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Sample records for apheis project air

  1. The APHEIS project. An information source on air pollution and health impacts in Europe; Das Projekt APHEIS. Eine Informationsquelle fuer Luftverschmutzung und Gesundheit in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France); Plasencia, A. [Institut Municipal de Salut Publica de Barcelona (Spain); Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control

    2001-05-01

    The objectives of the APHEIS project are to: - establish a European epidemiological monitoring system, as well as a special database providing information on air pollution and its impacts on public health, - quantify the time-related effects of air pollution on public health at the local, national and European level, - examine and reveal the impacts of different factors on the cause-and-effect patterns, - publish at regular intervals standardised reports on the impact of air pollution on public health, so as to provide the participating three user groups of APHEIS with the information they need. (orig./CB) [German] Das APHEIS-Projekt soll - ein europaeisches epidemiologisches Ueberwachungssystem schaffen, das eine umfassende Datenbank zum Thema Luftverschmutzung und oeffentliche Gesundheit beinhalten wird, - die Wirkungen von Luftverschmutzung auf die oeffentliche Gesundheit auf der lokalen, nationalen und europaeischen Ebene zeitlich quantifizieren, - den Einfluss von Faktoren auf Expositions- und Wirkungszusammenhaenge bewerten, - regelmaessig standardisierte Berichte ueber den Einfluss von Luftverschmutzung auf die oeffentliche Gesudheit liefern, die den Informationsbeduerfnissen der drei Benutzergruppen von APHEIS entsprechen. (orig.)

  2. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  3. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  4. A.P.H.E.I.S.:air Pollution and Health: A European Information System Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution In 26 European Cities; Synthese des resultats europeens et resultats detailles des villes francaises issus du rapport paru en octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    Air pollution is a public health problem, in spite of more severe norms in matter of emissions rates, a stricter surveillance of the atmospheric pollution and the decrease of levels of some atmospheric pollutants. this situation has lead to the creation of a programme A.p.h.e.i.s. in 1999, in order to supply to Europeans authorities information on air pollution. In the report are presented the results of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) made in towns.

  5. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  6. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  7. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  8. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  9. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  10. Air permitting guidelines for combustion turbine projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, J.J. III [Mostardi-Platt Associates, Inc., Elmhurst, IL (United States); Schott, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit

    1997-09-01

    Before construction can begin on a new combustion turbine facility, an air permit must be obtained. The air permitting process is generally the critical path permit, often taking in excess of one year to receive final approval. Careful consideration and understanding of combustion turbine operational characteristics and air pollutant emissions will expedite the air permitting process. The purpose of this paper is to identify key issues related to combustion turbine operation that will aid in the preparation of air permit applications. However, before applying for an air permit, a pre-application meeting should be held with the regulatory agency to present an overview of the proposed project, as well as develop the requisite protocols to begin the process.

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  12. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  13. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  14. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health La evaluación del impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Ballester Díez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important number of studies, carried out in different cities, have found that, even bellow air quality levels considered as safe, increases in the levels of air pollution are associated with harmful effects on health. Epidemiology has played a major role in the evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health, since it provides proofs of the association among human populations within natural conditions. Also, toxicology and clinical sciences provide convincing proofs on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of such associations.The purpose of the evaluation of impact on health is to quantify the expected number of people whose health is affected due to a specific exposure situation. In Europe, since three years ago, the APHEIS project, with 26 participating cities, has established an environmental health surveillance system which includes a database of air pollution and health. This is aimed at quantifying the effects of air pollution on public health at local, national and European levels, as well as distributing standardised reports about air pollution impact on public health.En los últimos años un número importante de estudios realizados en distintas ciudades han encontrado que, aún por debajo de los niveles de calidad del aire considerados como seguros, los incrementos de los niveles de la contaminación atmosférica se asocian con efectos nocivos sobre la salud. La epidemiología ha jugado un papel crucial en la evaluación de impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica al proporcionar pruebas de la asociación en poblaciones humanas en condiciones naturales. Por su parte la toxicología y las ciencias clínicas aportan pruebas convincentes acerca de los mecanismos etiopatogénicos de dichas asociaciones.El propósito de la evaluación de impacto en salud es cuantificar el número esperado de personas con un efecto en salud que puede ser atribuido a una situación específica de exposición. En Europa, desde hace

  16. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  17. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  18. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that...

  19. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft...

  20. Novel MAV Air Data System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has received considerable attention in recent years for both military and civilian uses. MAVs typically suffer from...

  1. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  2. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  3. Optical Monitor for Major Air Constituents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The well-being of the crew on manned missions depends critical on the composition of the habitat air. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are the most important...

  4. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  5. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  6. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  7. A Lithium-Air Battery with a High Energy Air Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will advance an efficient and lightweight energy storage device for Oxygen Concentrators by developing a high specific energy lithium-air cell....

  8. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  9. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  10. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  11. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  12. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  13. Pasodoble- The GMES Downstream Service Project for Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbertseder, Thilo; Pasodoble Consortium

    2010-12-01

    PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user- driven information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in the following thematic service lines: (1) Health community support, (2) Public information and assessment support, (3) Compliance monitoring support for particulate matter and (4) Local forecast model evaluation support. Continuing on the achievements of the ESA GSE PROMOTE project, PASODOBLE will stimulate the development of quality-assured air quality services by increasing the implementation efficiency of demonstrated and operational services in the future for the benefit of the European citizen.

  14. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization

  15. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m2 muon detectors, 90,000m2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  16. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  17. Status of the large high altitude air shower observatory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project is a multipurpose project. The main scientific tasks can be summarized as follows: (1) searching for galactic cosmic ray origins through gamma ray source detection above 30 TeV; (2) wide field of view survey for gamma ray sources at energies higher than 100 GeV; (3) energy spectrum measurements for individual cosmic ray species from 30 TeV to 10 PeV. To target above tasks, a complex detector array is designed. This paper describes the progress on the research and development of all kind of detectors. Construction and operation of a prototype detector array at Tibet site with 4300 m a.s.l. are also presented.

  18. Project of energy saving in compressed air; Proyecto de ahorro de energia en aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla, (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the operation costs by means of the energy saving through the use of the compressed air system. For this purpose the solenoid valves controlled per time and the manually acted valves of sphere must be replaced by pneumatic purges that remove from the system the condensed humidity without discharging air and which act automatically when the water reaches the level of unloading in its deposit. The pressure level is the reduction of the operation rank of pressure in the compressors, satisfying the operation requirements of the process equipment. [Spanish] El objetivo de este proyecto es reducir el costo de operacion mediante el ahorro de energia en la utilizacion del sistema de aire comprimido. Para ello se tienen que remplazar las valvulas solenoides controladas por tiempo y valvulas de esfera actuadas manualmente por purgas neumaticas que remueven del sistema la humedad condensada sin descargar aire y que actuan en forma automatica al alcanzar el agua el nivel de descarga en su deposito. El nivel de presion es la reduccion del rango de operacion de presion de los compresores, satisfaciendo los requerimientos de operacion de los equipos de proceso.

  19. Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG)

  20. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  1. Managing air toxics: Status of EPRI's PISCES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants (1). This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  2. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  3. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM10 emissions will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Under REF[0] emissions, compared to 2005, the surface concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  4. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ with 2005 emissions and 2020 emission scenarios. Under REF[0] emissions, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  5. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  6. Multifunction Lidar for Air Data and Kinetic Air Hazard Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ophir proposes to develop a multifunction, low-cost lidar capable of accurately measuring kinetic air hazards, and air data, simultaneously. The innovation is...

  7. Metal Rubber Sensor Appliquis for Rotor Blade Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin film Metal RubberTM sensor appliqus have the potential to reduce the time, complexity and cost of measuring air flow-induced skin friction during the...

  8. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  9. Real-time Multispecies Spacecraft Air Quality Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an ultrasensitive, multispecies sensor system for use in determining the efficacy of air...

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Sources for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here focuses on cleansing air with high energy electrons. Bombardment by electrons has proven to be effective in removing a wide spectrum of...

  11. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  12. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  13. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  14. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  15. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS-an international project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudik Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children positions, and 5 to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone.

  16. Urban heat island and SO2 concentrations: an air pollution project at Universite de Montreal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of this paper to describe the Air Pollution Project that is being undertaken at the Ecole d'Hygiene of Universite de Montreal. The project is still in its organization phase. However, in the absence of any results, a description of the project with an emphasis on its goals, instrumentation and operational technique might prove interesting and raise comments beneficial to the project. (author)

  17. University of Waterloo's Historical Air Photo Digitization Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dodsworth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The University of Waterloo Map Library is a cartographic and GIS academic resource centre to academics, community organizations and interested members of the local community. With a collection of over 100,000 maps, 49,000 air photos and being the campus’ hub for geospatial data, the library is frequented by many user groups and individuals – serving a variety of interests and purposes. Until most recently, many of these users were able to only access the collection in person, during library hours. Now, one of the library’s most popular paper collection used by the local community, the historical aerial photographs, have become available online for users to view and download from their home and business computers. The Map Library’s air photo collection includes stereoscopic images of the Region of Waterloo taken as early as 1930 to as recent as 1995. The air photos are widely used by students, business contractors, history buffs and home owners who like to study the air photos for land cover, property information, feature identification and changes in these over time. Due to several access limitations, the Map Library wanted to provide the community with easier access, available 24/7 and remotely from the internet. The Map Library scanned, digitized, and georeferenced photos from the 1930s and 1940s and uploaded them to a website that provides easy access for viewing and downloading the imagery. Using GIS technology, the air photos were digitized with geographical coordinate tags for use in GIS software programs including online mapping applications such as Google Earth (GE. By creating and offering downloadable georeferenced images compatible with popular mapping tools, the air photos have gained significant popularity and utilization by not only regular library users but by community groups, organizations and corporations who have never used library resources in the past. The integration of modern technology with traditional paper

  18. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  19. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  20. Spacecraft Water Regeneration by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop advanced catalysts for a volatile removal assembly used to purify spacecraft water. The innovation of the proposed...

  1. Supplemental Environmental Projects Using Renewable Energy: A New Approach to Addressing Air Quality Violation Penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental environmental projects, or SEPs, are environmentally beneficial projects that offer pollution prevention, energy efficiency, green energy, and community-based programs that may include investment in cost-effective alternative energy technologies, such as wind energy. This fact sheet explains how SEPs can help companies mitigate all or part of penalties imposed as a result of air pollution violations

  2. Historical Air Photo Digitization Project University of Waterloo Map Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dodsworth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The University Map Library (UML at the University of Waterloo developed an onlinecollection of digitized and georeferenced aerial photography of the Kitchener-Waterlooarea from the 1930s and 1940s. Using GIS technology, the air photos were digitizedwith geographical coordinate tags for use in GIS software programs including onlinemapping applications such as Google Earth (GE. By creating and offeringdownloadable georeferenced images compatible with popular mapping tools, the airphotos have gained significant popularity and utilization by not only regular library usersbut by community groups, organizations and corporations who have never used libraryresources before. The integration of modern technology with traditional paper mappinghas proven to be both a method of preservation and a means of increasing and varyingutilization of the collection.

  3. Communication Strategy of Transboundary Air Pollution Findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI Program Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  4. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  5. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  6. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  7. Comparison of Large Scale Renewable Energy Projects for the United States Air Force

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focused on the performance of large-scale renewable energy projects for the United States Air Force. As global energy demands continue to rise, the need to find ways to save energy and produce alternative sources of energy will increase. The Federal Government has begun to address the challenge of energy production and energy security in recent years. In order to increase both the energy production and energy security for the Air Force, there is a trend to increase the amount o...

  8. Air Pollution and Climate Change Health Impact Assessment. The ACHIA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change may affect human health via interactions with air pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. These air pollutants are linked to climate because they can be both affected by and have effects on climate. In coming decades, substantial, cost-effective improvements in public health may be achieved with well-planned strategies to mitigate climate impacts while also reducing health effects of ozone and PM2.5. Climate mitigation actions affect greenhouse pollutant emissions, including methane and black carbon, but also may affect other key air pollution precursors such as NOx, CO, and SOx. To better understand the potential of such strategies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. The overall objective of this project is to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of ozone and PM2.5 under different IPCCs scenario of climate change, focusing specifically on pollution-related health co-benefits which could be achieved under alternative climate mitigation pathways in the period 2030-2050. This question will be explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (Paris). ACHIA is comprised of an integrated set of four work packages: WP1. Global Climate and Air Pollution Impacts of Alternative Emissions Pathways; WP2. Climate and Air Quality at Regional and Urban Scales: Results for Europe and Paris; WP3. Health Impact Assessment; WP4. Dissemination, Evaluation, Management. ACHIA is designed to create an interdisciplinary approach to the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to start longer-term collaborations between communities. We expect the project to advance state of art across all WPs, with important implications for research groups around the world. A particular innovation of the project is the multi-scale aspect, i.e., the analysis

  9. Cotton gin trash incinerator-air heat project. Consultant report (final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The California Energy Commission has funded the final phase of a four year project resulting in development of a successful system for burning cotton gin trash as a fuel providing the heat for ginning. The incinerator - air heater system installed in Corcoran, California operates continuously throughout the ginning season. Trash feeding and burning rate is automatically controlled from the combustion temperature, hot air temperature is controlled by the drying needs, and ashes are automatically removed from the system and pneumatically conveyed to the disposal site. The system complies with state and county air pollution codes by means of baghouse collectors. Savings in fossil fuel and trash disposal costs have demonstrated the equipment system is feasible for a four year payback at large, well utilized gins.

  10. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time. (letter)

  11. The Atlanta Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Air Quality Modeling Project: How High-Resoution Remote Sensing Data Can Improve Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William L.; Khan, Maudood N.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlanta Urban Heat Island and Air Quality Project had its genesis in Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air quality) that began in 1996. Project ATLANTA examined how high-spatial resolution thermal remote sensing data could be used to derive better measurements of the Urban Heat Island effect over Atlanta. We have explored how these thermal remote sensing, as well as other imaged datasets, can be used to better characterize the urban landscape for improved air quality modeling over the Atlanta area. For the air quality modeling project, the National Land Cover Dataset and the local scale Landpro99 dataset at 30m spatial resolutions have been used to derive land use/land cover characteristics for input into the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model that is one of the foundations for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to assess how these data can improve output from CMAQ. Additionally, land use changes to 2030 have been predicted using a Spatial Growth Model (SGM). SGM simulates growth around a region using population, employment and travel demand forecasts. Air quality modeling simulations were conducted using both current and future land cover. Meteorological modeling simulations indicate a 0.5 C increase in daily maximum air temperatures by 2030. Air quality modeling simulations show substantial differences in relative contributions of individual atmospheric pollutant constituents as a result of land cover change. Enhanced boundary layer mixing over the city tends to offset the increase in ozone concentration expected due to higher surface temperatures as a result of urbanization.

