WorldWideScience

Sample records for apheis project air

  1. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  2. Community Air Sensor Network CAIRSENSE Project: Lower ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation slides on the CAIRSENSE project, Atlanta field study testing low cost air sensors against FEM instruments. To be presented at the Air and Waste Management Association conference. Presentation slides on the CAIRSENSE project, Atlanta field study testing low cost air sensors against FEM instruments. To be presented at the Air and Waste Management Association conference.

  3. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  4. A.P.H.E.I.S.:air Pollution and Health: A European Information System Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution In 26 European Cities; Synthese des resultats europeens et resultats detailles des villes francaises issus du rapport paru en octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    Air pollution is a public health problem, in spite of more severe norms in matter of emissions rates, a stricter surveillance of the atmospheric pollution and the decrease of levels of some atmospheric pollutants. this situation has lead to the creation of a programme A.p.h.e.i.s. in 1999, in order to supply to Europeans authorities information on air pollution. In the report are presented the results of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) made in towns.

  5. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot ProjectEPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with sensors

  6. Projections of precipitation, air temperature and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mabouelhaggag

    Precipitation and air temperature records from 6 sites in Rwanda in the period from 1964 to 2010 are used for past/present climate assessment. Future climate projections (2010-2099) based on 3 general circulation models and 2 emission scenarios (A2 and B1) are used for climate projections. Precipitation, air temperature ...

  7. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  8. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low cost, continuous and commercially-available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ~2 km area in Southeastern U.S. Co-location of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as whether multiple identical sensors reproduced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in sampling days could be used in a correction algorihm to im

  9. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  10. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51.115 Section 51.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.115 Air quality data and projections. (a) Each...

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  12. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.; Whitehead, A. H.; Goldhagen, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) established that the uncertainty in the data and models associated with the high-altitude radiation environment could and should be reduced. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) created the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project under the auspices of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program Office at the Langley Research Center. NASA's HSR Program was developed to address the potential of a second-generation supersonic transport. A critical element focussed on the environmental issues, including the threat to crew and passengers posed by atmospheric radiation. Various international investigators were solicited to contribute instruments to fly on an ER-2 aircraft at altitudes similar to those proposed for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A list of participating investigators, their institutions, and instruments with quantities measured is presented. The flight series took place at solar minimum (radiation maximum) with northern, southern, and east/west flights. The investigators analyzed their data and presented preliminary results at the AIR Workshop in March, 1998. A review of these results are included.

  13. New Jersey: Clean Air Communities (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Communities (CAC) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement to implement recommendations by the state’s Environmental Justice Task Force and the Air Toxics Pilot Project to reduce environmental risks.

  14. Alberta air emissions : trends and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This paper provided a summary of air emissions trends and projections for Alberta. Predicted regional distribution trends and industry sector emissions were presented. Historical and projected emissions included sulfur oxides (SO x ) nitrogen oxide (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia (NH 3 ). Results of the study indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were decreasing, while VOCs, NO x , SO x , PM 2.5 and NH 3 levels were increasing. Approximately 9 per cent of ammonia emissions were from point sources, while the majority of PM 2.5 emissions were attributed to unpaved roads and construction operations. Agricultural animal operations accounted for most of the VOC source emissions in the region. Increased development of the oil sands industry is contributing to increases in VOC emissions. Increases in NH 3 were attributed to growth in the agricultural sector and the increasing use of confined feeding operations in the region. Results of the study indicated that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Alberta will keep increasing as a result of Alberta's growing economy. It was concluded that emissions from other industrial sectors are also expected to increase. In 2005, Alberta's total GHG emissions were 233 megatonnes of CO 2 equivalent, of which 168 megatonnes were attributed to industry. Results were presented in both graph and tabular formats. 3 tabs., 25 figs

  15. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  16. Evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health La evaluación del impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Ballester Díez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important number of studies, carried out in different cities, have found that, even bellow air quality levels considered as safe, increases in the levels of air pollution are associated with harmful effects on health. Epidemiology has played a major role in the evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health, since it provides proofs of the association among human populations within natural conditions. Also, toxicology and clinical sciences provide convincing proofs on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of such associations.The purpose of the evaluation of impact on health is to quantify the expected number of people whose health is affected due to a specific exposure situation. In Europe, since three years ago, the APHEIS project, with 26 participating cities, has established an environmental health surveillance system which includes a database of air pollution and health. This is aimed at quantifying the effects of air pollution on public health at local, national and European levels, as well as distributing standardised reports about air pollution impact on public health.En los últimos años un número importante de estudios realizados en distintas ciudades han encontrado que, aún por debajo de los niveles de calidad del aire considerados como seguros, los incrementos de los niveles de la contaminación atmosférica se asocian con efectos nocivos sobre la salud. La epidemiología ha jugado un papel crucial en la evaluación de impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica al proporcionar pruebas de la asociación en poblaciones humanas en condiciones naturales. Por su parte la toxicología y las ciencias clínicas aportan pruebas convincentes acerca de los mecanismos etiopatogénicos de dichas asociaciones.El propósito de la evaluación de impacto en salud es cuantificar el número esperado de personas con un efecto en salud que puede ser atribuido a una situación específica de exposición. En Europa, desde hace

  17. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  18. Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada Photovoltaic Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henley, Curtis D; Hunt, Shaun C; Phillips, Darius A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Applied Project was to analyze the feasibility for production of renewable energy on DoD installations and focus on renewable energy initiatives undertaken at Nellis AFB, NV...

  19. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  20. Evaluación en cinco ciudades españolas del impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica por partículas: proyecto europeo APHEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alonso Fustel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los efectos de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la salud han sido objeto en los últimos años de numerosos estudios que han permitido cuantificar la asociación entre ambas El objetivo de este trabajo es llevar a cabo la Evaluación del Impacto en Salud (EIS calculando los beneficios que se obtendrían al cumplir los objetivos establecidos por la Directiva 1999/30/CE en relación con las partículas en suspensión. Métodos: Se ha valorado el impacto en salud de la contaminaci ón atmosférica por partículas en suspensión, para lo que se han utilizado dos indicadores distintos: Humos Negros (HN (Barcelona, Bilbao, Valencia y partículas en suspensión menores de 10 mm (PM10 (Bilbao, Madrid y Sevilla. Los indicadores de salud fueron la mortalidad por todas las causas, por causa respiratoria y por causa cardiovascular, e ingresos hospitalarios urgentes por causa respiratoria y cardiovascular. El EIS se ha realizado mediante el cálculo de la fracción atribuible a la contaminación por partículas. En el caso de PM10 se ha calculado el impacto debido a efectos de la contaminaci ón a corto plazo, los acumulados hasta 40 días después, y a largo plazo. Para HN únicamente se han calculado efectos a corto plazo. Resultados: Los niveles diarios de PM10 por encima de 50 µg/m3 en Bilbao, Madrid y Sevilla son responsables de 1,4 muertes prematuras por 100.000 habitantes y año debido a sus efectos a corto plazo y de 2,8 muertes/100.000 en un periodo de hasta 40 días tras la exposición. A largo plazo, el número de muertes prematuras atribuibles a la contaminación media anual de PM10 por encima de 20 µg/m3 es 68/100.000. Conclusiones: El impacto en salud de los niveles actuales de contaminación atmosférica es cuantificable y no despreciable. APHEIS y las evaluaciones de impacto pueden ayudar a la planificaci ón sanitaria y a las políticas medioambientales.

  1. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  2. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  3. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  4. Innovations in projecting emissions for air quality modeling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality modeling is used in setting air quality standards and in evaluating their costs and benefits. Historically, modeling applications have projected emissions and the resulting air quality only 5 to 10 years into the future. Recognition that the choice of air quality management strategy has climate change implications is encouraging longer modeling time horizons. However, for multi-decadal time horizons, many questions about future conditions arise. For example, will current population, economic, and land use trends continue, or will we see shifts that may alter the spatial and temporal pattern of emissions? Similarly, will technologies such as building-integrated solar photovoltaics, battery storage, electric vehicles, and CO2 capture emerge as disruptive technologies - shifting how we produce and use energy - or will these technologies achieve only niche markets and have little impact? These are some of the questions that are being evaluated by researchers within the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development. In this presentation, Dr. Loughlin will describe a range of analytical approaches that are being explored. These include: (i) the development of alternative scenarios of the future that can be used to evaluate candidate management strategies over wide-ranging conditions, (ii) the application of energy system models to project emissions decades into the future and to assess the environmental implications of new technologies, (iii) and methodo

  5. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  6. Status of the large high altitude air shower observatory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Min, E-mail: zham@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Astroparticle and Cosmic Ray, Institute of High Energy Physics, YuQuan Road 19 B, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-11

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project is a multipurpose project. The main scientific tasks can be summarized as follows: (1) searching for galactic cosmic ray origins through gamma ray source detection above 30 TeV; (2) wide field of view survey for gamma ray sources at energies higher than 100 GeV; (3) energy spectrum measurements for individual cosmic ray species from 30 TeV to 10 PeV. To target above tasks, a complex detector array is designed. This paper describes the progress on the research and development of all kind of detectors. Construction and operation of a prototype detector array at Tibet site with 4300 m a.s.l. are also presented.

  7. L’Aquila Smart Clean Air City: The Italian Pilot Project for Healthy Urban Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avveduto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for urban populations. Currently, no effective strategy has been adopted to tackle the problem. The paper presents the Smart Clean Air City project, a pilot experiment concerning the improvement in urban air quality. Small wet scrubber systems will be operating in a network configuration in suitable urban areas of L’Aquila city (Italy. The purpose of this work is to describe the project and show the preliminary results obtained in the characterization of two urban sites before the remediation test; the main operating principles of the wet scrubber system will be discussed, as well as the design of the mobile treatment plant for the processing of wastewater resulting from scrubber operation. Measurements of particle size distributions in the range of 0.30–25 µm took place in the two sites of interest, an urban background and a traffic area in the city of L’Aquila. The mean number concentration detected was 2.4 × 107 and 4.5 × 107 particles/m3, respectively. Finally, theoretical assessments, performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD codes, will show the effects of the wet scrubber operation on air pollutants under different environmental conditions and in several urban usage patterns.

  8. Project of energy saving in compressed air; Proyecto de ahorro de energia en aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla, (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the operation costs by means of the energy saving through the use of the compressed air system. For this purpose the solenoid valves controlled per time and the manually acted valves of sphere must be replaced by pneumatic purges that remove from the system the condensed humidity without discharging air and which act automatically when the water reaches the level of unloading in its deposit. The pressure level is the reduction of the operation rank of pressure in the compressors, satisfying the operation requirements of the process equipment. [Spanish] El objetivo de este proyecto es reducir el costo de operacion mediante el ahorro de energia en la utilizacion del sistema de aire comprimido. Para ello se tienen que remplazar las valvulas solenoides controladas por tiempo y valvulas de esfera actuadas manualmente por purgas neumaticas que remueven del sistema la humedad condensada sin descargar aire y que actuan en forma automatica al alcanzar el agua el nivel de descarga en su deposito. El nivel de presion es la reduccion del rango de operacion de presion de los compresores, satisfaciendo los requerimientos de operacion de los equipos de proceso.

  9. Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG) [de

  10. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  11. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  12. Managing air toxics: Status of EPRI's PISCES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, W.; Levin, L.; Miller, M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants (1). This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  13. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  14. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  15. Healthy citizens and building projects. What can be realized by administrators improving local air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, B.; Woudenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    European regulations with respect to air quality in urban areas forces national governments to follow those regulations in case of spatial planning, building and construction projects. Many of those plans in the Netherlands do not meet those regulations and appear to exceed the boundary values of emission and the quality of ambient air. Therefor building and construction projects can not start or be finalized. In this article an overview is given of possibilities to improve the air quality [nl

  16. CDM viability of CURB-AIR cases. Four Asian Projects Evaluated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, A.; Bordoloi, A. [Winrock International India, Haryana (India); Bakker, S.J.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This document is written as part of the project: CDM and Urban Air Pollution: Partnerships Enhancing Synergies in Urban Air and Health in Kyoto Mechanisms (CURB-AIR), which runs from February 2006 to January 2008, and is co-funded by the Asia Pro Eco Programme of the European Commission. This document contains key practical information on the cases in Bangalore, Bangkok, Jakarta and Jinan, including baseline and monitoring methodology, additionality, and sustainability aspects, and gives recommendations for the way forward. The main focus of the CURB-AIR project is to utilize CDM for improving the air quality of the Asian cities. In the framework of the CURB-AIR project, a case study for each of the four Asian cities was identified and developed; these four projects represent promising opportunities for measures that improve air quality and can potentially be developed as a CDM project. Also these may be replicated in their respective countries or around the world for reduction of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. In this respect, the following options were identified in consultation with local policymakers and stakeholders (details of these projects are given in Annex I): Bus rapid transit (BRT) systems in Jakarta and Bangkok; For Bangalore, use of Ethanol/diesel blend in bus fleet; and Biomass gasification for power generation project in Jinan. The key requirements for a CDM project to be approved are utilisation of an approved baseline and monitoring methodology, proving additionality and contributing to the sustainable development in the host country. In view of this, this report aims to evaluate the viability of these case studies in the respective cities in meeting their baseline methodologies, sustainable development and additionality criteria under the CDM process. The report follows a structure where section 2 describes the baseline and monitoring aspects of the case studies; section 3 analyses the additionality of the projects after being taken

  17. Metal Rubber Sensor Appliquis for Rotor Blade Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin film Metal RubberTM sensor appliqus have the potential to reduce the time, complexity and cost of measuring air flow-induced skin friction during the...

  18. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  19. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS-an international project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudik Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children positions, and 5 to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone.

  20. High Resolution Projection of Future Air Quality in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Lamarque, J. F.; Walters, S.; Naja, M. K.; Ghude, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    About one seventh of the world's population living in South Asia faces the risk of severe air pollution due to high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to present day air pollution in South Asia is sufficient enough to reduce the lifespan of about 660 million people by about 3 years, destroy food that can feed about 94 million poor people and cause economic loss of several billion dollars. This problem may worsen in the future as anthropogenic emissions are expected to increase due to rapid economic growth in South Asia, and climate change is expected to lead to atmospheric conditions conducive for the production and accumulation of air pollutants. In order to predict how air quality will change in South Asia in future (2050), we are conducting high resolution air quality simulations for the present day (2005-2014) and future (2046-2055) time periods using the Nested Regional Climate Model coupled with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). The model domain covers entire South Asia at a horizontal grid spacing of 60 km with a nested domain over the densely populated and polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region at a horizontal grid spacing of 12 km. The model results are being evaluated with available in situ and satellite based observations and the evaluation results show that NRCM-Chem model is able to capture several important features of the observed spatial and temporal distribution of key meteorological parameters and air pollutants. Initial model results show that annual average surface ozone and PM2.5 concentrations may increase by up to 15 ppbv and 25 μg m-3, respectively with highest increase in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

  1. 76 FR 64991 - Environmental Assessment for the I-395 Air Rights Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Assessment for the I-395 Air Rights Project AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, District of Columbia Division. ACTION... Administration, District of Columbia Division: Mr. Michael Hicks, Environmental/Urban Engineer, 1990 K Street...

  2. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Air Response to the Tet Offensive 30 January - 29 February 1968

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, A. W; Thorndale, C. W

    1968-01-01

    Project CHECO was established in 1962 to document and analyze air operations in Southeast Asia, Over the years the meaning of the acronym changed several times to reflect the escalation of operations...

  3. Project Portfolio Management: An Investigation of One Air Force Product Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edmunds, Bryan D

    2005-01-01

    .... This research focuses on the portfolio management (project selection and resource allocation) part of the CTRRP. The purpose of this research effort was to investigate the use of portfolio management within the Air Force...

  4. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  5. CitySpace Air Sensor Network Project Conducted to Test New Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CitySpace project is a new research effort by EPA to field test new, lower-cost air pollution sensors in a mid-sized city to understand how this emerging technology can add valuable information on air pollution patterns in neighboorhoods.

  6. Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdonk, M.; Daniels, B.

    2011-05-01

    This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations. [nl

  7. Software aspects of qualification in the SafeAir II Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Baufreton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The SafeAir II project is a European Commission project that contributed to "Dependability in Services and Technologies". It implements a comprehensive open environment that help keeping the validation effort needed to achieve the present safety level of the embedded software systems within reasonable costs despite their increasing size and complexity. The paper describes the Software aspects of qualification in the Project.

  8. Ambient Air for Offshore Liquified Natural Gas Broadwater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    transportation network of highways. US Highway 90, connecting Laughlin AFB with Del Rio to the west and Multiple Projects Affected Environment...Jmpacto Ambiental (EA por sus siglas en ingles) con un Resultado de ~npacto No SigniAcante (o FONSI por sus s iglas en ingles) a disposici6n del ...Los fundonarios de Laughlin han conduido que los posibles impactos ambientaJ($ no afec:tarlin de manera significantc a Ia calidad del medio

  10. Clean air school buildings and governmental subsidy. Project ventiLation; Frisse scholen dankzij regeringssubsidie. Project VentiLeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigjes, B.; De Wit, J.W. [Rucon Ventilatoren, Harderwijk (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The Dutch government has provided local authorities with 100 million euros to address the polluted air in class rooms of primary schools. However, this amount is not sufficient to solve the problem entirely. This problem has been solved by linking the implementation to a project dedicated to combating youth unemployment, named 'VentiLeren'. [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid heeft 100 miljoen euro beschikbaar gesteld aan gemeenten om de vervuilde lucht in de lokalen van basisscholen aan te pakken. Dit bedrag is echter ontoereikend om het hele probleem op te lossen. Door de uitvoering ervan te koppelen aan een project ter bestrijding van jeugdwerkloosheid, ventiLeren genaamd, wordt dit opgelost.

  11. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Steam Decentralization Project, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    intelligent 20 transportation techniques, and travel reduction programs. 21 Eleven air quality monitoring stations are located within Oklahoma...antillarum Least Tern E E Tyto alba Barn Owl SS2 Vireo atricapillus Black-Capped Vireo E Mammals Marmota monax Woodchuck SS2 Reptiles Phrynosoma...airfield), and 800 unimproved acres. 15 A total of 244 vertebrate species occur on the base, consisting of 26 reptiles , 11 amphibians, 16 24 mammals

  12. System safety and the Coast Guard Lighter-Than-Air system project

    OpenAIRE

    Danaher, Patrick Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Coast Guard is evaluating the potential of Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicles for possible future Coast Guard utilization. Progress of the project is explored. Safety science is an emerging field particularly of value in the historically hazardous realm of aviation. The System Safety Concept as applicable to major project development is examined. One of the fundamental tasks of system safety management is to identify possible haza...

  13. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  14. Ambient air sampling of organic pollutants and heavy metals within the EU/93/AIR/22 PHARE Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the project the concentrations of eight heavy metals, vapour mercury, seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's, ten polychlordibenzofuran congeners, eighteen polychlorinated biphenyls, two chlorinated pesticides (hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT), fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, forty-two volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles were analysed. The morphology characterization of collected airborne particles and bioassays aimed at the evaluation of the mutagenic potency of pollutants present in collected air were also performed. Ambient air heavy metals were caught on cellulose filters using the same type of the sampler used for semi-volatile compounds sampling and analysed by atomic spectrometry. Vapour mercury was trapped on gold sand packed in a tube through which about 280 L of ambient air during 24 hours were drawn. On-site analysis was performed by an atomic fluorescence analyzer. Inhalable air particles, i.e particles less than 10 μm in diameter were collected by a sampler equipped with a cascade impactor fractionating into five size fractions involving respirable (<3 μm) fractions. The morphology and composition of the respirable fractions was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    Ridge is composed of dacite, a Tertiary volcanic rock. The bedrock types are relatively homogenous in mineral composition , varying only in relative...desert tomato (Lycium andersonii). Saltbush scrub communities are found along approximately 30 percent of the linear area of the proposed fence project

  16. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Mohammad Safeeq; Jason B Dunham; Sherri L Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To...

