steers although no differences were observed between monensin or yeast supplemented animals. Additionally, significant effect of supplementation was observed in packed cell volume (PCV) values.

  5. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice]. (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M


    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  6. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M


    (TNF-alpha), produced by the antigen presenting cells. In the present study we examined the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on the production of these cytokines, as well as superoxide generation by freshly isolated mononuclear cells and partially purified monocytes. The immediate precursor of 1,25(OH)2D3, 25-OH...... D3, and the synthetic analogue MC 903 ('Calcipotriol') were examined in parallel. 1,25-(OH)2D3 dose-dependently inhibited the production of IL-alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes, without affecting superoxide production. MC 903 had comparable......1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha...

  7. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;


    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production......, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters....... However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects...

  8. Blood Donation (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  9. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province. (United States)

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (pAST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  10. Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Atif Gul; Nasreen, Syeda; Brahman, Kapil Dev


    Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant public health issue in the world. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been increased among people who have habit of chewing smokeless tobacco (SLT) in Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the concentration of nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood, serum) of oral (n = 95) and pharyngeal (n = 84) male cancer patients. For comparison purposes, the biological samples of healthy age-matched referents (n = 150), who consumed and did not consumed SLT products, were also analyzed for Ni levels. As the Ni level is very low in biological samples, a preconcentration procedure has been developed, prior to analysis of analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Ni in acid-digested biological samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (APDC), and a resulted complex was extracted in a surfactant Triton X-114. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by FAAS. The chemical variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (APDC, Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume were optimized. The resulted data indicated that concentration of Ni was higher in blood and serum samples of cancer patients as compared to that of referents who have or have not consumed different SLT products (p = 0.012-0.001). It was also observed that healthy referents who consumed SLT products have two to threefold higher levels of Ni in both biological samples as compared to those who were not chewing SLT products (p < 0.01).

  11. Effects of selenium on peripheral blood mononuclear cell membrane fiuidity,interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor expression in patients with chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-Xiang He; Bing Wu; Xin-Ming Chang; Hong-Xia Li; Wen Qiao


    AIM: To study the effect of selenium on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) membrane fluidity and immune function in patients with chronic hepatitis.METHODS: PBMCs were pretreated with selenium (1.156x 10-7 mol/L) for 6 h in vitro or extracted directly from patients after administration of selenium-yeast continuously for 8-12 wk (200 μg/d), and then exposed to Con-A for 48 h. The membrane fluidity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression in PBMCs and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in medium and lipid peroxide (LPO) in plasma were determined.RESULTS: The PBMC membrane fluidity, IL-2 production and IL-2R expression in patients with chronic hepatitis were significantly lower than those in healthy blood donators (particle adhesive degree R, 0.17±0.01 vs0.14±0.01,P<0.01; IL-2, 40.26±9.55 vs72.96±11.36, P<0.01; IL-2R,31.05±5.09 vs 60.58±10.56, P<0.01), and the MDA concentration in medium in patients with chronic hepatitis was significantly higher than that in healthy blood donators (1.44±0.08 vs0.93±0.08, P<0.01). Both in vitro and in vivo administration of selenium could reverse the above parameters.CONCLUSION: Supplement of selenium can suppress lipid peroxidation, and improve PBMC membrane fluidity and immune function in patients with chronic hepatitis.

  12. Effect of in vitro zinc supplementation on HSPs expression and Interleukin 10 production in heat treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal and Karan Fries cows. (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; Aarif, Ovais


    The changing climatic scenario with apprehended rise in global temperature is likely to affect the livestock adversely vis-à-vis production and reproduction. This has prompted more focus in addressing the unfavorable effects of thermal stress in livestock system. Presuming that the trace element zinc is indispensible for cellular antioxidant system and immune function, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc treatment on heat stress alleviation and immune modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of indigenous and crossbred transition cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were selected for the experiment. The blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days in relation to expected date of calving. The experiment was carried out in vitro after isolating PBMC from whole blood. The 48h cultured PBMC were subjected to assorted levels of exposures viz. 37°C, 42°C to impose heat stress and 42°C+zinc to alleviate heat stress and modulate immunity. The PBMC viability was 86%, 69% and 78%, respectively. The mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 40, 70 and 90α) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production varied between the two breeds vis-à-vis days and levels of exposure. The mRNA expression of HSP40 and HSP70 was significantly (PZinc treatment to heat stressed PBMC caused a significant (PZinc treatment reduced the IL-10 concentration. From the study, it could be concluded that the zinc supplementation in heat stressed PBMC can ameliorate thermal stress and modulate immune response which can act as a model for reducing heat stress during the periparturient period in tropical livestock.