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  13. Indoor air quality large building characterization project planning. Report for September 1992--May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three buildings were characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS) for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon carbon dioxide, particle concentrations, temperature, humidity, pressure differentials, ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations, and outdoor air (OA) intake flow rates were collected. The OA intake was adjusted when possible, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data were collected. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO2 generation/decay rates, and IAQ levels were established for baseline and OA-adjusted conditions

  14. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  15. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  17. Theory meets working life (TEMA) : A guide from an interdisciplinary collaboration project improving knowledge and skills of indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlbäck, Yvonne; Fröjdö, Monika; Glader, Annika

    2015-01-01

    In discussions about preventive health care, indoor air quality aspects are becoming increasingly important. TEMA (Theory meets working life) project was an interdisciplinary project that mainly targeted at professionals within the healthcare and construction industry, but also all those who for various reasons would benefit from information about the indoor environment problems. This guide is an overview of published reports and studies, produced by the project.

  18. Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models.

    A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the modelled projection. Last, the modelling experiment is related to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented.

    The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop down to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35 will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximum O3 is higher than 120 μg m−3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%.

    We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios are the main factors leading to the

  19. Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models.

    A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the model projection. Last, the modelling experiment is linked to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented.

    The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35 will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximumO3 is higher than 120 μg m-3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%.

    We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios are the main factors leading to the

  20. DIRECT AIR BLAST EXPOSURE EFFECTS IN ANIMALS, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, PROJECT 4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAEGER, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF); LEE, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF)

    1953-12-31

    Project 4.2 was designed to study direct (primary) air blast injury, in animals, from an atomic weapon in the range of 20 to 50 psi under circumstances affording protection against missiles, thermal and ionizing radiation and to estimate the probable direct air blast hazard in man. The pressure levels at which atomic weapons direct air blast injuries occur will determine, to a large extent, the number of blast casualties likely to be encountered. It is probable that fatal overpressures are not reached until well within the range at which indirect (secondary) blast, thermal and ionizing radiation are practically certain to prove fatal. Only in special situations affording partial protection from other injuries are blast injuries likely to be of practical importance. Two animal species of widely different body weights (700 rats and 56 dogs) were exposed, together with air pressure recorders, in aluminum cylinders, covered by sandbags and dirt but open at both ends, at seven stations distributed within the intended overpressure range of 20 to 50 psi of Shot 10« About 200 rats were likewise exposed in Shot 9. Unfortunately, the destructive effect of the air blast of Shot 10 was much greater than anticipated. Many of the exposure cylinders were displaced and their contents destroyed. Only a partial recovery of the animals was possible due to the excessive radioactive contamination which greatly limited the time in the area. Most of the animals were dead upon recovery. Those living were in a state of severe shock. Autopsy findings showed remarkably few traumatic lesions and lung hemorrhages in spite of the rough treatment and high overpressure to which they were subjected. The rats recovered from Shot 9 were exposed to a recorded pressure of 18 to 2k psi. The autopsy findings showed moderate lung hemorrhage in most of the animals undoubtedly due to direct air blast injury. The findings were typical of those seen following exposure to air blast from HE or in the shock

  1. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-01

    assessment of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity and for determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides. Annual average gross alpha values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are in the same range as the highest two values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Annual average gross beta values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are slightly higher than the lowest value reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Gamma spectroscopy analyses on samples collected from the Project 57 stations identified only naturally occurring radionuclides. No manmade radionuclides were detected. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) indicated that the average annual radioactivity dose at the monitoring stations is higher than the dose determined at surrounding CEMP stations but approximately half of the estimated national average dose received by the general public as a result of exposure to natural sources. The TLDs at the Project 57 monitoring stations are exposed to both natural sources (terrestrial and cosmic) and radioactive releases from the Project 57 contamination area. These comparisons show that the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy levels at the Project 57 monitoring stations are similar to levels observed at the CEMP stations but that the average annual dose rate is higher than at the CEMP stations. Winds in excess of approximately 15 mph begin to generate dust movement by saltation (migration of sand at the ground surface) or direct suspension in the air. Saltated sand, PM10 (inhalable) dust, and PM2.5 (fine particulate dust) exhibit an approximately exponential increase with increasing wind speed. The greatest concentrations of dust occur for winds exceeding 20 mph. During the reporting period, winds in excess of 20 mph occurred approximately 1.6 percent of the time. Preliminary assessment of individual wind events suggests that dust generation is highly variable likely because of the influence of other meteorological and

  3. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  4. Projected increases in near-surface air temperature over Ontario, Canada: a regional climate modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    As the biggest economy in Canada, the Province of Ontario is now suffering many consequences caused by or associated with global warming, such as frequent and intense heat waves, floods, droughts, and wind gust. Planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies against the changing climate, which requires a better understanding of possible future climate outcomes over the Province in the context of global warming, is of great interest to local policy makers, stakeholders, and development practitioners. Therefore, in this study, high-resolution projections of near-surface air temperature outcomes including mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature over Ontario are developed, aiming at investigating how the global warming would affect the local climatology of the major cities as well as the spatial patterns of air temperature over the entire Province. The PRECIS modeling system is employed to carry out regional climate ensemble simulations driven by the boundary conditions of a five-member HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble (i.e., HadCM3Q0, Q3, Q10, Q13, and Q15). The ensemble simulations are then synthesized through a Bayesian hierarchical model to develop probabilistic projections of future temperature outcomes with consideration of some uncertain parameters involved in the regional climate modeling process. The results suggest that there would be a consistent increasing trend in the near-surface air temperature with time periods from 2030s to 2080s. The most likely mean temperature in next few decades (i.e., 2030s) would be [-2, 2] °C in northern Ontario, [2, 6] °C in the middle, and [6, 12] °C in the south, afterwards the mean temperature is likely to keep rising by ~ 2 °C per 30-years period. The continuous warming across the Province would drive the lowest mean temperature up to 2 °C in the north and the highest mean temperature up to 16 °C in the south. In addition, the spread of the most likely ranges of future outcomes shows a consistent

  5. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition affects the radiative balance of the Earth through the creation of greenhouse gases and the formation of aerosols. The latter interact with incoming solar radiation, both directly and indirectly through their effects on cloud formation and lifetime. The tropics have a major influence on incoming sunlight however the tropical atmosphere is poorly characterised, especially outside Amazonia. The origins of air masses influencing a measurement site in a protected rainforest in Borneo, South East Asia, were assessed and the likely sources of a range of trace gases and particles were determined. This was conducted by interpreting in situ measurements made at the site in the context of ECMWF backwards air mass trajectories. Two different but complementary methods were employed to interpret the data: comparison of periods classified by cluster analysis of trajectories, and inspection of the dependence of mean measured values on geographical history of trajectories. Sources of aerosol particles, carbon monoxide and halocarbons were assessed. The likely source influences include: terrestrial organic biogenic emissions; long range transport of anthropogenic emissions; biomass burning; sulphurous emissions from marine phytoplankton, with a possible contribution from volcanoes; marine production of inorganic mineral aerosol; and marine production of halocarbons. Aerosol sub- and super-saturated water affinity was found to be dependent on source (and therefore composition, with more hygroscopic aerosol and higher numbers of cloud condensation nuclei measured in air masses of marine origin. The prevailing sector during the majority of measurements was south-easterly, which is from the direction of the coast closest to the site, with a significant influence inland from the south-west. This analysis shows that marine and terrestrial air masses have different dominant chemical sources. Comparison with the AMAZE-08 project in the Amazon

  6. Source attribution of Bornean air masses by back trajectory analysis during the OP3 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition affects the radiative balance of the Earth through the creation of greenhouse gases and the formation of aerosols. The latter interact with incoming solar radiation, both directly and indirectly through their effects on cloud formation and lifetime. The tropics have a major influence on incoming sunlight however the tropical atmosphere is poorly characterised, especially outside Amazonia. The origins of air masses influencing a measurement site in a protected rainforest in Borneo, South East Asia, were assessed and the likely sources of a range of trace gases and particles were determined. This was conducted by interpreting in situ measurements made at the site in the context of ECMWF backwards air mass trajectories. Two different but complementary methods were employed to interpret the data: comparison of periods classified by cluster analysis of trajectories, and inspection of the dependence of mean measured values on geographical history of trajectories. Sources of aerosol particles, carbon monoxide and halocarbons were assessed. The likely source influences include: terrestrial organic biogenic emissions; long range transport of anthropogenic emissions; biomass burning; sulphurous emissions from marine phytoplankton, with a possible contribution from volcanoes; marine production of inorganic mineral aerosol; and marine production of halocarbons. Aerosol sub- and super-saturated water affinity was found to be dependent on source (and therefore composition, with more hygroscopic aerosol and higher numbers of cloud condensation nuclei measured in air masses of marine origin. The prevailing sector during the majority of measurements was south-easterly, which is from the direction of the coast closest to the site, with a significant influence inland from the south-west. This analysis shows that marine and terrestrial air masses have different dominant chemical sources. Comparison with the AMAZE-08 project in the Amazon

  7. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  8. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  9. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index

  10. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  11. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  12. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  13. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  14. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  15. Craft-joule project: air-cooled water LiBr absorption cooling machine of low capacity for air conditioning (ACABMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Castro, J; Perez Segarra, C.D [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Lucena, M.A [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespecial (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The ACABMA (Air-Cooled water-LiBr Absorption cooling Machine of low capacity for Air- conditioning) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The basic objective of this project is the development of a new air-cooled absorption cooling machine for air-conditioning, in the low power sector market. Making use of water-LiBr technology together with the air-cooling feature, it is possible to reach a better relationship between quality (in terms of performance, ecology, etc.) and price of such absorption machines, than the ones existing on the market. Air-cooling instead of water cooling saves installation costs specially in small systems and removes the demand for cooling water (an important aspect in Southern-European countries), thus increasing the possible application range. The main interest for the SME proposers is to take advantage of the increasing cooling demand in Europe, specially in southern countries. Another point of interest for the SME proposers is the development of a cheaper cooling and heating system in terms of energy and installation costs. In this moment the solar cooling systems are approx. 30% more expensive than the conventional ones. A cheaper absorption machine due to the air-cooling feature together with the possibility of energy savings due to low generator temperatures, that allow the absorption machine for solar applications or waste heat, will lead to solar cooling and heating systems more competitive to the conventional ones. In order to achieve the above mentioned goal, the following step are necessary and will be carried out in this project: i)solution of the air-cooling of the water-LiBr machine, the main problem that up to now has not allowed commercialization, ii)reduction of the size of the air-cooled elements of the machine in order to reduce the machine costs, iii)development of an efficient control

  16. SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  17. Use of the Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) for In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant...

  18. AirCore Reusable InSitu Sampler for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel design for an in situ air sampling sensor for CO2 and trace gases is proposed. The sensor, named AirCore, provides the advantages of existing in situ...

  19. AirCore Reusable InSitu Sampler for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AirCore is a simple and novel atmospheric air column sampler to validate satellite observation data of greenhouse gases, using a lightweight, inexpensive coated...

  20. Cryogenic Cooling System for Zero-Venting Storage of Supercritical Air Packs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supercritical air at cryogenic temperature is an attractive source of breathing air because of its very high density and low pressure. However, heat leak into the...

  1. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  2. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  3. Valuing Indoor Air Quality Benefits in a Healthcare Construction Project with Real Option Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Kusti Kajander

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ can produce significant economic benefits for the tenant during the use of the building. However, currently the potential economic benefits on a tenant’s employees’ health and performance are not considered in feasibility studies for IAQ investments. Here, the economic value refers to benefits that can be expressed numerically in terms of money such as cost savings and increased revenues and that which impacts the building user organization’s financial profitability. This paper is one of the first known studies to explore real option analysis (ROA as a potential approach to evaluate the life-cycle profitability of investments in IAQ. The research is carried out as a case study, which is a healthcare construction project in Finland. The main finding of this paper is that ROA seems to provide a viable method for the evaluation of investments in IAQ. In the case study, the economic benefits of IAQ to the tenant are noticeable. The real option value of the economic benefits of better IAQ is almost 4 million euros and the real option pay-off of the IAQ investment exceeds 0.5 million euros. The results are indicative only but imply that ROA is a promising method to evaluate investments in IAQ.

  4. It's All in the Air. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for intermediate grade elementary school students. Emphasized in the units are air, the use of air, and air pollution. The seven lessons can be used consecutively or spaced throughout the year. Each lesson includes the…

  5. Virtual prototype interface for the Air Force Manned SpacePlane project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Lewis, John; Johnson, Troy D.

    1998-08-01

    The advent of requirements for worldwide deployment of space assets in support of Air Force operational missions has resulted in the need for a Manned SpacePlane (MSP) that can perform these missions with minimal preflight preparation and little, if any, in-orbit support from a mission control center. Because successful mission accomplishment will depend almost completely upon the MSP crew and the on-board capabilities of the spaceplane, the MSP user interface is a crucial component of successful mission accomplishment. In recognition of this fact, the USAF Phillips Laboratory in conjunction with USAF Space Command initiated the Virtual SpacePlane (VSP) project. To function effectively as an MSP interface development platform, the VSP must demonstrate the capability to simulate anticipated MSP missions and portray the MSP in operation throughout its entire flight regime, from takeoff through space operations and on to recovery via a horizontal landing at an airfield. Therefore, we architected, designed, and implemented a complete VSP that can be used to simulate anticipated Manned SpacePlane missions. The primary objective of the VSP is to be a virtual prototype for user interface design and development, the VSP software architecture and design facilities uncovering, refining and validating MSP user interface requirements. The Virtual SpacePlane reuses software components developed for the Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler (SM) distributed virtual environment (DVE) applications, the Common Object Database (CODB) architecture, and Information Pod (Pod) interface tools developed in our labs. The Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler supplied baseline interface components and tools, 3D graphical models, vehicle motion dynamics models, and DVE communication capabilities. Because we knew that the VSP's requirements would expand and evolve over the life of the project, we use the CODB architecture to facilitate our use of Rapid Evolutionary and Exploratory

  6. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  7. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  8. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  9. A Structurally-Integrated Ice Detection and De-Icing System for Unmanned Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more prevalent for Suborbital Scientific Earth Exploration, which often involves high altitude, long endurance flight...

  10. Investigation of the emissions and profiles of a wide range of VOCs during the Clean air for London project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Rachel; Lidster, Richard; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Lee, James; Hopkins, James; Whalley, Lisa; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    The majority of the World's population live in polluted urbanized areas. Poor air quality is shortening life expectancy of people in the UK by an average 7-8 months and costs society around £20 billion per year.[1] Despite this, our understanding of atmospheric processing in urban environments and its effect on air quality is incomplete. Air quality models are used to predict how air quality changes given different concentrations of pollution precursors, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The urban environment of megacities pose a unique challenge for air quality measurements and modelling, due to high population densities, pollution levels and complex infrastructure. For over 60 years the air quality in London has been monitored, however the existing measurements are limited to a small group of compounds. In order to fully understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in London, more intensive and comprehensive measurements should be made. The Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project was conducted to investigate the air quality, in particular the boundary layer pollution, of London. A relatively new technique, comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) [2] was combined with a well-established dual channel GC (DC-GC) [3] system to provide a more comprehensive measurement of VOCs. A total of 78 individual VOCs (36 aliphatics, 19 monoaromatics, 21 oxygenated and 2 halogenated) and 10 groups of VOCs (8 aliphatic, 1 monoaromatic and 1 monoterpene) from C1-C13+ were quantified. Seasonal and diurnal profiles of these VOCs have been found which show the influence of emission source and chemical processing. Including these extra VOCs should enhance the prediction capability of air quality models thus informing policy makers on how to potentially improve air quality in megacities. References 1. House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, Air Quality: A follow-up report, Ninth Report of session 2012-12. 2. Lidster, R.T., J.F. Hamilton

  11. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  12. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  13. Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Arja; Carrer, Paolo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos;

    2016-01-01

    D) calculations taking into account asthma, cardiovascular (CV) diseases, acute toxication, respiratory infections, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: The quantitative comparison of three main policy approaches, (i) optimising ventilation rates only; (ii) filtration of outdoor......Background: The annual burden of disease caused indoor air pollution, including polluted outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces, is estimated to correspond to a loss of over 2 million healthy life years in the European Union (EU). Based on measurements of the European Environment Agency (EEA......), approximately 90 % of EU citizens live in areas where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality of particulate matter sized <2.5 mm (PM2.5) are not met. Since sources of pollution reside in both indoor and outdoor air, selecting the most appropriate ventilation strategy is not a simple and...