  17. Operation TUMBLER-SNAPPER, Project 9.2. Air Weather Service Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    Commanding General, Besearch and Engineering Commana, Army Chemical Canter , Md. ATTS: Special Projects Officer Commanding General, The Engineer...119-120 Commanding Officer and Director, David W. Taylor Model Basin, Washington 7, D. C. ATTN: Library 121 Commander, Naval Air Development Center

  18. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  19. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  20. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  1. Modelled surface ozone over southern africa during the cross border air pollution impact assessment project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available over southern Africa during the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment Project M. Zunckel a,*, A. Koosailee a,f, G. Yarwood b, G. Maure c, K. Venjonoka d, A.M. van Tienhoven a, L. Otter e a CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 17001, Congella 4013, Durban... the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions data. References Annegarn, H.J., Turner, C.R., Helas, G., Tosen, G.R., Rorich, R.P., 1996. Gaseous pollutants. In: Held, G., Gore, B.J., Surridge, A.D., Tosen, G.R., Turner, C.R., Walmsley, R.D. (Eds.), Air Pollution...

  2. Air Pollution and Climate Change Health Impact Assessment. The ACHIA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change may affect human health via interactions with air pollutants such as ozone and PM 2.5 . These air pollutants are linked to climate because they can be both affected by and have effects on climate. In coming decades, substantial, cost-effective improvements in public health may be achieved with well-planned strategies to mitigate climate impacts while also reducing health effects of ozone and PM 2.5 . Climate mitigation actions affect greenhouse pollutant emissions, including methane and black carbon, but also may affect other key air pollution precursors such as NOx, CO, and SOx. To better understand the potential of such strategies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. The overall objective of this project is to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of ozone and PM 2.5 under different IPCCs scenario of climate change, focusing specifically on pollution-related health co-benefits which could be achieved under alternative climate mitigation pathways in the period 2030-2050. This question will be explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (Paris). ACHIA is comprised of an integrated set of four work packages: WP1. Global Climate and Air Pollution Impacts of Alternative Emissions Pathways; WP2. Climate and Air Quality at Regional and Urban Scales: Results for Europe and Paris; WP3. Health Impact Assessment; WP4. Dissemination, Evaluation, Management. ACHIA is designed to create an interdisciplinary approach to the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to start longer-term collaborations between communities. We expect the project to advance state of art across all WPs, with important implications for research groups around the world. A particular innovation of the project is the multi-scale aspect, i.e., the

  3. Air Emission Projections During Acid Cleaning of F-Canyon Waste Header No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOI, ALEXANDER

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the air emission projections for the maintenance operation to dissolve and flush out the scale material inside the F-Canyon Waste Header No.2. The chemical agent used for the dissolution is a concentrated nitric acid solution, so the pollutant of concern is the nitric acid vapor. Under the very conservative operating scenarios considered in this study, it was determined that the highest possible rate of nitric acid emission during the acid flush would be 0.048 lb. per hr. It turns out that this worst-case air emission projection is just below the current exemption limit of 0.05 lb. per hr. for permit applications

  4. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. A flagship outcome of the project is anticipated to be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with smallest possible energy consumption....

  5. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... studies. A flagship outcome of the project will be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with least possible energy consumption. The paper illustrates the working program of each of these activities....

  6. Environmental Assessment for East Housing Area Solar Energy Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Project site include vegetation clearing, grubbing, grading, trenching for buried cables and installation of pile -driven pier foundations to...The CARB designates diesel particulate matter from the combustion of diesel fuel as a toxic air contaminant. The main pollutants of concern...Indoor Noise Source Jet fly-over at 1,000 ft. 120 110 Rock concert Pile driver at 100 ft. 100 Large truck passing by at 50 ft. 90 Night club

  7. [Traffic patterns regulations to reduce air pollution in the Italian cities participating in the EpiAir Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvolone, Daniela; Barchielli, Alessandro; Forastiere, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    to provide an overview of the mobility policies implemented by local administrations participating in the EpiAir Project in recent years (2001-2007). data on the resident population, housing density, and composition and evolution of vehicular fleet were collected from Istat and ACI databases. A questionnaire on the general urban circumstances and on mobility policies that have direct and indirect effects on air quality was submitted to local administrations. analyses on the ACI data show that, even if there is an environmental improvement in the emissions standards of vehicular fleet, number of cars per inhabitants is higher than the European mean and a general increase in the number of vehicles has been observed, mainly of diesel-fueled vehicles. All cities, with the exception of Cagliari and Milan, completed the questionnaire. Data varied greatly in quality and quantity due to collaboration differences of the various municipalities. For each of the policy categories, many "good practices" are reported: from vehicular transport restrictions to improvements in public transport; from the promotion of pedestrian and bicycle mobility to new forms of vehicles' use and/or ownership (car-sharing, car-pooling). overall, transportation policies are not very favourable towards sustainable mobility, both due to the elevated number of vehicles per inhabitants and to different barriers encountered in policies' implementation, such as the lack of an integrated approach in addressing mobility issues, the inaccurate and confusing rules in interventions' application and primarily, the lack of efficient control measures. As a result, the beneficial effects of local transportation regulations on urban air quality may be still very limited.

  8. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  9. European audit project to optimize indoor air quality and energy consumption in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Fanger, P.O.; Groes, L.; Clausen, G.; Roulet, C.A.; Bernhard, C.A.; Valbjorn, O.

    1995-03-15

    A European project started at the end of 1992, in which current methods as well as a trained panel were used to investigate office buildings all over Europe. The main aim of this EC-Audit was to develop assessment procedures and guidance on ventilation and source control, which help to optimize energy use in office buildings while assuring indoor air quality. Participants from 16 institutes in 11 countries (The Netherlands, Denmark, France, Belgium, United Kingdom, Greece, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Germany) joined. A common agreed Europe-wide method to investigate indoor quality in office buildings, including a common agreed European questionnaire and walk-through survey checklist were developed. In nine countries, six or more office buildings were selected. Measurements were performed at five selected locations in each building. The buildings were studied while normally occupied and ventilated to identify the pollution sources in the spaces and to quantify the total pollution load caused by the occupants and their activities and the ventilation systems. The investigation included physical and chemical measurements, assessment of the perceived air quality in the spaces by a trained sensory panel, and measurement of the outdoor air supply to the spaces. The physical and chemical measurements in the spaces included measurements of noise, concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and the thermal parameters: operative temperature, air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The building characteristics were described by use of a check-list. The annual energy consumption of the buildings and the weather conditions were registered. This report presents the results, conclusions and recommendations of the audit performed in 56 buildings in Europe. Furthermore, assessment procedures of indoor air quality and energy performance of office buildings are discussed.

  10. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  11. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  12. Projecting future air pollution-related mortality under a changing climate: progress, uncertainties and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may affect mortality associated with air pollutants, especially for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Projection studies of such kind involve complicated modelling approaches with uncertainties. We conducted a systematic review of researches and methods for projecting future PM2.5-/O3-related mortality to identify the uncertainties and optimal approaches for handling uncertainty. A literature search was conducted in October 2013, using the electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 to September 2013. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that an increase of climate change-induced PM2.5 and O3 may result in an increase in mortality. However, little research has been conducted in developing countries with high emissions and dense populations. Additionally, health effects induced by PM2.5 may dominate compared to those caused by O3, but projection studies of PM2.5-related mortality are fewer than those of O3-related mortality. There is a considerable variation in approaches of scenario-based projection researches, which makes it difficult to compare results. Multiple scenarios, models and downscaling methods have been used to reduce uncertainties. However, few studies have discussed what the main source of uncertainties is and which uncertainty could be most effectively reduced. Projecting air pollution-related mortality requires a systematic consideration of assumptions and uncertainties, which will significantly aid policymakers in efforts to manage potential impacts of PM2.5 and O3 on mortality in the context of climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Future direction of air separation design for gasification, IGCC and alternative fuel projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, R.J.; Castel-Smith, H.; Smith, A.R.; Sorensen, J.C. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Low pressure and elevated pressure cryogenic air separation units (ASUs) have successfully been applied to support gasification projects worldwide. ASU technology has ranged from traditional, low pressure, standalone facilities supplying products only to the gasification island, to highly integrated, elevated pressure facilities that obtain air feed from and inject excess nitrogen into a gas turbine. The near-term direction of ASUs is increased single unit capacity, process optimizations that will benefit integration with the new generation of higher pressure ratio and increased capacity gas turbines, and overall ASU facility optimization for the specialized requirements of shipboard units for remote gas conversion processes. Longer-term development is proceeding on compression and driver requirements to support cost improvements for 10,000 to 20,000 merit ton per day oxygen facilities for onshore or platform-based gas conversion processes. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Future direction of air separation design for gasification, IGCC and alternative fuel projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, R.J.; Castel-Smith, H.; Smith, A.R.; Sorensen, J.C. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States))

    1998-01-01

    Low pressure and elevated pressure cryogenic air separation units (ASUs) have successfully been applied to support gasification projects worldwide. ASU technology has ranged from traditional, low pressure, standalone facilities supplying products only to the gasification island, to highly integrated, elevated pressure facilities that obtain air feed from and inject excess nitrogen into a gas turbine. The near-term direction of ASUs is increased single unit capacity, process optimizations that will benefit integration with the new generation of higher pressure ratio and increased capacity gas turbines, and overall ASU facility optimization for the specialized requirements of shipboard units for remote gas conversion processes. Longer-term development is proceeding on compression and driver requirements to support cost improvements for 10,000 to 20,000 merit ton per day oxygen facilities for onshore or platform-based gas conversion processes. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects: Power Projection through Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    86 | Air & Space Power Journal The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects Power Projection through... Cyberspace Capt Jason M. Gargan, USAF Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or implied in the Journal are those of the authors and should not...and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Cyberspace can provide great opportunities to assist the joint force air compo-nent commander (JFACC

  16. The Atlanta Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Air Quality Modeling Project: How High-Resoution Remote Sensing Data Can Improve Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William L.; Khan, Maudood N.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlanta Urban Heat Island and Air Quality Project had its genesis in Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air quality) that began in 1996. Project ATLANTA examined how high-spatial resolution thermal remote sensing data could be used to derive better measurements of the Urban Heat Island effect over Atlanta. We have explored how these thermal remote sensing, as well as other imaged datasets, can be used to better characterize the urban landscape for improved air quality modeling over the Atlanta area. For the air quality modeling project, the National Land Cover Dataset and the local scale Landpro99 dataset at 30m spatial resolutions have been used to derive land use/land cover characteristics for input into the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model that is one of the foundations for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to assess how these data can improve output from CMAQ. Additionally, land use changes to 2030 have been predicted using a Spatial Growth Model (SGM). SGM simulates growth around a region using population, employment and travel demand forecasts. Air quality modeling simulations were conducted using both current and future land cover. Meteorological modeling simulations indicate a 0.5 C increase in daily maximum air temperatures by 2030. Air quality modeling simulations show substantial differences in relative contributions of individual atmospheric pollutant constituents as a result of land cover change. Enhanced boundary layer mixing over the city tends to offset the increase in ozone concentration expected due to higher surface temperatures as a result of urbanization.

  17. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  18. Air quality impacts of projections of natural gas-fired distributed generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jeremy R.; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Lemar, Paul; Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Shah, Tejas; Yarwood, Greg; Young, David; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts on emissions and air quality from the increased adoption of natural gas-fired distributed generation of electricity (DG), including displacement of power from central power generation, in the contiguous United States. The study includes four major tasks: (1) modeling of distributed generation market penetration; (2) modeling of central power generation systems; (3) modeling of spatially and temporally resolved emissions; and (4) photochemical grid modeling to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of increased DG penetration, which includes both power-only DG and combined heat and power (CHP) units, for 2030. Low and high DG penetration scenarios estimate the largest penetration of future DG units in three regions - New England, New York, and California. Projections of DG penetration in the contiguous United States estimate 6.3 GW and 24 GW of market adoption in 2030 for the low DG penetration and high DG penetration scenarios, respectively. High DG penetration (all of which is natural gas-fired) serves to offset 8 GW of new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) units, and 19 GW of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations by 2030. In all scenarios, air quality in the central United States and the northwest remains unaffected as there is little to no DG penetration in those states. California and several states in the northeast are the most impacted by emissions from DG units. Peak increases in maximum daily 8-h average ozone concentrations exceed 5 ppb, which may impede attainment of ambient air quality standards. Overall, air quality impacts from DG vary greatly based on meteorological conditions, proximity to emissions sources, the number and type of DG installations, and the emissions factors used for DG units.

  19. No Sense in Dwelling on the Past?: The Fate of the US Air Force’s German Air Force Monograph Project, 1952-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    the Air Force completed. Paradoxically , the Air Force’s limited interest both strangled and freed the Karlsruhe project. On one hand, given the chal...Normandy . . . Rommel was not on hand on [D-Day] because it was his wife’s birthday .” Hechler was “overjoyed” with the results, with the proceedings...Military Education in the Luft- waffe.” Air University Review, March–April 1969, 76–82. Cassidy, Robert M. “Prophets or Praetorians? The Uptonian Paradox

  20. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  1. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA. According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010 and near-term future (2020 projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface–atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (∼ 1990, overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m−3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m−3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  3. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  4. Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models.

    A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the modelled projection. Last, the modelling experiment is related to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented.

    The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop down to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35 will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximum O3 is higher than 120 μg m−3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%.

    We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios are the main factors leading to the

  5. Maintaining project consistency with transportation plans throughout the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This document was developed for transportation professionals responsible for project : development and has three basic goals: : 1. Define project consistency and identify the causes of project inconsistencies and the : critical junctures in the proje...

  6. DIRECT AIR BLAST EXPOSURE EFFECTS IN ANIMALS, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, PROJECT 4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAEGER, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF); LEE, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF)

    1953-12-31

    Project 4.2 was designed to study direct (primary) air blast injury, in animals, from an atomic weapon in the range of 20 to 50 psi under circumstances affording protection against missiles, thermal and ionizing radiation and to estimate the probable direct air blast hazard in man. The pressure levels at which atomic weapons direct air blast injuries occur will determine, to a large extent, the number of blast casualties likely to be encountered. It is probable that fatal overpressures are not reached until well within the range at which indirect (secondary) blast, thermal and ionizing radiation are practically certain to prove fatal. Only in special situations affording partial protection from other injuries are blast injuries likely to be of practical importance. Two animal species of widely different body weights (700 rats and 56 dogs) were exposed, together with air pressure recorders, in aluminum cylinders, covered by sandbags and dirt but open at both ends, at seven stations distributed within the intended overpressure range of 20 to 50 psi of Shot 10« About 200 rats were likewise exposed in Shot 9. Unfortunately, the destructive effect of the air blast of Shot 10 was much greater than anticipated. Many of the exposure cylinders were displaced and their contents destroyed. Only a partial recovery of the animals was possible due to the excessive radioactive contamination which greatly limited the time in the area. Most of the animals were dead upon recovery. Those living were in a state of severe shock. Autopsy findings showed remarkably few traumatic lesions and lung hemorrhages in spite of the rough treatment and high overpressure to which they were subjected. The rats recovered from Shot 9 were exposed to a recorded pressure of 18 to 2k psi. The autopsy findings showed moderate lung hemorrhage in most of the animals undoubtedly due to direct air blast injury. The findings were typical of those seen following exposure to air blast from HE or in the shock

  7. Final Project Report on RCCS Testing with Air-based NSTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gerardi, Craig D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kilsdonk, Dennis J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bremer, Nathan C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lomperski, Stephen W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, Rui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, Adam R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Taeseung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The following report serves as a comprehensive summary of the air-based portion of the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) program at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Initiated in 2005 to generate validation data for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), the project was centered on an experimental testing program to study the behavior and bound the performance of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts also have been performed to guide the design, fabrication, and operation of NSTF, as well as to assess the suitability of analysis methods for natural convection systems. The program operates under support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART), and maintained compliance with NQA-1 2008 with 2009a in both administrative and technical portions of program activities.

  8. Cognitive impacts of ambient air pollution in the National Social Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Salhi, Carmel; Suh, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM) for 3377 participants. Exposures to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) were estimated for each participant using GIS-based spatio-temporal models, and exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were obtained from the nearest EPA monitors. In adjusted linear regression models, IQR increases in 1 to 7year PM 2.5 exposures were associated with a 0.22 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.01) to a 0.25 (95% CI: -0.43, -0.06) point decrease in CCFM scores, equivalent to aging 1.6years, while exposures to NO 2 were equivalent to aging 1.9years. The impacts of PM 2.5 on cognition were modified by stroke, anxiety, and stress, and were mediated by depression. The impacts of NO 2 were mediated by stress and effect modification by impaired activities of daily living for NO 2 was found. Exposures to long-term PM 2.5 and NO 2 were associated with decreased cognitive function in our cohort of older Americans, and individuals who experienced a stroke or elevated anxiety were more susceptible to the effects of PM 2.5 on cognition. Additionally, mediation results suggest that PM 2.5 may impact cognition through pathways related to mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  10. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Unliquidated Obligations for Air Force-Funded Projects Administered by The Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... consolidated financial statements. The Air Force Audit Agency requested us to assist in its review of the Statement of Budgetary Resources for the Air Force General Fund by reviewing unliquidated obligations for Air Force-funded...