  13. Differential interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-23 production by human blood monocytes and dendritic cells in response to commensal enteric bacteria. (United States)

    Manuzak, Jennifer; Dillon, Stephanie; Wilson, Cara


    Human peripheral blood contains antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, that may encounter microbes that have translocated from the intestine to the periphery in disease states like HIV-1 infection and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the response of DC and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a panel of representative commensal enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Bacteroides fragilis. All three bacteria induced significant upregulation of the maturation and activation markers CD40 and CD83 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). However, only mDC produced cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p40/70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in response to bacterial stimulation. Cytokine profiles in whole PBMC differed depending on the stimulating bacterial species: B. fragilis induced production of IL-23, IL-12p70, and IL-10, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus induced an IL-10-predominant response. mDC and monocyte depletion experiments indicated that these cell types differentially produced IL-10 and IL-23 in response to E. coli and B. fragilis. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron did not induce levels of IL-23 similar to those of B. fragilis, suggesting that B. fragilis may have unique proinflammatory properties among Bacteroides species. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to PBMC cultures stimulated with commensal bacteria abrogated the IL-23 response, whereas blocking IL-10 significantly enhanced IL-23 production, suggesting that IL-10 controls the levels of IL-23 produced. These results indicate that blood mDC and monocytes respond differentially to innate stimulation with whole commensal bacteria and that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the proinflammatory response to translocated microbes.

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System


    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  15. Microbial contamination of peripheral blood and bone marrow hematopoietic cell products and environmental contamination in a stem cell bank: a single-center report. (United States)

    Kozlowska-Skrzypczak, M; Bembnista, E; Kubiak, A; Matuszak, P; Schneider, A; Komarnicki, M


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) are frequently used for autologous and allogenic transplantations. Establishing quality control at appropriate steps of the stem cell preparation process is crucial for a successful transplantation. Microbial contamination of haematopoietic stem cells is rare but could cause a potentially mortal complication of a stem cells transplantation. We investigated the microbiological contamination of PB (291 donations) and BM (39 donations) products. Microbial cultures of 330 donations between January 2012 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed after the collection and preparation steps. The microbiological analysis was performed with an automated system. Hematopoietic stem cells were processed in a closed system. Additionally, in this report the environment of the working areas of stem cell preparation was monitored. We analyzed microbial contamination of the air in a class I laminar air flow clean bench at the time of preparation and in the laboratory once per month. We reported 9 (2.73%) contaminated HSC products. The most frequent bacteria isolated from PB and BM products were Bacillus species. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Micrococcus species were the most frequent micro-organisms detected in the air microbial control. Microbial control results are necessary for the safety of hematopoietic stem cell products transplantation. Microbial control of hematopoietic stem cell products enables an early contamination detection and allows for knowledgeable decision making concerning either discarding the contaminated product or introducing an efficient antibiotic therapy. Each step of cell processing may cause a bacterial contamination. A minimum of manipulation steps is crucial for increasing the microbial purity of the transplant material. Also, the air contamination control is essential to ensure the highest quality standards of HSC products preparation.

  16. Donating Blood (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  17. In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Zak, M; Nielsen, S


    production of interleukin IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interferon gamma (IFNg) in neonates, children and adults. In cultures without added polyclonal activators IL-6 and TNF alpha levels in children were 3-6 times higher than those of umbilical cords and adults. However, using optimal...... production could be ascribed to differences in the frequency of monocytes, T cells or B cells. The TNF alpha levels in suboptimally stimulated cultures correlated negatively with the expression of LFA-3 and positively with CD45RA, while IFNg correlated positively with CD2, LFA-1, CD45R0 and CD8....... In conclusion, the study provides evidence of age related differences in the production of TNF alpha, IL-6 and IFNg among neonates, children and adults. These differences may to some extent be caused by differences in the expression of cell surface molecules involved in cellular interactions and signalling....

  18. Effect of TNF-α production inhibitors on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals. (United States)

    Luna, T; Santos, S B; Nascimento, M; Porto, M A F; Muniz, A L; Carvalho, E M; Jesus, A R


    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease mediated by the immune response. HTLV-1 induces a spontaneous proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by T cells, and increasing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are potentially involved in tissue damage in diseases related to HTLV-1. This exaggerated immune response is also due to an inability of the natural regulatory mechanisms to down-modulate the immune response in this group of patients. TNF-α inhibitors reduce inflammation and have been shown to improve chronic inflammatory diseases in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pentoxifylline, forskolin, rolipram, and thalidomide to decrease in vitro production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in cells of HTLV-1-infected subjects. Participants of the study included 19 patients with HAM/TSP (mean age, 53 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:1) and 18 HTLV-1 carriers (mean age, 47 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:2.6). Cytokines were determined by ELISA in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures. Pentoxifylline inhibited TNF-α and IFN-γ synthesis with the minimum dose used (50 µM). The results with forskolin were similar to those observed with pentoxifylline. The doses of rolipram used were 0.01-1 µM and the best inhibition of TNF-α production was achieved with 1 µM and for IFN-γ production it was 0.01 µM. The minimum dose of thalidomide used (1 µM) inhibited TNF-α production but thalidomide did not inhibit IFN-γ production even when the maximum dose (50 µM) was used. All drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on TNF-α production and, with the exception of thalidomide, all of them also decreased IFN-γ production.