  14. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic management systems is being conducted at several laboratories using custom software. In order to provide a more uniform...

  15. Multilevel Control & Optimization of Future Air Traffic Systems via Managem Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Controlling air traffic on all temporal and spatial scales – from a single aircraft to the entire airspace – can be formally stated as a dynamic,...

  16. Advanced Air Evaporation System with Reusable Wicks for Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) is proposed for recovering nearly 100% of water from highly contaminated wastewater without concern...

  17. Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided...

  18. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  19. Reusable In Situ AirCore System for CO2 and Trace Gas Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel design for an in situ atmospheric sensor for CO2 and trace gases is proposed. The sensor, named AirCore, provides the advantages of existing in situ sensors...

  20. A Human-Relatable Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traffic Managers, Supervisors and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Specialists have a critical and significant responsibility in the ATM system to...

  1. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake (EAB) is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for active and passive noise control concepts for conventional and advanced...

  2. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob;

    2014-01-01

    used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from......Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent. Objectives: We...... have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were...

  3. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic control systems are being conducted at several laboratories. Most of this work is being carried out using custom software....

  4. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  5. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for concepts for active and passive control of noise sources for conventional and...

  6. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  7. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 4: Solar air conditioning: Active, hybrid and passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    The status of absorption cycle solar air conditioning and the Rankine cycle solar cooling system is reviewed. Vapor jet ejector chillers, solar pond based cooling, and photovoltaic compression air conditioning are also briefly discussed. Hybrid solar cooling by direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and dehumidification by desiccation are described and discussed. Passive solar cooling by convective and radiative processes, evaporative cooling by passive processes, and cooling with roof ponds and movable insulation are reviewed. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is discussed.

  8. Estimation of air quality in the phase of project of new power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the results of the investigation for searching the appropriate model for air quality estimating. The main aim of this task is to describe state of the art of air pollution models. Overview of air-quality models is given. Starting with simple empirical and integral models for emission calculating, including most widely used Gaussian plume regulatory models, continuing with diffusion K-theory models, complex differential models with different order of turbulence closure, ended with meteorological models which are solving Navier-Stokes equations for the planetary boundary layer. Characteristics of models are analysed, with major interest on applicability in practical calculations, complexity, input meteorological data and limitations on each model. Analyses given in this paper can be helpful for choosing the most suitable model for specific application, including dispersion calculations for regulatory purposes, which is most important for countries without established National Regulatory Air-Quality Model, like Republic of Macedonia. Presented analyses are opening new, huge field of activities for maintaining modem Air Pollution Modelling regulation acts, which can he used in estimating air-quality for new power plants. (Author)

  9. Average historical annual temperature, projected air temperature, and change in air temperature (degree F) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 8.5) and CRU TS3.1 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...

  10. Average historical annual temperature, projected air temperature, and change in air temperature (degree C) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 6.0) and CRU TS3.1 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...

  11. Average historical annual temperature, projected air temperature, and change in air temperature (degree C) for Northern Alaska. GIF formatted animation and PNG images. Maps created using the SNAP 5-GCM composite (AR5-RCP 8.5) and CRU TS3.1 datasets.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...

  12. Aeronautical diagnostics for Clear-Air Turbulence forecast at Meteofrance in the context of DELICAT European project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on Clear-Air Turbulence (abbreviated by CAT) forecast in a Numerical Weather Model is presented in this paper. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ARPEGE Meteofrance-NWP model's ability to reproduce CAT, by calculating various CAT indices at the regional scale (over Europe) in this model. The list of indices used here is inspired from that proposed by R. Sharman and Wolff (2006). Calculated indices are then compared with AMDARs (Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay) turbulence measurements during winter, early in 2010. This work was performed within DELICAT european project (*DEmonstration of LIdar based Clear-Air Turbulence detection), in the Seventh Research Framework program of the European Union [FP7], in Meteofrance national weather agency.

  13. From thin-air to flat-sat in 12 months: the Twentesat student project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, van Sven Kevin; Bentum, Mark; Vries, de Rowan; Grootjans, Robert; Grootjans, Roelof; Brethouwer, Martijn F.

    2014-01-01

    TwenteSat aims to build a twin-satellite interferometer in space, a research satellite system in preparation of the OLFAR project. The project will be completely done by students that work on a voluntary basis. The target is to have a flat-sat of at least one of the satellites ready in a short timef

  14. Distribution of kerma rate in the air inside of hemodynamic room for typical projections of interventionist cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of dose to physicians involved in Interventional Cardiology (IC) is an extreme important matter due to the high and non-uniform distribution of dose values. The radiation control during each procedure is complex and the reasons for the high exposures have many different causes. Many international recommendations have already been written aiming the radiation protection optimization in IC. In Brazil, there is not any special orientation for the protection of those occupational persons, nor a specific legislation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the air kerma rate at critical anatomic regions of the occupationally exposed staff that carry out IC procedures, in representative incidences in order to give subsidies for individual monitoring procedures implementation and to give more information about their radiation protection. The air kerma rate has been measured in the often used condition in the two more common IC procedures namely angiography and coronary angioplasty, using an adult patient simulator irradiated under RAO, LAO and AP projections for fluoro and digital acquisition modes. The measurements have been made in 45 points around the examination table at 5 different representatives heights of: eyes lens, thorax, hands, gonads and knees. AP projection shows the smaller scattered radiation contributions and a more homogeneous exposure distribution. The digital acquisition mode gives air kerma rates about 4 times higher than fluoro mode for LAO projection in the position occupied by the interventionist doctor, the anesthetist and the nursing staff. The most critical anatomic regions are: knees and gonads (without protection). On the physician hands position, values as high as 5 mGy/h have been measured, which can overpass, depending on the number of procedures done, the individual occupational annual limit. Therefore, in IC it is necessary to implement additional protection tools, elaborate safety guides (based on international experiences

  15. Air Pollution: What You Can & Can't See. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit on air pollution is designed for secondary school students in grades 7 through 12. There are five lessons in the unit; since some of the activities can take as long as 90 days, use of the materials needs to be carefully planned. Each…

  16. ...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used…

  17. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  18. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain

  19. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Newsom, J.C. [Newsom Industries, Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  20. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  1. Storage of compressed air - Optimisation and measurement of an existing project example; Druckluftspeicherung: Optimierung / Ausmessung bestehendes Projektmuster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, P. [Brueckmann Elektronik, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Cyphelly, I. [Cyphelly and Cie, Les Brenets (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This short final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an additional project that augmented an earlier report on a compressed-air energy storage system. First tests are reported on that revealed that the chosen heat exchanger fulfils the thermal expectations with substantial reserves. Certain effects concerning the liquid piston system are described which showed that further development of the test infrastructure were required. This project was launched to further examine these problems. Difficulties with the liquids available which prohibited the intended exact series of measurements are commented on. The authors note that independent investigations by the Austrian company LINDE came to the same conclusions, thus confirming the function of the heat exchanger.

  2. Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, lightweight, miniaturized Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C...

  3. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  4. Valuing Indoor Air Quality Benefits in a Healthcare Construction Project with Real Option Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juho-Kusti Kajander; Matti Sivunen; Seppo Junnila

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) can produce significant economic benefits for the tenant during the use of the building. However, currently the potential economic benefits on a tenant’s employees’ health and performance are not considered in feasibility studies for IAQ investments. Here, the economic value refers to benefits that can be expressed numerically in terms of money such as cost savings and increased revenues and that which impacts the building user organization’s financial profitability. ...

  5. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  6. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6 scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here.

    The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions – that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6

  7. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6 scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here.

    The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions – that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6

  8. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…

  9. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  10. Dispersion modeling in assessing air quality of industrial projects under Indian regulatory regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bandyopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA studies conducted over the years as a part of obtaining environmental clearance in accordance with Indian regulation have been given significant attention towards carrying out Gaussian dispersion modeling for predicting the ground level concentration (GLC of pollutants, especially for SO2. Making any adhoc decision towards recommending flue gas desulfurization (FGD system in Indian fossil fuel combustion operations is not realistic considering the usage of fuel with low sulfur content. Thus a predictive modeling is imperative prior to making any conclusive decision. In the light of this finding, dispersion modeling has been accorded in Indian environmental regulations. This article aims at providing approaches to ascertain pollution potential for proposed power plant operation either alone or in presence of other industrial operations under different conditions. In order to assess the performance of the computational work four different cases were analyzed based on worst scenario. Results obtained through predictions were compared with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS of India. One specific case found to overshoot the ambient air quality adversely in respect of SO2 and was therefore, suggested to install a FGD system with at least 80 % SO2 removal efficiency. With this recommendation, the cumulative prediction yielded a very conservative resultant value of 24 hourly maximum GLC of SO2 as against a value that exceeded well above the stipulated value without considering the FGD system. The computational algorithm developed can therefore, be gainfully utilized for the purpose of EIA analysis in Indian condition.

  11. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  12. Air-Liquide 1.8 K refrigeration units for CERN LHC project

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, B; Caillaud, A

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be CERN's next research instrument for high energy physics. This 27 km long circular accelerator will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operated below 2.0 K. It will thus require high capacity refrigeration below 2.0 K. Coupled to a refrigerator providing 18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K, these systems will be able to absorb a cryogenic power of 2.4 kW at 1.8 K in nominal conditions. Air Liquide has designed one Cold Compressor System (CCS) pre-series for CERN- preceding 3 more of them (among 8 in total located around the machine). These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement coupled to room temperature screw compressors, are presented. Key components characteristics will be given. (5 refs).

  13. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  14. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H R; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, J P; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city's regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 microg x m(-3) increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. PMID:9163648

  15. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities. Results from the APHEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.R. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Spix, C. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. for Epidemiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Medina, S. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city`s regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 {mu}g x m{sup -3} increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. (au) 42 refs.

  16. Project 57 Air Monitoring Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2013 (October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J. [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Mizell, Steve A [DRI

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is currently working to achieve regulatory closure of radionuclide-contaminated Soils sites under its auspices. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion Site is located in Emigrant Valley, Nevada, on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. Closure plans being developed for the CAUs both on and off of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) may include postclosure monitoring for the possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and postclosure monitoring program. The DOE has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil from the Project 57 site during ambient wind events. The assessment is intended to provide site-specific information on meteorological conditions that result in airborne soil particle redistribution, as well as determine which, if any, radiological contaminants may be entrained with the soil particles and estimate their concentrations.

  17. Urban impact on air quality in RegCM/CAMx couple for MEGAPOLI project - high resolution sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, T.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies show considerable effect of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on climate on regional and local scale. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the magnitude of climate forcing due to atmospheric chemistry/aerosols on regional scale, the development of coupling of regional climate model and chemistry/aerosol model was started on the Department of Meteorology and Environmental Protection, Charles University, Prague, for the EC FP6 Project QUANTIFY and EC FP6 Project CECILIA. For this coupling, existing regional climate model and chemistry transport model have been used at very high resolution of 10km grid. Climate is calculated using RegCM while chemistry is solved by CAMx. The experiments with the couple have been prepared for EC FP7 project MEGAPOLI assessing the impact of the megacities and industrialized areas on climate. Meteorological fields generated by RCM drive CAMx transport, chemistry and a dry/wet deposition. A preprocessor utility was developed for transforming RegCM provided fields to CAMx input fields and format. New domain have been settled for MEGAPOLI purpose in 10km resolution including all the European "megacities" regions, i.e. London metropolitan area, Paris region, industrialized Ruhr area, Po valley etc. There is critical issue of the emission inventories available for 10km resolution including the urban hot-spots, TNO emissions are adopted for this sensitivity study in 10km resolution for comparison of the results with the simulation based on merged TNO emissions, i.e. basically original EMEP emissions at 50 km grid. The sensitivity test to switch on/off Paris area emissions is analysed as well. Preliminary results for year 2005 are presented and discussed to reveal whether the concept of effective emission indices could help to parameterize the urban plume effects in lower resolution models. Interactive coupling is compared to study the potential of possible impact of urban air-pollution to the urban area climate.

  18. Lake Michigan air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theresa; Betterton, Eric A.; Robert Jacko, P. E.; Hillery, John

    2011-06-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. This paper for the first time documents LAP in the peer-reviewed literature. Dye et al. (1995) found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the airwater temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesize that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. This statistical analysis of LAP data support the hypothesis of Dye et al. Below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NO x limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NO x-limited throughout the day. The onshore NO x and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NO y concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NO y over the lake. The diurnal NO x pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants located on the Lake Michigan shoreline. Using a "photochemical clock" model, we estimate the climatological average hydroxyl radical concentration over the lake to be (9.43 ± 5.88) × 106 molecule cm -3 near Chicago and (8.43 ± 3.68) × 106 molecule cm -3 near Milwaukee.

  19. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System, NextGen Systems Analysis, Integration and Evaluation Project. Version 1.0; Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    The key objectives of the NASA ASP are to: Improve mobility, capacity efficiency and access of the airspace system. Improve collaboration, predictability, and flexibility for the airspace users. Enable accurate modeling and simulation of air transportation systems. Accommodate operations of all classes of aircraft. Maintain system safety and environmental protection. In support of these program objectives, the major goal of the NextGen-SAIE Project is to enable the transition of key capacity and efficiency improvements to the NAS. Since many aspects of the NAS are unique to specific airport or airspace environments, demand on various parts of the NAS is not expected to increase equally as system demand grows. SAIE will provide systems level analysis of the NAS characteristics, constraints, and demands such that a suite of capacity-increasing concepts and technologies for system solutions are enabled and facilitated. The technical objectives in support of this goal are the following: Integration, evaluation, and transition of more mature concepts and technologies in an environment that faithfully emulates real-world complexities. Interoperability research and analysis of ASP technologies across ATM functions is performed to facilitate integration and take ASP concepts and technologies to higher Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Analyses are conducted on the program s concepts to identify the system benefits or impacts. System level analysis is conducted to increase understanding of the characteristics and constraints of airspace system and its domains.

  20. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H. K.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observat...