  12. Table - Impacts of the Proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table shows the impacts of the proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems, both with and without the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  13. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-01

    assessment of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity and for determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides. Annual average gross alpha values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are in the same range as the highest two values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Annual average gross beta values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are slightly higher than the lowest value reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Gamma spectroscopy analyses on samples collected from the Project 57 stations identified only naturally occurring radionuclides. No manmade radionuclides were detected. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) indicated that the average annual radioactivity dose at the monitoring stations is higher than the dose determined at surrounding CEMP stations but approximately half of the estimated national average dose received by the general public as a result of exposure to natural sources. The TLDs at the Project 57 monitoring stations are exposed to both natural sources (terrestrial and cosmic) and radioactive releases from the Project 57 contamination area. These comparisons show that the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy levels at the Project 57 monitoring stations are similar to levels observed at the CEMP stations but that the average annual dose rate is higher than at the CEMP stations. Winds in excess of approximately 15 mph begin to generate dust movement by saltation (migration of sand at the ground surface) or direct suspension in the air. Saltated sand, PM10 (inhalable) dust, and PM2.5 (fine particulate dust) exhibit an approximately exponential increase with increasing wind speed. The greatest concentrations of dust occur for winds exceeding 20 mph. During the reporting period, winds in excess of 20 mph occurred approximately 1.6 percent of the time. Preliminary assessment of individual wind events suggests that dust generation is highly variable likely because of the influence of other meteorological and

  14. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  15. They Might be Giants: Small-Scale RPAs as a Threat to Air Base Defense and Air Power Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    in 2013. His 15-year career as an active duty maintenance officer provided a variety of assignments and duties, including multiple deployments...seen ink -blot disposition of forces means a dispersal of ground support may not directly support the air base. Given that the air base remains...comes only with the first bombardments, then the enemy quickly disperses and seeks concealment or camouflage . At this point, subsequent attacks are

  16. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  17. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Newton, H. M.; Allan, J. D.; Irwin, M.; Hamilton, J. F.; Flynn, M.; Bower, K. N.; Williams, P. I.; Mills, G.; Reeves, C. E.; McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Atmospheric composition affects the radiative balance of the Earth through the creation of greenhouse gases and the formation of aerosols. The latter interact with incoming solar radiation, both directly and indirectly through their effects on cloud formation and lifetime. The tropics have a major influence on incoming sunlight however the tropical atmosphere is poorly characterised, especially outside Amazonia. The origins of air masses influencing a measurement site in a protected rainforest in Borneo, South East Asia, were assessed and the likely sources of a range of trace gases and particles were determined. This was conducted by interpreting in situ measurements made at the site in the context of ECMWF backwards air mass trajectories. Two different but complementary methods were employed to interpret the data: comparison of periods classified by cluster analysis of trajectories, and inspection of the dependence of mean measured values on geographical history of trajectories. Sources of aerosol particles, carbon monoxide and halocarbons were assessed. The likely source influences include: terrestrial organic biogenic emissions; long range transport of anthropogenic emissions; biomass burning; sulphurous emissions from marine phytoplankton, with a possible contribution from volcanoes; marine production of inorganic mineral aerosol; and marine production of halocarbons. Aerosol sub- and super-saturated water affinity was found to be dependent on source (and therefore composition), with more hygroscopic aerosol and higher numbers of cloud condensation nuclei measured in air masses of marine origin. The prevailing sector during the majority of measurements was south-easterly, which is from the direction of the coast closest to the site, with a significant influence inland from the south-west. This analysis shows that marine and terrestrial air masses have different dominant chemical sources. Comparison with the AMAZE-08 project in the Amazon basin shows Bornean

  18. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition affects the radiative balance of the Earth through the creation of greenhouse gases and the formation of aerosols. The latter interact with incoming solar radiation, both directly and indirectly through their effects on cloud formation and lifetime. The tropics have a major influence on incoming sunlight however the tropical atmosphere is poorly characterised, especially outside Amazonia. The origins of air masses influencing a measurement site in a protected rainforest in Borneo, South East Asia, were assessed and the likely sources of a range of trace gases and particles were determined. This was conducted by interpreting in situ measurements made at the site in the context of ECMWF backwards air mass trajectories. Two different but complementary methods were employed to interpret the data: comparison of periods classified by cluster analysis of trajectories, and inspection of the dependence of mean measured values on geographical history of trajectories. Sources of aerosol particles, carbon monoxide and halocarbons were assessed. The likely source influences include: terrestrial organic biogenic emissions; long range transport of anthropogenic emissions; biomass burning; sulphurous emissions from marine phytoplankton, with a possible contribution from volcanoes; marine production of inorganic mineral aerosol; and marine production of halocarbons. Aerosol sub- and super-saturated water affinity was found to be dependent on source (and therefore composition, with more hygroscopic aerosol and higher numbers of cloud condensation nuclei measured in air masses of marine origin. The prevailing sector during the majority of measurements was south-easterly, which is from the direction of the coast closest to the site, with a significant influence inland from the south-west. This analysis shows that marine and terrestrial air masses have different dominant chemical sources. Comparison with the AMAZE-08 project in the Amazon

  19. European audit project to optimise indoor air quality and energy consumption in office buildings. National report of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.A.; Foradini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d`Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bernhard, C.A. [Inst. Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Carlucci, L. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsphysiologie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1994-12-15

    This report summarises the work performed in Switzerland for the Joule II project `Indoor Air Quality Audit`. Eight office buildings located in three important areas were audited. Minimum commitment is 6 buildings. The two supplementary buildings are the pilot study, and an additional audit supported by the owner of the building. The main results obtained in Switzerland are as follows: the questionnaire is without doubt an important part of the audit. It could however be shortened and its interpretation simplified. Measurements of air flow rates in air handling units (AHU) were not planned in the procedure, but performed in most AHU of the audited buildings. These measurements often showed large discrepancies between measured and planned air flow rates. In some cases, unexpected shortcuts between exhaust and pulsed air were detected. Moreover, they provide a possibility to assess the ventilation performance for the whole building. It is therefore proposed to implement these measurements into the audit procedure. Fresh air flow rates in each room can be estimated by counting the persons in room and measuring the CO{sub 2} concentration in room and in air supply. Ventilation rates in all buildings are high enough to eliminate occupants generated contamination, but large differences were found in indoor air quality as judged by occupants or by chemical analysis. The average number of building related symptoms per occupant (BSI) vary strongly among buildings. AHU were all clean and well maintained. No clear relation was found between BSI and sensory or chemical indoor air quality, ventilation rate or energy consumption. BSI`s are however significantly lower when it is allowed to open the windows. The best building (according to occupant`s health) is also the one with the lowest energy index and the lowest air flow rate, hence a high (1000 ppm) CO{sub 2} concentration. It is partly naturally ventilated. All the buildings with high BSI`s are sealed and air conditioned.

  20. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  1. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  2. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  3. PolEASIA Project: Pollution in Eastern Asia - towards better Air Quality Prevision and Impacts' Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Albergel, Armand; Balkanski, Yves; Beekmann, Matthias; Cai, Zhaonan; Fortems-Cheiney, Audrey; Cuesta, Juan; Derognat, Claude; Eremenko, Maxim; Foret, Gilles; Hauglustaine, Didier; Lachatre, Matthieu; Laurent, Benoit; Liu, Yi; Meng, Fan; Siour, Guillaume; Tao, Shu; Velay-Lasry, Fanny; Zhang, Qijie; Zhang, Yuli

    2017-04-01

    The rapid economic development and urbanization of China during the last decades resulted in rising pollutant emissions leading to amongst the largest pollutant concentrations in the world for the major pollutants (ozone, PM2.5, and PM10). Robust monitoring and forecasting systems associated with downstream services providing comprehensive risk indicators are highly needed to establish efficient pollution mitigation strategies. In addition, a precise evaluation of the present and future impacts of Chinese pollutant emissions is of importance to quantify: first, the consequences of pollutants export on atmospheric composition and air quality all over the globe; second, the additional radiative forcing induced by the emitted and produced short-lived climate forcers (ozone and aerosols); third, the long-term health consequences of pollution exposure. To achieve this, a detailed understanding of East Asian pollution is necessary. The French PolEASIA project aims at addressing these different issues by providing a better quantification of major pollutants sources and distributions as well as of their recent and future evolution. The main objectives, methodologies and tools of this starting 4-year project will be presented. An ambitious synergistic and multi-scale approach coupling innovative satellite observations, in situ measurements and chemical transport model simulations will be developed to characterize the spatial distribution, the interannual to daily variability and the trends of the major pollutants (ozone and aerosols) and their sources over East Asia, and to quantify the role of the different processes (emissions, transport, chemical transformation) driving the observed pollutant distributions. A particular attention will be paid to assess the natural and anthropogenic contributions to East Asian pollution. Progress made with the understanding of pollutant sources, especially in terms of modeling of pollution over East Asia and advanced numerical approaches

  4. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  5. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  6. Use of the Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) for In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant...

  7. Craft-joule project: air-cooled water LiBr absorption cooling machine of low capacity for air conditioning (ACABMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Castro, J; Perez Segarra, C.D [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Lucena, M.A [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespecial (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The ACABMA (Air-Cooled water-LiBr Absorption cooling Machine of low capacity for Air- conditioning) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The basic objective of this project is the development of a new air-cooled absorption cooling machine for air-conditioning, in the low power sector market. Making use of water-LiBr technology together with the air-cooling feature, it is possible to reach a better relationship between quality (in terms of performance, ecology, etc.) and price of such absorption machines, than the ones existing on the market. Air-cooling instead of water cooling saves installation costs specially in small systems and removes the demand for cooling water (an important aspect in Southern-European countries), thus increasing the possible application range. The main interest for the SME proposers is to take advantage of the increasing cooling demand in Europe, specially in southern countries. Another point of interest for the SME proposers is the development of a cheaper cooling and heating system in terms of energy and installation costs. In this moment the solar cooling systems are approx. 30% more expensive than the conventional ones. A cheaper absorption machine due to the air-cooling feature together with the possibility of energy savings due to low generator temperatures, that allow the absorption machine for solar applications or waste heat, will lead to solar cooling and heating systems more competitive to the conventional ones. In order to achieve the above mentioned goal, the following step are necessary and will be carried out in this project: i)solution of the air-cooling of the water-LiBr machine, the main problem that up to now has not allowed commercialization, ii)reduction of the size of the air-cooled elements of the machine in order to reduce the machine costs, iii)development of an efficient control

  8. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Project: estimating the mortality effects of particulate matter in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Vajanapoom, Nitaya; Ostro, Bart

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. The study period extended from 1999 to 2003, for which the Ministry of Public Health provided the mortality data. Measures of air pollution were derived from air monitoring stations, and information on temperature and relative humidity was obtained from the weather station in central Bangkok. The statistical analysis followed the common protocol for the multicity PAPA (Public Health and Air Pollution Project in Asia) project in using a natural cubic spline model with smooths of time and weather. The excess risk for non-accidental mortality was 1.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-1.7] per 10 microg/m(3) of PM(10), with higher excess risks for cardiovascular and above age 65 mortality of 1.9% (95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.1), respectively. In addition, the effects from PM(10) appear to be consistent in multipollutant models. The results suggest strong associations between several different mortality outcomes and PM(10). In many cases, the effect estimates were higher than those typically reported in Western industrialized nations.

  9. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  10. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  11. Project consistency with transportation plans and air quality conformity workshops : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This implementation project supports streamlined project delivery, one of the goals outlined by the Texas : Department of Transportation (TxDOT) leadership to achieve an efficient and effective transportation system : in Texas. The project benefits T...

  12. Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean

  13. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  14. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  15. A Structurally-Integrated Ice Detection and De-Icing System for Unmanned Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more prevalent for Suborbital Scientific Earth Exploration, which often involves high altitude, long endurance flight...

  16. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  17. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  18. Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children : The ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Agius, Raymond M.; Beelen, Rob; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Eeftens, Marloes; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kluemper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Moelter, Anna; Schultz, Erica S.; Simpson, Angela; Sugiri, Dorothea; Svartengren, Magnus; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet H.; Pershagen, Goeran; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function of children. Quantitative summaries of the effects of air pollution on lung function, however, are lacking due to large differences among studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between

  19. Eliminating second-hand smoke from Mexican-American households: outcomes from Project Clean Air-Safe Air (CASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Marani, Salma K; Bondy, Melissa L; Gatus, Leticia A; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V; Hammond, S Katharine; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a major public health problem and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The objective of this randomized trial was to estimate the impact of a culturally-sensitive intervention to reduce SHS exposure in Mexican-American households. A total of 91 households (with a child under 18 years of age and two adults, one of whom was a smoker) were recruited from a population-based cohort of Mexican-American households and randomized to receive the experimental intervention (EI; n=47) or standard care (SC; n=44). Of these, 74 households (83%) provided baseline, 6-month, and 12-month survey and nicotine monitor data (EI, n=39; SC, n=35). The EI materials, designed to increase the participants' likelihood of adopting a smoke-free indoor home air policy, included one culturally-appropriate bilingual comic book for children and two fotonovelas for adults. Ambient nicotine levels significantly decreased over the 12 study months (F=13.6, DF=147; peffects of SHS increased from baseline to 6 and 12 months in the EI condition but not in the SC condition (F=6.0, DF=238; p<0.01), and smokers and quitters in the EI group reported an increased perception of health vulnerability compared to those in the SC group. Our low-cost intervention impacted SHS-related knowledge and exposure among Mexican Americans. This culturally-appropriate intervention has the potential to decrease SHS-related health problems in the target population substantially. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Human-Relatable Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traffic Managers, Supervisors and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Specialists have a critical and significant responsibility in the ATM system to...

  1. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent. Objectives: We...... have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were...... used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from...

  2. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic management systems is being conducted at several laboratories using custom software. In order to provide a more uniform...

  3. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  4. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. FAC Operations in Close Air Support Role in SVN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overton, James B

    1969-01-01

    This report addresses the role of the Forward Air Controller (FAC) in Southeast Asia. The various categories of FACs are discussed, including the function of the Ground FAC and the duties he performs...

  5. Overview of the Tritium-in-Air Monitoring System of Cernavoda NPP U1 Romania - modernization and improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgoci, S.; Popescu, I.; Ibadula, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Tritium-in-Air Monitoring System used in Cernavoda NPP U1 is a Scintrex Model 292 and is a multi-room monitoring station for measuring tritium activity in air, particularly tritiated water vapor, ideal for installations in: nuclear power stations, tritium extraction plants, fusion facilities, other industrial tritium applications. The Tritium-in-Air Monitoring System (Scintrex Model 292) has two major limitations: the presetted setpoint is not for the tritium level of activity, is for a global activity including noble gas contribution; the presetted setpoint should be changed for each particular room, which means a major delay in the location of D 2 O leak sources. Both limitations can be solved by using a Tritium Monitoring Network consisting of a number of tritium monitors stationed in individual rooms and the readings are transmitted to a central computer. The data can be logged to a database (MS Access compatible) and will offer historical trends and necessary reports. This paper presents the main equipment's of the Tritium-in-Air Monitoring system, the description of this modernization project and the results of 3 H emissions monitoring program (Liquid and Gaseous Effluent Program Monitoring program at Cernavoda NPP). 1 INTRODUCTION During routine operation of a CANDU reactor, various gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes are generated. The design of its systems ensures that these are minimized, but small quantities of gaseous and liquid wastes are continuously discharged at very low concentrations.(author)

  6. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  7. Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Arja; Carrer, Paolo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    ), approximately 90 % of EU citizens live in areas where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality of particulate matter sized PM2.5) are not met. Since sources of pollution reside in both indoor and outdoor air, selecting the most appropriate ventilation strategy is not a simple...... matter (PM2.5), outdoor bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon oxide (CO) radon and dampness was estimated. The analysis was based on scenario comparison, using an outdoor-indoor mass-balance model and varying the ventilation rates. Health effects were estimated with burden of diseases (Bo...... air; and (iii) indoor source control, showed that all three approaches are able to provide substantial reductions in the health risks, varying from approximately 20 % to 44 %, corresponding to 400 000 and 900 000 saved healthy life years in EU-26. PM2.5 caused majority of the health effects in all...

  8. Project in use compliance air pollution by cars: annual report 1994-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Binkhorst, R.P.; Zuidgeest, L.W.M.; Rozendal, W.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of the 8th measuring year of the "in-use compliance project" carried out by TNO at the request of the Dutch Ministry of the Environment. Purpose and implementation of the project are in general terms that in connection with compliance with (international)

  9. Distribution of kerma rate in the air inside of hemodynamic room for typical projections of interventionist cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Mirtha Elizabet Gamarra

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of dose to physicians involved in Interventional Cardiology (IC) is an extreme important matter due to the high and non-uniform distribution of dose values. The radiation control during each procedure is complex and the reasons for the high exposures have many different causes. Many international recommendations have already been written aiming the radiation protection optimization in IC. In Brazil, there is not any special orientation for the protection of those occupational persons, nor a specific legislation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the air kerma rate at critical anatomic regions of the occupationally exposed staff that carry out IC procedures, in representative incidences in order to give subsidies for individual monitoring procedures implementation and to give more information about their radiation protection. The air kerma rate has been measured in the often used condition in the two more common IC procedures namely angiography and coronary angioplasty, using an adult patient simulator irradiated under RAO, LAO and AP projections for fluoro and digital acquisition modes. The measurements have been made in 45 points around the examination table at 5 different representatives heights of: eyes lens, thorax, hands, gonads and knees. AP projection shows the smaller scattered radiation contributions and a more homogeneous exposure distribution. The digital acquisition mode gives air kerma rates about 4 times higher than fluoro mode for LAO projection in the position occupied by the interventionist doctor, the anesthetist and the nursing staff. The most critical anatomic regions are: knees and gonads (without protection). On the physician hands position, values as high as 5 mGy/h have been measured, which can overpass, depending on the number of procedures done, the individual occupational annual limit. Therefore, in IC it is necessary to implement additional protection tools, elaborate safety guides (based on international experiences

  10. ...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used…

  11. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain

  12. A Synopsis of Personalized Medicine Projects Within the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 17 MAY 2017 1. Your paper, entitled A Synopsis of Personalized Medicine Projects within the...been entered into our computer fi le. Please advise us (by phone or mail) that your presentation was given. At that time, we will need the date...3039 must be submitted for review and approval.) 6. TITLE OF MA TE RIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: A SYNOPSIS OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE PROJECTS

  13. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  14. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  15. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  16. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    potable water supply from two main sources: nine base wells and the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA). A small amount of water is also purchased...chloride (PVC) (Headquarters Air Combat Command, 2001). There are eight potable water storage tanks on the base with a total capacity of 5 million...Wisconsin, Eau Claire Graduate Work, Resource Management, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point Years of Experience: 15 Joesph Nixon, Senior Cultural

  17. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, D A

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA).

  18. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Makar, P. A.; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6) scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here. The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions - that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6 emissions for 2050 resulted in an improved air

  19. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6 scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here.

    The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions – that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6

  20. Environmental Assessment for Mill Creek Restoration Project, Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    slope. These factors are essential components for any stream restoration project. Successful stream restoration applies fluvial geomorphology ...Central Florida Press, Orlando, Florida, 765 p. Rosgen, D. 1996. Applied River Morphology. Wildland Hydrology, Pagosa Springs, Colorado . Rosgen, D...originally was connected with the valley floodplain, but now ponds exist upstream of each culvert changing fluvial dynamics from lotic to lentic

  1. Community Air Sensor Network Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an extended abstract that will be part of the peer-reviewed proceedings of the AWMA annual meeting in 2015. The extended abstract covers preliminary results from the CAIRSENSE project, which involves testing low cost sensors at an NCore site in Atlanta, GA.

  2. Air Permit Application for BHP Billiton Deepwater Port Project Offshore Venture, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  4. Final Environmental Assessment for Stormwater Drainage Project on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    not considered widely effective . Chemical Control Herbicides registered for control of Dalmatian toadflax include dicamba , 2,4-D, and picloram...WYOMING It is my decision to approve the Proposed Action as described in the Stormwater Drainage Project Environmental Assessment (EA), which is...mission effectiveness of FE Warren AFB while improving the level of safety for both personnel and property, on- and off-base, during major storm events

  5. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  6. Improvement of solar air collectors: Study and Experimental Research Project. Final report, May 1976-June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole-Appel, B.E.; Loef, G.O.G.; Shaw, L.E.; Fischer, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    Literature and patents relevant to solar air-heating collectors were reviewed. The design constraints are listed. The analysis considered the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of the various designs. Three absorbers along with the baseline design were mounted in identical collector bodies and subjected to thermal efficiency tests on Solaron's collector test stand. The testing was done simultaneously on the four panels in a side-by-side collector test. Various manufacturing techniques for producing an absorber with extended heat transfer surface were investigated. It was found that fins could be attached to the absorber in a cost-effective manner by an electrical resistance weld. Four finned absorbers were fabricated by resistance welding and installed in a 2 x 2 collector array to verify that these production model prototypes would, in fact, increase performance by a factor of 1.11. (MHR)

  7. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L

    2006-01-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...

  8. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J.; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    . Methods: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985–2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5–10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot......-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic...... in PM2.5. Conclusions: The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures....

  9. [Policies for the promotion of sustainable mobility and the reduction of traffic-related air pollution in the cities participating in the EpiAir2 project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Sara; Nuvolone, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Cadum, Ennio; Barchielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    to describe transport policies adopted in recent years (2006-2010) by some Italian municipalities and their effectiveness. survey data refer to fifteen cities participating in the EpiAir2 project: Torino, Milano, Venezia, Bologna, Firenze, Pisa, Roma, Taranto, Palermo, Cagliari, Trieste, Genova, Ancona, Napoli, and Bari. this survey revealed strengths and weaknesses of the way in which these Italian cities address the promotion of sustainable mobility. As a general rule, the vehicle fleets have been renewed with a reduction of old-emission-standard vehicles. Italian cities reported a considerable delay in the development of underground and tram systems, and suburban rail networks, compared to other European urban areas. Regarding other aspects of urban mobility (supply/demand for public transport, low traffic and pedestrian zones, bike paths, car and bike sharing), this survey highlighted a great heterogeneity among Italian cities. differences between Italian cities are partly explained by structural and cultural features and also by local governance, specifically the political capability to design and adopt effective policies concerning urban transportation systems and their environmental impact. Various and fragmented initiatives are signs that Italy has not formulated a comprehensive and integrated strategy about sustainable mobility in urban areas yet.