  19. "Eurocode International Blood Labeling System" enables unique identification of all biological products from human origin in accordance with the European Directive 2004/23/EC. (United States)

    Knels, Ralf; Mönig, Hans-Joachim; Wittmann, Georg; von Versen, Rüdiger; Pruss, Axel


    Due to their limited availability and compatibility, biological products must be exchanged between medical institutions. In addition to a number of national systems and agreements which strive to implement a unique identification and classification of blood products, the ISBT 128 was developed in 1994, followed by the Eurocode in 1998. In contrast to other coding systems, these both make use of primary identifiers as stipulated by the document ISO/IEC 15418 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and thus provide a unique international code. Due to their flexible data structures, which make use of secondary identifiers, both systems are able to integrate additional biological products and their producers. Tissue and cells also constitute a comparable risk to the recipient as that of blood products in terms of false labeling and the danger of infection. However, in contrast to blood products, the exchange of tissue and cells is much more intensively pursued at the international level. This fact is recognised by Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/86/EC of the European Union (EU), which demand a standardized coding system for cells and tissue throughout the EU. The 2008 workshop agreement of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was unique identification by means of a Key Code consisting of country code corresponding to ISO 3166-1, as well as competent authority and tissue establishment. As agreed at the meeting of the Working Group on the European Coding System for Human Tissues and Cells of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General of the European Commission (DG SANCO) held on 19 May 2010 in Brussels, this Key Code could also be used with existing coding systems to provide unique identification and allow EU traceability of all materials from one donation event. Today Eurocode already uses country codes according to ISO 3166-1, and thus the proposed Key Code can be integrated into the current Eurocode data structure and does not need to

  20. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  1. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin; Desler, Claus; Bendix, Laila; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Molbo, Drude; Croteau, Deborah L; Osler, Merete; Stevnsner, Tinna; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Dela, Flemming; Avlund, Kirsten; Bohr, Vilhelm A


    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality. Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters. However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in PBMCs, but may have other underlying cellular dysfunctions that contribute to dNTP imbalance and altered ROS production.

  2. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Tellapragada


    Full Text Available Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49% and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%. C. albicans (61% was the leading pathogen in VVC, while C. tropicalis (46% was prominent among BSIs. HiCrome Agar and Vitek 2 Compact had good measures of agreement (κ 0.826 and 0.895, respectively, in comparison with PCR. We also tested these isolates for in vitro production of proteinase, esterase, phospholipases, and biofilms. Proteinase production was more among invasive isolates (P=0.017, while phospholipase production was more among noninvasive isolates (P=0.001. There was an overall increase in the production of virulence factors among non-albicans Candida. Identification of clinical isolates of Candida up to species level either by chromogenic agar or by Vitek 2 Compact system should be routinely done to choose appropriate therapy.

  3. Interleukin-4 and interferon-¿ production by Leishmania stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kemp, M; Poulsen, L K


    Leishmania reactive CD4+ T cells could be demonstrated. The cells from different individuals showed different patterns of IFN-gamma and/or IL-4 production upon antigenic stimulation. In experimental leishmaniasis the early balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is important for the clinical outcome. Our findings...

  4. Trapped blood elements within the decidua of the rat pregnant uterus generate a lipoxygenase product(s) which inhibits myometrial prostacyclin synthesis


    El Tahir, K.E.H.; Williams, K I


    1 Prostacyclin (PGI2) production by chopped segments of rat pregnant uterus was low compared with synthesis by separated myometrial tissue. Incubation of separated myometrium with decidua (2:1 by weight) led to an inhibition of myometrial PGI2 output.

  5. Sickle red cells as danger signals on proinflammatory gene expression, leukotriene B4 and interleukin-1 beta production in peripheral blood mononuclear cell. (United States)

    Pitanga, Thassila N; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Zanette, Dalila L; Guarda, Caroline C; Santiago, Rayra P; Santana, Sanzio S; Nascimento, Valma M L; Lima, Jonilson B; Carvalho, Graziele Q; Maffili, Vitor V; Carvalho, Magda O S; Alcântara, Luiz C J; Borges, Valéria M; Goncalves, Marilda S


    This study tested the hypothesis that sickle red blood cell (SS-RBC) induce Toll-like receptors (TLR) and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)- inflammasome expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). TLR and NLRP3 inflammasome could contribute to the maintenance of the inflammatory status in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, since SS-RBC act as danger signals activating these pathways. In this study, first, we evaluated TLR (2, 4, 5 and 9), NLRP3, Caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 expression in PBMC freshly isolated from SCA patients (SS-PBMC) in comparison with PBMC from healthy individuals (AA-PBMC). In the second moment, we investigated whether SS-RBC could interfere with the expression of these molecules in PBMC from healthy donor, in the absence or presence of hydroxyurea (HU) in vitro. TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome expression were investigated by qPCR. IL-1β, Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4) and nitrite production were measured in PBMC (from healthy donor) culture supernatants. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, NLRP3 and IL-1β were highly expressed in SS-PBMC when compared to AA-PBMC. Additionally, SS-RBC induced TLR9, NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 expression and induced IL-1β, LTB4 and nitrite production in PBMC cultures. HU did not prevent TLR and NLRP3 inflammasome expression, but increased TLR2 and IL-18 expression and reduced nitrite production. In conclusion, our data suggest that TLR and inflammasome complexes may be key inducers of inflammation in SCA patients, probably through SS-RBC; also, HU does not prevent NLRP3 inflammasome- and TLR-dependent inflammation, indicating the need to develop new therapeutic strategies to SCA patients that act with different mechanisms of those observed for HU.