  1. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  2. Evaluation of energy saving in pilot projects of window type air conditioning equipment in the domestic sector; Evaluacion del ahorro de energia en proyectos pilotos en equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Ramirez, Ricardo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present work shows the energy saving when replacing low efficiency window type air conditioning equipment, for higher efficiency equipment, as well as the necessary parameters to identify the results obtained by the pilot projects of substitution of conventional equipment for other more efficient in the domestic sector. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los ahorros de energia al sustituir equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana de baja eficiencia, por equipos de mayor eficiencia, asi como los parametros necesarios para identificar los resultados obtenidos, por los proyectos pilotos de sustitucion de equipos convencionales por otros mas eficientes en el sector domestico.

  3. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  4. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  5. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  6. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  7. Coomet Project 445: Comparison of National Measurement Standards of Air Kerma for Cs-137 Gamma Radiation at Protection Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A COOMET supplementary comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for Cs-137 gamma radiation at protection level (∼10 mGy/h) was carried out between May 2011 and February 2013. Participants were VNIIM (Russia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba), GEOSTM (Georgia), INSM (Moldova), NSC-'IM' (Ukraine), SMU (Slovakia), PTB (Germany), BIM (Bulgaria), VMT/FTMC (Lithuania) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PTB acted as the pilot laboratory. The comparison reference value (CRV) was obtained as the mean of the results obtained by PTB and VNIIM, both of which had previously taken part in the key comparison BIPM-RI (I)-K5. Results will be published in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) using the identifier COOMET.RI(I)-S1 as soon as the Draft B report is accepted. The comparison was organized within an extended COOMET project (identified as Project 445/DE/08), the aim of which was not only to compare national standards but also for educational purposes. Some of the participants had taken part in such a comparison for the first time and, therefore, an introductory seminar was held at PTB in May 2011. The seminar was open for participation also to those countries of the COOMET region which did not participate in the comparison and to nonMRA signatories and countries without an approved quality management system in order to acquire measurement routine and theoretical as well as organizational knowledge for future comparisons. The main goal of this seminar was to prepare the participants for the procedure of having entries accepted for the CMC list in the metrological area of Ionising Radiation, Section I, x and gamma rays

  8. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  9. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  10. An Advanced Open-Source Aircraft Design Platform for Personal Air Vehicle Geometry, Aerodynamics, and Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators working to revolutionize air travel through personal aviation pioneers need innovative aircraft design tools. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an aircraft...

  11. Presentation of a Swedish study program concerning recruitment, selection and training of student air traffic controllers: The MRU project phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The Director of the ANS Department has set up an objective for the efficiency of screening and training procedures for air traffic controller students which implies that all students admitted 'shall be considered to have the qualification for - and be given the means of - completing the training'. As a consequence, a study project has been established. It is run by the ANS Department with members from the Swedish CAA, in close cooperation with Uppsala University.

  12. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  13. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  14. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  15. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  16. Heat recovery from a boiler exhaust to pre-heat air to a spray dryer. A demonstration project at BIP Chemicals Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This demonstration project at BIP Chemicals Ltd., is one of a package of projects being funded by the Energy Efficiency Office of the Department of Energy, under the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. It involves the recovery of waste heat to pre-heat spray dryer inlet air. It is estimated that the adoption of the technology within the UK will lead to energy savings worth Pound 1.5M/year by 1990. The project at BIP demonstrates the use of a heat pipe exchanger to recover the heat from a boiler exhaust in order to pre-heat the inlet air. Details of the performance of the exchanger and the resulting energy and cost savings at the spray dryer are given, and factors affecting the savings are discussed. This project has shown that the use of a separate boiler exhaust, even if located some 60 m from the dryer, is a practical and cost-effective means of improving the efficiency of a spray dryer.

  17. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, J; P. A. Makar; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factor...

  18. Preliminary calculations for the CAFE project (Clean Air For Europe); Calculs preparatoires pour la strategie thematique CAFE (Clean Air For Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The European Commission decided in 2001 an analysis program to reduce the atmospheric emissions. This report presents different limit scenari for France in 2020 (the reference scenari and the MTFR scenari, Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction), optimized scenari calculated by the RAINS model (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation), the costs of the scenari calculated with RAINS and the cost-benefit analysis of the strategy CAFE. From the study results, the benefits are higher than the costs, even with the most ambitious scenari. At an european level the emission reduction strategies have no effect on the employment but an impact on the Gross Domestic Product (decrease between 0,04 % and 0,12 % in function of the scenari). (A.L.B.)

  19. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  20. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  1. Development and validation of tools for the implementation of european air quality policy in Germany (Project VALIUM)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schatzmann; Bächlin, W.; S. Emeis; J. Kühlwein; Leitl, B.; Müller, W. J.; K. Schäfer; H. Schlünzen

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the German Atmospheric Research Program AFO-2000 a system of consistent coupled numerical models has been developed. The purpose of the model system is to serve as a tool for the execution of European urban air quality regulations. A consortium with the acronym VALIUM was formed, which consisted of German research institutes, environmental consultancies and an environmental agency. A substantial part of the VALIUM program was devoted to the generation of a set of high qua...

  2. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Project: Estimating the Mortality Effects of Particulate Matter in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Vajanapoom, Nitaya; Ostro, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Background Air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) are significantly higher than in most cities in North America and Western Europe, where the health effects of PM10 are well documented. However, the pollution mix, seasonality, and demographics are different from those in developed Western countries. It is important, therefore, to determine whether the large metropolitan area of Bangkok is subject to similar e...

  3. Avon Park Air Force Range project: distribution and abundance of sensitive wildlife species at Avone Park Force Range

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Richard; Maehr, David; Kinlaw, Alton; O'Brien, Christopher; Owen, Richard D.

    1998-01-01

    Executive Summary. We surveyed for seven species ofsensitve wildlife (Florida gopher frogs, gopher tortoise, eastern indigo snake, eastern diamondback rattlesnake, Florida mouse, Florida roundtail muskrat, Sherman's fox squirrel) between October 1996 and May 1998 at Avon Park Air Force Range (APR). The presence of 87 other species ofamphibians, reptiles, and mammals also were detected. Selected species ofbirds were noted, particularly if they were found dead on APR roads. We re...

  4. Selected Information on European Union Research and Development Programmes and Projects focused on Reducing Emissions from Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Koblen, Ivan; Szabo, Stanislav; Krnáčová, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The paper in the introductory part informs on the structure of jet engines emissions and introduce some facts regarding the timing progressive development in the area of aviation emissions reducing. The second part of the paper is focusing on introducing selected information concerning strategies and goals of the international aviation organizations (especially ACARE and IATA) as well as the European Commission in reducing emissions from air transport issue, including principle information ...

  5. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  6. The Telescope Array RADAR (TARA) Project and the Search for the Radar Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohira, Steven; TARA Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation since May 2013. It is the most ambitious effort to date to test an idea that originated in the 1940's: that ionization produced by cosmic ray extensive air showers should reflect electromagnetic radiation. The observation of this effect would open the possibility that remote-sensing radar technology could be used to detect and reconstruct extensive air showers, thus increasing the aperture available for the study of the highest-energy cosmic rays. TARA employs a bi-static radar configuration, consisting of a 25 kW, 5 MW ERP transmitter at 54.1 MHz broadcasting across the Telescope Array surface detector. 40 km distant, a set of log-periodic receiver antennas are read out by two independent data acquisition systems employing different techniques to select signals of the form expected for radar targets moving at close to the speed of light. In this talk, we describe the TARA detector and present the first quantitative limits on the radar cross-section of extensive air showers.

  7. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  8. General overview: European integrated project on aerosol cloud climate and air quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes from nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies. (authors)

  9. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  10. Cold air intrusions over southeastern South America — GFDL model behavior regarding climate simulations in the 20th century and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema F. A.; Müller, Gabriela V.; Andrade, Kelen M.; Fernández Long, Maria Elena

    2013-12-01

    Cold air intrusions in three areas frequently affected by frosts of southeastern South America are analyzed based on GFDL-CM2.0 Coupled Atmospheric and Oceanic Global Circulation Model. The general objective is to investigate the model ability to simulate the frequency of intrusions in the present climate as well as the changes in the frequency of occurrence and atmospheric characteristics in a future climate scenario. The cold period (May to September) is analyzed for the control period 1961 to 1990 and for the period 2081 to 2100 from the CMIP3 A2 scenario, which reflects the extreme global warming. The coupled GFDL-CM2.0 overestimated the number of cold air intrusions for the present climate (control). This systematic error should be considered in the analyses of future climate results. Future projections indicated a reduction of these cases in GFDL results. As this model overestimated the number of cases, the reduction could be even greater. Composites of extreme cases for the present and future climate in the three areas indicated intensification of the temperature gradient which suggests more vigorous frontal systems, intensification of post-frontal highs and cold air extending to lower latitudes as compared to the present climate. Anomaly intensification was related to the climatological mean temperature, which is higher in the future than in the present. Therefore, even with less cold air intrusion over southeastern South America and a lower number of frost cases in the three areas, the occurrence of more intense systems would have an impact on the agriculture of these areas and such impact would extend to lower latitudes.

  11. Impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the East Mediterranean - An overview of the first results from the CITYZEN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Saharan dust, vegetation and the sea, as well as from biomass burning, in overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. The east basin of the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions, include significant megacities such as Istanbul and Cairo, but also several large urban centers like to its north part Athens and Thessaloniki; to the east Izmir and Adana, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and to the south Alexandria. The region covers from rural to maritime and desert conditions. During the last decades, the East Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including enhanced vehicle circulation, and in industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems in Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole East Mediterranean region. Ozone and aerosol air quality limits are often exceeded over the entire Mediterranean, in particular during summer. High ozone and aerosol concentrations are harmful for human health and ecosystems, and they can also be responsible for agricultural crop loss and climate change. The contribution of various sources to these exceedances remains to be determined. In addition the importance of interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions in the area has to be evaluated. For this purpose, in the frame of the CityZEN EU funded project, available records of air pollution levels over the past decades have been compiled and analysed for Istanbul and Cairo

  12. Reducing inputs and losses of nitrogen and energy on dairy farms : final report project AIR3 CT92-0332

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses as well as the (direct and indirect) use of fossil energy on intensive dairy farms in Europe to ecologically acceptable levels requires radical changes of the management of these farms. The objective of the project, (started in 1993) was to d

  13. Uncertain socioeconomic projections used in travel demand and emissions models: could plausible errors result in air quality nonconformity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitivity analysis of plausible errors in population, employment, fuel price, and income projections is conducted using the travel demand and emissions models of the Sacramento, CA, USA, region for their transportation plan. The results of the analyses indicate that plausible error ranges for household income and fuel prices are not a significant source of uncertainty with respect to the region's travel demand and emissions projections. However, plausible errors in population and employment projections (within approximately one standard deviation) may result in the region's transportation plan not meeting the conformity test for nitrogens of oxides (NOx) in the year 2005 (i.e., an approximately 16% probability). This outcome is also possible in the year 2015 but less likely (within approximately two standard deviations or a 2.5% probability). Errors in socioeconomic projections are only one of many sources of error in travel demand and emissions models. These results have several policy implications. First, regions like Sacramento that meet their conformity tests by a very small margin should rethink new highway investment and consider contingency transportation plans that incorporate more aggressive emissions reduction policies. Second, regional transportation planning agencies should conduct sensitivity analyses as part of their conformity analysis to make explicit significant uncertainties in the methods and to identify the probability of their transportation plan not conforming. Third, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should clarify the interpretation of ''demonstrate'' conformity of transportation plans; that is, specify the level of certainty that it considers a sufficient demonstration of conformity. (author)

  14. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  15. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  16. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the

  17. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  18. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  19. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  20. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornack, M.P. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (USA); French, C.A. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met

  2. Historical and projected emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from China's room air conditioning sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Li, Zhifang; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Recent decades witnessed the increase in production and uses of HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) and its alternative, HFC-410A (a blend of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane), in China in response to the booming of room air conditioners (RACs) for both domestic use and exports. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol, while both HCFC-22 and HFC-410A are greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study provides a most comprehensive consumption and emission inventory of refrigerants emissions (HCFC-22 and HFC-410A) from RAC sector during 1995-2014, for the first time. Our estimates show that HCFC-22 emissions increased from 0.7 Gg/yr in 1995 to 48.2 Gg/yr in 2014. The accumulative emissions contributed to global total HCFCs emissions by 4.4% (3.3%-6.1%) CFC-11-equivalent (CFC-11-eq) and 5.4% (4.1%-7.5%) CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) during 1995-2012. If left uncontrolled, accumulative emissions of HFC-410A will be12.4 (7.1-20.2) CO2-eq Pg during 2015-2050, which can offset the global climate benefits achieved by the Montreal Protocol. The HFC-410A emissions from China's RAC sector are estimated to be of importance to both global HFCs emissions and China's GHG emissions. Further, we probed the emission mitigation performances of the current 2014 North American Proposal scenario and a modified more ambitious scenario. The emissions of two mitigation scenarios are only 28% and 22% of the emissions without mitigation actions, respectively. This study is the first effort to map the transition of eliminated substance HCFC-22 and its alternative HFC-410A in RAC sector. Therefore, alternative chemicals should be scrutinized with cautions before they are promoted and applied.

  3. Historical and projected emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from China's room air conditioning sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Li, Zhifang; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Recent decades witnessed the increase in production and uses of HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) and its alternative, HFC-410A (a blend of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane), in China in response to the booming of room air conditioners (RACs) for both domestic use and exports. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol, while both HCFC-22 and HFC-410A are greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study provides a most comprehensive consumption and emission inventory of refrigerants emissions (HCFC-22 and HFC-410A) from RAC sector during 1995-2014, for the first time. Our estimates show that HCFC-22 emissions increased from 0.7 Gg/yr in 1995 to 48.2 Gg/yr in 2014. The accumulative emissions contributed to global total HCFCs emissions by 4.4% (3.3%-6.1%) CFC-11-equivalent (CFC-11-eq) and 5.4% (4.1%-7.5%) CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) during 1995-2012. If left uncontrolled, accumulative emissions of HFC-410A will be12.4 (7.1-20.2) CO2-eq Pg during 2015-2050, which can offset the global climate benefits achieved by the Montreal Protocol. The HFC-410A emissions from China's RAC sector are estimated to be of importance to both global HFCs emissions and China's GHG emissions. Further, we probed the emission mitigation performances of the current 2014 North American Proposal scenario and a modified more ambitious scenario. The emissions of two mitigation scenarios are only 28% and 22% of the emissions without mitigation actions, respectively. This study is the first effort to map the transition of eliminated substance HCFC-22 and its alternative HFC-410A in RAC sector. Therefore, alternative chemicals should be scrutinized with cautions before they are promoted and applied.