  10. Surface air relative humidities spuriously exceeding 100% in CMIP5 model output and their impact on future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Jylhä, Kirsti; Räisänen, Jouni; Mäkelä, Antti

    2017-09-01

    In 17 out of the 29 Phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models examined in this work, near-surface air relative humidity (RH) frequently exceeded 100% with respect to ice in polar areas in winter. The degree of supersaturation varied considerably across the models, and the same evidently applies to the causes of the phenomenon. Consultations with the modeling groups revealed three categories of explanations for supersaturation occurrence: specification of RH with respect to ice rather than liquid water; inconsistencies in the determination of specific humidity and air temperature for the near-surface level; and the nonlinearity of saturated specific humidity as a function of temperature. Modeled global warming tended to reduce the artificial supersaturations, inducing a spurious negative trend in the future RH change. For example, over East Antarctica under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, the multimodel mean RH would decrease by about 10% by the end of the ongoing century. Truncation of overly high RHs to a maximum value of 100% cut the RH response close to zero. In Siberia and northern North America, truncation even reversed the sign of the response. The institutes responsible for the CMIP6 model experiments should be aware of the supersaturation issue, and the algorithms used to produce near-surface RH should be developed to eliminate the problem before publishing the RH output data.

  11. Job Attitudes of AFSC (Air Force Systems Command) Acquisition Project Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    nizat-on il C limat e. IV. Con( i usions: The, r esear ch showed that AFSC project man- * aciers ;’ job a tudes were qn eral ly less favorable than the...background information is in order. Beainninq in 17 , a i€,l les of event s took pl ace which Ied to t he est ai, i i hnent (,: an i r ,r’e orUaniz...t X ~c os . ~ - 04- - - - - - - - - - . 4.. 0 . J ~- .44 0* 0 50. C, .E- 0 0 - * LE 0: C" 1 ! ; CL 20 1.00 0. ML~ aC 0 0.0Za .0 .00 0 S M S 0 .0 0

  12. A critical review of the ESCAPE project for estimating long-term health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W

    2017-02-01

    The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) is a13-nation study of long-term health effects of air pollution based on subjects pooled from up to 22 cohorts that were intended for other purposes. Twenty-five papers have been published on associations of various health endpoints with long-term exposures to NOx, NO2, traffic indicators, PM10, PM2.5 and PM constituents including absorbance (elemental carbon). Seven additional ESCAPE papers found moderate correlations (R2=0.3-0.8) between measured air quality and estimates based on land-use regression that were used; personal exposures were not considered. I found no project summaries or comparisons across papers; here I conflate the 25 ESCAPE findings in the context of other recent European epidemiology studies. Because one ESCAPE cohort contributed about half of the subjects, I consider it and the other 18 cohorts separately to compare their contributions to the combined risk estimates. I emphasize PM2.5 and confirm the published hazard ratio of 1.14 (1.04-1.26) per 10μg/m3 for all-cause mortality. The ESCAPE papers found 16 statistically significant (ppollutant-endpoint combinations; 4 each for PM2.5 and PM10, 1 for PM absorbance, 5 for NO2, and 2 for traffic. No PM constituent was consistently significant. No significant associations were reported for cardiovascular mortality; low birthrate was significant for all pollutants except PM absorbance. Based on associations with PM2.5, I find large differences between all-cause death estimates and the sum of specific-cause death estimates. Scatterplots of PM2.5 mortality risks by cause show no consistency across the 18 cohorts, ostensibly because of the relatively few subjects. Overall, I find the ESCAPE project inconclusive and I question whether the efforts required to estimate exposures for small cohorts were worthwhile. I suggest that detailed studies of the large cohort using historical exposures and additional cardiovascular risk factors might

  13. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: January 1 through December 31, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-01-01

    On April 24, 1957, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, now the Department of Energy [DOE]) conducted the Project 57 safety experiment in western Emigrant Valley north east of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) on lands withdrawn by the Department of Defense (DOD) for the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). The test was undertaken to develop (1) a means of estimating plutonium distribution resulting from a non-nuclear detonation; (2) biomedical evaluation techniques for use in plutonium-laden environments; (3) methods of surface decontamination; and (4) instruments and field procedures for prompt estimation of alpha contamination (Shreve, 1958). Although the test did not result in the fission of nuclear materials, it did disseminate plutonium across the land surface. Following the experiment, the AEC fenced the contaminated area and returned control of the surrounding land to the DOD. Various radiological surveys were performed in the area and in 2007, the DOE expanded the demarked Contamination Area by posting signs 200 to 400 feet (60 to 120 meters) outside of the original fence.

  14. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: January 1 through December 31, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-11-01

    On April 24, 1957, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, now the Department of Energy [DOE]) conducted the Project 57 safety experiment in western Emigrant Valley northeast of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) on lands withdrawn by the Department of Defense (DOD) for the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). The test was undertaken to develop (1) a means of estimating plutonium distribution resulting from a non-nuclear detonation; (2) biomedical evaluation techniques for use in plutonium-laden environments; (3) methods of surface decontamination; and (4) instruments and field procedures for prompt estimation of alpha contamination (Shreve, 1958). Although the test did not result in the fission of nuclear materials, it did disseminate plutonium across the land surface. Following the experiment, the AEC fenced the contaminated area and returned control of the surrounding land to the DOD. Various radiological surveys were performed in the area and in 2007, the DOE expanded the demarked Contamination Area (CA) by posting signs 200 to 400 ft (60 to 120 m) outside of the original fence.

  15. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Benton, Nathanael [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Burns, Patrick [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: High-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating, load/unload, or constant-speed compressor; and Compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  16. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI)-integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Baltensperger, U.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Facchini, M.C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hov, Ø.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Pöschl, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; Leeuw, G. de; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Feichter, J.; Krejci, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J.P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S.L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R.M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V.A.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Rizzo, L.V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W.T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donnell, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J.J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C.L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, J.; Seland, O.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X.J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J.Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J.P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; Zadelhoff, G.J. van; Zardini, A.A.; Zhang, K.; Zyl, P.G. van; Kerminen, V.-M.; Carslaw, K.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of

  17. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  18. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  19. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  20. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D D; Jiang, J; Zhao, Z; Yi, W S; Lan, G

    2013-01-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  1. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Organization, Mission and Growth of the Vietnamese Air Force 1949-1968

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jr, Oakah L

    1968-01-01

    This report presents an historical summary of the Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) from its initial formation under the French following World War II through its establishment as an independent air arm in 1955 to its present (mid-1968) status...

  2. The source apportionment of carbonaceous combustion products by micro-radiocarbon measurements for the integrated air cancer project (IACP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klouda, G.A.; Currie, L.A.; Sheffield, A.E.; Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A.; Stevens, R.K.; Merrill, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric particle samples were collected during the winter of 1984-1985 in Albuquerque, NM and Raleigh, NC by the EPA for the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). Selected chemical fractions were analyzed for /sup 14/C to apportion mobile (motor vehicles) and stationary (residential wood combustion) sources. In addition, these results were used to validate the EPA Single Tracer Regression Model (STRM), also a technique for the source apportionment of aerosols. Preliminary /sup 14/C results for the Albuquerque residential site at night showed 79% Contemporary Carbon (CC) compared to 95% CC for Raleight at night for the total carbon; 88% and 94% of the total-C was organic, respectively. The Albuquerque traffic site during the day showed 1.4 to 3.9 times less CC compared to the daytime residential site for total-C. The elemental carbon fraction in all cases showed a lower percentage of contemporary carbon than the total carbon, which indicates that this chemical fraction may be an excellent tracer of mobile sources. These results are consistent with a daytime mobile source at the traffic site and a nighttime Residential Wood Combustion (RWC) source at the residential site. Also, the results from the EPA STRM technique for this study were in good agreement with those obtained by the /sup 14/C Direct Tracer (/sup 14/C-DT) technique for source apportionment of these aerosols

  3. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  4. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  5. Evaluation of energy saving in pilot projects of window type air conditioning equipment in the domestic sector; Evaluacion del ahorro de energia en proyectos pilotos en equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Ramirez, Ricardo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present work shows the energy saving when replacing low efficiency window type air conditioning equipment, for higher efficiency equipment, as well as the necessary parameters to identify the results obtained by the pilot projects of substitution of conventional equipment for other more efficient in the domestic sector. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los ahorros de energia al sustituir equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana de baja eficiencia, por equipos de mayor eficiencia, asi como los parametros necesarios para identificar los resultados obtenidos, por los proyectos pilotos de sustitucion de equipos convencionales por otros mas eficientes en el sector domestico.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction Projects for the 140th Wing, Colorado Air National Guard at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    biologica l resou rces, cultura l resomces, environmenta l justice, socioeconomics, geology, soUs and topography, water resources, solid and hazardous...emissions associated with the implementation of the Proposed Action were to cause or contribute to a violation of any national or state ambient air...control technology MOA Memorandum of Agreement MSA munitions storage areas NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEPA National Environmental

  7. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  8. Maintaining project consistency with transportation plans throughout the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity: technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Federal and state transportation planning statutory and regulatory laws require transportation projects to be : consistent with transportation plans and improvement programs before a federal action can be taken on a : project requiring one. Significa...

  9. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European...... and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.......In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year...

  10. Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Systemic Inflammation in Adults : A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the European ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanki, Timo; Hampel, Regina; Tiittanen, Pekka; Andrich, Silke; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Dratva, Julia; De Faire, Ulf; Fuks, Kateryna B; Hoffmann, Barbara; Imboden, Medea; Jousilahti, Pekka; Koenig, Wolfgang; Mahabadi, Amir A; Künzli, Nino; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Sugiri, Dorothea; Swart, Wim J R; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Turunen, Anu W; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Peters, Annette

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated whether annual exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with systemic inflammation, which is hypothesized to be an intermediate step to

  11. 0-6758 : maintaining project consistency with transportation plans through the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Streamlined project delivery is a federally : mandated goal that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) leadership supports to : achieve a more efficient and effective : transportation system in Texas. : Federal and state transportation pla...

  12. FAA Alleged Waste and Mismanagement of Air Route Traffic Control Centers Critical and Essential Power Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-16

    The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reviewed a complaint from Congressman Deal on behalf of a constituent. The constituent alleged waste and mismanagement occurred in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers Criti...

  13. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  14. Status Report of the EPA's Air Pollution Prevention & Control Division's Biomass-to Energy Development & Demonstration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purvis, C

    1996-01-01

    ...) is participating in research, development, and demonstration projects that will convert biomass energy to electrical power, resulting in waste utilization, pollution alleviation, and energy conservation...

  15. Preliminary calculations for the CAFE project (Clean Air For Europe); Calculs preparatoires pour la strategie thematique CAFE (Clean Air For Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The European Commission decided in 2001 an analysis program to reduce the atmospheric emissions. This report presents different limit scenari for France in 2020 (the reference scenari and the MTFR scenari, Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction), optimized scenari calculated by the RAINS model (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation), the costs of the scenari calculated with RAINS and the cost-benefit analysis of the strategy CAFE. From the study results, the benefits are higher than the costs, even with the most ambitious scenari. At an european level the emission reduction strategies have no effect on the employment but an impact on the Gross Domestic Product (decrease between 0,04 % and 0,12 % in function of the scenari). (A.L.B.)

  16. Methodology and Limitations of Ohio Enrollment Projections. The AIR Professional File, No. 4, Winter 1979-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    Two quantitative enrollment projection techniques and the methods used by researchers at the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR) are discussed. Two quantitative approaches that are typically used for enrollment projections are curve-fitting techniques and causal models. Many state forecasters use curve-fitting techniques, a popular approach because only…

  17. Using color intensity projections to visualize air flow in operating theaters with the goal of reducing infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cover, K.S.; van Asperen, N.; de Jong, J.; Verdaasdonk, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection following neurosurgery is all too common. One possible source of infection is the transportation of dust and other contaminates into the open wound by airflow within the operating theatre. While many modern operating theatres have a filtered, uniform and gentle flow of air cascading down

  18. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Vermeulen, Roel; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Keuken, Menno; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-10-13

    Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM coarse , respectively); PM 2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO 2 and NO x ); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM 2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m 3 }, PM 10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m 3 ], PM coarse [1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m 3 ], and NO 2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m 3 ], and a statistically significant association with NO x [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m 3 , p =0.04]. We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.

  19. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  20. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  1. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  2. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Baltensperger, U.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Facchini, M. C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hov, Ø.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Pöschl, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; de Leeuw, G.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Feichter, J.; Krejci, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J. P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S. L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A. M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R. M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V. A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H. E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W. T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donnell, D.; Panwar, T. S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J. J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C. L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, J.; Seland, Ø.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X. J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J. Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J. P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D. R.; van Zadelhoff, G.-J.; Zardini, A. A.; Zhang, K.; van Zyl, P. G.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  3. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  4. General overview: European integrated project on aerosol cloud climate and air quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; De Leeuw, G.; Riipinen, I.; Laakso, L.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; Merikanto, J.; Vakkari, V.; Vuollekoski, H.; Worsnop, D.R.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Kolmonen, P.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Worsnop, D.R.; Baltensperger, U.; Canonaco, F.; Lanz, V.A.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Brenguier, J.L.; Gomes, L.; Facchini, M.C.; Decesari, S.; Hansson, H.C.; Krejci, R.; Tunved, P.; Hov, O.; Schulz, M.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Seland, O.; Simpson, D.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Poschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Baars, H.; Herrmann, H.; Iinuma, Y.; Siebert, H.; Wehner, B.; Boers, R.; Roberts, G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Boucher, O.; Halloran, P.; Woodward, S.; De Leeuw, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Visschedijk, A.; Feichter, J.; Zhang, K.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.; McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; McMeeking, G.; Morgan, W.T.; Topping, D.; Mentel, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wildt, J.; Pilinis, C.; Schulz, M.; Vuolo, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes from nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies. (authors)

  5. Influences of Regional Climate Change on Air Quality Across the Continental U.S. Projected from Downscaling IPCC AR5 Simulations. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher; Otte, Tanya; Pinder, Robert; Bowden, J.; Herwehe, J.; Faluvegi, Gregory; Shindell, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Projecting climate change scenarios to local scales is important for understanding, mitigating, and adapting to the effects of climate change on society and the environment. Many of the global climate models (GCMs) that are participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) do not fully resolve regional-scale processes and therefore cannot capture regional-scale changes in temperatures and precipitation. We use a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale the GCM's large-scale signal to investigate the changes in regional and local extremes of temperature and precipitation that may result from a changing climate. In this paper, we show preliminary results from downscaling the NASA/GISS ModelE IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0 scenario. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as the RCM to downscale decadal time slices (1995-2005 and 2025-2035) and illustrate potential changes in regional climate for the continental U.S. that are projected by ModelE and WRF under RCP6.0. The regional climate change scenario is further processed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to explore influences of regional climate change on air quality.

  6. State of Washington Department of Health Radioactive air emissions notice of construction phase 1 for spent nuclear fuel project - cold vacuum drying facility, project W-441

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated annual possession quantity resulting from operation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the CVDF will be discussed again in the Phase 11 NOC. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of WAC 246-247-060 for the completion of Phase I NOC, defined as the pouring of concrete for the foundation flooring, construction of external walls, and construction of the building excluding the installation of CVDF process equipment. A Phase 11 NOC will be submitted for approval prior to installing and is defined as the completion of the CVDF, which consisted installation of process equipment, air emissions control, and emission monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters while the SNF in the K East Basin is in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water.

  7. Impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the East Mediterranean - An overview of the first results from the CITYZEN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Saharan dust, vegetation and the sea, as well as from biomass burning, in overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. The east basin of the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions, include significant megacities such as Istanbul and Cairo, but also several large urban centers like to its north part Athens and Thessaloniki; to the east Izmir and Adana, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and to the south Alexandria. The region covers from rural to maritime and desert conditions. During the last decades, the East Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including enhanced vehicle circulation, and in industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems in Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole East Mediterranean region. Ozone and aerosol air quality limits are often exceeded over the entire Mediterranean, in particular during summer. High ozone and aerosol concentrations are harmful for human health and ecosystems, and they can also be responsible for agricultural crop loss and climate change. The contribution of various sources to these exceedances remains to be determined. In addition the importance of interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions in the area has to be evaluated. For this purpose, in the frame of the CityZEN EU funded project, available records of air pollution levels over the past decades have been compiled and analysed for Istanbul and Cairo

  8. Uncertain socioeconomic projections used in travel demand and emissions models: could plausible errors result in air quality nonconformity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, C.J.; Johnston, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of plausible errors in population, employment, fuel price, and income projections is conducted using the travel demand and emissions models of the Sacramento, CA, USA, region for their transportation plan. The results of the analyses indicate that plausible error ranges for household income and fuel prices are not a significant source of uncertainty with respect to the region's travel demand and emissions projections. However, plausible errors in population and employment projections (within approximately one standard deviation) may result in the region's transportation plan not meeting the conformity test for nitrogens of oxides (NO x ) in the year 2005 (i.e., an approximately 16% probability). This outcome is also possible in the year 2015 but less likely (within approximately two standard deviations or a 2.5% probability). Errors in socioeconomic projections are only one of many sources of error in travel demand and emissions models. These results have several policy implications. First, regions like Sacramento that meet their conformity tests by a very small margin should rethink new highway investment and consider contingency transportation plans that incorporate more aggressive emissions reduction policies. Second, regional transportation planning agencies should conduct sensitivity analyses as part of their conformity analysis to make explicit significant uncertainties in the methods and to identify the probability of their transportation plan not conforming. Third, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should clarify the interpretation of ''demonstrate'' conformity of transportation plans; that is, specify the level of certainty that it considers a sufficient demonstration of conformity. (author)

  9. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force, Space Division Housing Project, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-24

    heavily used beaches in Los Angeles and is a popular surfing area. Lifeguards are provided year round. 167 Although this project does not directly block...Superiore di Fort MacArthur. Si hanno discusso anche tre alternative in cui 1"USAF non dovrebbe costruire niente. Qualsiasi alternativa avra degli effetti

  10. Influences of Regional Climate Change on Air Quality across the Continental U.S. Projected from Downscaling IPCC ARS Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projecting climate change scenarios to local scales is important for understanding, mitigating, and adapting to the effects of climate change on society and the environment. Many of the global climate models (GCMs) that are participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

  11. Projection of greenhouse gases and air pollutants 2011-2015; Raming van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Daniels, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (NL)

    2011-05-15

    This report outlines the expected greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2 but also methane and nitrous oxide) and air pollutants in the period 2011 up to and including 2015. Attention is paid to whether or not the Netherlands will comply with the mandatory European and international regulations. [Dutch] Er wordt in beeld gebracht wat de te verwachten uitstoot van broeikasgassen (vooral CO2, maar bijvoorbeeld ook methaan en lachgas) en luchtverontreinigende stoffen zal zijn in de periode 2011 tot en met 2015. Gekeken is of Nederland in die periode zal voldoen aan de verplichte Europese en internationale regels.