  6. Detection of Intracellular Cytokine Production in Peripheral Blood CD3+ T Cells of Patients with Recurrent Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qifeng(钱起丰); GUO Hongwei(郭红卫)


    Objective:To study the role of Th1fTh2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes (RGH), and to better understand the relationship between them.Methods: A two-color immunofluorescent staining of cell surface antigen and intracellular cytokines for flow cytometric analysis was used for CD3, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12,IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD3+ T-lymphocytes in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with RGH.Results: Compared to controls, patients with RGH showed fewer CD3+T cells (P<0.05) and IL-2 producing and IFN-γ producing T cells (P<0.02 and P<0.001, respectively)after in vitro stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor. More IL-10 producing and IL-12 producing T cells were found in patients with RGH (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the number of TNF-α producing cells between RGH patients and controls (P<0.05).Conclusion: RGH patients showed relatively more Th2 cytokines. The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results in inhibitory effects on a series of cell-immune responses, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RGH.

  7. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables. (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G


    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments.

  8. Looking for predictive factors of clinical response to adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis: markers of response to GMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Yoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA with an Adacolumn in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC has been applied as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy, but the efficacy has been encouraging as well as discouraging, depending on patients’ demography at entry. In this study, we looked for predictive factors for clinical response to GMA in patients with UC. Methods In a retrospective setting, 43 outpatients who had been treated with GMA for active UC were evaluated. Patients were divided into remission group and non-remission group based on Lichtiger’s clinical activity index (CAI before and after 10, once a week GMA sessions. The efficacy was analysed in relation to patients’ demographic variables. To determine predictive factors that closely related to the response to GMA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Results After 10 GMA sessions, the overall clinical remission rate (CAI  Conclusions In this study, patients with a short duration of UC and low cumulative PSL dose seemed to respond well to GMA. However, we found that the best responders were patients who received GMA immediately after a clinical relapse. Additionally, GMA was effective in patients with low WBC count at the first GMA session. The findings of this study should spare medical cost and reduce morbidity time for many patients, relevant for decision making in clinical settings.

  9. Modulation of growth and differentiation of eosinophils from human peripheral blood CD34+ cells by IL5 and other growth factors. (United States)

    Shalit, M; Sekhsaria, S; Malech, H L


    Small numbers of CD34+ primitive hematopoietic progenitors are found in normal human peripheral blood. These cells differentiate to myeloid or lymphoid lineage under the influence of different growth factors. We investigated the effects of IL5 and other growth factors on the production of eosinophils from peripheral blood CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells were enriched from normal donors by apheresis and positive selection using an affinity column and plated in agarose with different combinations of cytokines. At 14 days of growth a triple stain technique was used to identify eosinophil, monocyte, and neutrophil colonies. IL5 alone did not support colony growth from CD34+ cells. In contrast, GM-CSF and IL3 alone or together without added IL5 supported the generation of more than 50% pure eosinophil colonies. Addition of IL5 did not change the total number of colonies, but increased the fraction of pure eosinophil colonies to over 70%. Addition of G-CSF reduced the percentage of eosinophil colonies and increased the percentage of neutrophil colonies. Under the best conditions for eosinophil colony growth (IL3+GM-CSF+IL5), the addition of interferon-alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibited colony growth by 51 and 58%, respectively. Addition of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or dexamethasone had no effect on eosinophil colonies. Since IL5 alone did not support colony growth from CD34+ cells, we determined when IL5-responsive cells appeared in culture. Cells were grown initially with IL3 + GM-CSF in suspension, washed, and plated in agarose with IL5 alone. Only when progenitors were grown at least 3 days could IL5 serve as the single growth factor supporting pure eosinophil colony growth (47 colonies/10(4) cells plated at Day 3 and 134 colonies/10(4) cells at Day 7). We used neutralizing anti-IL5 antibodies to demonstrate that this late acting IL5 growth effect was specific, and that differentiation of eosinophils in the presence of IL3 + GM-CSF was IL5

  10. Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells propel human dendritic cells to an intermediate maturation state and boost interleukin-12 production by mature dendritic cells. (United States)

    van den Berk, Lieke C J; Roelofs, Helene; Huijs, Tonnie; Siebers-Vermeulen, Kim G C; Raymakers, Reinier A; Kögler, Gesine; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd


    Pathogen-derived entities force the tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) towards a mature state, followed by migration to the draining lymph node to present antigens to T cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modulate the differentiation, maturation and function of DCs. In umbilical cord blood an immature MSC population was identified. Remarkably, these immature stem cells modulated DCs in a different way. Marker expression was unchanged during the differentiation of monocytes towards immature DCs (iDCs) when cocultured with cord blood MSC [unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs)]. The maturation to mature DCs (mDCs) was enhanced when DCs were co-cultured with USSC, as evidenced by the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules. Endocytosis of dextran by iDCs was hampered in the presence of USSCs, which is indicative for the maturation of iDCs. Despite this maturation, the migration of iDCs cocultured with USSCs appeared to be identical to iDCs cultured alone. However, USSCs increased the migration of mDCs towards CCL21 and boosted interleukin-12 production. So, USSCs mature iDCs, thereby redirecting the antigen-uptake phenotype towards a mature phenotype. Furthermore, DC maturation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or USSCs reflects two distinct pathways because migration was unaffected when iDCs were matured by coculture with USSCs, while it was strongly enhanced in the presence of LPS. DCs are able to discriminate the different MSC subtypes, resulting in diverse differentiation programmes.

  11. The antagonist activity of lipid IVa on the stimulation by lipid A of TNF-alpha production from canine blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Takasawa, Kenji; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi


    Lipid A, the active component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exists in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and binds to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 complex. On the other hand, the synthetic precursor of Escherichia coli lipid A, tetraacylated lipid IVa, is an agonist for TLR4 and MD-2 complex in murine, equine and feline cells but is an antagonist for lipid A in human cells. The aim of the study was to examine the function of canine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 complex on canine blood mononuclear cells (BMC), by analyzing lipid A- or lipid IVa-induction of TNF-α production from these cells in order to understand canine innate immune system. After 5-h culture of canine BMC with lipid A (lipid A culture) or lipid IVa (lipid IVa culture), the TNF-α, as determined by ELISA, had increased in the supernatants of the lipid A cultures in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the TNF-α was undetectable in supernatant of lipid IVa-treated cultures. The TNF-α was statistically significantly different between the lipid A and lipid IVa cultures (100 and 1000 ng/ml). TNF-α production from canine BMC was inhibited, in a lipid IVa-dose-dependent manner, when the BMC were pre-cultured with lipid IVa for 60 min and then cultured with lipid A for 5h, while in control BMC cultures production if TNF-α was unchanged. These results indicate that the TNF-α production stimulated by lipid A was competed out by pre-exposing the BMC to lipid IVa. Thus, lipid A is an agonist for TNF-α production in canine BMC, whereas lipid IVa appears to be an antagonist against this lipid A stimulation of canine BMC.

  12. Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures. (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore


    The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes.

  13. Peripheral blood stem cell harvest in patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakami, Nobuyuki; Takakura, Shunji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takashi; Umeda, Bunichi [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)


    Chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) was performed in patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin/etoposide or cisplatin/adriamycin/etoposide. The amounts of CD34 positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) collected during 2-3 courses of apheresis were 3.1{+-}2.9 x 10{sup 6}/kg (n=10) and 3.1{+-}1.5 x 10{sup 5}/kg (n=8) , respectively. Adequate amounts of PBSC were also harvested even in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eight patients were successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide with PBSC transfusion. The patients'-bone marrow reconstruction was rapid and no treatment-related death was observed. (author)

  14. Principles of bone marrow processing and progenitor cell/mononuclear cell concentrate collection in a continuous flow blood cell separation system. (United States)

    Hester, J P; Rondón, G; Huh, Y O; Lauppe, M J; Champlin, R E; Deisseroth, A B


    The application of continuous flow apheresis technology to processing bone marrow for collection of the mononuclear progenitor cell population appears to follow the same principles as collection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood. Unlike peripheral blood, however, where mobilization of cells from extravascular sites during the procedures contributes significantly to the final cell yield, the entire quantity of progenitor cells available for recovery from marrow is present in the original marrow when it is pooled. The process then becomes one of attempting optimal recovery of the cells of interest while excluding contaminating erythrocytes and cells of the myeloid series. This study reports the development of a protocol for recovery of MNC, CD33+, CD34+, and CD34+/DR- cells from harvested marrow for autologous and allogeneic transplants using a continuous flow blood cell separator, the variables influencing the recovery of the cells of interest and the clinical response to infusion of the processed cells.

  15. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells. (United States)

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo


    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.


    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo


    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6.

  17. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study. (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco


    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  18. 血小板添加液保存单采血小板的研究%In Vitro Quality of Apheresis Piatelets Stored in a New Additive Solution (J-sol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆敏; 肖建宇; 蒋昵真; 史广耀; 黄成垠


    shape change(ESC) and expression of CD62P. Results PLT, MPV, PDW, expression of CD62P, HSR and ESC showed no statistical differentiae between platelets preserved in H-sol (containing 0. 05). pH was higher in H-sol than in control(P<0. 01). The average consumption of glucose and production of lactate in H-sol were obviously lower than that in control during 1st day to 7th day(P<0. 01). Conclusions Apheresis platelets preserved in H-sol showed the same effects with 100% plasma and had a more stable pH.