  4. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  5. Projections of high resolution climate changes for South Korea using multiple-regional climate models based on four RCP scenarios. Part 1: Surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Seok; Oh, Seok-Geun; Lee, Young-Suk; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    We projected surface air temperature changes over South Korea during the mid (2026-2050) and late (2076-2100) 21st century against the current climate (1981-2005) using the simulation results from five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, coupled with the Atmosphere- Ocean (HadGEM2-AO), and two ensemble methods (equal weighted averaging, weighted averaging based on Taylor's skill score) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. In general, the five RCM ensembles captured the spatial and seasonal variations, and probability distribution of temperature over South Korea reasonably compared to observation. They particularly showed a good performance in simulating annual temperature range compared to HadGEM2-AO. In future simulation, the temperature over South Korea will increase significantly for all scenarios and seasons. Stronger warming trends are projected in the late 21st century than in the mid-21st century, in particular under RCP8.5. The five RCM ensembles projected that temperature changes for the mid/late 21st century relative to the current climate are +1.54oC/+1.92oC for RCP2.6, +1.68oC/+2.91oC for RCP4.5, +1.17oC/+3.11oC for RCP6.0, and +1.75oC/+4.73oC for RCP8.5. Compared to the temperature projection of HadGEM2-AO, the five RCM ensembles projected smaller increases in temperature for all RCP scenarios and seasons. The inter-RCM spread is proportional to the simulation period (i.e., larger in the late-21st than mid-21st century) and significantly greater (about four times) in winter than summer for all RCP scenarios. Therefore, the modeled predictions of temperature increases during the late 21st century, particularly for winter temperatures, should be used with caution.

  6. Projections of high resolution climate changes for South Korea using multiple-regional climate models based on four RCP scenarios. Part 1: surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Seok; Oh, Seok-Geun; Lee, Young-Suk; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    We projected surface air temperature changes over South Korea during the mid (2026-2050) and late (2076-2100) 21st century against the current climate (1981-2005) using the simulation results from five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, coupled with the Atmosphere- Ocean (HadGEM2-AO), and two ensemble methods (equal weighted averaging, weighted averaging based on Taylor's skill score) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. In general, the five RCM ensembles captured the spatial and seasonal variations, and probability distribution of temperature over South Korea reasonably compared to observation. They particularly showed a good performance in simulating annual temperature range compared to HadGEM2-AO. In future simulation, the temperature over South Korea will increase significantly for all scenarios and seasons. Stronger warming trends are projected in the late 21st century than in the mid-21st century, in particular under RCP8.5. The five RCM ensembles projected that temperature changes for the mid/late 21st century relative to the current climate are +1.54°C/+1.92°C for RCP2.6, +1.68°C/+2.91°C for RCP4.5, +1.17°C/+3.11°C for RCP6.0, and +1.75°C/+4.73°C for RCP8.5. Compared to the temperature projection of HadGEM2-AO, the five RCM ensembles projected smaller increases in temperature for all RCP scenarios and seasons. The inter-RCM spread is proportional to the simulation period (i.e., larger in the late-21st than mid-21st century) and significantly greater (about four times) in winter than summer for all RCP scenarios. Therefore, the modeled predictions of temperature increases during the late 21st century, particularly for winter temperatures, should be used with caution.

  7. Evidence for passive mineral carbonation from carbon isotope geochemistry of interstitial air in mine wastes from the Dumont Nickel Project (Abitibi, Quebec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, A.; Beaudoin, G.; Molson, J. W. H.; Plante, B.; Lemieux, J. M.; Kandji, E. H. B.

    2014-12-01

    Natural weathering of ultramafic rocks in mine tailings allows the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through the formation of magnesium carbonates. The Dumont Nickel Project (DNP) is being studied to estimate the CO2 sequestration potential of future mining residues and to evaluate the impact of mineral carbonation on the quality of mine waste drainage water. For this purpose, experimental cells were built and instrumented in 2011. The first was constructed using milling waste and the second with mining waste. Laboratory characterization of residues and field observations will be combined to propose a quantitative model of mineral carbonation and metal leaching. A decrease of CO2 concentration in the mining waste cell, from atmospheric concentrations (~390 ppmv) near the surface of the cell to ~100 ppmv near the bottom, reflects active CO2 consumption by the residues. This cell contains mining waste with a large grain size distribution ranging from blocks (carbonation, the carbon isotopic composition of the interstitial gases was analysed in-situ with a WS-CRDS instrument. An increase of d13C(air) from -8‰ to ~2 ‰ is correlated with the decrease in CO2 concentration within the cell, and can be explained by dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in interstitial water (Dco2-DIC 11‰) in the DNP mining residues. As gas advection is slow, CO2 supply driven by diffusion is the limiting step in the experimental cell. CO2 dissolution in interstitial water under this limited CO2 supply condition enriches 13C in residual CO2 in interstitial air. Optimized mineral carbonation reactions in DNP mining waste will require an unconstrained CO2 supply.

  8. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Covey, Curtis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained

  9. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  10. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle; Williams, Ronald; Sharpe, Robert; Brown, Ryan; Garver, Daniel; Judge, Robert; Caudill, Motria; Rickard, Joshua; Davis, Michael; Weinstock, Lewis; Zimmer-Dauphinee, Susan; Buckley, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE)...

  11. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  13. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  14. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  15. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobycco smoke and other parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, Jan; Stoikidou, M.; Kaila, S.; Gioka, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2001), s. 1447-1457. ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant ostatní: EU(XC) ENV4V-CT96-0203; EU(XC) IC20CT960063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomarkers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2001

  16. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  17. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  18. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  19. Isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has operated the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) since 1961. There has been an increased need for GNIP data following the recognition of the role of precipitation stable isotopes in better simulating the hydrologic cycle in climate models. The isotopic composition of precipitation is closely related to rain formation conditions, i.e. with the temperature of formation, the origin of air masses, and the degree and mechanism of rainout. Over the last twenty years, use of GNIP data in climate model has indicated a need for a much more refined, process-based understanding of isotope variations in the hydrological cycle. This coordinated research project (CRP) was initiated with the aim of collecting new data on higher spatial density and temporal frequency to improve our knowledge of environmental isotope variations in atmospheric waters. The Mediterranean region was chosen for this study so that climatic and meteorological conditions, which govern the rain formation process, and their variations along east-west and north-south directions, could be investigated. In addition, the first steps of the hydrological cycle, that is evaporation from seawater and condensation of atmospheric vapour could also be studied. The IAEA invited scientists from institutes in Mediterranean countries who have already been involved in studies related to the isotopic composition of precipitation to take part in this CRP, which was initiated in 2000. This publication is a summary of the results achieved in the CRP. The overall achievements are presented as the executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final research coordination meeting, held in Vienna from 15 to 19 March 2004. The results of this CRP are relevant to the Member State scientists conducting hydrological research. In addition, the results would contribute to the IAEA programme on water resources, in particular to its activities

  20. Baseline survey on air, water, soil quality, radioactivity and aquatic biota in and around the project site on new uranium mining site, Tummalapalle, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study four ecological parameters of the environment ie. water, air, soil and biota were monitored at the new uranium mining site of Tummalapalle, Andhra Pradesh. The water quality was assessed by estimating trace metals, natural uranium, physical and chemical parameters. Air quality was assessed through PM10, TSP, PM2.5, SOx and NOx parameters. Soil samples were analysed for trace metals, metal oxides and natural radionuclides. Similarly biota samples were analysed for trace metals and radionuclides

  1. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  2. The impact of boundary layer height on air pollution concentrations in London – early results from the ClearfLo project.

    OpenAIRE

    Bohnenstengel, S.I.; Belcher, S. E.; Barlow, J.; O. Coceal; C. H. Halios; McConnell, J.; Lean, H.; Z. L. Fleming; Williams, L.; Helfter, C.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    The ClearfLo projects aims to understand the processes generating pollutants like ozone, NOx and particulate matter and their interaction with the urban atmospheric boundary layer. ClearfLo (www.clearflo.ac.uk) is a large multi-institution NERC-funded project that is establishing integrated measurements of the meteorology, composition and particulate loading of London’s urban atmosphere, complemented by an ambitious modeling programme. The project established a new long-term me...

  3. Distribution of kerma rate in the air inside of hemodynamic room for typical projections of interventionist cardiology procedures; Distribuicao da taxa de kerma no ar em uma sala de hemodinamica para projecoes tipicas de procedimentos de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Mirtha Elizabet Gamarra

    2008-07-01

    The evaluation of dose to physicians involved in Interventional Cardiology (IC) is an extreme important matter due to the high and non-uniform distribution of dose values. The radiation control during each procedure is complex and the reasons for the high exposures have many different causes. Many international recommendations have already been written aiming the radiation protection optimization in IC. In Brazil, there is not any special orientation for the protection of those occupational persons, nor a specific legislation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the air kerma rate at critical anatomic regions of the occupationally exposed staff that carry out IC procedures, in representative incidences in order to give subsidies for individual monitoring procedures implementation and to give more information about their radiation protection. The air kerma rate has been measured in the often used condition in the two more common IC procedures namely angiography and coronary angioplasty, using an adult patient simulator irradiated under RAO, LAO and AP projections for fluoro and digital acquisition modes. The measurements have been made in 45 points around the examination table at 5 different representatives heights of: eyes lens, thorax, hands, gonads and knees. AP projection shows the smaller scattered radiation contributions and a more homogeneous exposure distribution. The digital acquisition mode gives air kerma rates about 4 times higher than fluoro mode for LAO projection in the position occupied by the interventionist doctor, the anesthetist and the nursing staff. The most critical anatomic regions are: knees and gonads (without protection). On the physician hands position, values as high as 5 mGy/h have been measured, which can overpass, depending on the number of procedures done, the individual occupational annual limit. Therefore, in IC it is necessary to implement additional protection tools, elaborate safety guides (based on international experiences

  4. Testing air quality monitoring methods in the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge's Tuxedni Wilderness Area (Chisik Island): Pilot project report [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project facilitated a partnership between USFWS efforts to document the botanical resources of Chisik Island and establish an analytical chemistry baseline in...

  5. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project

  6. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  7. General Overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI)– Integrating Aerosol Research from Nano to Global Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Baltensperger, U.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Facchini, M.C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hov, O.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Pöschl, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; de Leeuw, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Feichter, J.; Krejčí, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J.P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S.L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.D.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R.M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hörrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirgevak, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V.A.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Rizzo, L.V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W.T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donell, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J.J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévot, A.S.H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C.L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seland, O.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X.J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J.Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J.P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; van Zadelhoff, G.-J.; Zardini, A.A.; Zhang, K.; van Zyl, P.G.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Carslaw, K.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 24 (2012), s. 13061-13143. ISSN 1680-7316 Grant ostatní: AFCE(FI) 1118615; EUCAARI(XE) 34684; ERC AG(FI) ATMNUCLE:227463; EUSAAR(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosol radiative forcing * air quality-climate interactions * abatement strategies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2012

  8. Short term effects of air pollution on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease: results of the APHEA project in two major cities in The Netherlands, 1977-89.

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, J. P.; Vonk, J. M.; de Graaf, A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the short term relationship between air pollution and the daily number of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease. DESIGN: Data were analysed using autoregressive Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion and controlling for possible confounding factors such as seasonal and other chronological variables, meteorological factors, and influenza epidemics. SETTING: The two major cities in The Netherlands-Amsterdam (694,700 inhabitants) and Rotterdam (...

  9. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol in untreated air samples using spectrofluorimetry and a custom multiple linear regression-successive projection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E; Lista, Adriana G; Fragoso, Wallace D; Pontes, Márcio J C; Araújo, Mário C U; Band, Beatriz S Fernández

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a novel, simple, and efficient spectrofluorimetric method to determine directly and simultaneously five phenolic compounds (hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol) in air samples is presented. For this purpose, variable selection by the successive projections algorithm (SPA) is used in order to obtain simple multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on a small subset of wavelengths. For comparison, partial least square (PLS) regression is also employed in full-spectrum. The concentrations of the calibration matrix ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mg L(-1) for hydroquinone, from 0.05 to 0.6 mg L(-1) for resorcinol, and from 0.05 to 0.4 mg L(-1) for phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol; incidentally, such ranges are in accordance with the Argentinean environmental legislation. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method a recovery study on real air samples of smoking environment was carried out with satisfactory results (94-104%). The advantage of the proposed method is that it requires only spectrofluorimetric measurements of samples and chemometric modeling for simultaneous determination of five phenols. With it, air is simply sampled and no pre-treatment sample is needed (i.e., separation steps and derivatization reagents are avoided) that means a great saving of time. PMID:21111140

  10. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  11. Project BEST Vocational English as a Second Language Curriculum: Communication Skills in Training and Employment in Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Barbara; Pankratz, David

    Information is provided on the Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) component of Oakton Community College's Project BEST (Building Energy Systems Technology), a bilingual vocational training program designed to teach limited English proficient students of Polish or Hispanic origin the basics of heating, refrigeration, and air…

  12. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  13. Understanding in-situ ozone production in the summertime through radical observations and modelling studies during the Clean air for London project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Sharp, Thomas; Garraway, Shani; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl; Hopkins, James; Holmes, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqui; Lee, James; Laufs, Sebastian; Kleffmann, Jörg; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-05-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, partially speciated RO2 (distinguishing smaller alkane related RO2 from larger alkane/alkene/aromatic related RO2), ClNO2 and OH reactivity measurements taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 tested our ability to reproduce radical levels, and enabled detailed radical budgets to be determined, highlighting for example the important role of the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) and carbonyl species as radical sources. Speciation of RO2 enabled the break-down of ozone production from different classes of VOCs to be calculated directly and compared with model calculations. Summertime observations of radicals have helped to identify that increases in photolytic sources of radicals on warm, sunny days can significantly increase local ozone concentrations leading to exceedances of EU air quality recommendations of 60 ppbV. The photolytic breakdown of ClNO2 to Cl atoms can more than double radical concentrations in the early morning; although the integrated increase in radical concentrations over a 24 hr period in model runs when ClNO2 photolysis is included is more modest. On average we calculate just under a 1 ppb increase in ozone due to the presence of ClNO2 in London air. OH reactivity was found to be greatest during morning and evening rush hours. Good agreement between the modelled OH reactivity and observations could be achieved when reactivity associated with model generated photo

  14. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  15. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  16. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  17. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in...

  18. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EARTH AIR HEAT EXCHANGER USING CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Madane; Meeta Vedpathak

    2015-01-01

    This project focuses on Earth Air Heat Exchanger which is reducing energy consumption in a building. The air is passing through the buried tubes and heat exchange takes place between air and surrounding soil. This equipment helps to reduce energy consumption of an air conditioning unit. This project analyses the thermal performance of earth air heat exchanger by using computational fluid dynamics modeling. The model is validated against experimental observations and investigations...