  12. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project “testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence (Italy); Giannoni, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Udisti, R.; Severi, M. [Department of Chemistry – University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Querol, X.; Amato, F. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alves, C. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Eleftheriadis, K. [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, N.C.S.R. Demokritos Univ., 15341 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  13. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI. The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  14. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Quan

    2018-04-20

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011⁻2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  15. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  16. Finding of No Significant Impact for Porposed Replacement of Senior Officers Quarters Project, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-08

    increased operations costs, frequent maintenance and repair and inconvenience ro the residents. Without the project, repair of the units will continuo to...occupants for access to the interiors of the houses and no major improvement in living quality. The housing neighborhoods will continue to have a stark...interruptions of the occupants for access to the interiors of the houses and no major improvement in living quality. The housing neighborhoods will

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for Canister Storage Building (revised sealing configuration for spent nuclear fuel) - Project W-379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to provide a rewritten NOC for obtaining regulatory approval for changes to the previous Canister Storage Building (CSB) NOCs (WDOH, 1996 and EPA, 1996) as were approved by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH, 1996a) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 1996a). These changes are because of a revised sealing configuration of the multi-canister overpacks (MCOS) that are used to store the SNF. A flow schematic of the SNF Project is provided in Figure 1-1. A separate notification of startup will be provided apart from this NOC

  18. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    1993-10-01

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  19. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chornack, M.P.; French, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  20. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  1. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE project: evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low-cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE project deployed low-cost, continuous, and commercially available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding  ∼ 2 km area in the southeastern United States. Collocation of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as the degree to which multiple identical sensors produced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, −0.25 to 0.76, and −0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r < 0.5 with a reference monitor and erroneously high concentration values. A wide variety of particulate matter (PM sensors were tested with variable results – some sensors had very high agreement (e.g., r =  0.99 between identical sensors but moderate agreement with a reference PM2.5 monitor (e.g., r =  0.65. For select sensors that had moderate to strong correlation with reference monitors (r > 0.5, step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH, or age of the sensor in number of sampling days could be used in a correction algorithm to improve the agreement

  2. Stereolithographic biomodelling to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells based on the visible human project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapakin, S

    2011-02-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), or stereolithography, is a new clinical application area, which is used to obtain accurate three-dimensional physical replicas of complex anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells (ELACs) with stereolithographic biomodelling. The visible human dataset (VHD) was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied to these images to reconstruct the ELACs as three-dimensional DXF (data exchange file) models. These models were post-processed in 3D-Doctor software for virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and STL (Standard Triangulation Language) formats. Stereolithographic replicas were manufactured in a rapid prototyping machine by using the STL format. The total number of ELACs was 21. The dimensions of the ELACs on the right and left sides were 52.91 x 13.00 x 28.68 mm and 53.79 x 12.42 x 28.55 mm, respectively. The total volume of the ELACs was 4771.1003 mm(3). The mean ELAC distance was 27.29 mm from the nasion and 71.09 mm from the calotte topologically. In conclusion, the combination of Surfdriver and 3D-Doctor could be effectively used for manufacturing 3D solid models from serial sections of anatomical structures. Stereolithographic anatomical models provide an innovative and complementary tool for students, researchers, and surgeons to apprehend these anatomical structures tangibly. The outcomes of these attempts can provide benefits in terms of the visualization, perception, and interpretation of the structures in anatomy teaching and prior to surgical interventions.

  3. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  4. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of

  5. Virtual patient 3D dose reconstruction using in air EPID measurements and a back-projection algorithm for IMRT and VMAT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Rozendaal, Roel; van Oers, René F M; Mijnheer, Ben; Mans, Anton

    2017-05-01

    At our institute, a transit back-projection algorithm is used clinically to reconstruct in vivo patient and in phantom 3D dose distributions using EPID measurements behind a patient or a polystyrene slab phantom, respectively. In this study, an extension to this algorithm is presented whereby in air EPID measurements are used in combination with CT data to reconstruct 'virtual' 3D dose distributions. By combining virtual and in vivo patient verification data for the same treatment, patient-related errors can be separated from machine, planning and model errors. The virtual back-projection algorithm is described and verified against the transit algorithm with measurements made behind a slab phantom, against dose measurements made with an ionization chamber and with the OCTAVIUS 4D system, as well as against TPS patient data. Virtual and in vivo patient dose verification results are also compared. Virtual dose reconstructions agree within 1% with ionization chamber measurements. The average γ-pass rate values (3% global dose/3mm) in the 3D dose comparison with the OCTAVIUS 4D system and the TPS patient data are 98.5±1.9%(1SD) and 97.1±2.9%(1SD), respectively. For virtual patient dose reconstructions, the differences with the TPS in median dose to the PTV remain within 4%. Virtual patient dose reconstruction makes pre-treatment verification based on deviations of DVH parameters feasible and eliminates the need for phantom positioning and re-planning. Virtual patient dose reconstructions have additional value in the inspection of in vivo deviations, particularly in situations where CBCT data is not available (or not conclusive). Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  7. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  8. Clean Air Technology Initiative Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Pacific Southwest has provided funding to both South Coast AQMD and San Joaquin Valley APCD to help spur early-stage, innovative technologies that need further testing and demonstration prior to deployment and commercialization.

  9. Solid State Air Purification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solid state air purification project will explore feasibility of a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide...

  10. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J.; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15...... cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts......)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European...

  12. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  13. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobycco smoke and other parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, Jan; Stoikidou, M.; Kaila, S.; Gioka, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2001), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant - others:EU(XC) ENV4V-CT96-0203; EU(XC) IC20CT960063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomarkers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2001

  14. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality : an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ostenson, Claes-Goeran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Goeran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Kraemer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kuenzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Phuleria, Harish; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Declercq, Christophe; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several

  16. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR-POLLUTION ON HEALTH - A EUROPEAN APPROACH USING EPIDEMIOLOGIC TIME-SERIES DATA - THE APHEA PROJECT - BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, DESIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KATSOUYANNI, K; ZMIROU, D; SPIX, C; SUNYER, J; SCHOUTEN, JP; PONKA, A; ANDERSON, HR; LEMOULLEC, Y; WOJTYNIAK, B; VIGOTTI, MA; BACHAROVA, L

    Recent studies investigating the adverse health effects of air pollution indicate that effects exist around and below the current national and international air quality guidelines and standards, However, the difficult methodological issues involved, and the diversity of analytical techniques so far

  17. FY 1999 Report on research and development project. Research and development of high-temperature air combustion technology; 1999 nendo koon kuki nensho seigyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The high-temperature air combustion technology recently developed greatly advances combustion technology. The technology, when applied to the other areas, may expand its applicable areas and contribute to environmental preservation, e.g., abatement of CO2 emissions. This is the motivation for promotion of this project. The combustion technology, developed by improving functions of industrial furnaces, cannot be directly applied to the other combustion heaters. This project is aimed at extraction of the problems involved, finding out the solutions, and thereby smoothly transferring the technology to commercialization. This project covers boilers firing finely pulverized coal, waste incineration processes and high-temperature chemical reaction processes, to which the new technology is applied. It is also aimed at establishment of advanced combustion control basic technology, required when the high-temperature air combustion technology is applied to these processes. In addition to application R and D efforts for each area, the basic phenomena characteristic of each combustion heater type are elucidated using microgravity and the like, to support the application R and D efforts from the basic side. This project also surveys reduction of environmental pollutants, e.g., NOx and dioxins. This report presents the results obtained in the first year. (NEDO)

  18. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  19. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Hampel, Regina; Heier, Margit; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Migliore, Enrica; Ostenson, Caes-Göran; Overvad, Kim; Pedersen, Nancy L; J, Juha Pekkanen; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Swart, Wim; Turunen, Anu W; Vineis, Paolo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Peters, Annette

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).\

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  1. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  2. Central air-conditioning in the 'Pniowek' coal-mine: Jastrzebie Coal Corporation plc - the first such project in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlazak, N.; Jakubw, A.; Nawrat, S. [University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Pniowek' coal-mine has been engaged in mining deep coal beds which are characterised by a very high methane risk and high natural primary temperature of the rock mass. The need to improve underground working conditions and the prospects of mining beds on the level of 1000 m resulted in a decision to install a centralised air-conditioning system in the KWK (coal-mine) 'Pniowek' - the first such installation in Poland. The prognostic calculations for the climatic conditions in KWK 'Pniowek' have revealed that the maintenance of air temperature at the face within the permissible 28{sup o} maximum requires air cooling, and the power of air coolers should be about 5 MW. The analyses of central air-conditioning systems, enabled a decision to be made to install an interconnected powered cooling system, based on gas-powered engines and electric energy generating units integrated with absorptive and compression coolers. The gas engines are fed with methane recovered from methane drainage. The heat generated is used by the energy conversion in absorptive coolers. Some of the generated electric energy is used to power the screw compressor. The remainder of the electric energy and heat is utilised in the mine's operation. On 15th June 2000 the first stage of a 2,5 MW central air-conditioning system was started. In December 2000 the second part of the cooling installation was put into operation, which resulted in the target cooling power of 5 MW. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  4. Distribution of kerma rate in the air inside of hemodynamic room for typical projections of interventionist cardiology procedures; Distribuicao da taxa de kerma no ar em uma sala de hemodinamica para projecoes tipicas de procedimentos de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Mirtha Elizabet Gamarra

    2008-07-01

    The evaluation of dose to physicians involved in Interventional Cardiology (IC) is an extreme important matter due to the high and non-uniform distribution of dose values. The radiation control during each procedure is complex and the reasons for the high exposures have many different causes. Many international recommendations have already been written aiming the radiation protection optimization in IC. In Brazil, there is not any special orientation for the protection of those occupational persons, nor a specific legislation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the air kerma rate at critical anatomic regions of the occupationally exposed staff that carry out IC procedures, in representative incidences in order to give subsidies for individual monitoring procedures implementation and to give more information about their radiation protection. The air kerma rate has been measured in the often used condition in the two more common IC procedures namely angiography and coronary angioplasty, using an adult patient simulator irradiated under RAO, LAO and AP projections for fluoro and digital acquisition modes. The measurements have been made in 45 points around the examination table at 5 different representatives heights of: eyes lens, thorax, hands, gonads and knees. AP projection shows the smaller scattered radiation contributions and a more homogeneous exposure distribution. The digital acquisition mode gives air kerma rates about 4 times higher than fluoro mode for LAO projection in the position occupied by the interventionist doctor, the anesthetist and the nursing staff. The most critical anatomic regions are: knees and gonads (without protection). On the physician hands position, values as high as 5 mGy/h have been measured, which can overpass, depending on the number of procedures done, the individual occupational annual limit. Therefore, in IC it is necessary to implement additional protection tools, elaborate safety guides (based on international experiences

  5. Air transport of dangerous goods

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis topic deals with air transport of dangerous goods. In the beginning part it describes air cargo transportation itself as well as the main characteristics. Thesis introduces organizations involved in international transport of dangerous goods. Next part of diploma thesis reveals project analysis of air transportation of dangerous goods in respect of IATA Dangerous Goods regulations and procedures. Thesis also covers introduction to air transportation of dangerous goods in specif...

  6. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  7. General Overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI)– Integrating Aerosol Research from Nano to Global Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Baltensperger, U.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Facchini, M.C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hov, O.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Pöschl, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; de Leeuw, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Feichter, J.; Krejčí, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J.P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S.L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.D.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R.M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hörrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirgevak, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V.A.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Rizzo, L.V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W.T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donell, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J.J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévot, A.S.H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C.L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seland, O.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X.J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J.Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J.P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; van Zadelhoff, G.-J.; Zardini, A.A.; Zhang, K.; van Zyl, P.G.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Carslaw, K.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 24 (2012), s. 13061-13143 ISSN 1680-7316 Grant - others:AFCE(FI) 1118615; EUCAARI(XE) 34684; ERC AG(FI) ATMNUCLE:227463; EUSAAR(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosol radiative forcing * air quality-climate interactions * abatement strategies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2012

  8. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  9. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  10. Assessment of Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes in Burgundy and in Franche-Comte - Intermediate review on June 27, 2017. Burgundy Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme. Project, Scheme, Appendix to the SRCAE - Wind regional scheme of Burgundy, synthesis, opinion of the Burgundy CESER. Territorial Climate Energy Plan - Program of actions, Plenary session of the November 25, 2013. Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Franche-Comte SRCAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    A first report proposes an assessment of the various aspects addressed by the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes (SRCAE) of Burgundy and Franche-Comte: global aspects, and aspects related to adaptation to climate change, to air quality, to land planning, to the building sector, to mobility, to good transports, to agriculture, to forest, to industry and craft, to renewable energies, and to ecological responsibility. A synthetic presentation of the Burgundy scheme is proposed, and then an extended version which contains a description of the situation, an analysis of the regional potential, and a definition of orientations for the same above-mentioned aspects. A document more particularly addresses wind energy: role of wind energy in the energy mix of the region, role of small installations, wind energy potential, challenges and constraints (heritage and landscapes, natural environment, technical constraints), identification of areas of interest for wind energy projects, qualitative objectives. Documents published by the regional economic, social and environmental Council (CESER) of Burgundy are then proposed: a contribution to the Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme, a discussion and a presentation of a program of actions for the Climate Energy Territorial Plan (a large number of sheets of presentation of actions is proposed). The last document presents the Franche-Comte regional scheme: overview of regional knowledge on climate, air quality and environmental issues, challenges and potential per activity sector (transports and development, building, agriculture, industry, renewable energy production), definition of orientations and objectives for axes of action

  11. The IVAIRE project--a randomized controlled study of the impact of ventilation on indoor air quality and the respiratory symptoms of asthmatic children in single family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, P; Aubin, D; Gingras, V; Daigneault, P; Ducharme, F; Gauvin, D; Fugler, D; Leclerc, J-M; Won, D; Courteau, M; Gingras, S; Héroux, M-È; Yang, W; Schleibinger, H

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial was carried out to measure the impact of an intervention on ventilation, indoor air contaminants, and asthma symptoms of children. Eighty-three asthmatic children living in low-ventilated homes were followed over 2 years. Several environmental parameters were measured during the summer, fall, and winter. The children were randomized after Year 1 (43 Intervention; 40 Control). The intervention included the installation of either a Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) or Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV). During the fall and winter seasons, there was a significant increase in the mean ventilation rate in the homes of the intervention group. A statistically significant reduction in mean formaldehyde, airborne mold spores, toluene, styrene, limonene, and α-pinene concentrations was observed in the intervention group. There was no significant group difference in change in the number of days with symptoms per 14 days. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of children who experienced any wheezing (≥1 episode) and those with ≥4 episodes in the 12-month period in the intervention group. This study indicates that improved ventilation reduces air contaminants and may prevent wheezing. Due to lack of power, a bigger study is needed. Positive findings from this study include the fact that, upon recruitment, most of the single family homes with asthmatic children were already equipped with a mechanical ventilation system and had relatively good indoor air quality. However, the 8-h indoor guideline for formaldehyde (50 μg/m3) was frequently exceeded and the ventilation rates were low in most of the homes, even those with a ventilation system. Both ERVs and HRVs were equally effective at increasing air exchange rates above 0.30 ACH and at preventing formaldehyde concentrations from exceeding the 50 μg/m3 guideline during the fall and winter seasons. Furthermore, the ERVs were effective at preventing excessively low relative

  12. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  13. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  14. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  15. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  16. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 3: Project design criteria: CAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The design criteria presented provided the basis for development of the design approaches and preliminary plant design. These design criteria are based, where possible, upon related facilities and experiences and are representative of normal utility practices. They cover the major plant equipment, systems, and facilities and the plant characteristics which depend upon or have an impact on plant surroundings. Project team studies and outside development contracts concentrated on those areas where current technology or practice does not provide adequate information to support plant design activities or economic analyses.

  17. METODOLOGÍA PARA EVALUAR EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LOS PROYECTOS DE REDISEÑO DE RUTAS DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO COLECTIVO EN LAS CIUDADES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: MEDELLÍN METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN PROJECTS REDESIGNING COLLECTIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES IN THE CITIES. CASE STUDY: MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento establece la metodología y los procedimientos necesarios para evaluar el impacto ambiental sobre la calidad del aire en los proyectos de rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en las principales ciudades del mundo. Para este propósito, se formuló un caso hipotético en la ciudad de Medellín teniendo en cuenta las rutas de transporte público colectivo complementarias al sistema integrado de transporte en el Valle de Aburrá, convirtiendo algunas rutas radiales en rutas transversales o de migración a otras cuencas. Con la reconfiguración propuesta para las rutas de transporte público colectivo la emisión de contaminantes proveniente de los buses no presentó cambios sustanciales. Sin embargo, la concentración de partículas aumentó en ciertos puntos de la zona de estudio y alcanzó valores que superan la norma anual de calidad del aire (50 µg/m³.This document provides the methodology and necessary procedures to assess the environmental impact on air quality in the projects of redesign of collective public transport routes in main cities around the world. For this purpose, it has been formulated a hypothetical case in the city of Medellin keeping in mind the public transport routes that are complementary to the integrated transport system in the Aburrá Valley, transforming some radial routes in transversal routes or migration to other basins. With the reconfiguration proposed for collective public transport routes, pollutant emissions from buses did not show substantial changes. However, the concentration of particles increased at certain points in the study area, reaching values that exceed the annual standard for air quality (50 µg/m³.

  18. Report on EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 (EUROMET project no. 813): Comparison of air kerma and absorbed dose to water measurements of {sup 60}Co radiation beams for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, I. [National Office of Measures (OMH) - pilot laboratory and corresponding author (Hungary); Leiton, A.G. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CMRI-CIEMAT) (Spain); Sochor, V. [Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) (Czech Republic); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Center (LNMC-RMTC) (Latvia); Grindborg, J.E. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (Sweden); Jokelainen, I. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Bjerke, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Dobrovodsky, J. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) (Slovakia); Megzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Hourdakis, C.J. [Hellenic Atomic Energy Committee (HAEC-HIRCL) (Greece); Ivanov, R. [National Centre of Metrology (NCM) (Bulgaria); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute (IRB) (Croatia); Kokocinski, J. [Central Office of Measures (GUM) (Poland); Cardoso, J. [Institute for Nuclear Technology (ITN-LMRIR) (Portugal); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Germany); Tiefenboeck, W. [Bundesamt fur Eich und Vermesungswesen (BEV) (Austria); Stucki, G. [17 Bundesamt fur Metrologie (METAS) (Switzerland); Van Dijk, E. [NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi) (Netherlands); Toni, M.P. [ENEA-CR Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (ENEA) (Italy); Minniti, R. [20 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (United States); McCaffrey, J.P. [National Research Council Canada (NRC) (Canada); Silva, C.N.M. [National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD) (Brazil); Kharitonov, I. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM) (RU); Webb, D. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) (Australia); Saravi, M. [National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA-CAE) (Argentina); Delaunay, F. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) (France)

    2010-06-15

    The results of an unprecedented international effort involving 26 countries are reported. The EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 key comparisons were conducted with the goal of supporting the relevant calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) planned for publication by the participant laboratories. The measured quantities were the air kerma (K{sub air}) and the absorbed dose to water (Dw) in {sup 60}Co radiotherapy beams. The comparison was conducted by the pilot laboratory MKEH (Hungary), in a star-shaped arrangement from January 2005 to December 2008. The calibration coefficients of four transfer ionization chambers were measured using two electrometers. The largest deviation between any two calibration coefficients for the four chambers in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water was 2.7% and 3.3% respectively. An analysis of the participant uncertainty budgets enabled the calculation of degrees of equivalence (DoE), in terms of the deviations of the results and their associated uncertainties. As a result of this EUROMET project 813 comparison, the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) will include eleven new Kair and fourteen new D{sub w} DoE values of European secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), and the KCDB will be updated with the new DoE values of the other participant laboratories. The pair-wise degrees of equivalence of participants were also calculated. In addition to assessing calibration techniques and uncertainty calculations of the participants, these comparisons enabled the experimental determinations of N{sub Dw}/N{sub Kair} ratios in the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation beam for the four radiotherapy transfer chambers. (authors)

  19. Investigation of different approaches to reduce allergens in asthmatic children's homes--the Breath of Fresh Air Project, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Susan Ann; Richardson, George

    2011-09-01

    During 2001 to 2004, a study was conducted to assess the indoor environmental and health impact of installing allergen-reducing interventions in the homes of asthmatic children. Based on the results of a pilot study, to determine an intervention that would provide improved symptom scores and a reduction in house dust mite allergen (Der p 1), mechanical ventilation and heat recovery (MVHR) systems were installed in 16 homes. Environmental and respiratory health assessments were conducted before and after the installation of the MVHR systems. The results indicated that the installation of MVHR systems reduced Der p 1 concentrations in living room carpets and mattresses. There were significant reductions in symptom scores for breathlessness during exercise, wheezing, and coughing during the day and night. Although, there was not a parallel control group for the main study, the lack of change in the pilot study control group (who did not receive an intervention), indicated that the changes in symptom scores were in part to do with the intervention. Larger scale trials are needed to determine the efficacy of MVHR systems in homes to improve indoor air quality and reduce asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. European Commission funded program on the impact of air pollution on population health: the example of HEalth Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available HEalth Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS project has been thought and carried out to fill some of the identified gaps in the evidence base and develop and apply an integrated methodology for assessing and quantifying the health risk associated to outdoor pollution exposure and for investigating the potential mitigating role of urban green. Results of HEREPLUS have demonstrated that these are no watertight compartments and that some issues should be tackled in an integrated approach. For instance, benefits from a proper selection of vegetation species in a city could be assessed in terms of load of pollutants removed from the atmosphere, and furthermore this data translated into health benefits. Additionally, health outcomes could be better interpreted in terms of a spatial analysis that previously had defined the high risk areas associated to a specific pollutant and, in consequence, action plans can be defined taking into account this geo-referenced information.

  1. EUROTRAC projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.; Arends, B.G.; Wyers, G.P.

    1992-07-01

    The projects discussed are BIATEX (BIosphere-ATmosphere EXchange of pollutants), ACE (Acidity in Clouds Experiment) and GCE (Ground-based Cloud Experiment). ECN also coordinates BIATEX and contributes to the coordination of EUROTRAC. Research in BIATEX is aimed at the development of equipment, by which atmosphere-surface interactions of air pollution can be quantified. A ion chromatograph, connected to a rotating denuder, is developed to be applicated in the field for on-line analysis of denuder extracts and other samples. To investigate dry deposition of ammonia a continuous-flow denuder has been developed. A thermodenuder system to measure the concentrations of HNO 3 and NH 4 NO 3 in the ambient air is optimized to determine depositions and is part of the ECN monitoring station in Zegveld, Netherlands. An aerosol separation technique, based on a cyclone separator, has also been developed. All this equipment has been used in field experiments above wheat and heather. An automated monitoring station for long-term investigations of NH 3 , HNO 3 and SO 2 dry deposition on grassland and the impact of the deposition on the presence and composition of water films has been set up and fully tested. Research in GCE concerns the uptake and conversion of air pollution in clouds (cloud chemistry). Measuring equipment from several collaborative institutes has been specified and calibrated in a cloud chamber at ECN. The ECN contribution is the determination of the gas phase composition and the micro-physical characterization of the clouds. Measurement campaigns were carried out in the Po area (Italy) in fog, and in Kleiner Feldberg near Frankfurt, Germany, in orographic clouds. Estimations are given of the deposition of fog water and cloud water on forests in the Netherlands and the low mountain range in Germany. The project ACE was not started because of financial reasons and will be reconsidered. 26 figs., 1 tab., 3 apps., 34 refs

  2. Understanding in situ ozone production in the summertime through radical observations and modelling studies during the Clean air for London project (ClearfLo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa K.; Stone, Daniel; Dunmore, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Hopkins, James R.; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Williams, Paul; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Woodward-Massey, Robert; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2018-02-01

    Measurements of OH, HO2, RO2i (alkene and aromatic-related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012 are presented. A photostationary steady-state calculation of OH which considered measured OH reactivity as the OH sink term and the measured OH sources (of which HO2+ NO reaction and HONO photolysis dominated) compared well with the observed levels of OH. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2, however, highlighted a substantial discrepancy between radical observations under lower NOx conditions ([NO] factor of 10 at these times. Known radical termination steps, such as HO2 uptake on aerosols, were not sufficient to reconcile the model-measurement discrepancies alone, suggesting other missing termination processes. This missing sink was most evident when the air reaching the site had previously passed over central London to the east and when elevated temperatures were experienced and, hence, contained higher concentrations of VOCs. Uncertainties in the degradation mechanism at low NOx of complex biogenic and diesel related VOC species, which were particularly elevated and dominated OH reactivity under these easterly flows, may account for some of the model-measurement disagreement. Under higher [NO] (> 3 ppbv) the box model increasingly underpredicted total [RO2]. The modelled and observed HO2 were in agreement, however, under elevated NO concentrations ranging from 7 to 15 ppbv. The model uncertainty under low NO conditions leads to more ozone production predicted using modelled peroxy radical concentrations ( ˜ 3 ppbv h-1) versus ozone production from peroxy radicals measured ( ˜ 1 ppbv h-1). Conversely, ozone production derived from the predicted peroxy radicals is up to an order of magnitude lower than from the observed peroxy radicals as [NO] increases beyond 7 ppbv due to the model underprediction of RO2 under these conditions.

  3. Air Pollution and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R.; Shah, Anoop S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with “traditional” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. PMID:29402072

  4. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  5. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozan, Cenk; Haldenbilen, Soner; Ceylan, Halim

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  6. Understanding in situ ozone production in the summertime through radical observations and modelling studies during the Clean air for London project (ClearfLo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Whalley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OH, HO2, RO2i (alkene and aromatic-related RO2 and total RO2 radicals taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012 are presented. A photostationary steady-state calculation of OH which considered measured OH reactivity as the OH sink term and the measured OH sources (of which HO2+ NO reaction and HONO photolysis dominated compared well with the observed levels of OH. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2, however, highlighted a substantial discrepancy between radical observations under lower NOx conditions ([NO] < 1 ppbv, typically experienced during the afternoon hours, and indicated that the model was missing a significant peroxy radical sink; the model overpredicted HO2 by up to a factor of 10 at these times. Known radical termination steps, such as HO2 uptake on aerosols, were not sufficient to reconcile the model–measurement discrepancies alone, suggesting other missing termination processes. This missing sink was most evident when the air reaching the site had previously passed over central London to the east and when elevated temperatures were experienced and, hence, contained higher concentrations of VOCs. Uncertainties in the degradation mechanism at low NOx of complex biogenic and diesel related VOC species, which were particularly elevated and dominated OH reactivity under these easterly flows, may account for some of the model–measurement disagreement. Under higher [NO] (> 3 ppbv the box model increasingly underpredicted total [RO2]. The modelled and observed HO2 were in agreement, however, under elevated NO concentrations ranging from 7 to 15 ppbv. The model uncertainty under low NO conditions leads to more ozone production predicted using modelled peroxy radical concentrations ( ∼  3 ppbv h−1 versus ozone production from peroxy radicals measured ( ∼  1 ppbv h−1. Conversely, ozone

  7. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet ─ results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S.A. Isaksen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level, cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWm2. A reduced supersonic cruise altitude or speed (from Mach 2 to Mach 1.6 reduces both, climate impact and ozone destruction, by around 40%. An increase in the range of the supersonic aircraft leads to

  8. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWm2. A reduced supersonic cruise altitude or speed (from Mach 2 to Mach 1.6) reduces both, climate impact and ozone destruction, by around 40%. An increase in the range of the supersonic aircraft leads to more emissions at

  9. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    management funds over multiple projects . 7.1.3 Energy Costs Energy costs for each air handler are broken into three modes representing the normalized...significant energy consumption reductions seen across all air handlers and operating modes (see Table 12), not all air handler retrofit projects ...39,000 Billion British Thermal Units (BBTUs) of installation energy consumption and between 14,816 and 26,475 individual multizone air handlers. Most

  10. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year

  11. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  12. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  13. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  14. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  15. Re-evaluation of Montana's air quality program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examined the Montana DOTs current methods for determining projects for the Montana Air and Congestion Initiative (MACI) program, and made recommendations to improve and implement this program. A major project objective was to keep the...

  16. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  17. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  18. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  19. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects:the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder...

  20. Innovations in governance: balancing air quality and road development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, T.; Tillema, T.; Arts, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that air pollution poses a considerable threat to human health. In addition to this, in the Netherlands, air quality issues were especially a hot topic because they held back spatial and infrastructure projects. Many stand-alone infrastructure projects could not comply with air

  1. Air Force Officer Evaluation System Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    example, on "drive’. Finally, a trait- oriented appraisal is likely to be rejected by the courts (Latham & Wexley, 1982). It is difficult to show, first...up Provides miniml support for when necessary. even if postion is un sibordesiatse accontable fopruidm and umvri.nloL ability to ompt decasons coc

  2. Rand Project AIR FORCE Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    engen - dering an increasingly raucous debate. Pointing to modern- day reliance on computers and the Internet—communications, financial networks, power...Airman Albert is an electrical power produc- tion journeyman with the 10th Intelligence Squadron. Annual Report 2010 43 will possess...RAND Corporation Robert C. Wright, Former Vice Chairman, General Electric ; Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, NBC Universal; Chairman and

  3. Rand Project Air Force Annual Report 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    soybeans , jatropha, and camelina) with hydrogen. Various types of algae also have high oil content and are another possible source of oil for hydro...2011 45 only in production could be disposed of or stored. Some members of Congress wanted to retain the production tools as a hedge against...provides a reasonable hedge in the event of a service-life extension program or major accident repair requirements. Conclusion Over the 15 years that

  4. Health and efficiency in trimix versus air breathing in compressed air workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees Vellinga, T. P.; Verhoeven, A. C.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Sterk, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in the Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of trimix usage on the health of compressed air workers and the efficiency of the project. Data analysis addressed 318 exposures to compressed air at 3.9-4.4 bar gauge and 52 exposures to

  5. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  6. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  7. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  8. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    can be generated with relatively low pressure ratios [8]. One of the main effects of compressible flow which is a key concern for this project is the... variable , particularly when sizing the compressed air fittings. B. TURBINE THEORY Turbines are rotating machinery designed to extract energy from a...words) The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate the concept of generating electrical energy using only compressed air as a working fluid

  9. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  10. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  11. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the projectAir Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...

  12. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Conditioning with renewable energy is a key issue in the region's energy policy. The high temperatures usually attributed to climate change and the increase of the standard of living in society continues increasing energy demand in order to establish the conditions for thermal comfort in buildings. Solar air conditioning, although it contains a mature technology, its level of market introduction and acceptance by designers of buildings is exhaustive. This paper discusses the feasibility of these projects, identifies non-technological type barriers that hinders such use and implementation of solar energy for air conditioning systems, and finally, it approaches some criteria and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  13. Notification: Background Investigation Services EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-0017, March 7, 2014. The OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act (CAA) inspections for air toxics.

  14. Modernization of the Indian Air Force: Security Implications for South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the Indian Air Force's (IAF) robust modernization campaign and explores why the IAF is on the path to transforming itself from an air force dedicated to air defense to one capable of global force projection...

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  16. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  17. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  20. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  1. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  2. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  3. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  4. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  5. Mobile source air toxics mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In accordance with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Interim Guidance Update on Mobile Source Air Toxic Analysis in NEPA Documents (September 30, 2009), transportation projects subject to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) mus...

  6. Inflatable Air Beam Standard Interface Connector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft...

  7. Dirty air or shelter air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The life-saving function of a shelter especially against radioactive radiation depends above all on its ventilation-air filter system. It has to function without a mistake. As the structure itself assures radiation protection only in part even when it has very thick concrete walls and a total protection equipment it does not have any effect when the ventilation-air filter system installation has some defects. Its exact calculation, installation and subsequent permanent control assure optimal protection. The problem concerning the efficiency of the technical installations in shelters and the maintenance of this function is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  9. Logistics Supply of the Distributed Air Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Event Graph The Consumption Process first instantiates the variables . The model follows a conveyor belt pattern, whereby after processing an event...to any part of the world. A capstone project, conducted by the system engineering curriculum, proposed to distribute the air assets from the aircraft...SUBJECT TERMS distributed air wing, logistics, supply, unmanned air systems , cargo UAS, unmanned systems , discrete event simulation, vehicle routing

  10. Rebalancing the Air Force: A Comprehensive Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY REBALANCING THE AIR FORCE A COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION By Bruce K Johnson, Lt Col USAF A Research Report ...and experience levels will all benefit. Senior leaders should crosscheck the recruiting and retention data along with experience trends using the...content/dav/mhf/QOL- Library/Project%20Documents/MilitaryHOMEFRONT/ Reports /2008%20Demographics.pdf P.6 7 2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F

  11. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  12. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  13. Communicating Why: Aligning the Air Force Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    49 Ibid. 50 Ibid. 51 Alan Vick , American Public is Less Inclined to Distinguish Among Service Branches, RAND Project Air Force Report PAF-1P-239...States Air Force—It’s What We Do.” 29 August 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hPMA5QHynw8 (accessed 28 November 2014). Vick , Alan. American

  14. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  15. Project of air conditioning system by absorption of water-lithium bromide using solar energy and simulation of its operation under several conditions; Projeto de sistema para condicionamento de ar por absorcao de agua-brometo de litio utilizando energia solar e simulacao de sua operacao sob condicoes diversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbravati, Alan; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: alan@fem.unicamp.br; jrfigue@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This article presents computational models for water - lithium bromide absorption air conditioning systems, verifying the use of solar energy as source of heat for the cycle. Four different models were elaborated for the cycle, changing the configurations and hypotheses. In each model two algorithms were elaborated: the first one accomplished the calculations of the heat and mass flows and a estimative of the areas heat transfer, a project of a system, and another which, based on the answers of the first, simulate the behavior of this system when the conditions of initial project are changed, keeping constant the constructive parameters. As in the project a numeric procedure has been used for solution of non lineal systems based on the algorithm of Newton-Raphson. The main alteration among the models went to substitution of the expansion device and evaporator, and, in the fourth model, was increased a procedure for calculation of the solar collector performance. (author)

  16. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  17. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  18. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...marked by periods of crescendo, air warfare will consist of a succession of actions of great violence , with periods of almost complete calm between...influence of time, if it should require fif- teen seconds for each airplane to take off, and one minute to land, the commander of a group of 100 airplanes

  19. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  20. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  1. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  2. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  3. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  4. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  5. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  6. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  7. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  8. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.

    2001-01-01

    studies may serve as complementary tools providing a better understanding of the relative contribution of ambient atmospheric pollution to the overall genotoxic burden suffered by city dwellers. However, past efforts to apply biomarkers to studies of low levels exposure to urban air pollution have given......-based population studies to aid the assessment of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution is reviewed by reference to the achievements and limitations of earlier reported studies. The design and methodology adopted in a recently completed large-scale population study, carried out......Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to high pollution levels is associated with increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, under conditions of moderate or low air pollution, epidemiologic evidence does not permit reliable conclusions. Biomarker-based population...

  9. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  10. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  11. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  12. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  13. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  14. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  15. A Lithium-Air Battery with a High Energy Air Cathode, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will advance an efficient and lightweight energy storage device for Oxygen Concentrators by developing a high specific energy lithium-air cell....

  16. Network-Centric Operations Case Study: Air-to-Air Combat With and Without Link 16

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Daniel; Hollywood, John; Kingston, Gina; Signori, David

    2005-01-01

    ...) Operational Special Project. In this exercise, the capabilities of F-15 air superiority aircraft equipped with voice-only communications were compared with F-15s equipped with voice and JTIDS Link 16 data link communications...

  17. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  18. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  19. Projective Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In painting, this point is sometimes referred to as a 'vanishing point'. We will get back to this device called 'central projection' in mathematics a little later. .... The intersection of a curve of degree m and a curve of degree n has ... projective plane, we get a dual theorem on the second projective plane, which for this reason.

  20. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...

  1. Administrative law judge as a watchdog for air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte-Postma, L.; Van Wee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Insight is given on the correctness of judgements of the judge for the administrative law in the Netherlands with regard to air quality and the discontinuation of related spatial planning and building and construction projects. Also attention is paid to the new Decree on Air Quality, including the regulation on balancing. This regulation implies that deteriorated air quality in one place must be compensated by improved air quality somewhere else [nl

  2. Air Force Strategic Planning: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    usually citing Fogleman’s part in the creation of Global Engagement and the Long-Range Plan.17 While true, Air Force history is also studded with...a relatively young service, the U.S. Air Force has a remarkably rich intellectual history . Even before the Air Force’s official formation, the...in strategic plans and the history of the Air Force. Comments are welcome and should be sent to the author, Raphael S. Cohen, or to the project

  3. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  4. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  5. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Closure of Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Hawaii, and Realignment to Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    .... This report provides the results of the audit of two projects, valued at $5.9 million, for the closure of Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Hawaii, and realignment to Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington...

  6. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  7. Use of Seawater for Air Conditioning at Waikiki Convention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    introduction B. History of Seawater Air Conditioning Project Background A. Description of Convention Center Project B. Description of Project Site...intended to present a site specific concep- tual design for Waikiki, Hawaii. B. HISTORY OF SEAWATER AIR CONDITIONING The idea of using natural sources of...used and its properties, with regard to resistir - deformation of failure in tension, buckling, external or internal pressure. Plastic pipelines can

  8. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    FINAL REPORT Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency ESTCP Project EW-201013 NOVEMBER 2016 Ronald...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 10-C-0027-A Air Conditioning...This project involved a field demonstration of subsurface thermal energy storage for improving the geothermal heat pump air conditioning efficiency

  9. Clean Air Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Markets implements regulatory programs such as the Acid Rain Program and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce air pollution from the power sector that contributes to human health and environmental issues.

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  11. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  12. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  13. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  14. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  15. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  16. Primary zone air proportioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  17. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medakubu

    We here present a very preliminary report on a field project entitled 'Vanishing. Voices from Ghana's Middle Belt', an Endangered Languages Documentation Project funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Program based at the School of. Oriental and African Studies, University of London. It is being carried ...

  18. Project Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies situations in which a project consisting of several activities is not executed as planned.It is divided into three parts.The first part analyzes the case where the activities may be delayed; this possibly induces a delay on the project as a whole with additional costs.Associated

  19. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  20. Wingbeat Shape Modulation for Flapping-Wing Micro-Air-Vehicle Control During Hover (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AUTHOR(S) David B. Doman, Michael W. Oppenheimer, and David O. Sigthorsson (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2401 5e. TASK NUMBER N/A 5f. WORK UNIT...AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7542 Air

  1. Supporting Collective Training & Thinking in Joint Project Optic Windmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Wiel, R.A.N. van de; Bosch, J.; Olthoff, R.

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, the Missile Defence Group of the Royal Netherlands Air Force, together with the German Air Force and the US Missile Defence Agency, organised the 10th edition of Exercise Joint Project Optic Windmill (JPOW). Over the past decade JPOW has become a world leading Integrated Air and

  2. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  3. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  4. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto. SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  5. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  6. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyrtopoulos, S. A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.; Demopoulos, N.; Farmer, P.; Haugen, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Lambert, B.; Ovrebo, S.; Šrám, Radim; Stefanou, G.; Topinka, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 496, - (2001), s. 207-228 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant - others:EU(XC) ENV4V-CT96-0203; EU(XC) IC20CT960063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : bulky DNA adducts * HPRT mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.624, year: 2001

  7. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  8. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting...... the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems...... are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging...

  9. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  10. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  11. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  12. Projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Thomas Ewan

    1952-01-01

    This text explores the methods of the projective geometry of the plane. Some knowledge of the elements of metrical and analytical geometry is assumed; a rigorous first chapter serves to prepare readers. Following an introduction to the methods of the symbolic notation, the text advances to a consideration of the theory of one-to-one correspondence. It derives the projective properties of the conic and discusses the representation of these properties by the general equation of the second degree. A study of the relationship between Euclidean and projective geometry concludes the presentation. Nu

  13. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  14. Hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the requirements of Title 3 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The following topics are included: listed air toxics; sources covered by the program; standards for regulation of air toxics; area source program; air toxics permit program; prevention of accidental releases; and duties of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission

  15. Project of multiple controller models for the maintenance of air/fuel ratio in natural gas internal combustion motors; Projeto de controladores multiplos modelos para manutencao da relacao ar/combustivel em motores de combustao interna movidos a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Junior, Fernando Sousa e; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo [Sao Paulo Univ. SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ffreitas@usp.br; agfleury@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of advanced control techniques for the reduction of pollutant gases generated by internal combustion engines powered by natural gas. In this paper three techniques are applied to control the fuel injection and the ignition timing: the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and H{infinity} Control by Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). To each one of those techniques were developed a multiple model structure seeking to include the vast operation region of the engine. The controller's performance is measured by the efficiency in maintaining the fuel/air ratio around 1% of maximum deviation in relation to the stoichiometric value. The results show the possibility of controlling pollutant emission generated by this kind of engine to conform to international emission standards, improving life quality. (author)

  16. IPAD project overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    To respond to national needs for improved productivity in engineering design and manufacturing, a NASA supported joint industry/government project is underway denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer technology. It focuses on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The project has been underway since 1976 under the guidance of an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of representatives of major engineering and computer companies and in close collaboration with the Air Force Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program. Results to date on the IPAD project include an in-depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer-aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to integrate selected design functions. Ongoing work concentrates on development of prototype software to manage engineering information, and initial software is nearing release.

  17. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  18. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Cho, Heejin; Goddard, James K.; Dinh, Liem H.

    2010-01-04

    This document represents the final project report for the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls Project jointly funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP). The project, initiated in October 2008, focused on exploratory initial development of self-correcting controls for selected HVAC components in air handlers. This report, along with the companion report documenting the algorithms developed, Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units (Fernandez et al. 2009), document the work performed and results of this project.

  19. Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander; Post, Todd; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects: the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder Solar-Powered Airplane (NASA), and the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (U.S.Air Force). Each project is presented as a case study comprised of stories collected from key members of the project teams. The stories found in the book are included with the purpose of providing an effective learning source for project management, encouraging the unlearning of outdated project management concepts, and enhancing awareness of the contexts surrounding different projects. Significantly different from project concepts found in most project management literature, Shared Voyage highlights concepts like a will to win, a results-oriented focus, and collaboration through trust. All four project teams researched in this study applied similar concepts; however, they applied them differently, tailoring them to fit the context of their own particular projects. It is clear that the one best way approach which is still the prevailing paradigm in project management literature should be replaced by a new paradigm: Even though general project management principles exist, their successful application depends on the specifics of the situation.

  20. Monitoring Distribusi Air Bersih

    OpenAIRE

    Sutono Sutono

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak - Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pilihan solusi permasalahan penyaluran air pada Wilayah Babakan Irigasi yang memiliki masalah terbatasnya Kuota Air Bersih untuk memenuhi kebutuhan penggunaan air sehari-hari. Pemanfaatan Mikrokontroler Arduino Atmega328 pada Arduino UNO yang dirancang dengan menambahkan beberapa komponen pendukung seperti Sensor Flowmeter, Selenoid Valve dan Pompa Air dibuat menjadi sistem kran air otomatis. Sistem ini bekerja dengan dikontrol oleh timer da...

  1. Exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal: protocolo de investigación en el proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development: Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esplugues

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente es una red de investigación cooperativa que tiene como objetivos estudiar los efectos del medio ambiente y la dieta en el desarrollo fetal e infantil. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el protocolo de exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal en el proyecto INMA. Métodos: La información para la evaluación de la exposición a contaminación atmosférica durante el embarazo se basa en mediciones de contaminantes atmosféricos en el exterior (dióxido de nitrógeno [NO2], compuestos orgánicos volátiles [COV], ozono, partículas [PM10, PM2,5] y su composición [hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos], medición de contaminantes de exposición individual (en el interior de la vivienda y captadores personales [COV y NO2], determinación de un marcador biológico de exposición a hidrocarburos (1-hidroxipireno, en información recogida mediante cuestionarios y en la utilización de sistemas de información geográfica. Esta información permite elaborar índices de exposición individual a contaminación atmosférica con los que analizar su posible relación con el desarrollo fetal y la salud del recién nacido. Discusión: El protocolo que se presenta y el tipo de estudio permiten obtener una aproximación a la exposición individual a contaminantes atmosféricos. Por último, el elevado número de participantes (n = 4.000, así como la heterogeneidad de las características ambientales y sociodemográficas, acrecienta el potencial del estudio.Introduction: The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood] project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project

  2. Cadastre of air polluters for city of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkovska, Magdalena

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a review of the condition with harmful articles emission in the air from industrial, energetic and communal emitters on the area of city Skopje is presented. The results of researches taken in the period 1994-1996, as a second phase of the project: 'Cadastre of air polluters and map of air pollution of Republic of Macedonia' are given. The level of data processing represents a base for prognosis of expected air pollution of city of Skopje, with what a possibility of air quality control will be provided. (author)

  3. Training Blueprint of an Air Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Project 9, 31. 13 David Rooney. Wingate and the Chindits: Redressing the Balance. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1994, Pg. 91. 14 Okerstrom, Project 9...behind this decision was clear. Sending an Air Commando forward meant one deployed could return home. Aircrew experience helped AFSOC manage the...ready to conduct special operations anytime, anyplace… [t]heir rigorous training helps them manage uncertainty and mitigate risk. They train

  4. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  5. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). This document contains information on parameters that are specific to the airborne release of the radionuclide iodine-131. Future versions of this document will include parameter information pertinent to other pathways and radionuclides.

  6. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro...... of 'organising' filled the field of organisation studies with new ideas and intellectual challenges. To take advantage of such developments, organisational scholars had to consider different forms of organising as part of 'organisation studies', and continuously adapt their frames of reference and forms...... by emancipatory interest and the pragmatic desire for changes in the status quo through the reorganisation of inherent contradictions, giving voice to minorities while addressing major economic and social problems. We termed them type 1, type 2 and type 3, respectively.The juxtaposition of levels of analysis...

  7. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  8. Echo project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina; Carson, Rebecca; Kraus, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Echo project (ed. by Verina Gfader and Ruth Höflich) is an online publication and community board that developed from a visit to the Los Angeles Art Book fair in January 2014. It was on the occasion of a prior book project, titled Prospectus, that the editorial team had been invited by the LAABF...... team to both present the printed matter in the format of running a book stall, and stage a discursive event at the Classroom. Echo reverberates some of the encounters and debates there, with new commissioned chapters propelling a ongoing correspondence across urban environs: An essay on the General...

  9. California Clean Air Technology Initiative (CATI) Memorandum of Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum of Agreement between the EPA, State of California EPA, State of California Air Resources Board, South Coast AQMD, and San Joaquin Valley APCD for coordination and collaboration on research projects.

  10. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have air temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  11. Air-steam hybrid engine : an alternative to internal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project, an energy-efficient air-steam propulsion system has been developed and patented, and key performance attributes have been demonstrated to be superior to those of internal combustion e...

  12. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  13. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  14. Air-coupled ultrasonic applications of ferroelectrets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Wegener, M.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Borisov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 370, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-17 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : air-coupled ultrasonics * non-contact transducers * ferroelectrets * electromechanical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  15. Air freight hubs and fuel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the project is to examine air express/freight to (a) come up with more accurate : representation of the types of active links; (b) convert the links to aircraft movements; (c) make : reasonable estimate of fuel/energy use by fleet operatio...

  16. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  17. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor......A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  18. Project Narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  19. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...

  20. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Project Lifescape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Project Lifescape – An Invitation. Madhav Gadgil. Classroom Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp 80-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/08/0080-0090. Author Affiliations.

  2. Project Avatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    'Project Avatar' tager udgangspunkt i den efterretningsdisciplin, der kaldes Open Source Intelligence og indebærer al den information, som ligger frit tilgængeligt i åbne kilder. Med udbredelsen af sociale medier åbners der op for helt nye typer af informationskilder. Spørgsmålet er; hvor nyttig er...

  3. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  4. Project Baltia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uus arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" tutvustab Baltimaade, Soome ja Peterburi regiooni arhitektuuri, linnaehitust ja disaini. Ilmub neli korda aastas inglise- ja venekeelsena. Väljaandja: kirjastus Balticum Peterburis koostöös Amsterdami ja Moskva kirjastusega A-Fond. Peatoimetaja Vladimir Frolov

  5. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  6. Project Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Rufus F.

    This report reviews the remedial education program--Project Success--at the Urban Education Center, City Colleges of Chicago (Illinois). The major features of the program are outlined and its operation and evaluation are discussed. Student performance and characteristics are then tabularly compared, based on their groupings as…

  7. Radiochemistry Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Radiochemistry Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise: dosimetry and radiological protection; development of techniques and methods of chemical analysis and radiochemistry. (M.A.) [pt

  8. THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Latyshev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Urals Industrial - Urals Polar" is the unique project and thus it will provide the economic security not only of the local territory but of the whole Russia in terms of several courses. This article is devoted to the main courses of these ones and their influence on the economy of the country.

  9. Project Reconstruct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  10. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  11. Air purification by house plants : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Within the project ‘Plant champion air purification’, a public-private cooperation, a literate survey was carried out to explore recent findings on the possibilities of plants to purify indoor contaminated air. Literature was searched in academic journals, on the internet and within reports recently

  12. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  13. Air Data - Concentration Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  14. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  15. Nonequilibrium Air Plasma Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruger, Charles

    2002-01-01

    .... The goal of the Air Plasma Ramparts program is to investigate energy efficient methods for creating and sustaining large volume atmospheric air plasmas with electron number densities greater than 10(exp 13...

  16. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  17. Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  18. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  19. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  20. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  1. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  2. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  3. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  4. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  5. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the risks to health may be greater due to indoor air pollution than the outdoor air. ... materials, furnishings, wet or damp carpets, household chemical products, air cond itioners, dehumidifiers and outdoor sources such as radon and pesticides. ... organic compounds are emitted from construction materials, furnishings and ...

  7. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  8. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  10. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    providing: 1) the infrastructure to plug into and 2) the on-board equipment capable of plugging into the infrastructure. This project generated the largest dataset to date on shore power TSE utilization and use patterns, providing: insight into driver behavior and acceptance; evidence of cost savings; experience with system operations and management; and data for guiding future development of shore power, whether as a private enterprise or a publicly-subsidized service for meeting air quality goals.

  11. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  12. Project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  13. PARTNER Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  14. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  15. Final report of the project. Emission of nitrogen oxides by the soils. Measures, modelization, land registry and inventory. Impact on the air quality, the climatic change and the evaluation of possibilities of these emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serca, D.; Cortinovis, J.; Laville, P.; Gabrielle, B.; Beekmann, M.; Ravetta, F.; Henault, C.

    2007-01-01

    This project deals with NOx biosphere-atmosphere exchanges, NOx being considered as an indirect greenhouse gases (tropospheric O 3 precursor). It relies on four laboratory specialized both on the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, and on the atmospheric chemistry. Methodology used bear on a set of in situ and laboratory measurements aiming at improving existing emission parameterization, or building new ones for the agro-ecosystems encountered in France or Europe. In situ measurements allowed to study the emission phenology in relation with relevant environmental parameters (meteorological, soil characteristics, and agricultural). Laboratory measurements allowed to establish an emission algorithm related to the three main parameters, that is, soil temperature, water and ammonia content. This algorithm has been adapted and simplified to spatialize the emissions at the France level. This spatialization was performed using environmental parameters accessible through data base (ECMWF) or agricultural statistics (such as nitrogen inputs, land use, crops). Spatial and temporal extrapolation allowed reaching the main objective, that is, to build a national inventory for a reference year (2002). This inventory allowed determining the contribution of NOx emitted by soil as compared to total emitted NOx, and the proportion of NOx emitted by soil due to fertilizer use. Our study, based on 57% of the French used agricultural area, and extrapolated to the whole arable surface, shows that soils would be responsible of about 5% of the total NOx emissions. On these 5%, 20%, which finally is a rather low percentage, would be linked to fertilizer use. The impact of these emissions on the atmospheric chemistry has been evaluated using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. We found that NOx emissions from soil would be of minor importance when compared to the industrial emissions, being a factor of ten lower in France. As a matter of consequence, the impact of the emissions on the

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  17. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  18. ARTIST Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferguson, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biennial Conference Presented by: Keith Ferguson Date: 9 October 2012 Mobile IPTV Broadcasting Platform Consortium: CSIR, UCT, ECA Funded by TIA 2008-2011 ARTIST Project Min time - sacrifice quality Max quality - sacrifice time Application Context... delay tolerance network dependency file download and play file streaming live broadcast peer to peer Online Video Shop e.g. Netflix Video-On-Demand e.g. YouTube Videoconferencing e.g. Skype ARTIST ? Adaptive Real-Time Internet Streaming...

  19. CARA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Brasnarof, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    The CARA (Advanced Fuels for Argentine Reactors) Project successfully completed its first stage, phase one, last year. The performance of this fuel has been partially examined, using CNEA and CONUAR facilities and personnel. With the results obtained in this stage, determined by the corresponding tests and verification of the fuel behavior, the performance of the second stage started immediately afterwards. Works performed and results obtained during the development of the second stage are generally described in this paper. (author)

  20. SUPERSITE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The project is focused on a detailed study of some chemical, physical and toxicological parameters and on health, epidemiological and environmental assessment by interpretative models, in the atmosphere of Emilia-Romagna (Italy. The project rises from the necessity to improve  knowledge about environmental and health aspects of fine and ultrafine particles, in primary and secondary components, in the atmosphere. The project, structured in 7 workpackages, is organized in two measurement programmes: the routine one that has a mainly daily time resolution, and the intensive one with high time resolution and a higher chemical speciation than the routine one. The sampling sites are five: three in urban areas (Bologna, Parma and Rimini, one in a rural area (San Pietro Capofiume and one in a remote area (Monte Cimone. Parallel to outdoor studies, a workpackage  is planned for indoor studies and chemical composition analysis with the  outdoor/indoor ratio for characterizing indoor human exposure to outdoor pollution.

  1. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  2. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  3. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  4. Coloss project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The COLOSS project was a shared-cost action, co-ordinated by IRSN within the Euratom Research Framework Programme 1998-2002. Started in February 2000, the project lasted three years. The work-programme performed by 19 partners was shaped around complementary activities aimed at improving severe accident codes. Unresolved risk-relevant issues regarding H2 production, melt generation and the source term were studied, through a large number of experiments such as a) dissolution of fresh and high burn-up UO 2 and MOX by molten Zircaloy, b) simultaneous dissolution of UO 2 and ZrO 2 by molten Zircaloy, c) oxidation of U-O-Zr mixtures by steam, d) degradation-oxidation of B 4 C control rods. Significant results have been produced from separate-effects, semi-global and large-scale tests on COLOSS topics. Break-through were achieved on some issues. Nevertheless, more data are needed for consolidation of the modelling on burn-up effects on UO 2 and MOX dissolution and on oxidation of U-O-Zr and B 4 C-metal mixtures. There was experimental evidence that the oxidation of these mixtures can contribute significantly to the large H2 production observed during the reflooding of degraded cores under severe accident conditions. Based on the experimental results obtained on the COLOSS topics, corresponding models were developed and were successfully implemented in several severe accident codes. Upgraded codes were then used for plant calculations to evaluate the consequences of new models on key severe accident sequences occurring in different plants designs involving B 4 C control rods (EPR, BWR, VVER- 1000) as well as in the TMI-2 accident. The large series of plant calculations involved sensitivity studies and code benchmarks. Main severe accident codes in use in the EU for safety studies were used such as ICARE/CATHARE, SCDAP/RELAP5, ASTEC, MELCOR and MAAP4. This activity enabled: a) the assessment of codes to calculate core degradation, b) the identification of main

  5. Recent Results from NASA's Morphing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Bryant, Robert G.; Cox, David E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Padula, Sharon L.; Holloway, Nancy M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Morphing Project seeks to develop and assess advanced technologies and integrated component concepts to enable efficient, multi-point adaptability in air and space vehicles. In the context of the project, the word "morphing" is defined as "efficient, multi-point adaptability" and may include macro, micro, structural and/or fluidic approaches. The project includes research on smart materials, adaptive structures, micro flow control, biomimetic concepts, optimization and controls. This paper presents an updated overview of the content of the Morphing Project including highlights of recent research results.

  6. POSEIDON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, P.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about clean air and global warming among their customers led car manufacturers to develop hybrid cars. A few models already reached the market but the manufacturers anticipate that the production figure will hit the million mark at the horizon 2010. Hybrid cars make an extensive use of power electronics, which implies - relatively - large size semi-conductor components. The initial doping of those components is best made by neutron irradiation, which achieves a better doping uniformity than chemical processes. Silicon doping becomes therefore a growing market for a number of research reactors, in supplement to their medical isotopes productions. With the SIDONIE facility in operation since 1992, the doping of silicon is not a new activity at BR2. However, SIDONIE is limited to 5 inch diameter ingots whereas the trend is to 6 inch and 8 inch diameter. The purpose of POSEIDON is to allow the large scale irradiation of 6 inch and 8 inch diameter silicon ingots

  7. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  8. Overview of the European project FUMAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the urban air pollution forecast critically depends on the mapping of emissions, the urban air pollution models, and the meteorological data. The quality of the meteorological data should be largely enhanced by using downscaled data from advanced numerical weather prediction models. These different topics, as well as the application of population exposure models, have traditionally been treated in distinct scientific communities whose expertise needs to be combined to enhance the possibilities of forecasting air pollution episodes in European cities. For this purpose the EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure'' (FUMAPEX (http://fumapex.dmi.dk, involving 22 organizations from 10 European countries, was initiated. The main objectives of the project are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction models to urban air pollution and population exposure models, the building of improved Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. This paper overviews the project items and first two-years results, it is an introduction to the whole ACP issue.

  9. Guide of good practices for methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatte, Constant; Orozco-Souel, Paola; Rouxel, Anaick; Tanneau, Patrick; Schreiber, Konrad; Jaubert, Jean Noel; Micone, Philippe; Dionne, Denis; Renner, Christophe; Ollivier, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This guide aims at providing project holders with guidance on factors which may influence social acceptability of methanization projects and with recommendations regarding communication and dialogue for a better project integration, with a technical support in order to guarantee project quality for a minimised environmental impact, and at convincing and reassuring local communities which plan to implement a methanization project, notably with respect to issues like odours, safety or landscape integration. The guide first outlines the importance of a serious and credible approach, and aims project holders at demonstrating an actual reasonable economic control of energy, environmental and social issues related to their project. The second part proposes technical solutions regarding the limitation of impact on air quality, preservation and restoration of soil quality and water resources, landscape integration, transport management and noise prevention. Feedbacks on experiences with different types of installations (agricultural, industrial, and so on) are also provided. A good practice charter is finally proposed

  10. Issues in continuous air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Health Physics groups at Los Alamos determined that the 15 yr-old alpha CAM instrumentation in use at the Laboratory would soon have to be replaced and upgraded. A program was initiated to prepare detailed performance specifications, evaluate new CAM instrumentation being offered, and if necessary, to develop advanced technologies which would enable the Laboratory to meet or exceed all of the requirements of the new DOE Order 5480.11. ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' (DOE, 1988), and other related Orders and standards. After careful evaluation of available alpha CAMs and consideration of the many factors affecting CAM performance, a project for the design, and development of advance CAM technology was initiated. This project culminated in the completion of a new alpha CAM concept featuring advances in the design of the CAM inlet enabling discrimination against radon daughters, in the multi-channel analyzer electronics, in the data processing and communication electronics, and in background compensation algorithm. The objective in the following discussion is examine the DOE Order 5480.11 requirements in some detail. While the new CAM sensitivity requirement is of critical importance, this is only one of many requirements of the Order with implications for CAM design, placement and operation. It is essential to orient our thinking about CAMs to the primary objectives of the Order with air monitoring implications. This paper discusses air monitoring issues in the Order. 7 refs

  11. Demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of some of the projects in Canada planned to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of processes using waste heat. Most of the studies are in the planning stage; few field demonstrations are yet in operation in any of the three arbitrary categories of waste heat - high-grade heat (100-200 deg C), medium-grade heat (30-100 deg C), and low-grade heat (below 30 deg C). The survey indicates that, while there is long-term potential in several of the approaches, the time has arrived to start finding some hard facts. (author)

  12. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...

  13. Project Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  14. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  15. 49 CFR 611.9 - Project justification criteria for grants and loans for fixed guideway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., improved mobility, air pollution, noise pollution, energy consumption, and all associated ancillary and...., parking policies, etc.) are in place as assumed in the forecasts, (ii) Project management capability...

  16. PORTNUS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyal, Rebecca E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  17. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W.E. [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A.S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A. [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  18. Norwegian Institute for Air Research Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The foundation Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) conducts research and assessment of technical, economic, hygienic and other environmental issues related to air pollution and cleaning of polluted air. NILU serves the national market for research and development within the field of air pollution. The main purpose of the subsidiary company NILU Products Ltd., established in 1996, is to manage the strategic owner interests of the parent company as well as market products and systems developed by NILU. Among the projects in which NILU participated in 2001 are a number of EU projects under the fifth framework programme. The main topics with NILU participation are related to ozone layer- and ultraviolet changes, pollution and climate change, satellite validation, changes in atmospheric chemistry, particulate matter in air, discharges from aircraft, regional and global dispersion of environmental toxins, standardization and monitoring methods, electronic distribution of environmental data and environmental influence on building materials.

  19. SISCAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  20. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  2. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  3. Air-to-Air UAV Aerial Refueling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers, in cooperation with Northrop Grumman Corporation and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) demonstrated autonomous aerial...

  4. Spatial contrasts in air pollution and the effects on lung function in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects), we aimed to characterize and explain spatial contrasts in ambient air pollution within and between European study areas. Following a standard protocol, project partners selected “street” and

  5. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  6. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  7. Air Power and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    American air ace.- New York: Putnam , 1958. (UG!3 290 G98) Guild, Richard E. The double attack system: a formalization. Yokota Air Base, Japan, 1968...1962) Sa..dby;•Robert H.M.S. Air bombardment: the story of it- development New York: Harper, 1961. (UGK 207 S25) Saunders, Hilary A.S. .Per ardua; the...1961. Letchworth, Herts: Harleyford Publications, 1961. (UGH 3215 .F5 887) Bruce, John N. British ,aeroplance 1914-1918. London: Putnam ; 1957. (Ref

  8. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  9. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  10. A European Project SysPAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Muller , Birgit; Dahms , Arne; Muller , Dirk; Knudsen , Henrik; Afshari , Alireza; Wargocki , Pawel; Olesen , Bjarne; Berglund , Brigitta; Ramalho , Olivier; Goschnick , Joachim; Jann , Oliver; Horn , Wolfgang; Nesa , Daniel; Chanier , Eric; Ruponen , Mika

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The European research project Innovative Sensor System for Measuring Perceived Air Quality and Brand Specific Odours (SysPAQ) is started under the VIth framework programme under the work programme "New and Emerging Science and Technology" (NEST PATHFINDER "Measuring the Impossible"). The Kick-of of the project was on the first of September 2006. Ten partners (3 Companies, 3 Universities, 4 research Institutes) from 5 countries are involved. The main goal of this projec...

  11. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  12. Project: Ultracentrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea C, O.

    1990-07-01

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  13. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  14. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  15. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvaikar, V.V.; Daoo, V.J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  16. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  17. The OpenAIRE Guide for Research Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Gürdal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is transcript of OpenAIRE Guide which is prepared in order to help research institutions was released on 13.04.2011and translated with the cooperation of ANKOS Open Access and Institutional Repositories Grup members and OpenAIREplus project team of Turkey which is coordinated from Izmir Institute of Technology Library. OpenAIRE Project aims to support researchers in complying with the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Open Access Pilot through a European Helpdesk System; support researchers in depositing their research publications in an institutional or disciplinary repository; build up an OpenAIRE portal and e-infrastructure for repository networks. The project will work in tadem with OpeanAIREplus Project which has the principal goal of creating a robust, participatory service for the cross-linking of peer-reviewed scientific publications and associated datasets.

  18. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for large buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of (1) devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, and (2) low-cost, safe systems incorporating the above devices, which are easily inspected and maintained, in which optimum buildings for effective utilization of solar energy are also investigated. Precision of the system analysis is improved by feeding back the results obtained by the basic studies conducted so far into the simulation. The technical supports for commercialization of heat collectors, refrigerators, heat-storage tanks and radiation type ceilings are also obtained. These results are combined for the designs of a real-size test building. In this year, works to install the facilities in the Oita University's test building are completed. These facilities include 40 units of large-size heat collectors (each approximately 2 m by 7.5 m in size); an absorption refrigerator of 30 uSRT in which single- and double-effect systems are combined; 2 piston-flow type heat-storage tanks, each 45 m{sup 3} in capacity; and others including analyzer, associated piping, duct, instrumentation and electrical systems. The test runs are conducted for the control systems, and long- and short-term instrumentation systems to draw the test schedules for optimizing the full-scale runs to be conducted in the next year. The operating and instrumentation manuals, and operating schedules are also drawn. (NEDO)

  19. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  20. Project Success in IT Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The rate of failed and challenged Information Technology (IT) projects is too high according to the CHAOS Studies by the Standish Group and the literature on project management (Standish Group, 2008). The CHAOS Studies define project success as meeting the triple constraints of scope, time, and cost. The criteria for project success need to be agreed by all parties before the start of the project and constantly reviewed as the project progresses. Assessing critical success factors is another ...

  1. Twenty Years of AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Perniola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available About two decades ago, cloning of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene materialized one of the most important actors on the scene of self-tolerance. Thymic transcription of genes encoding tissue-specific antigens (ts-ags is activated by AIRE protein and embodies the essence of thymic self-representation. Pathogenic AIRE variants cause the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, which is a rare and complex disease that is gaining attention in research on autoimmunity. The animal models of disease, although not identically reproducing the human picture, supply fundamental information on mechanisms and extent of AIRE action: thanks to its multidomain structure, AIRE localizes to chromatin enclosing the target genes, binds to histones, and offers an anchorage to multimolecular complexes involved in initiation and post-initiation events of gene transcription. In addition, AIRE enhances mRNA diversity by favoring alternative mRNA splicing. Once synthesized, ts-ags are presented to, and cause deletion of the self-reactive thymocyte clones. However, AIRE function is not restricted to the activation of gene transcription. AIRE would control presentation and transfer of self-antigens for thymic cellular interplay: such mechanism is aimed at increasing the likelihood of engagement of the thymocytes that carry the corresponding T-cell receptors. Another fundamental role of AIRE in promoting self-tolerance is related to the development of thymocyte anergy, as thymic self-representation shapes at the same time the repertoire of regulatory T cells. Finally, AIRE seems to replicate its action in the secondary lymphoid organs, albeit the cell lineage detaining such property has not been fully characterized. Delineation of AIRE functions adds interesting data to the knowledge of the mechanisms of self-tolerance and introduces exciting perspectives of therapeutic interventions against the related diseases.

  2. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6- 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  3. Proceedings of the upwind downwind cities air and health conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The upwind downwind conference examined the health impacts of poor air quality and how land use decisions impact air quality as well as the roles of industry, community groups, academia and government in improving air quality. Conference attendees included planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The conference covered several topics including partnerships between public health and planning with respect to improving air quality in urban environments; the use of science in decision-making and development of new projects, policies and regulations; airshed agreements in North America, in addition to Ontario's new air quality regulations; and examples of citizen groups, non-government organizations, industry, academia and local, provincial and federal governments partnering to improve air quality. A total of 16 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The conference also featured several keynote speakers and panel discussions. tabs., figs

  4. NordicWelfAir - Understanding the link between Air pollution and Distribution of related Health Impacts and Welfare in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has serious impacts on human health, wellbeing and welfare. The main challenge is to understand how to regulate air pollution in an optimal way both on global and local scales. Linking the detailed information of the spatio-temporal distribution of air pollution levels and the chemical composition of the atmospheric particles with register data for mortality and morbidity, we have a unique opportunity in the Nordic countries to gain new understanding of the various health impacts from different kinds of air pollution from different kind of sources. This will provide the basic understanding needed for policy making of strategies to optimally reduce the air pollution challenge and to assess the related impacts on the distribution of health impacts and related societal costs and welfare. The large interdisciplinary NordicWelfAir project (http://nordicwelfair.au.dk), funded by NordForsk, will take advantage of the unique Nordic data. The results from the project will be used in both a Nordic as well as global perspective to improve the health and welfare by finding the optimal solutions to societal and public health challenges from air pollution through high-quality research. The results from the research in this project have the potential to act as new international standards in our understanding of health impacts from air pollution for different population groups due to the possibility to integrate the unique data and knowledge of air pollution, register, health, socio-economics, and welfare research in the Nordic countries in a highly interdisciplinary project. The study will provide a Nordic contribution to international research on the topics of environmental equality and justice within the area of air quality related risks, amenities and wellbeing. Acknowledgements This project is funded by NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project #75007: Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health

  5. DOD Renewable Energy Projects: Improved Guidance Needed for Analyzing and Documenting Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    487 DOD Renewable Energy Projects According to Army officials, the 1.9-megawatt solar photovoltaic project at Fort Campbell , Kentucky—a larger UESC...electricity prices, but DOD pursued them for other reasons. Specifically, • DOD pursued a project at Fort Campbell , Kentucky, because, according to...provided more than one type of land use agreement for some projects. For example, at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, the Air Force awarded a lease for

  6. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  7. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  8. Project LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  9. Protective air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases is described. An enclosure is sealed by a surrounding air lock, and an automatic mechanism partially evacuates the enclosure and air lock. The enclosure ventilating mechanism can be disconnected so that a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in the enclosure

  10. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  13. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Airforce. His hobbies include reading books and listening to music. Keywords. Indoor air pollution. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Indoor Air Pollution. Danger at Home ... concentration of. VOCs and it is also a source of stable inorganic gases. GENERAL I ARTICLE which homes are built. Radon is a product of radioactive decay.

  16. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  17. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  18. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  19. Air for cyclists; Lucht voor fietsers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Breejen, E. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Borgman, F. [Fietsersbond, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    The Dutch Association for Cyclists decided to monitor the air quality in urban areas within the framework of the project 'Fietsbalans' (Bike Balance). A reliable method to measure the air quality for cyclists and a useful and accurate method to analyze the data have been developed. [Dutch] De Fietsersbond heeft besloten om de stedelijke luchtkwaliteit te gaan meten in het kader van het project Fietsbalans. Het meten van de luchtkwaliteit op de fiets tijdens de praktijkmeting van Fietsbalans is nog niet zo eenvoudig. Blootstellingsonderzoek is uiterst zeldzaam en er was geen uitgewerkte onderzoek- en analysemethode beschikbaar die kon worden gekopieerd. Begeleid door het Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS) heeft een student Milieuwetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht samen met het Fietsbalansteam van de Fietsersbond een betrouwbare onderzoeksmethode en een zinvolle interpretatie en analyse van de gegevens ontwikkeld.

  20. Culture systems: air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  1. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  2. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more ... The environment and your health Air Health effects of air ...

  4. Air Force Project Risk Management - The Impact of Inconsistent Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    participate in sports, watch television , purchase a product or decide where to live we are choosing the best course of action for a specific given...severity of a risk on the basis of probability and impact between an X and Y-axis. The NASA Systems Engineering Handbook defines this approach similarly...likelihood with similar measures of consequences” (NASA, 2007, p. 46). However, the NASA handbook also warns that there are several drawbacks

  5. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    northeast boundary and one of its tributaries, Spann Branch, along the northern boundary, as well as Mush Branch, originating at the southwest corner of...Water Shaw AFB is located within the Southern Coastal Plain physiographic region of South Carolina. Spann Branch and Long Branch Creeks are the...major naturally occurring surface water features on Shaw AFB. Spann Branch flows along the northern boundary of the base into Long Branch. Long Branch

  6. Environmental Assessment, Project MOUNTAINVIEW Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 13,000 active-duty, reserve, civilian, and contractor personnel and military dependents work or live at Buckley AFB ( Spann 2011). Buckley AFB...civilian employees and contractors. In addition, the installation supports 1,200 dependents that live on-installation ( Spann 2011). Retirees, veterans...AFB ( Spann 2011). Retirees, veterans, and dependents that live off-installation comprise the remainder of the population supported by Buckley AFB

  7. Project SEEK SCREEN. Volume 2. Tactical Air Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Other requests for this document must be reterred to RADC (OCDR), Griff iss AFB,JIY 13441. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ( el th» mbtlrmet mffd In...Block 20, II dltlntnt from Rmporl) Same IB. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES This is Volume II of eight volumes. 19. KEY WORDS (Conllnum on »vor» oido ...34■" ■■■...,•,..-. ■--.■-■- ■-.,-.- . :.,.--.,v, •..: : * B 2 s ec iS e e U I z et H 1.1 i ö CD < 1- E E a 03 < <«? ^ S J < 5 ^ a e - EL c

  8. Diverse Communications Project at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    Rana aurora draytonii): The inducement for bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) introduction. Herpetologica 41(1): 94-103. Jennings, M.R., M.P. Hayes, and D.C...MEASURES............................................. 9 2.1.3.1 California Red-legged Frog ( Rana aurora draytonii...legged Frog ( Rana aurora draytonii) Locations LF 02, LF 03, Bishop Road, and San Antonio Road West occur in proximity to known or potential

  9. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  10. Analysis of Air Force Wartime Contracted Construction Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Role of Design Audits in Reducing Errors and Rework: Lessons from Hong Kong . Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 28(3), pp. 511-517...Settings. 2nd Ed ed. Routledge: New York. Gold, A., 2007. Understanding the Mann-Whitney Test. Journal of Property Tax Assessment & Administration, 4(3

  11. AIRMaster: Compressed air system audit software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, G.M.; Bessey, E.G.; McGill, R.D.; Vischer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and a methodology for performing compressed air system audits. AIRMaster and supporting manuals are designed for general auditors or plant personnel to evaluate compressed air system operation with simple instrumentation during a short-term audit. AIRMaster provides a systematic approach to compressed air system audits, analyzing collected data, and reporting results. AIRMaster focuses on inexpensive Operation and Maintenance (O and M) measures, such as fixing air leaks and improving controls that can significantly improve performance and reliability of the compressed air system, without significant risk to production. An experienced auditor can perform an audit, analyze collected data, and produce results in 2--3 days. AIRMaster reduces the cost of an audit, thus freeing funds to implement recommendations. The AIRMaster package includes an Audit Manual, Software and User's manual, Analysis Methodology Manual, and a Case Studies summary report. It also includes a Self-Guided Tour booklet to help users quickly screen a plant for efficiency improvement potentials, and an Industrial Compressed Air Systems Energy Efficiency Guidebook. AIRMaster proved to be a fast and effective audit tool. In sever audits AIRMaster identified energy savings of 4,056,000 kWh, or 49.2% of annual compressor energy use, for a cost savings of $152,000. Total implementation costs were $94,700 for a project payback period of 0.6 years. Available airflow increased between 11% and 51% of plant compressor capacity, leading to potential capital benefits from 40% to 230% of first year energy savings

  12. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  13. Study of the air fluorescence by AIRFLY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, May (2009), s. 266-271 ISSN 0920-5632. [Cosmic Ray International Seminar 2008. Malfa, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : air fluorescence * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  14. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  15. Project Success in Agile Development Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Project success has multiple definitions in the scholarly literature. Research has shown that some scholars and practitioners define project success as the completion of a project within schedule and within budget. Others consider a successful project as one in which the customer is satisfied with the product. This quantitative study was conducted…

  16. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  17. Air quality management and planning system for Guangzhou. Report from workshop 1, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar

    1999-02-01

    The report is proceedings from Workshop no. 1, 1998 of the Sino-Norwegian co-operation project ''Guangzhou Air Quality Management and Planning System''. The project studies pollution emissions generally and from coal, vehicle and energy activities, dispersion modelling, monitoring, exposure, health damage assessment, material damage assessment, vegetation, control options, baseline scenario development, cost benefit analysis, pollution control management and policy instruments and air pollution forecasting. A forth workshop is planned. There are several reports from the various project activities

  18. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA [es

  19. The Data Rescue @ Home Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, A.; Allan, R.; Valente, M. A.; Tinz, B.; Brönnimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science as a whole as well as reanalyses as a special case can significantly profit from the recovery, imaging and digitisation of historical observations. The importance of this fact is reflected in large, global data rescue projects and initiatives such as the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE, www.met-acre.org) or the EU FP7 ERA-CLIM project (www.era-clim.eu). From the time before 1957, there are still large amounts of surface data e.g. from former colonies and from overseas territories of European countries )e.g. Portugal, France and Germany) that need to be rescued. Also in case of the very early upper-air observations before the 1930s, even Europe and North America still hold an important quantity of data to be recovered in digital form. Here, we present the web platform "Data Rescue @ Home" (www.data-rescue-at-home.org), which has been developed at ETH Zurich and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, and which has been designed to take advantage of the voluntary assistance of the thousands of people on the web who are interested in climate or old weather data. On the website, these volunteers can enter meteorological data shown on digital images into entry masks that resemble the original. By registering, the users get access to their personal digitisation statistics and help optimising the project. At the moment, 4 digitisation projects are online: One project is dealing with German upper-air data from the Second World War period. In a second project, station data from Tulagi (Solomon Islands) is being digitised. Finally, two collaborative projects have been included: One in cooperation with the Instituto Dom Luiz (Univ. Lisbon, Portugal), where Portuguese station data from Angra (Azores) is digitised, and a further one in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD), in which precipitation data from former German colonies is being digitised. On our poster, we will report on the status of the projects

  20. The clean development mechanism and urban air pollution A handbook for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, T.; Todoc, J.L.; Thiansathit, W. [Centre for Energy Environment Resources Development CEERD, Bangkok (Thailand); Gomez Caldes, N.; Claude Labriet, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambiantales Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Bakker, S.J.A.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Li, Sun; Leteng, Lin [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences SDERI, Jinan, Shandong (China); Dass, A.; Bordoloi, A. [Winrock International India, Haryana (India); Haq, G.; Schwela, D. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Rahmah, A.; Salim, N. [Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-01-15

    Urban air pollution is a serious health problem in large Asian cities. Often policymakers in those cities are not sufficiently equipped with budget or capacity to address urban air pollution. The clean development mechanism (CDM) could provide finance for air pollution reduction if the measures taken also reduce greenhouse gases. Indeed, there is room for synergy, as there is often a strong sectoral overlap between sources of air pollution and sources of greenhouse gases. This handbook is based on the results an EU Asia Pro Eco co-funded project 'CURB-AIR: CDM and urban air pollution: partnerships enhancing synergies in urban air and health in Kyoto mechanisms'. The CURB-AIR project intends to pave the way for projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The handbook aims to be a guide for policymakers, civil servants and anyone who is interested in the issue of CDM, urban air pollution and climate change. The Handbook consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the key issues of the synergy between air pollution, CDM, and climate change. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the various steps which constitute the CDM process. Chapter 3 examines the different types of CDM methodologies that could be applied to projects that contribute to improving urban air quality. Chapter 4 presents four case studies that examine the CDM methodological issues of urban projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Finally, Chapter 5 highlights the key conclusions with regard to the synergy between CDM and urban air pollution.