  19. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelka Kovács

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the

  20. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition. (United States)

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L


    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  1. TGF-β inhibitors stimulate red blood cell production by enhancing self-renewal of BFU-E erythroid progenitors. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofei; Lee, Hsiang-Ying; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Zhang, Cheng; Lu, Yi-Fen; Li, Dandan; Feng, Yuxiong; Ezike, Jideofor; Elmes, Russell R; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Daley, George Q; Lodish, Harvey F


    Burst-forming unit erythroid progenitors (BFU-Es) are so named based on their ability to generate in methylcellulose culture large colonies of erythroid cells that consist of "bursts" of smaller erythroid colonies derived from the later colony-forming unit erythroid progenitor erythropoietin (Epo)-dependent progenitors. "Early" BFU-E cells forming large BFU-E colonies presumably have higher capacities for self-renewal than do "late" BFU-Es forming small colonies, but the mechanism underlying this heterogeneity remains unknown. We show that the type III transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor (TβRIII) is a marker that distinguishes early and late BFU-Es. Transient elevation of TβRIII expression promotes TGF-β signaling during the early BFU-E to late BFU-E transition. Blocking TGF-β signaling using a receptor kinase inhibitor increases early BFU-E cell self-renewal and total erythroblast production, suggesting the usefulness of this type of drug in treating Epo-unresponsive anemias.

  2. Effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors. [Rats, radiation effects on blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P; Carsten, A L; Cohen, R; Miller, M E; Moccia, G


    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors using the in vivo plasma clot diffusion chamber and the in vitro plasma clot culture methods. Plasma erythropoietin levels changes in the reticulocyte concentration and hematocrits of irradiated and non-irradiated Long-Evans rats exposed to hypoxia were also determined. While erythropoietin plasma levels appeared to effect BFU-E and CFU-E growth, results suggest erythropoietin may not be the sole regulator of red cell production and that inhibitors or chalone-like mechanisms may be involved. Measurements made on granulocyte precursors treated with CSF containing L-cell conditioned medium revealed granulocytic colonies and burst-like formations, similar to those seen for erythrocytic growth. There is strong evidence suggesting that CSF is a regulator of granulopoiesis; however, it is not the sole regulator and it appears that inhibitors may play an in vivo role. Growth of colonies with cell numbers not a power of 2 implies either asymmetric nitosis due to loss of genetic information required for continuing division, or differences in concentration of, or ability to recognize inhibitory factors. These possibilities are examined on the basis of results using in vivo and in vitro culture techniques.

  3. Increased production of megakaryocytes near purity from cord blood CD34+ cells using a short two-phase culture system. (United States)

    Boyer, Lucie; Robert, Amélie; Proulx, Chantal; Pineault, Nicolas


    Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) ex vivo remains an important focus in fundamental and clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of such expansion phase in a two-phase culture strategy prior to the induction of megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation would increase the yield of Mks produced in cultures. Toward this end, we first characterized the functional properties of five cytokine cocktails to be tested in the expansion phase on the growth and differentiation kinetics of CD34+-enriched cells, and on their capacity to expand clonogenic progenitors in cultures. Three of these cocktails were chosen based on their reported ability to induce HPC expansion ex vivo, while the other two represented new cytokine combinations. These analyses revealed that none of the cocktails tested could prevent the differentiation of CD34+ cells and the rapid expansion of lineage-positive cells. Hence, we sought to determine the optimum length of time for the expansion phase that would lead to the best final Mk yields. Despite greater expansion of CD34+ cells and overall cell growth with a longer expansion phase, the optimal length for the expansion phase that provided greater Mk yield at near maximal purity was found to be 5 days. Under such settings, two functionally divergent cocktails were found to significantly increase the final yield of Mks. Surprisingly, these cocktails were either deprived of thrombopoietin or of stem cell factor, two cytokines known to favor megakaryopoiesis and HPC expansion, respectively. Based on these results, a short resource-efficient two-phase culture protocol for the production of Mks near purity (>95%) from human CD34+ CB cells has been established.

  4. In vitro production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide is positively correlated with increased blood monocytes after exposure to a swine barn. (United States)

    Willson, P J; Khozani, T Talaei; Juurlink, B H J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C; Gerdts, V; Gawaziuk, J; Schneberger, D; Burch, Lauranell H; Dosman, J A


    Recently there has been interest in the air quality in and around intensive livestock production facilities, such as modern swine production barns, where agricultural workers and surrounding residents may be exposed to elevated levels of organic dusts. The health effects of these exposures are not completely understood. The study that is reported here is a component of a larger investigation of the relationships among the acute effects of high-concentration endotoxin exposure (swine barn dust), polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene, and respiratory outcomes following exposure to swine confinement buildings. The relationships among a mediator of acute lung inflammation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and clinical responses to acute swine barn exposure were characterized. Analysis of the results showed that in vitro stimulation of human monocytes with as little as 1 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced a significant increase in the monocytes that produced TNF-alpha. Although the proportion of TNF-alpha-positive monocytes after in vitro stimulation with 1 ng/ml of LPS was not associated with gender or TLR4 genotype, it was positively associated with the concentration of monocytes in blood after barn exposure. Thus, these two responses to different forms of LPS exposure are significantly correlated, and more responsive monocytes in vitro indicate a forthcoming relative monocytosis, post barn exposure, which may initiate a cascade of chronic inflammation.