  19. Project 'Wind database Lower Aare Valley'. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the project 'Windbank unteres Aaretal' local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period with a dense network of 43 meteorological stations. Based on these data, a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields persisting up to a maximum of 19 hours over the region. The question was arisen: what is a minimum subset of representative stations to identify the classes of almost all hours correctly? With a subset of 21 stations a 'hitting rate' of 90% and with a subset of 6 stations a hitting rate of 75% of all hours was achieved. For every class, the mean wind vectors at all stations were interpolated to form a windfield over a regular grid. These windfields were used to calculate typical dispersion scenarios for a hypothetical source. (author) 17 figs., tabs., refs

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  1. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  2. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  3. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  4. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  5. 酒店类工程空调的节能设计%Energy saving design for air conditioning system in hotel projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡骞; 梁雪梅; 沈士圣

    2012-01-01

    For the hotel projects which need to meet the cooling and domestic hot water demands at the same time, different operating conditions are,realized through the auto-switch of the control valves on the water source heat pump unit, fire cistern and ground heat exchanger. Presents the composition of the four pipes heat pump system, and analyses the all-year operating condition, inter-cycle system, annual cooling water system and ground heat exchanger system.%对于同时需要空调制冷和生活热水供应的酒店类工程,利用水源热泵机组十消防水池十地埋管换热器,通过对控制阀门的自动转换,实现不同的运行工况.介绍了四管制热泵系统的组成,并对四管制热泵机组全年运行模式、中间循环系统、常年冷却水循环系统及地埋管换热系统进行了分析.

  6. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

  8. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year

  9. Molecular Epidemiology and Air Pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, B.; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    Rieka: InTech, 2015 - (Nejadkoorki, F.), s. 609-643 ISBN 978-953-51-2180-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * biomarkers * human populations * in vitro studies Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-air-quality-issues/molecular-epidemiology-and-air- pollution

  10. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  11. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the projectAir Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model...... (LTM) from DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about...

  12. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  13. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  14. A test of air-foam used for propylene oxide tank fire-extinguishing and project design thereof%环氧丙烷泡沫灭火试验及工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭

    2013-01-01

    As the fire-extinguishing performance of air-foam on the fire caused by propylene oxide is not clearly known in both China and abroad,there is no definite regulation about the design of the foam-fire extinguishing system for the said tank in relevant standards.Through the fire-extinguishing test of the novel special foam on the fire caused by propylene oxide,the fire-extinguishing performance of the said air-foam on the fire caused by propylene oxide and some other flammable liquids was investigated with the key design parameters of the system studied at the same time.Combining with the design of the project using the said foam fire-extin-guishing system in PO tank area,the test results was checked to see whether it complied with the key design parameters in GB50151-2010 Code for design of foam extinguishing systems,and then,the design scheme of the foam extinguishing system in actual project was finally determined.%国内外对空气泡沫扑救环氧丙烷液体火灾的灭火性能认识尚不深入,相关规范均未对该类储罐泡沫灭火系统的设计做明确规定.通过新型环氧丙烷专用泡沫的灭火试验,研究利用空气泡沫扑救环氧丙烷等可燃液体火灾的灭火性能及系统关键设计参数.根据灭火试验结果,结合环氧丙烷罐区的泡沫灭火系统设计项目,比较试验结论,并校核确定符合GB50151-2010《泡沫灭火系统设计规范》的系统关键设计参数,最终确定实际工程中环氧丙烷泡沫灭火系统的设计.

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  16. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  17. The PANDA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, Idir; Wang, Xuemei

    2014-05-01

    The PANDA project Even though air quality in many urbanized and industrialized areas of the world has improved as a result of mitigation actions, it has declined in other regions. This is specifically the case in many emerging countries where emissions have been increasing as a result of rapidly expanding motor vehicle fleets, growing industrial and power generation activities, and domestic and biomass burning. The situation is particularly acute in China and the Western Pacific Region with rapid industrialization and urbanization, where, in spite of efforts to reduce surface emissions of reactive gases, 360,000 people die prematurely from air pollution each year, according to the World Health Organization. The EU-funded PANDA project will offer scientific knowledge that will help China and other nations to use space and in-situ observations together with a modelling system to address improve air quality and human heath at the regional and global scales. Through the proposed cooperation between Europe and China, the following objectives will be reached before the completion of the Project: 1. Improvement of methods for monitoring air quality from combined space and in-situ observations 2. Elaboration of indicators for air quality, in support of European and Chinese policies 3. Development of toolboxes for air quality and emissions monitoring 4. Dissemination of information and educational activities, specifically in China. We would like to introduce the EU-funded project PANDA, and present the first results obtained through the project.

  18. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  19. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  20. Comparison of air kerma-length product measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in computed tomography (EURAMET.RI(I)-S12, EURAMET project 1327)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of air kerma-length product determinations for standard radiation qualities defined for use in computed tomography (CT) was performed between the PTB and the IAEA as EURAMET project 1327, registered in the KCDB as the EURAMET.RI(I)-S12 comparison. A pencil type reference-class ionization chamber of the IAEA and the three RQT beam qualities established according to the IEC standard 61627:2005 were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients for the transfer chamber in terms of Gy cm/C at the PTB and the IAEA using the partial irradiation method recommended in the IAEA TRS 457 were determined. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories were in a very good agreement of about 0.2 % well within the estimated relative standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.8 %. Residual correction due to the additional aperture required for partial irradiation of pencil chambers and feasibility of the full irradiation method were also studied. (authors)

  1. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  2. Air quality and communication. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In six articles Attention is paid to mainly the practical appliances of communication in relation to the aspects of air quality: the perceptions of air pollution of those people who are affected by it; the tuning of information on air quality to the wishes and needs of citizens; tools enabling visualisation of future situations in the living environment in various scenarios; results of a study of the need for information on air quality among citizens and general practitioners; experiences with websites on air quality obtained in two European projects. (mk)

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  4. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  5. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the developm...

  6. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  7. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  8. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have air temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  9. EUROTRAC projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projects discussed are BIATEX (BIosphere-ATmosphere EXchange of pollutants), ACE (Acidity in Clouds Experiment) and GCE (Ground-based Cloud Experiment). ECN also coordinates BIATEX and contributes to the coordination of EUROTRAC. Research in BIATEX is aimed at the development of equipment, by which atmosphere-surface interactions of air pollution can be quantified. A ion chromatograph, connected to a rotating denuder, is developed to be applicated in the field for on-line analysis of denuder extracts and other samples. To investigate dry deposition of ammonia a continuous-flow denuder has been developed. A thermodenuder system to measure the concentrations of HNO3 and NH4NO3 in the ambient air is optimized to determine depositions and is part of the ECN monitoring station in Zegveld, Netherlands. An aerosol separation technique, based on a cyclone separator, has also been developed. All this equipment has been used in field experiments above wheat and heather. An automated monitoring station for long-term investigations of NH3, HNO3 and SO2 dry deposition on grassland and the impact of the deposition on the presence and composition of water films has been set up and fully tested. Research in GCE concerns the uptake and conversion of air pollution in clouds (cloud chemistry). Measuring equipment from several collaborative institutes has been specified and calibrated in a cloud chamber at ECN. The ECN contribution is the determination of the gas phase composition and the micro-physical characterization of the clouds. Measurement campaigns were carried out in the Po area (Italy) in fog, and in Kleiner Feldberg near Frankfurt, Germany, in orographic clouds. Estimations are given of the deposition of fog water and cloud water on forests in the Netherlands and the low mountain range in Germany. The project ACE was not started because of financial reasons and will be reconsidered. 26 figs., 1 tab., 3 apps., 34 refs

  10. The role of air quality modelling in particulate matter management in cities. Results from the Air Implementation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Castell N.; Guerreiro C; Denby B.R.; Ortiz González A.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission and the EEA agreed to reinforce efforts to improve knowledge on implementation of air quality legislation through a joint pilot project. The Air Implementation Pilot run from March 2012 to June 2013 and aimed at better understanding the challenges cities faced in implementing air quality policy. Twelve European cities were selected and invited to join the project. One of the focus of the Pilot project was to assess the use of models ...

  11. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  12. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123". ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  13. Extensive Air Showers in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badala, A.; Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.

    2007-01-01

    The basic properties of extensive air showers of particles produced in the interaction of a high-energy primary cosmic ray in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in the context of educational cosmic ray projects involving undergraduate students and high-school teams. Simulation results produced by an air shower development code were made…

  14. Air fluorescence yield dependence on atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Privitera, P.; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    Mexico : Universidad National Autonóma, 2007, s. 1-4. [International Cosmic Ray Conference /30./. Merida (MX), 03.07.2007-11.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : air fluorescence * AIR FLY Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  15. Pure Air`s Bailly scrubber: A four-year retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manavi, G.B.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Sarkus, T.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project has completed four highly successful years of operation at NIPSCO`s Bailly Station. As part of their program, Pure Air has concluded a six-part study of system performance. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration program, including AFGD performance on coals ranging from 2.0--2.4% sulfur. The paper highlights novel aspects of the Bailly facility, including pulverized limestone injection, air rotary sparger for oxidation, wastewater evaporation system and the production of PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum. Operations and maintenance which have led to the facility`s notable 99.47% availability record are also discussed. A project company, Pure Air on the Lake Limited Partnership, owns the AFGD facility. Pure Air was the turn key contractor and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is the operator of the AFGD system.

  16. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  17. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  18. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  19. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  20. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  1. Doing Your Homework on Indoor Air Quality Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Explains how administrators at the Georgia Institute of Technology were able to build a new residence hall that included a cost-effective ventilation system providing high quality indoor air. Project considerations, design solutions, and project economies are discussed. (GR)

  2. Evaluation of Equipment Demand Project for Army Air Assault Troops Based on Simulation of Combat Effectiveness%基于作战效能仿真的陆军空中突击部队装备需求方案评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康; 穆歌; 谷国贤; 王学雷

    2015-01-01

    以陆军空中突击部队作战效能为评估目标,以其装备要素为评估重点,构建了基于陆军部队作战对抗仿真评估系统的陆军空中突击部队装备需求方案评估模型;从作战任务完成情况、编成单位损失情况、装备战损情况3个方面建立了作战效能评估指标体系,确定了陆军空中突击部队装备需求方案评估标准;明确了攻防对抗仿真方案、实验过程和数据处理方法,为陆军空中突击部队装备需求方案评估提供了方法和技术支持。%Taking the army air assault troops combat effectiveness as evaluation target,and the army air assault troops equipment elements as key points,an index evaluation system of three single combat effec-tiveness index including completion of combat mission,loss of organization units and equipment damage is established by building scheme evaluation model of army air assault troops equipment requirements based on combat effectiveness simulation and evaluation criteria of army air assault troops equipment require-ment project are made.Based on combat simulation evaluation system of army troops,the combat effec-tiveness simulation evaluation method for army air assault troops is adopted,the simulation scheme,ex-periment process and data processing method are defined,which provides assessment methods and techni-cal support for army air assault troops equipment demand project.

  3. The PREV'AIR system, an operational system for large scale air quality forecasts over Europe : applications at the local scale

    OpenAIRE

    Honore, Cécile; Rouil, Laurence; Meleux, Frédérik; Malherbe, Laure; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Vautard, Robert; Poisson, Nathalie; Colosio, Joëlle

    2004-01-01

    Since Summer 2003, the PREV'AIR system has been delivering through the Internet daily air quality forecasts over Europe. This is the visible part of a wider collaborative project - the PREV'AIR project - launched by the French Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development (MEDD), aiming at: (1) Providing technical support on atmospheric pollution management in Europe, in the framework of negotiations on trans-boundary air pollution. (2) Providing large scale national air quality informatio...

  4. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  5. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects:the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder...

  7. Optical air data systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  8. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  9. LAWRENCE RISK-BASED AIR SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pediatric asthma rate in the city of Lawrence is the highest in the state of Massachusetts. This project will evaluate whether the cumulative risks due to the air pollution in Lawrence is contributing to the high asthma rates and other respiratory problems. The project will...

  10. Zero Loss Dewar Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal for this project included developing the capability to store liquid air for long periods of time without commodity boiloff and oxygen enrichment using...

  11. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  12. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...

  13. Air traffic management in Europe - Single European Sky

    OpenAIRE

    Šyc, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Thesis analyses present status of air traffic management in European area from historical and legislative point of view. Subjects of thesis are present projects in ATM and future variants of organization of air traffic in EU. Practical part focuses on impact of ATM on air transportation.

  14. Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (AMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities in the first year of the project Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (AMAP). This project which has a duration of three years aims at concentrating and improve the available air quality modeling expertise in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The overall project consists of the subprojects Dispersion Modeling, Receptor Modeling and Urban Airshed Modeling. During the first year appropriate models (such as ISCST3, CMB, UAM-IV and CALGRID) were installed and tested with data from real and fictive examples as well as with synthetic data. High emphasis was given to the visualization of the model outputs. (author)

  15. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  16. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  17. Project of air conditioning system by absorption of water-lithium bromide using solar energy and simulation of its operation under several conditions; Projeto de sistema para condicionamento de ar por absorcao de agua-brometo de litio utilizando energia solar e simulacao de sua operacao sob condicoes diversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbravati, Alan; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: alan@fem.unicamp.br; jrfigue@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This article presents computational models for water - lithium bromide absorption air conditioning systems, verifying the use of solar energy as source of heat for the cycle. Four different models were elaborated for the cycle, changing the configurations and hypotheses. In each model two algorithms were elaborated: the first one accomplished the calculations of the heat and mass flows and a estimative of the areas heat transfer, a project of a system, and another which, based on the answers of the first, simulate the behavior of this system when the conditions of initial project are changed, keeping constant the constructive parameters. As in the project a numeric procedure has been used for solution of non lineal systems based on the algorithm of Newton-Raphson. The main alteration among the models went to substitution of the expansion device and evaporator, and, in the fourth model, was increased a procedure for calculation of the solar collector performance. (author)

  18. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  19. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  20. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  1. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  2. Nordic agriculture air and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Anne; Brubæk, Stein; Andersen, Bente Hessellund; Lindqvist, Kajsa; Markus-Johansson, Miriam; Sørensen, Jacob; Teerikangas, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2...

  3. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  4. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  5. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  6. Discussion on Engineering Application of Central Heating Air Source Heat Pump in North China-- As Central Heating Air Source Heat Pump Project in Gaowang Community of Jinan for an Example%华北地区集中供暖空气源热泵的工程应用探讨--以济南市高墙王小区集中供暖空气源热泵项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤华; 槐晓强

    2015-01-01

    空气源热泵作为热泵机组的形式之一,是以室外空气为热源的热泵型整体式空调装置,因其安装使用十分方便,对环境的污染也较小,在难以安装冷却塔、锅炉等设备的情况下,空气源热泵机组得到广泛的应用。并且地板采暖系统以其舒适性的优势也得到越来越多的关注。其中以空气源热泵作为冷热源的系统既解决了夏季空调的需要,又可在冬季提供舒适的温水地板采暖,近几年在华北等地区得到推广应用。为了考察夏热冬冷地区的空气源热泵地板采暖的技术经济可行性,为了在寒冷的冬季在保证环保、安全和室内温度要求的前提下做到最大幅度的节约能源的目的,基于实测数据,对济南市高墙王小区集中供暖空气源热泵项目进行经济性、可行性的验证。%Air source heat pumps as one form of heat pump unit, is based on the outdoor air as heat source of heat pump air conditioning unit. Its installation is so easy to use and have less pollution to the environment. In the case of difficult to install cooling towers, boilers, and other equipment, air-source heat pump has been widely used. And floor system with its comfort advantage is gaining more and more attention. As with air-source heat pump cooling and heating source system not only addresses the needs of air conditioning in summer, and provide comfortable warm-water floor heating in winter, and is widely used in areas such as North China in recent years. In order to study in summer hot and winter cold area of the technical and economic feasibility of air-source heat pump for underfloor heating, to do the most significant energy-saving under the premise of ensuring environmental protection, safety and meeting indoor temperature requirements during the cold winter months, based on the measured data, verify heating economic feasibility of air-source heat pump project in Gaowang community of Jinan.