  5. Short-chain fatty acids produced by synbiotic mixtures in skim milk differentially regulate proliferation and cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Asarat, M; Apostolopoulos, V; Vasiljevic, T; Donkor, O


    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major products of prebiotic fermentation and confer human health benefits such as immune-regulation. In this study, reconstituted skim milk supplemented with prebiotics (RSMP) including inulin, hi-maize or β-glucan was fermented by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. After 24 h of fermentation, probiotics growth and SCFAs production were investigated and the produced SCFAs were extracted. Inulin and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53013 (LGG) combination released highest concentrations of SCFAs compared to LGG and hi-maize or β-glucan. Extracted SCFAs were then used for in vitro immune modulation study in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs, SCFAs particularly butyrate down-regulated tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-12, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and up-regulated IL-4, IL-10, while no significant effect was noted in non-LPS-stimulated PBMCs. The results indicate that SCFAs regulated cytokine milieu in LPS-stimulated PBMCs to anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Specific Antibody Production by Blood B Cells is Retained in Late Stage Drug-naïve HIV-infected Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie Béniguel


    Full Text Available Unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from drug-naïve African individuals living in a context of multi-infections and presenting with high viral load (VL, were cultured in vitro and tested for their ability to produce antibodies (Abs reacting with HIV-1 antigens. Within these PBMCs, circulating B cells were differentiated in vitro and produced IgG Abs against not only ENV, but also GAG and POL proteins. Under similar experimental conditions, HAART treated patients produced Abs to ENV proteins only. The in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs depended on exogenous cytokines (IL-2 and IL-10 but neither on the re-stimulation of reactive cells in cultures by purified HIV-1-gp 160 antigen nor on the re-engagement of CD40 surface molecules. Further, it was not abrogated by the addition of various monoclonal Abs (mAbs to co-stimulatory molecules. This suggests that the in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs resulted from the maturation of already envelope and core antigen-primed, differentiated B cells, presumably pre-plasma cells, which are not known to circulate at homeostasy. As in vitro produced Abs retained the capacity of binding antigen and forming complexes, this study provides pre-clinical support for functional humoral responses despite major HIV- and other tropical pathogen-induced B cell perturbations.

  7. Blood Clots (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  8. Blood Transfusion (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  9. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  10. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood. (a) The source blood shall be collected as prescribed in § 640.4. (b) Source blood may also...

  11. Effects of hydrazine derivatives on vascular smooth muscle contractility, blood pressure and cGMP production in rats: comparison with hydralazine. (United States)

    Vidrio, Horacio; Fernández, Gabriela; Medina, Martha; Alvarez, Ezequiel; Orallo, Francisco


    Hydralazine is a hydrazine derivative used clinically as a vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. Despite numerous studies with the drug, its mechanism of action has remained unknown; guanylate cyclase activation and release of endothelial relaxing factors are thought to be involved in its vasodilator effect. Other hydrazine derivatives are known to stimulate guanylate cyclase and could therefore share the vasodilator activity of hydralazine, although such possibility has not been assessed systematically. In the present study, hydralazine, hydrazine, phenylhydrazine, and isoniazid were evaluated for vascular smooth muscle relaxation in rat aortic rings with and without endothelium, as well as after incubation with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue. They were also tested for enhancement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production by cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and for hypotension in the anesthetized rat. All hydrazines relaxed aortic rings, an action unaffected by endothelium removal and, in all cases except hydralazine, antagonized by methylene blue. Only phenylhydrazine increased cGMP production and only hydralazine markedly lowered blood pressure. It was concluded that hydralazine vascular relaxation is independent of endothelium and is not related to guanylate cyclase activation. The other hydrazines studied also elicit endothelium-independent relaxation, but the effect is related to guanylate cyclase. The marked hypotensive effect of hydralazine contrasts with its modest relaxant activity and is not shared by the other hydrazines. The fact that hydrazine and isoniazid produce methylene blue-sensitive relaxation, yet do not enhance cGMP production suggests the need for activating factors present in aortic rings but not in isolated cells.

  12. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  13. Combination Therapy with Intensive Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis plus Adalimumab: Therapeutic Outcomes in 5 Cases with Refractory Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Ozeki


    Full Text Available Adalimumab (ADA is applied to induce remission in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD naïve to chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α, infliximab or patients with loss of response to scheduled maintenance infliximab. Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA depletes elevated/activated myeloid lineage leucocytes as sources of inflammatory cytokines and has been used to treat patients with CD. This study was to investigate the efficacy of intensive GMA in combination with ADA as remission induction therapy in cases of CD refractory to medications including anti-TNF-α therapies. Between December 2010 and February 2012, 5 consecutive cases with refractory CD were treated with intensive GMA (2 sessions per week plus ADA to induce remission. CD activity index (CDAI, C-reactive protein (CRP, and endoscopic findings based on the simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD at baseline and 10 weeks post 5 ADA injections were applied to determine treatment efficacy outcomes. At week 10 post ADA treatment, clinical remission together with normal CRP levels were achieved in all 5 cases, while SES-CD scores reflected marked improvement in 3 cases and partial improvement in 2 cases who had extensive deep longitudinal CD lesions. The CDAI and CRP values at baseline were 324 ± 118 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mg/dl, respectively. The corresponding values after treatment were 100 ± 28 (p = 0.024 and 0.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (p = 0.038. In these 5 cases with medication-refractory CD, combination therapy with intensive GMA followed by 5 ADA shots appeared to be an effective and safe intervention for inducing clinical remission.

  14. Proteomics Approach Identifies Factors Associated With the Response to Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Therapy in Patients With Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome. (United States)

    Kuribayashi-Okuma, Emiko; Shibata, Shigeru; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ota, Tatsuru; Watanabe, Sumiyo; Hisaki, Harumi; Okazaki, Tomoki; Toda, Tosifusa; Uchida, Shunya


    Low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) has been shown to reduce proteinuria in a subgroup of nephrotic syndrome patients refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Factors influencing the efficacy of LDL-A in nephrotic syndrome are completely unknown. Using a proteomics approach, we aimed to identify biological markers that predict the response to LDL-A in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Identification of plasma proteins bound to the dextran-sulfate column at the first session of LDL-A was determined by mass spectrometry. To investigate biological factors associated with the response to LDL-A, we compared profiles of column-bound proteins between responders (defined by more than 50% reduction of proteinuria after the treatment) and non-responders by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry in seven patients with SRNS. Evaluation of proteins adsorbed to LDL-A column in patients with SRNS revealed the identity of 62 proteins, which included apolipoproteins, complement components, and serum amyloid P-component (SAP). Comparative analysis of the column-bound proteins between responders and non-responders by 2-DE demonstrated that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and SAP levels were increased in non-responders as compared with responders. These results were confirmed by western blotting. Moreover, serum levels of APOE and SAP were significantly higher in the non-responder group than in the responder group by ELISA. Our data provide comprehensive analysis of proteins adsorbed by LDL-A in SRNS, and demonstrate that the serum levels of APOE and SAP may be used to predict the response to LDL-A in these patients.

  15. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study) (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.


    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  16. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena. (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean


    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  18. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun


    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  19. 单采血小板室技师职业安全的危险因素及防护措施%Risks and countermeasures for apheresis piatalet-room nurses in practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪兴金; 罗宏新; 林金兰


    Objective To study the harm and protecting measure of apheresis piatalet-room’s environment to technician-es. Methods To review literatures,analyse harmful factors of the environment and propose corresponding measure of protecting. Results Multiple harmful factors ofapheresis piatalet-room could be protected to avoid and reduce the harm of bodies to technicianes. Conclusion technicians health in the apheresis piatalet-room should be noticed highly.Positive protecting measure is very useful.%目的:探讨单采血小板室环境对技师的危害及防护措施。方法综合文献并分析环境存在的有害因素,提出了重在防护的相应措施。结果单采血小板室内的多种有害因素都可通过相应的防护,避免或减少对技师身心造成危害。结论单采血小板室技师的健康问题应予高度重视,积极的防护措施是行之有效的。

  20. Synergistic interactions between cytokines and AVP at the blood-CSF barrier result in increased chemokine production and augmented influx of leukocytes after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate that the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB, which primarily resides in the choroid plexus (CP, plays a significant pathophysiological role not only in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but also in traumatic brain injury (TBI. Here we investigated how arginine vasopressin (AVP regulates function of the BCSFB in the context of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. It has previously been shown that AVP exacerbates various forms of brain injury, but the mechanisms underlying this AVP action are poorly understood. Type 1A AVP receptor is highly expressed on the CP epithelium and the CP synthesizes AVP. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI, we demonstrated decreased post-traumatic production of proinflammatory mediators by the CP and reduced influx of inflammatory cells across the BCSFB in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats when compared with Long-Evans rats, a parental strain for Brattleboro rats. Arginine vasopressin was also found to play an important role in post-traumatic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in the CP. In the CP epithelial cell cultures, AVP augmented the tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin-1β-dependent increase in synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including neutrophil chemoattractants, an action largely dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, a selective JNK inhibitor decreased the post-traumatic production of neutrophil chemoattractants by the CP and reduced the influx of neutrophils across the BCSFB. These results provide evidence for the synergistic interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and AVP, a ligand for G protein-coupled receptors, and support a pathophysiological role of AVP in post-traumatic neuroinflammation.