  7. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  8. Logistics supply of the distributed air wing

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Chee Siong

    2014-01-01

    The use of the aircraft carrier has been the norm for delivering sizable amounts of air power swiftly to any part of the world. A capstone project, conducted by the system engineering curriculum, proposed to distribute the air assets from the aircraft carrier to multiple Expeditionary Airbases (EABs), which are land bases located within the operating theater. This thesis studies the logistical demands of the EABs, and adopts the Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II (MALSP II) concept ...

  9. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  11. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  12. AIRS Maps from Space Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles K.; Licata, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This software package processes Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 swath standard product geophysical parameters, and generates global, colorized, annotated maps. It automatically generates daily and multi-day averaged colorized and annotated maps of various AIRS Level 2 swath geophysical parameters. It also generates AIRS input data sets for Eyes on Earth, Puffer-sphere, and Magic Planet. This program is tailored to AIRS Level 2 data products. It re-projects data into 1/4-degree grids that can be combined and averaged for any number of days. The software scales and colorizes global grids utilizing AIRS-specific color tables, and annotates images with title and color bar. This software can be tailored for use with other swath data products for the purposes of visualization.

  13. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  14. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  15. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  17. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  18. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  19. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  20. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  1. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  2. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  4. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  5. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  6. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Project name: 90,000t/a BR device and auxiliary projects Construction unit: Sinopec Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Company Total investment: 2.257 billion yuan Project description: It will cover an area of 14. lha.

  7. 某地铁综合体建设项目集中空调通风系统卫生学预评价%Audit in View of Hygiene on the Design of Central Air Conditioning System in a Subway Complex Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜彩霞; 王耀澜; 吴小辉; 杨章萍

    2012-01-01

    通过对某大型地铁商业综合体建设项目进行集中空调通风系统卫生学预评价,预测该项目建成后各场所可能存在的卫生学问题.根据建设项目集中空调通风系统相关设施及新风排风口分布情况的分析,评估集中空调通风系统的设计参数和采取的防护措施是否符合卫生要求.本工程集中空调通风系统在室内温湿度的设计参数、新风口、回风口、排风口、风管系统、冷却水、冷凝水系统、降噪措施、空调机房等方面基本符合相关规范标准要求,但仍存在卫生学问题.应对新风量、停车库通风及冷却塔的防护距离进行重新设计.%This article intends to predict and assess possible hazards of a central air conditioning system in a large subway complex construction project. Design, technical parameters, and corresponding protective measures were audited and assessed in compliance with relevant hygienic standards. The overall plan and designed parameters on indoor temperature and humidity, fresh air vents, return air inlets, air outlets, duct systems, cooling water facility, condensate system, noise reduction measures, and air-conditioning room of this system fundamentally met the requirements of relevant national standards and guidelines. However, certain probable hygienic hazards still exist, thus fresh air volume, garage ventilation, and protection distance from the cooling tower need to be redesigned.

  8. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.;

    2001-01-01

    inconclusive results, partly because of the absence of adequate data on personal exposure, covering a time-window which is appropriate for the biomarkers being examined, as well as a battery of biomarkers reflecting different stages of the carcinogenic process. In the present paper, the potential of biomarker......-based population studies to aid the assessment of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution is reviewed by reference to the achievements and limitations of earlier reported studies. The design and methodology adopted in a recently completed large-scale population study, carried out in the...

  9. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  10. Air-coupled ultrasonic applications of ferroelectrets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Wegener, M.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Borisov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 370, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-17. ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : air-coupled ultrasonics * non-contact transducers * ferroelectrets * electromechanical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  11. Air pollution modelling on the street canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezpalcová, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2003), s. 375-386. ISSN 1210-2717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103; GA MŠk OC 715.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : atmosphere * air pollution * wind tunnel Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  12. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  13. Energy dependence of air fluorescence yield

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ave, M.; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    Mexico : Universidad National Autonóma, 2007, s. 1-4. [International Cosmic Ray Conference /30./. Merida (MX), 03.07.2007-11.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : AIR FLY * cosmic rays * fluorescence * ultra high energy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  14. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  15. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  16. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  17. 空气源热泵在学生公寓的热水改造工程中的应用%Application of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater to Reconstruction Project of Domestic Hot Water in Student Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪春

    2012-01-01

    The domestic water-heating system with gas-fired boiler of a college apartment in Chongqing was discussed.The reconstruction plans concerning air-source heat pump heating system and solar assisted air-source heat system were processed and discussed respectively after the analysis on daily hot water load.Compared with the original water-heating system,the annual operating costs of solar heating systems would be the lowest.%以重庆某学校采用燃气锅炉房作为热源的洗浴热水加热系统作为研究对象。对热水系统日用热量进行了分析。对原加热系统提出两种改造方案:空气源热泵加热系统、太阳能辅助空气源加热系统,探讨了这两种加热系统的系统流程,与原加热系统的年运行费用进行了比较,太阳能加热系统的年运行费用最低。

  18. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  19. Detailed determination of air quality and noise pollution. Improving the local climate in Dutch cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two demonstration projects are discussed in which attention is paid to air quality and noise pollution in Dutch urban areas. One project concerns the relocation of a bus station in a city centre, focusing on the bottlenecks and the impacts of obstacles (screens, buildings) in the combined modelling of air and noise pollution. Another project concerns the exposure of noise and air pollution to occupants of a trailer camp near a highway. For both projects detailed computer calculations (CAR II, WinMiskam, Lasat) were carried out for the impact on air quality and noise pollution

  20. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  1. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  2. Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

    2012-01-01

    Poor air quality has been projected to be the world?s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and temporal variations of pollutants for the purpose of implementing necessary mitigation measures. The work described in this thesis aims to address this problem using novel electrochemical based air qualit...

  3. OpenAIRE guidelines: supporting interoperability for Data Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Príncipe, Pedro; Nielsen, Lars Holm Nielsen; Rodrigues, Eloy; Schirrwagen, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    OpenAIRE supports the European Commission Open Access policy by providing an infrastructure for researchers to comply with the European Union Open Access mandate. The current OpenAIRE infrastructure and services, resulting from OpenAIRE and OpenAIREplus FP7 projects, builds on Open Access research results from a wide range of repositories and other data sources: institutional or thematic publication repositories, Open Access journals, data repositories, Current Research Information Systems...

  4. Public attitudes to air pollution from road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ian D. Williams

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental effects of any new road scheme is currently recommended by the Department of Transport, but the existing appraisal does not include an evaluation of public nuisance from vehicle-derived air pollution. This research project has investigated the subjective nuisance effects of air pollution from road traffic on the public through the simultaneous measurement of public attitudes towards vehicle-generated nuisance and air quality in residential and commercial are...

  5. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Dos Santos; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; T. Nieminen; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M; A. Wiedensohler; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-01-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size dis...

  6. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  7. The contribution of air pollution to heritage management policy strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Paris : ADEME, 2007. s. 16-17 [Joint workshop of the EU project Cult-Strat - The protection of cultural heritage from air pollution. 15.03.2007-16.03.2007, Paris /Louvre Palace/] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : architectural heritage * air pollution * conservation strategy Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  9. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  10. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  11. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  12. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  13. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  14. 3-D Docking Sensor Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation has been funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) over the past several...

  15. DSAT: Data Storage and Analytics Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this project is the development a large data warehousing and analysis tool for air traffic management (ATM) research that can be accessed by users...

  16. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  17. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  18. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  19. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  20. Exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal: protocolo de investigación en el proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development: Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esplugues

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente es una red de investigación cooperativa que tiene como objetivos estudiar los efectos del medio ambiente y la dieta en el desarrollo fetal e infantil. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el protocolo de exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal en el proyecto INMA. Métodos: La información para la evaluación de la exposición a contaminación atmosférica durante el embarazo se basa en mediciones de contaminantes atmosféricos en el exterior (dióxido de nitrógeno [NO2], compuestos orgánicos volátiles [COV], ozono, partículas [PM10, PM2,5] y su composición [hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos], medición de contaminantes de exposición individual (en el interior de la vivienda y captadores personales [COV y NO2], determinación de un marcador biológico de exposición a hidrocarburos (1-hidroxipireno, en información recogida mediante cuestionarios y en la utilización de sistemas de información geográfica. Esta información permite elaborar índices de exposición individual a contaminación atmosférica con los que analizar su posible relación con el desarrollo fetal y la salud del recién nacido. Discusión: El protocolo que se presenta y el tipo de estudio permiten obtener una aproximación a la exposición individual a contaminantes atmosféricos. Por último, el elevado número de participantes (n = 4.000, así como la heterogeneidad de las características ambientales y sociodemográficas, acrecienta el potencial del estudio.Introduction: The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood] project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project

  1. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  2. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  3. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  4. Emergency air supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  5. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  6. Preparation for full scale demonstration of an air staged gasifier plant. Technical project development; For combined heat and power production with wood chips; Forberedelse til fuldskala demonstration af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg. Teknisk projektudvikling. Delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2011-04-15

    The project has aimed to further develop the technology for staged biomass gasification and establish an organizational and financial model to ensure that the technology can be introduced on the market. This report describes the technique in an upcoming demonstration plant. A complete planning and design of a demonstration plant with a capacity of 300 kW electric power and 700 kW heat was prepared. That is four times more than the pilot plant at Graested District Heating (Castor plant) can produce. A full scale demonstration plant with bio-gasification technology for wood chips will be established and put into operation in 2012. (ln)

  7. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices for p...... overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices for...... performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from the...

  8. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 2. Theoretical investigations of the pressure difference method. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 2. Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Druckdifferenz-Methode. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, Jens; Grossklos, Marc [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Werner, Johannes [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In energy-efficient buildings with mechanical ventilation and heat recovery, the heat losses of ventilation of a building can be influenced by additional open windows. This causes a significant rise in the heating demand. The Drd method (pressure difference method) assumes that the negative pressure in a building after switching off the supply air fan will depend on whether all windows are closed, or at least one window is open. In the research project under consideration the determination of the position of the window aperture using the Drd method shall be developed further. The operating conditions of the Drd method is investigated theoretically. Questions of the required building tightness and plant characteristics are clarified.

  9. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  10. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  11. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  12. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). This document contains information on parameters that are specific to the airborne release of the radionuclide iodine-131. Future versions of this document will include parameter information pertinent to other pathways and radionuclides.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming ... Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION Your gift will help us ...

  16. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," providing expert insight and leading community engagement. Talk about the films on our message board . ... support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO ...

  17. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Project name: New construction project of production,research & development base of hydraulic system Construction site: Qingpu Industrial Park Construction unit: Parker Hannifin Industrial Hydraulic Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.

  18. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  19. Supporting Collective Training & Thinking in Joint Project Optic Windmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Wiel, R.A.N. van de; Bosch, J.; Olthoff, R.

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, the Missile Defence Group of the Royal Netherlands Air Force, together with the German Air Force and the US Missile Defence Agency, organised the 10th edition of Exercise Joint Project Optic Windmill (JPOW). Over the past decade JPOW has become a world leading Integrated Air and M

  20. Norwegian Institute for Air Research Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The foundation Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) conducts research and assessment of technical, economic, hygienic and other environmental issues related to air pollution and cleaning of polluted air. NILU serves the national market for research and development within the field of air pollution. The main purpose of the subsidiary company NILU Products Ltd., established in 1996, is to manage the strategic owner interests of the parent company as well as market products and systems developed by NILU. Among the projects in which NILU participated in 2001 are a number of EU projects under the fifth framework programme. The main topics with NILU participation are related to ozone layer- and ultraviolet changes, pollution and climate change, satellite validation, changes in atmospheric chemistry, particulate matter in air, discharges from aircraft, regional and global dispersion of environmental toxins, standardization and monitoring methods, electronic distribution of environmental data and environmental influence on building materials.

  1. Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lörinc, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the problems in the process of project management in enterprises. It examines the precise approaches, the possibility of standardizingthe approach to project team management and motivation of its members and their role in the process of project management. He confronts the views and attitudes of selected authors. The theoretical conclusions of findings compares with knowledgeacquired from research carried out on project management in a selected company.Evaluates managemen...

  2. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  3. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  4. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  5. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  6. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  7. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  8. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  9. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  10. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  11. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  12. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  13. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  14. Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    V.-M. Kerminen; T. Petäjä; Manninen, H. E.; Paasonen, P.; Nieminen, T.; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Gagné, S.; Laakso, L.; Riipinen, I; Vehkamäki, H.; Kurten, T.; Ortega, I.K.; Dal Maso, M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the project EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions), atmospheric nucleation was studied by (i) developing and testing new air ion and cluster spectrometers, (ii) conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments for sulphate and organic systems in the laboratory, (iii) investigating atmospheric nucleation mechanism under field conditions, and (iv) applying new theoretical and modelling tools for data interpretation and development...

  15. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  16. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  18. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  19. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  20. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  1. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  2. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  3. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  4. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  5. 中国国际贸易中心二期冰蓄冷空调工程%Ice storage air conditioning system: China World Trade Centre project phase Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑青; 李京穗

    2001-01-01

    The project is one of the largest static ice storage systems built and oPerating in China in which a storage-priority control option is employed and 40% of the peak load is met by the storage. Briefly presents the ice storage system design, equiomnent and oPeration,system commissioning and oPeration testing, and an analysis of the tested data that prove to be agreeable to the designers' expectation.%该工程是目前国内建成并投入运行的规模最大的静态冰蓄冷空调项目,采用融冰优先的运行控制方案,融冰负荷占峰值负荷的40%。简要介绍了蓄冰设备、蓄冰系统运行方式,系统调试和运行实测情况,分析了实测数据,结果表明运行参数与设计蓄、融冰量基本相符。

  6. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  7. myCopter: Enabling Technologies for Personal Air Transport Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jump, M.; Padfield, P; White, M.; Floreano, Dario; Fua, Pascal; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Schill, Felix Stephan; Siegwart, Roland; Bouabdallah, Samir; M. Decker; Schippl, J.; Höfinger, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Frank M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the European Commission Framework 7 funded project myCopter (2011-2014). The project is still at an early stage so the paper starts with the current transportation issues faced by developed countries and describes a means to solve them through the use of personal aerial transportation. The concept of personal air vehicles (PAV) is briefly reviewed and how this project intends to tackle the problem from a different perspective described. It is argued that the key reason th...

  8. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measu...

  9. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the...... compensates the added investment. •When comparing ALP-CAES to an adiabatic CAES system, where compression heat is stored in thermal oil, the ALP-CAES system is found only to be competitive under a very specific set of operating/design conditions, including very high operation pressure and the use of very...... primarily due to the investment in turbine/generator, heat exchangers, and a large quantity of thermal oil. To improve the economy, it would be relevant to investigate the possibility of replacing the thermal oil by water, for example by injecting the water directly into the air flow between the different...

  10. Behaviour of air discharged from a sparger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This research has been performed as a part of the project, Development of Design Verification Technology for Korea Next Generation Reactor. At first, current state of the art of the bubble dynamics and the result will be used to develop an optimum tool including computer code for analysis of air or air-steam mixture bubble, which is discharged from a sparger. Introduced are linear perturbation; spherical bubble cloud theory; bubble interaction; and Volume of Fluid, a method of tracking free surface, which is to be used in computational fluid dynamics. An analysis was performed for the oscillation of an air bubble of perfect spherical shape. The heat transfer through the bubble surface is considered, although the effect was not so significant. The effect of initial and boundary conditions were investigated and the correlation equation was developed. 42 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  11. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the upwind downwind cities air and health conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upwind downwind conference examined the health impacts of poor air quality and how land use decisions impact air quality as well as the roles of industry, community groups, academia and government in improving air quality. Conference attendees included planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The conference covered several topics including partnerships between public health and planning with respect to improving air quality in urban environments; the use of science in decision-making and development of new projects, policies and regulations; airshed agreements in North America, in addition to Ontario's new air quality regulations; and examples of citizen groups, non-government organizations, industry, academia and local, provincial and federal governments partnering to improve air quality. A total of 16 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The conference also featured several keynote speakers and panel discussions. tabs., figs

  13. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  15. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  16. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  17. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  18. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  19. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  20. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  1. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Cho, Heejin; Goddard, James K.; Dinh, Liem H.

    2010-01-04

    This document represents the final project report for the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls Project jointly funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP). The project, initiated in October 2008, focused on exploratory initial development of self-correcting controls for selected HVAC components in air handlers. This report, along with the companion report documenting the algorithms developed, Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units (Fernandez et al. 2009), document the work performed and results of this project.

  2. Pros and cons. Final evaluation of the balance regulation. Air quality Decree 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain experience with the Dutch Air Quality Decree 2005 and the regulation on balancing, eleven pilot projects were started with the purpose to test the Decree and the regulation for different situations. The balance regulation implies that deteriorated air quality in one place must be compensated by improved air quality somewhere else. In this report the results of a final evaluation of the projects are presented and discussed

  3. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA

  4. Final report of the project. Emission of nitrogen oxides by the soils. Measures, modelization, land registry and inventory. Impact on the air quality, the climatic change and the evaluation of possibilities of these emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with NOx biosphere-atmosphere exchanges, NOx being considered as an indirect greenhouse gases (tropospheric O3 precursor). It relies on four laboratory specialized both on the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, and on the atmospheric chemistry. Methodology used bear on a set of in situ and laboratory measurements aiming at improving existing emission parameterization, or building new ones for the agro-ecosystems encountered in France or Europe. In situ measurements allowed to study the emission phenology in relation with relevant environmental parameters (meteorological, soil characteristics, and agricultural). Laboratory measurements allowed to establish an emission algorithm related to the three main parameters, that is, soil temperature, water and ammonia content. This algorithm has been adapted and simplified to spatialize the emissions at the France level. This spatialization was performed using environmental parameters accessible through data base (ECMWF) or agricultural statistics (such as nitrogen inputs, land use, crops). Spatial and temporal extrapolation allowed reaching the main objective, that is, to build a national inventory for a reference year (2002). This inventory allowed determining the contribution of NOx emitted by soil as compared to total emitted NOx, and the proportion of NOx emitted by soil due to fertilizer use. Our study, based on 57% of the French used agricultural area, and extrapolated to the whole arable surface, shows that soils would be responsible of about 5% of the total NOx emissions. On these 5%, 20%, which finally is a rather low percentage, would be linked to fertilizer use. The impact of these emissions on the atmospheric chemistry has been evaluated using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. We found that NOx emissions from soil would be of minor importance when compared to the industrial emissions, being a factor of ten lower in France. As a matter of consequence, the impact of the emissions on the

  5. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  6. Firing with compressed air at very high pressure; Disparo con aire comprimido a muy alta presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez Garcia, E.; Margareto Garcia, J.L.; Millan Echevarria, J.L.; Embil Martinez, E. [Escuela Tecnia Superior de Ingenieros Mineros, Oviedo (Spain)

    1994-05-01

    This article recounts the experiments executed in Hunosa`s Montsacro pit on the application of the DAMAP (Disparo can aire comprimido a muy alta presion - Firing with compressed air at very high pressure) process to the horizontal, sloping and caving seams or horizontal sublevels mining method usually used by Hunosa for thick and vertical seams. The project met the approval of Ocicarbon who participated with finance. Mescek Coal Mines also participated with their knowledge of DAMAP from mining in Hungary and provided the necessary equipment, technical assistance and training for Hunosa personnel. The project lasted for 14 months, comprising three phases: receipt, assembling of the equipment, and two months of system testing; 10 months of experiments to discern the possibilities offered by DAMAP technology in horizontal sublevels; and compilation of a report recounting the experience and results of the project. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. AIRMaster: Compressed air system audit software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and a methodology for performing compressed air system audits. AIRMaster and supporting manuals are designed for general auditors or plant personnel to evaluate compressed air system operation with simple instrumentation during a short-term audit. AIRMaster provides a systematic approach to compressed air system audits, analyzing collected data, and reporting results. AIRMaster focuses on inexpensive Operation and Maintenance (O and M) measures, such as fixing air leaks and improving controls that can significantly improve performance and reliability of the compressed air system, without significant risk to production. An experienced auditor can perform an audit, analyze collected data, and produce results in 2--3 days. AIRMaster reduces the cost of an audit, thus freeing funds to implement recommendations. The AIRMaster package includes an Audit Manual, Software and User's manual, Analysis Methodology Manual, and a Case Studies summary report. It also includes a Self-Guided Tour booklet to help users quickly screen a plant for efficiency improvement potentials, and an Industrial Compressed Air Systems Energy Efficiency Guidebook. AIRMaster proved to be a fast and effective audit tool. In sever audits AIRMaster identified energy savings of 4,056,000 kWh, or 49.2% of annual compressor energy use, for a cost savings of $152,000. Total implementation costs were $94,700 for a project payback period of 0.6 years. Available airflow increased between 11% and 51% of plant compressor capacity, leading to potential capital benefits from 40% to 230% of first year energy savings

  8. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  9. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  10. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  11. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  12. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  13. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  14. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  15. GUHA Analysis of Air Pollution Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    Wien: Springer, 2001 - (Kůrková, V.; Steele, N.; Neruda, R.; Kárný, M.), s. 465-468 ISBN 3-211-83651-9. [ICANNGA'2001 /5./. Praha (CZ), 22.04.2001-25.04.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Grant ostatní: APPETISE(XE) IST-99-11764 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : air polution * GUHA method * ozone Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Study of the air fluorescence by AIRFLY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, May (2009), s. 266-271. ISSN 0920-5632. [Cosmic Ray International Seminar 2008. Malfa, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : air fluorescence * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  17. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  18. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  19. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  20. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  1. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  2. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  3. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  4. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  5. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  6. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  7. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  8. ERIS Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Unlike its predecessor project IRIScotland, which took a more top-down approach to developing repository services for users in Scottish HE institutions, the ERIS project took a bottom-up approach, and consulted potential users of repository systems widely at the outset of the project, whether these systems would be for use by single institutions or subject pools. The idea was to find out what the user community actually required in terms of repository systems and services. In practice we d...

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  11. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  12. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  13. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  14. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," ... (48 minutes) "Momentum ...

  16. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  17. Development of an Indoor Air Quality Monitoring System based on a Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Torben Felix

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing time people spend indoor, the importance of the Indoor Air Quality increases.Especially in learning facilities, a high Indoor Air Quality is required to provide a good learning situation to students and teachers. This project is targeted on improving the Indoor Air Quality in a learning environment by monitoring the Indoor Air Quality and to provide information and reasoned advice to the users. The operation principles of gas sensors are explained. A special focus lies...

  18. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Ithnin; Nazipah Zakaria; Nor Azura Sulong; Shamrul Aizam Abd. Rahman; Normah Awang; Nurul Farahana Kamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer...

  19. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  20. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  1. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming ... Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION Your gift will help us ...

  2. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  3. Metrology of gaseous air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, J.

    2009-07-01

    The need for mutual recognition of accurate measurement results made by competent laboratories has been very widely accepted at the international level e.g., at the World Trade Organization. A partial solution to the problem was made by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in setting up the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), which was signed by National Metrology Institutes (NMI) around the world. The core idea of the CIPM MRA is to have global arrangements for the mutual acceptance of the calibration certificates of National Metrology Institutes. The CIPM MRA covers all the fields of science and technology for which NMIs have their national standards. The infrastructure for the metrology of the gaseous compounds carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (Norway), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O{sub 3}) has been constructed at the national level at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The calibration laboratory at the FMI was constructed for providing calibration services for air quality measurements and to fulfil the requirements of a metrology laboratory. The laboratory successfully participated, with good results, in the first comparison project, which was aimed at defining the state of the art in the preparation and analysis of the gas standards used by European metrology institutes and calibration laboratories in the field of air quality. To confirm the competence of the laboratory, the international external surveillance study was conducted at the laboratory. Based on the evidence, the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) designated the calibration laboratory at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) as a National Standard Laboratory in the field of air quality. With this designation, the MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory became a member of CIPM MRA, and Finland was brought into the internationally-accepted forum in the field of gas metrology. The concept of 'once measured

  4. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  5. Air quality management and planning system for Guangzhou. Report from workshop 1, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is proceedings from Workshop no. 1, 1998 of the Sino-Norwegian co-operation project ''Guangzhou Air Quality Management and Planning System''. The project studies pollution emissions generally and from coal, vehicle and energy activities, dispersion modelling, monitoring, exposure, health damage assessment, material damage assessment, vegetation, control options, baseline scenario development, cost benefit analysis, pollution control management and policy instruments and air pollution forecasting. A forth workshop is planned. There are several reports from the various project activities

  6. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  7. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  8. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  9. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  10. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  11. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  12. Team climate and safety culture in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R; Ek, Åsa; Akselsson, Roland

    2003-01-01

    In a joint project – Human Factors in ANS, HUFA - between the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration and Lund University the aim is to find out how a new team-based organization and the introduction of a new air traffic control system will affect safety culture and psychosocial working environment by changes in organizational climate, team climate and leadership. All in all, four studies will be conducted, before and after the system introduction, involving the two air traffic control centers ...

  13. Modeling noise annoyance caused by air traffic using fuzzy logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Franco, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this project is the study and modeling of the noise annoyance caused by air traffic by using the fuzzy logic theory. Like many other environmental problems, air traffic noise, continues to grow and has become a serious problem in many countries. Millions of people living or working around airport areas can suffer from noise exposure effects as for instance hearing loss, interference with communication, stress, sleep disturbance, psychological effects as well...

  14. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 4 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1997-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the fourth mission to Egypt, including planning of the second phase meetings and site visits. Additional air quality sites in Cairo have been described. A project group meeting and a visit to Egypt Meteorological Service have been reported

  15. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  16. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  17. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  18. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  19. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  20. Air Freight and Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Fadila; Deljanin, Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Air transport industry has gradually increased its share of global passenger and freight traffic, and this trend has accelerated in the last 40 years. For the past decade, air-freight traffic growth has outpaced air passenger traffic growth by 1-2% each year. In the past, air-freight sector offered limited services, with heavy reliance on several intermediaries and a significant dependence on air passenger operations. The sector can now be characterized as a sophisticated, innovative one, rel...

  1. Performance status of the AIRS instrument thirteen years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Denis A.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 μm to 15.4 μm and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS is a "facility" instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2 , CO, SO2 , O3 and CH4. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, climate process studies and validating climate models. The AIRS instrument has far exceeded its required design life of 5 years, with nearly 13 years of routine science operations that began on August 31, 2002. While the instrument has performed exceptionally well, with little sign of wear, the AIRS Project continues to monitor and maintain the health of AIRS, characterize its behavior and improve performance where possible. Radiometric stability has been monitored and trending shows better than 16 mK/year stability. Spectral calibration stability is better than 1 ppm/year. At this time we expect the AIRS to continue to perform well into the next decade. This paper contains updates to previous instrument status reports, with emphasis on the last three years.

  2. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s ... HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" takes a look at the faces behind the disease - and the forces leading us ...

  3. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The Memory Loss Tapes" (85 ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National Institute on Aging at the ...

  4. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the effects this debilitating and fatal disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September ... Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," ...

  5. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Web site . Become an Alzheimer's champion. Help support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a ... Your Local Chapter Get the facts 10 warning signs What is dementia What is Alzheimer's Stages of ...

  6. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming Events AAIC Advocacy Forum Rita ...

  7. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  8. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our nation and drive concerned citizens to take action. Here are three ways you can help us change the way ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation ...

  9. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO ... from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  10. Radiochemistry Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches carried out in the 'Radiochemistry Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise: dosimetry and radiological protection; development of techniques and methods of chemical analysis and radiochemistry. (M.A.)

  11. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . Become an Alzheimer's champion. Help support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation ...

  12. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two ... way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . ...

  13. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . Become an Alzheimer's champion. Help support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO ...

  14. Projection Classification Based Iterative Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqiu; Li, Chen; Gao, Wenhua

    2015-05-01

    Iterative algorithm has good performance as it does not need complete projection data in 3D image reconstruction area. It is possible to be applied in BGA based solder joints inspection but with low convergence speed which usually acts with x-ray Laminography that has a worse reconstruction image compared to the former one. This paper explores to apply one projection classification based method which tries to separate the object to three parts, i.e. solute, solution and air, and suppose that the reconstruction speed decrease from solution to two other parts on both side lineally. And then SART and CAV algorithms are improved under the proposed idea. Simulation experiment result with incomplete projection images indicates the fast convergence speed of the improved iterative algorithms and the effectiveness of the proposed method. Less the projection images, more the superiority is also founded.

  15. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  16. LAPI project

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Vich, Josep Francesc

    2009-01-01

    This project carries out a part of a new location application. This service consists of location-based application that connects with a location server. That server provides the necessary location information to run the service. Then an interface between the location-based application and the location server is needed. That interface could be a Location Application Programming Interface (LAPI), and the development of one LAPI is the goal of this project.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  18. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  19. Pollution. Warning on the future of air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the results published by INERIS (the French national institute of the industrial environment and risks) and based on the use of its model Chimere which aims at measuring and foreseeing the evolution of air quality. This model simulates the concentrations of pollutants in the air. It is integrated into the national tool of prediction of air quality, PREV'AIR, which studies prospective scenarios of reduction of emissions, and is also part of the SALUT'AIR project which assesses the evolution of atmospheric concentrations of pollutants by 2050 while taking climate change into account. These models notably show the importance of atmospheric circulation over continents. The author also recalls and comments the objectives of the UN Goteborg protocol for 2020

  20. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The report deals with the EIMP (Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt). The programme is funded by Danida which is a cooperation project between Norway and Denmark. The programme covers the monitoring of air pollution, coastal water monitoring, and the monitoring of pollution sources and emissions. This report pays the attention to the Norwegian part of the programme executed by NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) which covers the development air quality monitoring network. 14 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs.