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Sample records for aphasia broca

  1. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tobias S; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia.

  2. Effect of propranolol on naming in chronic Broca's aphasia with anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beversdorf, David Q; Sharma, Umesh K; Phillips, Nicole N; Notestine, Margaret A; Slivka, Andrew P; Friedman, Norman M; Schneider, Sandra L; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2007-08-01

    Previous research suggests that the noradrenergic system modulates flexibility of access to the lexical-semantic network, with propranolol benefiting normal subjects in lexical-semantic problem solving tasks. Patients with Broca's aphasia with anomia have impaired ability to access appropriate verbal output for a given visual stimulus in a naming task. Therefore, we tested naming in a pilot study of chronic Broca's aphasia patients with anomia after propranolol and after placebo in a double-blinded crossover manner. Naming was better after propranolol than after placebo, suggesting a potential benefit from propranolol in chronic Broca's aphasia with anomia. Larger follow-up studies are necessary to further investigate this effect.

  3. A crosslinguistic study of grammaticality judgments in Broca's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfeck, B; Bates, E; Capasso, R

    1991-08-01

    Crosslinguistic studies of sentence comprehension and production in Broca's aphasia have yielded two complementary findings: (1) grammatical morphology appears to be more impaired than word order principles in every language studied, but (2) the degree to which grammatical morphology is retained by aphasic patients depends upon the "strength" or importance of those morphemes in the patient's premorbid language. In an earlier study comparing violations of word order and agreement, we found that English-speaking Broca's aphasics showed greater sensitivity to errors of ordering than to errors of agreement, providing further evidence for the selective vulnerability of morphology. However, because English is a rigid word order language with a relatively weak inflectional system, it could be argued that word order is resilient to brain damage because it is the strongest source of information in this language. The present study compared the performance of English-speaking Broca's aphasics and normal controls with their Italian counterparts in the same grammaticality judgment experiment. Four predictions relating to our previous work were confirmed. (1) Italian aphasics, like their English-speaking counterparts, showed general preservation of grammatical knowledge and (2) they were able to use this knowledge in an "on-line" fashion. (3) Within each language, Broca's aphasics showed greater impairment in their ability to recognize errors of morphological selection (i.e., agreement) compared with errors made by moving the same words to an incorrect position downstream. Nevertheless (4), crosslinguistic differences observed in previous studies of comprehension and production were also observed in this grammaticality judgment task: a processing advantage for agreement errors in Italian normals and aphasics, and a processing advantage for ordering errors in English normals and aphasics.

  4. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

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    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  5. The training of verb production in Broca's aphasia : A multiple-baseline across-behaviours study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, R; Hurkmans, J; Links, P

    2006-01-01

    Background: Verb production is often impaired in Broca's aphasia: Action naming is more affected than object naming and in spontaneous speech the number and/or diversity of lexical verbs is low. Because verbs play a pivotal role in the sentence, these verb problems have a serious impact on the commu

  6. BROCAS APHASIA - A SYNTACTIC AND/OR A MORPHOLOGICAL DISORDER - A CASE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BASTIAANSE, R

    1995-01-01

    The patient described here suffers from Broca's aphasia without a comprehension disorder. She is unique, since she has two speech styles available and she shifts between them spontaneously. One style is characterized by a mild syntactic disorder and the other by a quite severe morphological and synt

  7. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  8. Verbs: some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Rispens, Judith; Ruigendijk, Esther; Rabadaán, Oneésimo Juncos; Cynthia K. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch & Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni & Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention has been paid to the production of verbs at the sentence level (but see Miceli, Mazzuchi, Menn & Goodglass, 1983; Thompson, Shapiro, Li & Schendel, 1995; Thompson, Lange, Schneider & Shapiro, 199...

  9. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Toshiaki

    1987-12-01

    A total of 11 patients with Broca's aphasia (BA) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the purpose of investigating the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism thresholds for BA. Computed tomography (CT) was concurrently performed. In the group of 3 patients undergoing PET with C-11 glucose, both PET and CT provided abnormal findings in the region that is thought to be responsible for BA (Broca's area), including the cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure. The Broca's area in the remaining one was shown as low C-11 accumulation area on PET and as isodensity on CT. The second group, consisting of 8 BA patients and 30 control patients without BA, underwent PET using O-15 steady method. PET showed reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolic rate (rCMRO/sub 2/) in the Broca's area in all BA patients. Computed tomography showed abnormal low density in the Broca's area in 3 patients, and abnormal findings in the basal ganglionic region and subcortex without evidence for abnormal low density in the Broca's area in the other 5 patients. Comparison of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in BA patients with those in control patients may show the symptomatic thresholds to be 20 - 27 ml100 gmin for rCBF and 2.0 ml100 gmin for rCMRO/sub 2/. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Lee, Miseon

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest

  11. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  12. Mechanism of anomia in Chinese Broca aphasia patients%汉语Broca失语症患者命名障碍机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱秋江; 陈卓铭

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of anomia in Broca aphasia patients.Methods Chinese aphasiaexamination method was used to screen Broca aphasia patients.Twenty Broca aphasia patients and 20 normal people were performed neuropsychological tests:picture naming test,word recognition test,vocabulary classification test and reading a map test.Results The accuracy of reading a map test of patients with Broca aphasia (69.60%) was significantly higher than that of picture naming (9.50%,P<0.05).Conclusion The glyph conversion semantic function in Chinese Broca aphasia patients is significantly better than function of semantic access speech output.The anomia in Chinese Broca patients with aphasia is mainly due to the difficulties caused by voice activation.%目的 探索Broca失语症患者命名障碍的机制. 方法 自2014年6月至2015年3月期间,分别对20名Broca失语症患者及正常人行神经心理学测验,包括看图命名测验、词汇辨认、词汇分类与看词指图测验. 结果 Broca失语症患者看字指图准确率(69.60%)高于看图命名准确率(9.50%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 汉语Broca失语症患者的字形通达语义功能显著优于语义通达语音输出功能,命名障碍主要是由于语音激活困难导致的.

  13. Evidence of cortical reorganization of language networks after stroke with subacute Broca's aphasia: a blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Qiu, Wei-hong; Wu, Hui-xiang; Yang, Qing-lu; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Zhao-cong; Li, Kui; Qiu, Guo-rong; Xie, Chun-qing; Wan, Gui-fang; Chen, Shao-qiong

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language. The activation areas in the left hemisphere of aphasia patients were significantly smaller compared with those in healthy adults. The activation frequency, volumes, and intensity in the regions related to language, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), the left superior temporal gyrus, and the right inferior frontal gyrus (the mirror region of Broca's area), were lower in patients compared with healthy adults. In contrast, activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior parietal lobule, and the left inferior temporal gyrus was stronger in patients compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in the recovery of language function in the subacute stage of stroke-related aphasia by increasing the engagement of related brain areas. PMID:28250756

  14. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  15. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca's Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca's aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT's generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca's aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy.

  16. La sílaba en la producción del habla de individuos con afasia de Broca The syllable in production of speech for individuals with Broca's aphasia

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    Hernán Martínez Matos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analizar los sonidos [+ líquidos] en dos tipos de estructura silábica en la producción de habla de 35 hablantes de español con afasia de Broca con el fin de determinar si dichas estructuras se conservan o se pierden. MÉTODOS: se utilizó una muestra de habla obtenida a partir de conversaciones grabadas con 35 pacientes, 12 hombres y 23 mujeres, con afasia de Broca. A partir de esa muestra se seleccionaron las producciones silábicas de estructura CCV y de estructura CV para determinar las frecuencias respectivas y los posibles errores o sustituciones de fonemas. RESULTADOS: del total de estructuras silábicas analizadas ninguna mostró una estructura diferente a la de la sílaba española. Tanto la estructura CCV como la CV se han mantenido en la muestra de habla afásica analizada. Ninguno de los errores observados contiene secuencias de sonidos mal formadas. CONCLUSIONES: independientemente de los procesos de reducción, asimilación, sustitución, elisión de segmentos, se ha podido determinar que en la producción de habla de los sujetos afásicos hay un gran apego a la estructura silábica. Se sugiere, además, que la sílaba es una unidad funcional que se codifica en el nivel de programación fonética.PURPOSE: to analyze the [+liquid] phonemes in two types of syllabic structure in production of speech of 35 Venezuelan subjects whit Broca's aphasia, with the purpose of determining if these structures are conserved or lost. METHODS: a sample of speech was used. It was obtained from conversations recorded with the subjects, 12 men and 23 women. From that sample, the syllabic productions with CCV and CV structure were selected in order to determine the frequencies and the possible errors or substitutions. RESULTS: from the total of analyzed syllabic structures, all of them showed a similar structure to the Spanish syllable. The CCV and CV structures were maintained. None of the observed errors contained sequences of badly

  17. Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, H.; Jantzen, Jan; Berks, G.

    2000-01-01

    A web-based software model (http://fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests...

  18. Case Study:The Application of Speech Training and Music Therapy to a Patient with Broca's Aphasia%言语训练配合音乐疗法治疗Broca失语1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明跃; 徐俊峰; 杨丽华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effectiveness of combined application of speech training and music therapy in the treatment of Broca's aphasia. Methods A 52-year-old patient with Broca’s aphasia was treated with speech training and music therapy for 4 weeks and China Rehabilitation Research Center Aphasia Examination(CRRCAE) was used to assess the patient before and after the treatment. Results After the treatment, the patient showed significant improvements in listening comprehension, repetition, speaking, picture description, reading, copying, dictating and calculating. Conclusion The combined use of speech training and music therapy can improve the communication skills of the patient with Broca’s aphasia.%目的观察言语训练配合音乐疗法治疗Broca失语的效果。方法采用言语训练配合音乐疗法,对1例52岁Broca失语症患者治疗4周,并用中国康复研究中心汉语失语检查表(CRRCAE)做治疗前后评价。结果治疗后患者听理解、复述、说、画面说明、出声读、阅读理解、抄写、听写、计算水平等都有很大提高。结论通过言语训练配合音乐疗法治疗Broca失语,可明显改善患者的表达与交流能力。

  19. Audiovisual Integration of Speech in a Patient with Broca’s Aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech...... perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca......'s area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical...

  20. Broca's faculté du langage articulé: Language or praxis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    De Oliveira-Souza, Moll, and Tovar-Moll (this issue) historically reevaluate that Paul Broca's aphemia should be considered as a kind of apraxia rather than aphasia. I argue that such a claim is unwarranted, given the interpretation of the faculty of speech Broca derived from his predecessors, Jean-

  1. Diagnosis Of Aphasia Using Neural And Fuzzy Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Axer, Hubertus; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von

    2002-01-01

    The language disability aphasia has several sub-diagnoses such as Amnestic, Broca, Global, and Wernicke. Data concerning 265 patients is available in the form of test scores and diagnoses, made by physicians according to the Aachen Aphasia Test. A neural network model has been built, which...

  2. Locative prepositional phrases in severe aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Shoosmith, L; Thomas, K; Katzenberger, K; Weber, C

    1993-07-01

    Six severely aphasic patients were trained on C-VIC, a computerized alternative communication system. Patients with both global and Broca's aphasia were able to produce and comprehend locative prepositions using C-VIC. The Broca's aphasic patients were able to produce and interpret symbol order correctly in C-VIC locative prepositional phrases, despite their difficulties in performing the same tasks using English. One patient's verbal production of locative prepositional phrases improved markedly after C-VIC training. These results suggest that the "mapping" impairment suffered by some Broca's aphasics may be ameliorated by use of alternative communication system, such as C-VIC.

  3. Audiovisual Integration of Speech in a Patient with Broca’s Aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speec...

  4. Broca's Aphemia: The Tortuous Story of a Nonaphasic Nonparalytic Disorder of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Broca coined the neologism "aphemia" to describe a syndrome consisting of a loss of the ability to speak without impairment of language and paralysis of the faciolingual territories in actions unrelated to speech, such as protruding the tongue or pursing the lips. Upon examining the brains of patients with aphemia, Broca concluded that the minimum possible lesion responsible for aphemia localized to the posterior left inferior frontal gyrus and lower portion of the middle frontal gyrus. A review of Broca's writings led us to conclude that (a) Broca localized speech, not language, to the left hemisphere, (b) Broca's aphemia is a form of apraxia, (c) Broca's aphemia is not, therefore, a terminological forerunner of aphasia, and (d) Broca was an outspoken equipotentialist concerning the cerebral localization of language. Broca's claim about the role of the left hemisphere in the organization of speech places him as the legitimate forebear of the two most outstanding achievements of Liepmann's work, namely, the concepts of apraxia and of a left hemisphere specialization for action.

  5. Cerebrolysin adjuvant treatment in Broca's aphasics following first acute ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Jianu, DC; Muresanu, DF; Bajenaru, O; Popescu, BO; Deme, SM; Moessler, H; Meinzingen, SZ; Petrica, L; Serpe, M; Ursoniu, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of Cerebrolysin administration in Broca's aphasics with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We registered 2,212 consecutive Broca's aphasics following an acute ischemic stroke admitted in four departments of neurology in Romania, between September 2005 and September 2009. Language was evaluated with the Romanian version of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). The following inclusion criteria were used for this study: age 20%75 years, admis...

  6. Broca and the General Language Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the important impact of Paul Broca on our understanding of language. Broca not only discovered the brain area responsible for language production, but he also highlighted the importance of a general language faculty – as Ferdinand de Saussure would later do in his Course in General Linguistics – considered as a kind of semiotic faculty that enables us to establish a constant relationship between an idea and a sign, between an entity that is situated on the level of content and an entity that is situated on the level of expression. Saussure later emphasized that this faculty of associating something on the level of content with something on the level of expression is a natural tendency in every human being. In this paper we will argue – with reference to the socio-constructivist theory of meaning – that the “generality” to which Broca refers should be understood to be closely correlated with the “naturalness” intended by Saussure. In particular, general and natural should be considered together, taking into account the ways in which human beings who live within a linguistic community put into practice, from childhood, their ability to build a language and, conversely, what happens when, in cases of aphasia, patients - so to speak - “lose the words”. Both children who are acquiring their mother tongue and aphasic patients who fail to “find the words” behave in a holistic way, within forms of life, that is, shared situations in which their own life experiences, habits, knowledge, words and so on come to life.

  7. Audiovisual Integration of Speech in a Patient with Broca’s Aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical......, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing...

  8. Electrical stimulation of Broca's area enhances implicit learning of an artificial grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Meinou H; Barth, Andre C R; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Flöel, Agnes

    2010-11-01

    Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the causal relationship between Broca's area and learning of an artificial grammar by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in a between-subject design, with either anodal tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) or sham stimulation, over Broca's area during the acquisition of an artificial grammar. Performance during the acquisition phase, presented as a working memory task, was comparable between groups. In the subsequent classification task, detecting syntactic violations, and specifically, those where no cues to superficial similarity were available, improved significantly after anodal tDCS, resulting in an overall better performance. A control experiment where 10 subjects received anodal tDCS over an area unrelated to artificial grammar learning further supported the specificity of these effects to Broca's area. We conclude that Broca's area is specifically involved in rule-based knowledge, and here, in an improved ability to detect syntactic violations. The results cannot be explained by better tDCS-induced working memory performance during the acquisition phase. This is the first study that demonstrates that tDCS may facilitate acquisition of grammatical knowledge, a finding of potential interest for rehabilitation of aphasia.

  9. Training verb and sentence production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Petra; Hurkmans, Joost; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many aphasic speakers have problems producing verbs at both the word and the sentence level. A treatment programme called ACTION (Bastiaanse, Bunge, Perk, 2004; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, Quak, Varela Put, 1997) has been developed to train verb production of both fluent and non-fluent aphasic

  10. Diagnosis of aphasia using neural and fuzzy techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Axer, H.; Keyserlingk, D. Graf von

    2000-01-01

    The language disability Aphasia has several sub-diagnoses such as Amnestic, Broca, Global, and Wernicke. Data concerning 265 patients is available in the form of test scores and diagnoses, made by physicians according to the Aachen Aphasia Test. A neural network model has been built, which...... is available for consultation on the World Wide Web. The neural network model is in this paper compared with a fuzzy model. Rather than concluding which method provides the best approximation, the paper acts as an example solution useful for other benchmark studies....

  11. Perceived liveliness and speech comprehensibility in aphasia : the effects of direct speech in auditory narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in 'healthy' communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to th

  12. Strategy and impairment in sentence understanding by Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, H H; Friederici, A D

    1985-03-01

    15 Broca's aphasics and 14 Wernicke's aphasics, both German and Dutch speaking patients, were presented with a sentence-picture matching task. Both syntactic and semantic distractor pictures were used. Sentences were either reversible or non-reversible, had a topicalized or a non-topicalized word order and contained either of three types of prepositions that were labelled 'syntactic' (case-marking), 'obligatory' (subcategorized) and 'lexical' (locative). Results indicated (a) a significant difference between reversible and non reversible sentences for both Broca's and Wernicke's; (b) no significant differences between these two groups in the differences scores reversible minus non-reversible; (c) an above-chance performance on reversible sentences for both groups. To explain the pattern of differences between the various types of sentences, two schemes of interpretation are presented. The first scheme assumes that both Broca's and Wernicke's have lost basic (but different) syntactic abilities and that they can understand reversible sentences by non-syntactic strategies only. The second scheme assumes that there is no such loss, but that the impairment in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia is such that the more syntactic analysis is required, the more errors are made. Patients are assumed to approach this task by trying to limit their syntactic analysis to the beginning of the sentence.

  13. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan" published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin ("Vot-vot" and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!". Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  14. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Caramelli, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan") published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin) ("Vot-vot") and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!"). Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  15. Differences between conduction aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaki, F; Izumi, S

    2001-07-01

    Conduction aphasia and Wernike's aphasia have been differentiated by the degree of auditory language comprehension. We quantitatively compared the speech sound errors of two conduction aphasia patients and three Wernicke's aphasia patients on various language modality tests. All of the patients were Japanese. The two conduction aphasia patients had "conduites d'approche" errors and phonological paraphasia. The patient with mild Wernicke's aphasia made various errors. In the patient with severe Wernicke's aphasia, neologism was observed. Phonological paraphasia in the two conduction aphasia patients seemed to occur when the examinee searched for the target word. They made more errors in vowels than in consonants of target words on the naming and repetition tests. They seemed to search the target word by the correct consonant phoneme and incorrect vocalic phoneme in the table of the Japanese alphabet. The Wernicke's aphasia patients who had severe impairment of auditory comprehension, made more errors in consonants than in vowels of target words. In conclusion, utterance of conduction aphasia and that of Wernicke's aphasia are qualitatively distinct.

  16. Aphasia caused by intracerebral hemorrhage; CT-scan findings and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Isao; Sano, Keiji (Fuji Brain Institute and Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    It is generally accepted that cases of aphasia can be divided into several groups according to verbal fluency, auditory comprehension, and repetition abilities. Although many authors have studied aphasia and its location by means of a CT scan, the primary lesion on a CT scan with regard to the subtypes of aphasia still remains controversial. In this report we present our new CT classification for the syndromes of aphasia and the prognosis. Twenty-one patients with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) were followed up for more than 3 months after onset. ICH was classified according to the mode of the horizontal extension of the hematoma on a CT scan. Four lines were decided as follows: Line (a) is between the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (b) is the vertical line to the saggital line which originates from the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (c) is between the trigone of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle. The CT classification consisted of 4 types: in Type A, ICH was located anterior to line (a); in Type B, ICH was located between line (a) and line (b); in Type C, ICH was located between line (b) and line (c); Type B+C, was a combination of Type B and Type C. Transcortical motor aphasia belonged to the Type A group. Transcortical sensory aphasia belonged to the Type B and Type B+C groups. Wernicke's and anomic aphasia belonged to the Type C group. Conduction and global aphasia belonged to the Type B+C group. Pure Broca's aphasia could not be observed in this series. Several relationships between the syndromes of aphasia and its CT findings were evident. On the other hand, the syndromes of aphasia and the degree of recovery were not correlated, except for global aphasia. (author).

  17. Non-convulsive status epilepticus presenting with Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mashael; Khan, Sonia A; Kabiraj, Mohammed; Khoja, Waleed A

    2009-07-01

    Ictal aphasia in adults is a rare phenomenon. Most reported cases manifest with non-fluent (Broca) aphasia. Ictal fluent (Wernicke) aphasia is less common. We report a 47-year-old, right-handed woman that presented with recurrent episodes of non-convulsive seizures in the form of Wernicke's aphasia for 2 weeks. An MRI of the brain showed an old cerebral infarction in the left parieto-occipital area. Scalp EEG revealed continuous periodic sharp waves at the left temporal regions with diffusion to the whole left hemisphere and at occasions to the right. This is followed by variable periods of post ictal slowing. Recurrence of the described ictal pattern was noted. Management of status epilepticus was started in the form of intravenous diazepam and a loading dose of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. After treatment, she improved clinically and the EEG improved with disappearance of the left temporal ictal rhythm and normalization of the EEG background. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of non-convulsive partial status epilepticus manifesting as ictal aphasia.

  18. Lexicality Drives Audio-Motor Transformations in Broca's Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, S. A.; D'Ausilio, A.; Raettig, T.; Begliomini, C.; Craighero, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Zingales, C.; Haggard, P.; Fadiga, L.

    2010-01-01

    Broca's area is classically associated with speech production. Recently, Broca's area has also been implicated in speech perception and non-linguistic information processing. With respect to the latter function, Broca's area is considered to be a central area in a network constituting the human mirror system, which maps observed or heard actions…

  19. Antonio Berti and the early history of aphasia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, S; Randazzo, C

    2006-12-01

    Whilst the debate about cerebral localisation of articulate speech was raging in France in the 1860s and in particular with reference to the observations of Paul Broca, there were also some Italians who attempted to make a contribution on the subject. Among those was the physician Antonio Berti, who in 1865 furnished some interesting observations on the association of aphasia with the frontal lobe. In this paper we intend to revive this forgotten episode that represents one of the early Italian observations on the issue of cortical localisation of speech.

  20. Broca's aphemia: an illustrated account of its clinico-anatomic validity Afemia de Broca: um relato ilustrado sobre sua validade anátomo-clínica

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    Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a 54-year-old man with loss of speech, but with preservation of voluntary facio-lingual motility, language and other cognitive abilities (Broca's aphemia. METHOD: Observation of patient oral communicative abilities and general behavior, neuropsychological assessment and cranial computed tomography. RESULTS: Computed tomography showed a hyperdense lesion in the subcortex of the left precentral gyrus corresponding to Brodmann's area 6 and 44. Neuropsychological assessment confirmed that the major cognitive domains were intact. CONCLUSION: Our patient reiterates the validity of Broca's aphemia as a clinico-anatomic entity allowing us to portray it for the first time in pictures. From a neurobehavioral perspective, aphemia is related to apraxia rather than to aphasia, a fact that may have hampered the full grasp of its far-reaching implications for neurology and aphasiology.OBJETIVO: Apresentar o caso de um paciente de 54 anos de idade com perda da fala, mas preservação da linguagem, das demais capacidades cognitivas, e da motilidade fácio-lingual voluntária (afemia de Broca. MÉTODO: Observação da capacidade de comunicação oral e do comportamento geral, exame neuropsicológico e tomografia computadorizada do crânio. RESULTADOS: A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hiperdensa no subcórtex do giro precentral esquerdo correspondendo às áreas 6 e 44 de Brodmann. O exame neuropsicológico confirmou que os principais domínios cognitivos se encontravam intactos. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso paciente reiterou a validade da afemia de Broca como entidade anátomo-clínico permitindo documentá-la em fotos pela primeira vez. Da perspectiva neurocomportamental, a afemia está vinculada às apraxias e não às afasias, o que pode ter prejudicado a apreensão plena do seu profundo significado para a neurologia e para a afasiologia.

  1. National Aphasia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge. […] National Aphasia Association Response to Statements by Trump Campaign Spokesperson In response to a recent statement by Trump campaign spokesperson, Katrina Pierson, and the article which ...

  2. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  3. Comparing the production of complex sentences in Persian patients with ‎post-stroke aphasia and non-damaged people with normal speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebrovascular disease leading to stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. Speakers with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia have difficulties in production of movement-derived sentences such as passive sentences, topicalized constituents, and Wh-questions. To assess the production of complex sentences, some passive, topicalized and focused sentences were designed for patients with non-fluent Persian aphasic. Afterwards, patients’ performance in sentence production was tested and compared with healthy non-damaged subjects.Methods: In this cross sectional study, a task was designed to assess the different types of sentences (active, passive, topicalized and focused adapted to Persian structures. Seven Persian patients with post-stroke non-fluent agrammatic aphasia (5 men and 2 women and seven healthy non-damaged subjects participated in this study. The computed tomography (CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed that all the patients had a single left hemisphere lesion involved middle cerebral artery (MCA, Broca`s area and in its white matter. In addition, based on Bedside version of Persian Western Aphasia Battery (P-WAB-1, all of them were diagnosed with moderate Broca aphasia. Then, the production task of Persian complex sentences was administered.Results: There was a significant difference between four types of sentences in patients with aphasia [Degree of freedom (df = 3, P < 0.001]. All the patients showed worse performance than the healthy participants in all the four types of sentence production (P < 0.050.Conclusion: In general, it is concluded that topicalized and focused sentences as non-canonical complex sentences in Persian are very difficult to produce for patients with agrammatic non-fluent aphasia. It seems that sentences with A-movement are simpler for the patients than sentences involving A`-movement; since they include shorter movements in compare to topicalized and focused sentences.

  4. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception.

  5. Osservazioni cliniche ed anatomiche nella storia della neuropsicologia del linguaggio: gli studi pre-Broca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Luzzatti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and Anatomical Observations in the History of Neurolinguistics: Studies Predating Paul Broca – Classical neurological and neuropsychological handbooks usually cite Paul Broca’s communication on the frontal lobes as the seat of articulated speech (1861 as the starting point in the history of the study of aphasia as. In their seminal study, Benton and Joynt (1960 have collected numerous observations of aphasic patients from the Greek, Latin Medieval and Renaissance medical tradition and from the eighteenth-century Enlightenment literature. In none of the reported cases, however, were the crucial elements of aphasia, that is, is, on the one hand the distinction between language deficits, conceptual damage and speech disorders and, on the other hand, the association with lesions of the left brain hemisphere – clearly identified. The first part of this article describes the work of Johannes Schenck and Johannes Jakob Wepfer, two medical scientists in the six-teenth and seventeenth century, whose studies are almost entirely unknown. Johannes Schenck (1530-1598 completed a collection of clinical observations including both reports from antiquity and from his contemporaries. In his first volume (Observationes medicae de capite humano, Basel, 1584 he considers the major diseases of the head and face. At least 16 of these observations refer to patients with aphasia. Johannes Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695 published several texts on neuroanatomy, brain vascularization and apoplexy. He gathered a collection of neurological cases (Observationes medico-practicae de affectibus capitis internis & externis, which was published posthumously. At least 15 of the 222 observations included report the presence of aphasia. As expected, in almost all cases, aphasia was due to lesions in the left hemisphere. Wepfer, however, does not seem to have noted this asymmetry. In the second part of this article, the extraordinary study of Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1825

  6. Perception and production of tone in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, J; Petty, S H; Dardarananda, R

    1988-11-01

    An acoustical and perceptual study of lexical tone was conducted to evaluate the extent and nature of tonal disruption in aphasia. The language under investigation was Thai, a tone language which has five lexical tones--mid, low, falling, high, and rising. Subjects included six left brain-damaged aphasics (two Broca's, one transcortical motor, one global, one conduction, one Wernicke), one right brain-damaged nonaphasic, one cerebellar dysarthric, and five normals. High-quality tape recordings of each subject's productions of a minimal set of five, monosyllabic Thai words were presented to 10 adult Thai listeners for identification. Results from the phonemic identification tests indicated that tone production is relatively spared in aphasic patients with unilateral left hemisphere lesions. The performance of the global aphasic, however, was considerably below normal. Patterns of tonal confusions further revealed that the performance of all aphasics, except the global, differed from that of normal speakers primarily in degree rather than in kind. Tonal contrasts were signaled at a high level of proficiency by the right brain-damaged and dysarthric patients. Acoustical analysis revealed that F0 contours associated with the five tones for all aphasics, except the global, were similar in overall shape as well as position in the tone space to those of normals. F0 contours for the right brain-damaged patient and the dysarthric also generally agreed with those of normals in terms of shape and position. F0 ranges of both aphasic and nonaphasic brain-damaged speakers were generally larger than those of normals for all five tones. The relationship between tone and vowel duration was generally similar to that of normals for all brain-damaged speakers. A comparison of aphasics' performance on tone perception (J. Gandour & R. Dardarananda, 1983, Brain and Language, 18, 94-114) and tone production indicated that, for the normal and right brain-damaged subjects, performance on

  7. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work.

  8. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  9. [Aphasia of deep localization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, J A; Toboada, E O; Duhart, J E; Adaro, F V

    1989-09-01

    A neurolinguistic and cerebral computed tomography (CT) study was carried out in 60 patients with aphasia. Fourteen had predominant subcortical involvement. Six of these showed involvement of the basal ganglia (5 with thalamic involvement), with small mass effect and small volume (less than 5 ml). The type of aphasia in this group was not uniform; it was remarkable, however, that initially there was mutism or initially non fluid language which soon became fluid in one half of the patients. Repetition and partially or totally preserved comprehension, together with dysarthic, dysprosodic and hypophonic abnormalities, were very common. The latter even had a more prolonged course than aphasic abnormalities. All the lesions in the remaining 8 patients had greater volume and were paracapsular in topography; 5 patients behaved as global aphasia (with a mean calculated volume of 23.7 ml), and the remaining 3 showed fluid aphasia, with an intermediate size (15 ml).

  10. Aphasia vs. Apraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simple Techniques Can Help Memory after a Stroke Self-Esteem after Stroke Cognitive Challenges After Stroke Depression Trumps ... Talking Tough? Constraint Induced Language Therapy for Aphasia Actions Speak as Loud as Words Computers & Language Rehab ...

  11. 卒中后失语患者抑郁情绪特征比较%The characteristics of post-stroke depression in patients with aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许璇; 王维清; 刘晓加; 陈东; 王心宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较卒中后失语患者与非失语患者抑郁情绪的特征.方法 纳入70例卒中后失语患者和70例卒中后非失语患者.对失语组采用标准化汉语失语检查量表(Aphasia Battery of Chinese,ABC)进行失语评估,并用卒中后失语患者抑郁问卷(医院版)(Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire Hospital Version,SADQ-H)比较卒中后失语患者和非失语患者的抑郁情绪.结果 失语组的SADQ-H总分[(22.03±9.55)分]显著高于非失语组[(16.81±10.47)分],差异有显著性(P<0.01);卒中后失语患者在兴趣缺乏、乐趣丧失、社交回避、易怒、情绪低落、注意力下降等方面较卒中后非失语患者严重.失语组抑郁发生率[64.28%]高于非失语组[50.00%];失语组中完全性失语抑郁发生率最高[78.26%];经皮质混合性失语[62.5%]、Broca[61.53%]、Werincke[62.50%]发生率相近为[62.00%]左右;抑郁严重程度与失语严重程度相关,卡方分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 卒中后失语患者较非失语患者抑郁情绪的发生率高,尤其是完全性失语、经皮质混合性失语、Broca、Werincke等类型的失语患者,并且抑郁发生率与失语严重程度相关.%Objective To compare the characteristics of post-stroke depression in patients with and without aphasia.Methods Seventy patients on the first infarction with aphasia and 70 stroke patients without aphasia were recruited.The aphasia deficits in patients were evaluated by using the Aphasia Battery of Chinese ( Aphasia Battery of Chinese, ABC) .The Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire Hospital Version ( Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire Hospital Version, SADQ-H) was applied to analyze the depression in the two groups.Results The sore in SADQ-H of the aphasia group was significantly higher than the control group( (22.03 ±9.55 )vs ( 16.81 ± 10.47 ), P < 0.01 ) .Loss interest, anhedonia, social avoidance, irritability, depression, decreased attention were

  12. Semiology of aphasias: a critical discussion / Semiologia das afasias: uma discussão crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana do Carmo Novaes Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the semiology of aphasias, which started being developed in the 19th century by Broca and Wernicke. We do not provide an exhaustive list of symptoms and syndromes to address the theme, since we aim to critically discuss why the semiology of aphasias is still based mainly on organic perspectives in clinical practice and scientific research. We also discuss the contributions of Luria and Jakobson to a better understanding of how language is affected in aphasias and how Modern Linguistics, in special the Discursive Neurolinguistics, may enlighten the debate. We analyze some data to illustrate the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the above mentioned approaches and also discuss the excessive strength that classifications have in the clinical context.

  13. Global aphasia without hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, D; Biller, J; Damasio, H; Adams, H P; Cornell, S H

    1987-03-01

    Three patients acutely developed global aphasia, but did not manifest the typical accompanying right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated that the patients had two discrete left hemisphere lesions, one in the anterior language cortices or language-related subcortical areas, and one in the posterior language cortices. Cerebral angiography showed that two patients had complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, and the third had an intraluminal "clot" in the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid, findings suggestive of an embolic etiology. Our cases indicate that global aphasia without hemiparesis predicts two discrete lesions and a particularly good recovery of speech and language.

  14. 神经性失语的血液供应特点分析%Analysis of blood supply in aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪典; 江文; 万琪; 张光运

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of blood supply in neurlogical aphasia.Method The aphasia types and features of 21 cases with internal carotid artery occulsion or middle cerebral artery occulision were retrospectively reviewed .Result The ischaemic lesions in most of patients with aphasia located in dominant hemisphere,but the cases with the same artery occlusion exhibited different aphasia types.Broca's aphasia was usually accompanied with good prognosis,but it is diffcult to rehabilitate for Wernicke's aphasia and Global aphasis .Conclusion The aphasia types were associated with complicated blood supply and collateral circulation in MARE'S area.%目的 讨神经性失语的血液供应特点。方法回顾性分析21例颈内动脉或大脑中动脉闭塞病人的失语种类及特征。结果 部分失语病人的缺血病灶位于优势半球,但具有相同动脉闭塞病人的失语类型并不相同。单纯运动性失语康复较快,混合性或感觉性失语康复较困难。结论 语的类型因MARE方形区复杂血供及其侧支循环情况的不同而异。

  15. 神经性失语的血液供应特点分析%Analysis of blood supply in aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪典; 江文; 万琪; 张光运

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of blood supply inneurlogical aphasia.Method The aphasia types and features of 21 cases with internal carotid artery occulsion or middle cerebral artery occulision were retrospectively reviewed .Result The ischaemic lesions in most of patients with aphasia located in dominant hemisphere,but the cases with the same artery occlusion exhibited different aphasia types.Broca's aphasia was usually accompanied with good prognosis,but it is diffcult to rehabilitate for Wernicke's aphasia and Global aphasis .Conclusion The aphasia types were associated with complicated blood supply and collateral circulation in MARE'S area.%目的 探讨神经性失语的血液供应特点。方法回顾性分析21例颈内动脉或大脑中动脉闭塞病人的失语种类及特征。结果 部分失语病人的缺血病灶位于优势半球,但具有相同动脉闭塞病人的失语类型并不相同。单纯运动性失语康复较快,混合性或感觉性失语康复较困难。结论 语的类型因MARE方形区复杂血供及其侧支循环情况的不同而异。

  16. Crossroads in aphasia rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M.E. van de Sandt-Koenderman (Mieke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focusses on two types of aphasia rehabilitation, cognitive linguistic treatment (CLT) and AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication) training. In a study of the effect of nonlinguistic variables on the outcome of CLT, it was shown, that neuropsychological data con

  17. Neuroplasticity: Evidence from Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents data showing that two of the four forms of neuroplasticity, homologous area adaptation and map extension, are relevant to recovery from aphasia. It discusses factors related to neuroplastic activity during language recovery, including neurophysiological, subject, and environmental treatment variables. (Contains references.)…

  18. 急性脑梗死后失语症的MRI影像学研究%Analysis of MRI Manifestation with Aphasia after Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛巍; 王敏; 朱文荣; 樊红彬; 耿德勤

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To reveal the relationship between aphasia and infarct lesion defined by MRI through analysis of 68 patients with aphasia performance after acute cerebral infarction. Methods: The potential patients were evaluated by the hand evaluation standard of Aphasia Battery of Chinese. Chinese Aphasia Examination was applied to classify the type of aphasia. The lesion site and volume of cerebral infarction in patients were determined by MRI. Results: All 68 cases of aphasia patients were right-handed. There were 18 global aphasia(GA) cases, 25 broca aphasia(BA) cases, 7 wernicke aphasia(WA) cases, 7 conduction aphasia cases, 7 transcortical motor aphasia(TCM) cases and 4 anomic aphasia(AA) cases. There were 32 cases with the classic language center and 36 cases with non-language center. Conclusion: The aphasia types were not agreed with the traditional aphasia anatomical localization, and the non-language center may also cause aphasia.%目的:应用MRI检查确定急性脑梗死后失语症类型与脑梗死部位之间的关系.方法:对68例急性脑梗死后具有失语症表现患者应用汉语失语成套测验中的利手评定标准进行利手判定和汉语失语症检查进行失语症的分类,用头颅MRI确定患者的脑梗死部位及病灶体积.结果:68例急性脑梗死失语症患者均为右利手,失语症类型分别为完全性失语18例,运动性失语25例,感觉性失语7例,传导性失语7例,经皮质运动性失语7例,命名性失语4例.累及经典语言中枢的有32例,36例为非语言中枢受累.结论:急性脑梗死失语症类型与传统的失语症解剖定位不完全符合,非语言中枢梗死也可引起失语症.

  19. The Role of Broca's Area in Speech Perception: Evidence from Aphasia Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory; Costanzo, Maddalena; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Motor theories of speech perception have been re-vitalized as a consequence of the discovery of mirror neurons. Some authors have even promoted a strong version of the motor theory, arguing that the motor speech system is critical for perception. Part of the evidence that is cited in favor of this claim is the observation from the early 1980s that…

  20. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing.

  1. 运动性失语患者早期语言康复训练护理的研究进展%Nursing research progress of early language rehabilitation training in patients with motor aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌云; 唐怡; 张淑芳

    2016-01-01

    Motor aphasia, known as Broca aphasia, is a common type of aphasia. Early language rehabilitation training can maximumly improve language function and have a positive impact on patients′ daily life. This paper would review the aphasia language characteristics, classification, diagnosis and early language rehabilitation training and nursing care of patients.%运动性失语又称Broca失语,是失语症的常见类型,早期语言康复训练可以最大限度地改善失语患者的语言功能恢复,对患者的日常生活产生积极影响。现就运动性失语的语言特点、分类、诊断,以及患者早期语言康复训练及护理做一综述。

  2. Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long

  3. Broca's region: novel organizational principles and multiple receptor mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Amunts

    Full Text Available There is a considerable contrast between the various functions assigned to Broca's region and its relatively simple subdivision into two cytoarchitectonic areas (44 and 45. Since the regional distribution of transmitter receptors in the cerebral cortex has been proven a powerful indicator of functional diversity, the subdivision of Broca's region was analyzed here using a multireceptor approach. The distribution patterns of six receptor types using in vitro receptor autoradiography revealed previously unknown areas: a ventral precentral transitional cortex 6r1, dorsal and ventral areas 44d and 44v, anterior and posterior areas 45a and 45p, and areas op8 and op9 in the frontal operculum. A significant lateralization of receptors was demonstrated with respect to the cholinergic M(2 receptor, particularly in area 44v+d. We propose a new concept of the anterior language region, which elucidates the relation between premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and Broca's region. It offers human brain homologues to the recently described subdivision of area 45, and the segregation of the ventral premotor cortex in macaque brains. The results provide a novel structural basis of the organization of language regions in the brain.

  4. An Introduction to Research on Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸

    2014-01-01

    Language is a complex cognitive psychological activity exclusive to human beings. Based on scientific researches on aphasia, this paper reviews origin and classification of aphasiology, displays different aphasia symptoms, and briefly introduces brain function al ocation theory.

  5. Structural prediction in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Warren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that young healthy comprehenders predict the structure of upcoming material, and that their processing is facilitated when they encounter material matching those predictions (e.g., Staub & Clifton, 2006; Yoshida, Dickey & Sturt, 2013. However, less is known about structural prediction in aphasia. There is evidence that lexical prediction may be spared in aphasia (Dickey et al., 2014; Love & Webb, 1977; cf. Mack et al, 2013. However, predictive mechanisms supporting facilitated lexical access may not necessarily support structural facilitation. Given that many people with aphasia (PWA exhibit syntactic deficits (e.g. Goodglass, 1993, PWA with such impairments may not engage in structural prediction. However, recent evidence suggests that some PWA may indeed predict upcoming structure (Hanne, Burchert, De Bleser, & Vashishth, 2015. Hanne et al. tracked the eyes of PWA (n=8 with sentence-comprehension deficits while they listened to reversible subject-verb-object (SVO and object-verb-subject (OVS sentences in German, in a sentence-picture matching task. Hanne et al. manipulated case and number marking to disambiguate the sentences’ structure. Gazes to an OVS or SVO picture during the unfolding of a sentence were assumed to indicate prediction of the structure congruent with that picture. According to this measure, the PWA’s structural prediction was impaired compared to controls, but they did successfully predict upcoming structure when morphosyntactic cues were strong and unambiguous. Hanne et al.’s visual-world evidence is suggestive, but their forced-choice sentence-picture matching task places tight constraints on possible structural predictions. Clearer evidence of structural prediction would come from paradigms where the content of upcoming material is not as constrained. The current study used self-paced reading study to examine structural prediction among PWA in less constrained contexts. PWA (n=17 who

  6. Aphasia in Maurice Ravel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytowic, R E

    1976-07-01

    A selective loss of language resulting from left hemisphere cerebral lesions is familiar to all neurologists but only rarely does such a deficit allow preexisting extraordinary capabilities of the right hemisphere to emerge. A retrospective case history of French composer Maurice Ravel demonstrates such a right-sided cognitive system. At 58, Ravel was struck with aphasia, which quelled any further artistic output. Most strikingly, he was able to think musically but unable to express his ideas in either writing or performance. Hemispheric lateralization for verbal (linguistic) and musical thinking offers an explanation for the dissociation of Ravel's ability to conceive and to create. What makes Ravel's history interesting to the public as well as to physicians is not only the tragic toll exacted in this composer's personal and creative life but also the resultant loss of the output of one of the 20th century's towering musical geniuses.

  7. An experimental analysis of auxiliary and copula verb generalization in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Salmon, S J

    1984-05-01

    Two subjects with chronic Broca's aphasia were taught to produce third person singular auxiliary is in sentence contexts to determine if is production would generalize to untrained auxiliary is items and to copula is contexts. A single subject (ABAB) reversal design was employed. Results revealed that training a few exemplars of the present tense auxiliary is resulted in generalized responding to untrained auxiliary is and copula is plus predicate adjective items. Generalized responding to untrained copula is plus predicate nominative and locative items was marked by individual variability. Although auxiliary and copula is verb production was maintained on 2- and 6-week follow-up probes, transfer to spontaneous speech was negligible. The results were interpreted as providing partial support for the existence of a functional or generative response class between verbal auxiliary and the copula is verbs.

  8. Unexpected Reading Dissociation in a Brazilian “nisei” with Crossed Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Caramelli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in reading impairments in the Japanese language, due to its particular writing system which includes two different scripts, Kanji (logograms and Kana (phonograms. Reading dissociations between Kanji and Kana have been described, showing that each system is processed differently by the cerebral hemispheres. We describe the case of a 68 year old Brazilian “nisei” (i.e. born from Japanese parents who had knowledge of both Japanese and Portuguese. He presented an ischemic stroke affecting the right hemisphere and subsequently developed a Broca's aphasia and an unexpected reading dissociation, with an impairment in Kana reading comprehension and a good performance in Kanji and in Portuguese. These findings suggest that the patient's right and left hemispheres have assumed opposite roles not only for oral but also for written language decodification.

  9. The Time-course of Lexical Reactivation of Unaccusative Verbs in Broca’s Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Sullivan

    2014-04-01

    Similar to Friedmann et al.’s (2008 findings of normally delayed re-access of the displaced argument, the results for all 12 participants (Fig.1 revealed priming only at the downstream probe position [*2], t(11=3.08, p=.01. In a separate subgroup analysis, the same pattern was found for the Broca group, t(6=4.77, p=.003. These results suggest that participants with Broca’s aphasia can take advantage of the inherent delay of unaccusatives and exhibit similar patterns of syntactic dependency linking as unimpaired individuals. We discuss these findings with reference to its generalizability across patient groups, the DLA, and the interaction between lexical and syntactic processes.

  10. Neologistic jargon aphasia and agraphia in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2009-02-15

    The terms 'jargon aphasia' and 'jargon agraphia' describe the production of incomprehensible language containing frequent phonological, semantic or neologistic errors in speech and writing, respectively. Here we describe two patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) who produced neologistic jargon either in speech or writing. We suggest that involvement of the posterior superior temporal-inferior parietal region may lead to a disconnection between stored lexical representations and language output pathways leading to aberrant activation of phonemes in neologistic jargon. Parietal lobe involvement is relatively unusual in PPA, perhaps accounting for the comparative rarity of jargon early in the course of these diseases.

  11. 维吾尔语失语症与脑卒中病变部位关系的临床研究%Relationships between types of Uighur aphasia and the lesion in patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 席艳玲; 库尔班乃木·卡合曼; 张小宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析脑卒中后维吾尔语失语症类型与病变部位的关系.方法 选择符合入选标准的脑卒中后维吾尔语失语症患者52例,应用改良的失语检查法进行失语症的评定,并在入院后1w内完成头部CT或MRI检查.结果 52例患者中,运动性失语24例,完全性失语12例,命名性失语4例,基底节性失语4例,经皮质运动性失语4例,感觉性失语2例,混合性失语1例,经皮质感觉性失语1例.病变部位位于经典语言中枢的30例,占57.69%.结论 脑卒中后维吾尔语失语症类型与病变部位有一定关系,部分与经典的语言中枢一致.%Objective To analysis the relationship of types of Uighur aphasia and lesion locations in stroke patients. Methods 52 cases after stroke were selected on standard and their aphasia were assessed with Translated Aphasia Examination. They all finished CT or MRI scan in a week after onset. Results There were 24 cases of Broca aphasia, 12 cases of global aphasia,4 cases of anomic aphasia,4 cases of basel ganglion aphasia,4 cases of transcortical moter aphasia,2 cases of Wernicke aphasia, 1 case of mixed aphasia, 1 case of transcortical sensory aphasia. There were 30 cases, about 57.69% suffered lesion in the classical language centers. Conclusion Types of Uighur aphasia after stroke have something to do with the lesion locations. The lesion locations of Uighur aphasia ispartly accord with the classical language centers.

  12. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Semiologia das afasias: uma discussão crítica Semiology of aphasias: a critical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana do Carmo Novaes Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a semiologia das afasias, que teve início no século XIX com Broca e Wernicke. Não é nosso objetivo fornecer uma lista exaustiva de sintomas e síndromes para tratar do tema, já que buscamos discutir criticamente por que a semiologia das afasias ainda se baseia principalmente em perspectivas orgânicas na prática clínica e na pesquisa científica. Também discutimos as contribuições de Luria e de Jakobson para uma melhor compreensão de como a linguagem está comprometida nas afasias e como a Lingüística Moderna, sobretudo a Neurolingüística Discursiva, pode iluminar o debate. Analisamos alguns dados para ilustrar os pressupostos teóricos e metodológicos das referidas abordagens e discutimos ainda o peso excessivo que as classificações têm no contexto clínico.The article discusses the semiology of aphasias, which started being developed in the 19th century by Broca and Wernicke. We do not provide an exhaustive list of symptoms and syndromes to address the theme, since we aim to critically discuss why the semiology of aphasias is still based mainly on organic perspectives in clinical practice and scientific research. We also discuss the contributions of Luria and Jakobson to a better understanding of how language is affected in aphasias and how Modern Linguistics, in special the Discursive Neurolinguistics, may enlighten the debate. We analyze some data to illustrate the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the above mentioned approaches and also discuss the excessive strength that classifications have in the clinical context.

  14. Adult Structure and Development of the Human Fronto-Opercular Cerebral Cortex (Broca's Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judas, Milos; Cepanec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Broca's area encompasses opercular and triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, covered by Brodmann's areas 44 and 45, respectively. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that, in addition to classical language functions, Broca's area has novel and unexpected functions, serving as a likely interface of action and perception important for…

  15. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  16. White matter in aphasia: a historical review of the Dejerines' studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Heinz; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Jagella, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    The Objective was to describe the contributions of Joseph Jules Dejerine and his wife Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke to our understanding of cerebral association fiber tracts and language processing. The Dejerines (and not Constantin von Monakow) were the first to describe the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) as an association fiber tract uniting Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and a visual image center in the angular gyrus of a left hemispheric language zone. They were also the first to attribute language-related functions to the fasciculi occipito-frontalis (FOF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) after describing aphasia patients with degeneration of the SLF/AF, ILF, uncinate fasciculus (UF), and FOF. These fasciculi belong to a functional network known as the Dejerines' language zone, which exceeds the borders of the classically defined cortical language centers. The Dejerines provided the first descriptions of the anatomical pillars of present-day language models (such as the SLF/AF). Their anatomical descriptions of fasciculi in aphasia patients provided a foundation for our modern concept of the dorsal and ventral streams in language processing.

  17. 脑梗死后失语症类型与病变部位的关系%Relationship between the site of cerebral infarction induce-aphasia and aphasia types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨印东

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The location of cerebral infarction determines the onset and type of aphasia, but this relationship may fail to explain some clinical findings in these patients. The exact relationship between the type of aphasia and the locations remains to be fully unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the location of cerebral infarction and the type of aphasia.DESIGN: Case-controlled study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 98 patients admitted in the Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical University for aphasia secondly stroke between August 2003 and June 2004 were enrolled in this study, including 63 male and 35 female patients with the mean age of (68±4.56) years and disease course varying from 2-4 weeks.METHODS: Handedness evaluation was performed using the subtest of handedness in the Chinese aphasia test battery designed by the Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Beijing Medical University. Aphasia was classified on the basis of Western Aphasia Battery and evaluated for severity according to the grading criteria of Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. The patients received also CT and MRI examinations.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aphasia type and lesion site in pa-tients with cerebral infarction.RESULTS: Analysis was made according to the real data, all 98 cases entered into the result analysis. All the 98 aphasic patients were right-handed,with 21 patients having Broca's aphasia, 15 Wernicke's aphasia, 2 conduction aphasia, 8 transcortical motor aphasia, 7 transcortical sensory aphasia,12 transcortical mixed aphasia, 23 complete aphasia and 10 anomic aphasia. The lesion involved the classic language function area in 56 cases, and did not affect the language functional area in 38 cases. According to the grading criteria of Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, 28 patients were in grade 0, 30 in grade 1, 14 in grade 2, 16

  18. Computers in the treatment of chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    Computers and related technology can increase the amount of treatment received by adults with chronic aphasia. Computers used in treatment, however, are only valuable to the patient if the intervention is efficacious. Real and potential applications of computer technology are discussed in the context of three roles of computerized aphasia treatment for adults with chronic aphasia. Pertinent studies regarding Phases 1 and 2 are briefly described. The only Phase 3 study of efficacy of computerized aphasia treatment is more fully described and its implications discussed.

  19. [Psycholinguistic aspects of aphasia diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, R S

    1980-02-01

    A central goal of psycholinguistic research on the diagnosis and therapy of aphasic patients consists of the construction of a series of language tasks which a. can provide guidelines for the development of systematic therapy programs and b. are suited to the evaluation of the recovery process in aphasia, in particular the effectiveness of speech therapy. Since current aphasia tests fall short on both points, a number of requirements are discussed which an aphasia test should minimally meet in order to satisfy the above objectives. Some of these requirements are illustrated in the light of the preliminary results of the Amsterdam Aphasia Test (AAT).

  20. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra L; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. AIM: This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant's sentence production was also examined. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions-semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state

  1. Pragmatics in aphasia: crosslinguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfeck, B; Bates, E; Juarez, L; Opie, M; Friederici, A; MacWhinney, B; Zurif, E

    1989-01-01

    Previous research suggests that English Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics retain sensitivity to pragmatic factors governing forms of reference, in particular the ability to choose lexical expressions that convey givenness and newness of information. The present study investigates the generality of this phenomenon across patients and language types. Normal and aphasic speakers of English, German, and Italian described nine picture triplets in which one element varied while the others remained constant. Dependent variables included lexicalization versus ellipsis, pronominalization, and definite and indefinite article use. For a subset of German and Italian patients, data were compared to performance in a biographical interview. Results indicate that (a) the pragmatics of reference are preserved in both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics, despite syndrome-specific problems in retrieving content words and/or closed-class grammatical elements, and (b) certain language-specific patterns of reference are also preserved, including crosslinguistic differences in subject omission. Differences between picture description and the biographical interview reinforce this conclusion. Evidence for the preservation of pragmatics in aphasis is not surprising in its own right, but evidence for the sparing of language-specific relations among pragmatic, lexical, and morphosyntactic patterns can be used to argue against any strong view of grammatical impairment as a disconnection syndrome and/or a loss of grammatical competence. Instead, these data support theories in which grammatical impairment is viewed as a performance deficit.

  2. Clinicoanatomical correlation in stroke related aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Bohra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With advances in neuroimaging, traditional views regarding the clinicoanatomic correlation in stroke patients with aphasia are being challenged and it has been observed that lesions at a given cortical or subcortical site may manifest with different aphasia profiles. Aims: To study as to whether there is a strict clinicoanatomical correlation between the type of aphasia and lesion site in patients with first ever stroke. Settings and Design: Observational study, based in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Stroke patient′s ≥18 years of age were screened and those with first ever stroke and aphasia were subjected to a detailed stroke workup and language assessment using the Hindi version of Western Aphasia Battery (WAB. Statistical analysis was done with χ2 test with Yates correction and Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Overall aphasia was detected in 27.9% of the 260 screened cases with stroke. Amongst 60 cases with first ever stroke and aphasia, the aphasia type was: Global (33.33%, Broca′s (28.3%, transcortical motor (13.33%, transcortical sensory (10%, Wernicke′s (8.33%, anomic (5%, and conduction (1.67% aphasia. A definite correlation between the lesion site and the type of aphasia as per the traditional classification was observed in 35% cases only. Conclusions: No absolute correlation exists between the lesion site and the type of clinical aphasia syndrome in majority of the patients with cortical and subcortical stroke.

  3. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  4. An Aphasia Database on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Graf von Keyserlingk, Diedrich

    2000-01-01

    profiles are most similar to the user's input. This way lesion profiles can be compared to each other interindividually. The Aphasia Diagnoser is available on the Web address http://fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk/aphasia.nsf and thus should facilitate a discussion about the reliability and possibilities of data...

  5. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  6. 失语症%Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董瑞国; 高素荣

    2003-01-01

    @@ 失语症(aphasia)是因大脑损伤所致的获得性语言障碍,它可由多种脑部疾病引起,尤其是脑血管病,约1/3急性卒中患者会产生失语.了解失语症的特点和诊断,不仅有助于脑与语言的关系的研究,而且有助于为失语患者制定康复计划.

  7. Assessments in outcome evaluation in aphasia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, Jytte; Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outcomes of aphasia therapy in Denmark are documented in evaluation sessions in which both the person with aphasia and the speech-language therapist take part. The participants negotiate agreements on the results of therapy. By means of conversation analysis, we study how such agreements...... on therapy outcome are reached interactionally. The sequential analysis of 34 video recordings focuses on a recurrent method for reaching agreements in these outcome evaluation sessions. In and through a special sequence of conversational assessment it is claimed that the person with aphasia has certain...... communicative skills. Such claims are systematically substantiated by invoking examples of the person with aphasia performing this skill either outside or inside the therapeutic setting. Substantiation can be seen as a form of validation of the claim and thereby a basis is set for agreement. The findings...

  8. Let's Talk about Stroke and Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help the stroke survivor cope with feelings of frustration and depression. • Be patient with the person with ... provider. For example: How long will I need therapy? Will my aphasia go away? How can I ...

  9. Assessments in outcome evaluation in aphasia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, Jytte; Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    communicative skills. Such claims are systematically substantiated by invoking examples of the person with aphasia performing this skill either outside or inside the therapeutic setting. Substantiation can be seen as a form of validation of the claim and thereby a basis is set for agreement. The findings...... suggest that in this type of evaluation the requirements of producing a valid account in which the person with aphasia has been heard are being met....

  10. Parkinson's disease showing progressive conduction aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Kenji; Ono, Kenjiro; Harada, Hiromi; Shima, Keisuke; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop progressive dementia late in their clinical course. Dementia in PD is mostly related to neuropathological findings of extensive Lewy bodies (LBs), with or without the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Aphasia has been reported in patients with LB diseases with AD pathology; however, there have been no reports of typical PD patients developing progressive aphasia during their clinical course. We describe a female PD patient wh...

  11. The mirror neuron system and the strange case of Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Gabriella; Cabinio, Monia; Blasi, Valeria; Borroni, Paola; Iadanza, Antonella; Fava, Enrica; Fornia, Luca; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Falini, Andrea; Bello, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mirror neurons, originally described in the monkey premotor area F5, are embedded in a frontoparietal network for action execution and observation. A similar Mirror Neuron System (MNS) exists in humans, including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus. Controversial is the inclusion of Broca's area, as homologous to F5, a relevant issue in light of the mirror hypothesis of language evolution, which postulates a key role of Broca's area in action/speech perception/production. We assess "mirror" properties of this area by combining neuroimaging and intraoperative neurophysiological techniques. Our results show that Broca's area is minimally involved in action observation and has no motor output on hand or phonoarticulatory muscles, challenging its inclusion in the MNS. The presence of these functions in premotor BA6 makes this area the likely homologue of F5 suggesting that the MNS may be involved in the representation of articulatory rather than semantic components of speech.

  12. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  13. Corrections between the types of aphasia and lesion location in patients with stroke%失语症类型与病变部位的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈营; 李华

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Through types of aphasia and CT,MRI imagings, to analysis the relationship of types of aphasia and lesion location in stroke patients. Methods:The damdged lesion of 36 inpatients from sep 2012 to Mar 2014 in shihezi people of hospitcal, these patients carry out the western aphasia and grade criterion of the boston diagnostic sphasia and CT, MRI imagings. Result:From the western aphasia images , they are all skilled right hands.Of all 36 aphasia cases, there were 5 global aphasia cases, 13 Broca aphasia cases, 4 Wernicke aphasia cases,1 conduction aphasia cases,2 transcortical mix aphasia cases,2 transcortical sensory aphasia cases,3 transcortical motor aphasia cases and 6 anomic aphasia cases, 28 cases which damaged were located in classical language centres, 8 cases were located in other sites. From to grade criterion of the boston diagnostic sphasia 0,1,2,3,4 were 16,7,6,2,5 cases respectively ,1and 1 grade were disttributed in classical language centres. Conclusion:Between types of aphasia and lesion location in patients with stroke have some correction; Not classical languang of centres may lead to aphasia; A few language disorder of patients which are serious may in not classical language of centres.%目的:通过对脑梗死后失语症的类型分类及影像学检查,探究失语症类型与病变部位的相关性。方法:选取2012年9月-2014年3月在石河子市人民医院脑卒中单元住院并符合纳入标准的脑梗死患者36例,采用北京大学第一医院神经内科汉语失语检查法(ABC)的利手评定标准进行利手判定,运用西方失语成套测验(WAB)对失语进行分类,波士顿诊断性失语分级标准进行失语严重程度分级和影像学检查。结果:36例患者采用北京大学第一医院神经内科汉语失语检查(ABC)的利手评分标准均为右利手;失语症类型分为完全性失语5例,Broca失语13例,Wernicke失语4例,传导性失语1例,

  14. Modulation of N400 in chronic non-fluent aphasia using low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates associated with the application of rTMS through measurement of the semantic based N400 Event-related brain potentials (ERP) component. Low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS was applied to the anterior portion of the homologue to Broca's area (pars triangularis), for 20 min per day for 10 days, using a stereotactic neuronavigational system. Twelve non-fluent persons with aphasia, 2-6 years post stroke were stimulated. Six participants were randomly assigned to receive real stimulation and six participants were randomly assigned to receive a blind sham control condition. ERP measures were recorded at baseline, 1 week and 2 months subsequent to stimulation. The findings demonstrate treatment related changes observed in the stimulation group when compared to the placebo control group at 2 months post stimulation indicating neuromodulation of N400 as a result of rTMS. No treatment related changes were identified in the stimulation group, when compared to the sham group from baseline to 1 week post stimulation. The electrophysiological results represent the capacity of rTMS to modulate neural language networks and measures of lexical-semantic function in participants with non-fluent aphasia and suggest that time may be an important factor in brain reorganization subsequent to rTMS.

  15. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  16. Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methods can better help them recover word retrieval, grammar, prosody (tone), and other aspects of speech. Some ... question? Information specialists can answer your questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) ...

  17. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  18. Controle massal da broca-do-café com armadilhas de garrafa Pet vermelha em cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de armadilha de garrafa Pet vermelha contendo compostos voláteis alcoólicos atrativos, no controle massal da broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro lavouras de café, durante dois anos. Foram distribuídas 900 armadilhas de garrafa Pet, pintadas de vermelho, em três das quatro lavouras; uma lavoura sem armadilhas foi usada como controle. O broqueamento dos frutos (% foi determinado nessas lavouras. Houve redução do broqueamento de frutos nas lavouras com armadilhas, da safra 2007/2008 para a safra 2008/2009. As maiores densidades da broca-do-café nas armadilhas foram observadas nos estádios de floração e de frutos chumbinho. A armadilha de garrafa Pet vermelha é eficaz no controle massal da população da broca-do-café, por reduzir a percentagem de frutos broqueados em 57%; entretanto, essa redução não é suficiente para manter as densidades da broca abaixo do nível de controle.

  19. White matter integrity in the vicinity of Broca's area predicts grammar learning success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöel, Agnes; de Vries, Meinou H; Scholz, Jan; Breitenstein, Caterina; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2009-10-01

    Humans differ substantially in their ability to implicitly extract structural regularities from experience, as required for learning the grammar of a language. The mechanisms underlying this fundamental inter-individual difference, which may determine initial success in language learning, are incompletely understood. Here, we use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to determine white matter integrity around Broca's area, which is crucially involved in both natural and artificial language processing. Twelve young, right-handed individuals completed an artificial grammar learning task, and DTI of their brains were acquired. Inter-individual variability in performance correlated with white matter integrity (increasing fractional anisotropy (FA)) in fibres arising from Broca's area (left BA 44/45), but not from its right-hemispheric homologue. Variability in performance based on superficial familiarity did not show this association. Moreover, when Broca's area was used as a seed mask for probabilistic tractography, we found that mean FA values within the generated tracts was higher in subjects with better grammar learning. Our findings provide the first evidence that integrity of white matter fibre tracts arising from Broca's area is intimately linked with the ability to extract grammatical rules. The relevance of these findings for acquisition of a natural language has to be established in future studies.

  20. Speech-Associated Gestures, Broca's Area, and the Human Mirror System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Jeremy I.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    Speech-associated gestures are hand and arm movements that not only convey semantic information to listeners but are themselves actions. Broca's area has been assumed to play an important role both in semantic retrieval or selection (as part of a language comprehension system) and in action recognition (as part of a "mirror" or…

  1. Fractionated resection on low grade gliomas involving Broca's area and insights to brain plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-xing; PU Song; LIN Yi; WANG Yong-zhi; JIANG Tao; XIE Jian; WEI Miao; YI Xiao-li; WANG Xiao-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Resent advances on functional mapping have enabled us to conduct surgery on gliomas within the eloquent area. The objective of the article is to discuss the feasibility of a planned fractionated strategy of resection on low-grade gliomas (LGGs) involving Broca's area. We report the first surgical series of planned fractionated resections on LGGs within Broca's area, focusing on language functional reshaping.Methods Four patients were treated with fractionated operations for LGGs involving Broca's area. All cases underwent conventional magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, language functional MR and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before operation. The resections were then performed on patients under awake anesthesia using intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) for functional mapping. Pre- and post-operative neuro-psychological examinations were evaluated. Results Total resections were achieved in all cases as confirmed by the postoperative control MR. After transient language worsening, all patients recovered to normal3-6 months later.Language functional MR scannings have shown the operation.All patients retumed to a normal socioprofessional life.Conclusions By utilizing the dynamic interaction between brain plasticity and fractionated resections,we can totally remove the tumor involving Broca'S structure without inducing permanent postoperative deficits and even improve the qualityof life.

  2. Parkinson's disease showing progressive conduction aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenji; Ono, Kenjiro; Harada, Hiromi; Shima, Keisuke; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop progressive dementia late in their clinical course. Dementia in PD is mostly related to neuropathological findings of extensive Lewy bodies (LBs), with or without the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Aphasia has been reported in patients with LB diseases with AD pathology; however, there have been no reports of typical PD patients developing progressive aphasia during their clinical course. We describe a female PD patient who later developed progressive conduction aphasia characterized by phonemic paraphasia and disturbance in repetition of short sentences without disturbance in writing or auditory comprehension. No episodes of fluctuations of attention, memory complaints, or planning errors were observed. She experienced episodes of visual hallucination. Her low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination suggested impairment of orientation and attention, and her scores on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test indicated impaired visuospatial functions. However, her cognitive deficits were not sufficiently severe to impair her daily life. Brain magnetic resonance images revealed atrophy of the left superior temporal gyrus and widening of the left sylvian fissure. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed glucose hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere. These findings may be related to conduction aphasia. During the progression of PD lesions, the brainstem LB is assumed to take an upward course, extend to the limbic system, and then extend to the neocortex. Conduction aphasia observed in our patient may be associated with an unusual progression of the LB pathology from the brainstem to the left temporoparietal lobe.

  3. [Aphasia and related impairments pertaining to FTLD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    FTLD consists of three clinical types: behavioural variant FTD, progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and semantic dementia (SD). The latter two types manifest aphasia. Thus, it is quite important to pertinently assess the symptoms of aphasia and related impairments for diagnosis of FTLD. The most important point for diagnosis of PNFA is existence of anarthria/apraxia of speech, which is a focal symptom of the left prefrontal gyrus and underlying white matter. With the progression of the disease word generation and comprehension is deteriorating. SD shows Gogi aphasia when the lesion have predilection of left temporal lober atrophy. We investigated 28 patients without any antecedents causing speech/language impairments, who developed primary progressive aphasia. All the patients underwent a routine neurological and neuropsychological examinations and related symptoms such as orofacial apraxia, frontal lobe signs, dysphasia and so on were assessed. The results indicated that 20 patients were diagnosed as PNFA, and they were subdivided into three clinical groups. One group developed naming impairment and orofacial apraxia in several years after onset, and followed with various frontal symptoms. Another group showed anterior opereculum syndromes within two years after onset. The third group retained pure anarthria/apraxia of speech for many years without any other symptoms.

  4. [Crossed aphasia: description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Campello, A; Pascual Calvet, J; Munteis, E; Gomis, M; Serra, A; Pou, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new case of crossed aphasia in a right-handed patient with a right hemispheric lesion. A right-handed man, 76 year-old, developed a sudden left hemiparesis with sensitive impairment and mutism. He has neither family history of left handeness or ambidexterity or vascular risk factors. CT cerebral scan showed a large infarct of the middle cerebral artery on the right side, with haemorrhagic suffusion. Cerebral MRI and EEG-cartography confirmed the indemnity of the left hemisphere. Aphasia studies confirmed a mutism with spared verbal comprehension, but alexia was present. A year later, left hemiparesis was recovered but aphasia remained. Crossed aphasia is rarely seen. It is caused by a right hemispheric lesion in right-handed subjects. Fluency is most commonly impaired. At onset, mutism is the common symptom, which evolves to expressive aphasia. Several hypothesis have been raised about the possible mechanisms involved. The few number of PET or SPECT studies performed in these patients have disclosed extensive areas of hypometabolism in the right hemisphere, that exceed the size of the image observed with CT scan or MRI.

  5. A cortical-subcortical syntax pathway linking Broca's area and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Marc; Rosso, Charlotte; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Bloch, Isabelle; Brugières, Pierre; Duffau, Hugues; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial syntax has been shown to be underpinned by cortical key regions such as Broca's area and temporal cortices, and by subcortical structures such as the striatum. The cortical regions are connected via several cortico-to-cortical tracts impacting syntactic processing (e.g., the arcuate) but it remains unclear whether and how the striatum can be integrated into this cortex-centered syntax network. Here, we used a systematic stepwise approach to investigate the existence and syntactic function of an additional deep Broca-striatum pathway. We first asked 15 healthy controls and 12 patients with frontal/striatal lesions to perform three syntax tests. The results obtained were subjected to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to provide an anatomo-functional approximation of the pathway. The significant VLSM clusters were then overlapped with the probability maps of four cortico-cortical language tracts generated for 12 healthy participants (arcuate, extreme capsule fiber system, uncinate, aslant), including a probabilistic Broca-striatum tract. Finally, we carried out quantitative analyses of the relationship between the lesion load along the tracts and syntactic processing, by calculating tract-lesion overlap for each patient and analyzing the correlation with syntactic data. Our findings revealed a Broca-striatum tract linking BA45 with the left caudate head and overlapping with VLSM voxel clusters relating to complex syntax. The lesion load values for this tract were correlated with complex syntax scores, whereas no such correlation was observed for the other tracts. These results extend current syntax-network models, by adding a deep "Broca-caudate pathway," and are consistent with functional accounts of frontostriatal circuits.

  6. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  7. Shared neural substrates of apraxia and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg; Randerath, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Apraxia is regularly associated with aphasia, but there is controversy whether their co-occurrence is the expression of a common basic deficit or results from anatomical proximity of their neural substrates. However, neither aphasia nor apraxia is an indivisible entity. Both diagnoses embrace diverse manifestations that may occur more or less independently from each other. Thus, the question whether apraxia is always accompanied by aphasia may lead to conflicting answers depending on which of their manifestations are considered. We used voxel based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) for exploring communalities between lesion sites associated with aphasia and with apraxia. Linguistic impairment was assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT) subtests naming, comprehension, repetition, written language, and Token Test. Apraxia was examined for imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures and for pantomime of tool use. There were two areas of overlap between aphasia and apraxia. Lesions in the anterior temporal lobe interfered with pantomime of tool use and with all linguistic tests. In the left inferior parietal lobe there was a large area where lesions were associated with defective imitation of hand postures and with poor scores on written language and the Token Test. Within this large area there were also two spots in supramarginal and angular gyrus where lesions were also associated with defective pantomime. We speculate that the coincidence of language impairment and defective pantomime after anterior temporal lesions is due to impaired access to semantic memory. The combination of defective imitation of hand postures with poor scores on Token Test and written language is not easily compatible with a crucial role of parietal regions for the conversion of concepts of intended actions into motor commands. It accords better with a role of left inferior parietal lobe regions for the categorical perception of spatial relationships.

  8. Inner Speech in People with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hayward

    2014-05-01

    Here, we have demonstrated that subjective reports of IS are meaningful in at least some individuals with aphasia. Additional research is needed to confirm the degree to which self-reported IS accurately reflects phonological access, as well as to determine which processes of word retrieval and self-monitoring are needed for reliable insights into inner speech and how specific language deficits interact with these insights. Examining insight into IS could inform our understanding of the psychological and neural bases of word retrieval as well as provide a novel tool for early prognosis and individualized aphasia treatment.

  9. Aphasia after Stroke: the SPEAK Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. El Hachioui (Hanane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAphasia is a disorder of the production and comprehension of written and spoken language as a result of acquired brain damage. This damage is located in the dominant hemisphere, which is the left hemisphere for nearly all the right-handers and for about 70% of the left-handers. The evolv

  10. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  11. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  12. Special function of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Zhao; Kaihua Guo; Dongpei Li; Qunfang Yuan; Zhibin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+neu-rons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximately 53.6%of nestin+neurons were projected to the olfactory bulb and co-labeled with fast blue. A large number of nestin+neurons were not present in each region of the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Nestin+neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca showed obvious compensatory function. The number of nestin+neurons decreased to a minimum later than nestin-/ChAT+neurons in the medial sep-tum-diagonal band of Broca. The results suggest that nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a closer connection to olfactory bulb neurons. Nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a stronger tolerance to injury than Nestin-/ChAT+neurons. The difference between nestin+and nestin-/ChAT+neurons during the recovery process requires further investigations.

  13. A Multidimensional Review of Bilingual Aphasia as a Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia as a multifaceted language disorder associated with the complicated links between language and brain has been and is of interest and significance to the stream of research in different disciplines including neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive studies and language acquisition. Along with explorations into the manifestations of aphasia in monolingual speakers, bilingual aphasia has similarly become the most current form of this language disorder due to the rising number of bilingual speakers in recent decades all over the world and the probability of facing bilinguals suffering from this language deficit. To paint a picture of this multidimensional linguistic impairment and to get out of the labyrinth of aphasia and in particular bilingual aphasia, the present review study aims to provide a summary of aphasia-related studies in different contexts worldwide and run through the variables affecting the manifestations and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic speakers.

  14. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  15. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kunert

    Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  16. Measuring and inducing brain plasticity in chronic aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia caused by left hemisphere stroke. In a study that included 15 participants with aphasia who were compared to a group of 10 normal control subjects, w...

  17. Let's call it "aphasia": Rationales for eliminating the term "dysphasia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Linda; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Wallace, Sarah J; Rose, Tanya; Brady, Marian C; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Murray, Laura; Hallowell, Brooke

    2016-10-01

    Health professionals, researchers, and policy makers often consider the two terms aphasia and dysphasia to be synonymous. The aim of this article is to argue the merits of the exclusive use of the term aphasia and present a strategy for creating change through institutions such as the WHO-ICD. Our contention is that one term avoids confusion, speech-language pathologists prefer aphasia, scholarly publications indicate a preference for the term aphasia, stroke clinical guidelines indicate a preference for the term aphasia, consumer organizations use the title aphasia in their name and on their websites, and languages other than English use a term similar to aphasia. The use of the term dysphasia in the broader medical community may stem from the two terms being used interchangeably in the ICD10. Aphasia United http://www.shrs.uq.edu.au/aphasiaunited , an international movement for uniting the voice of all stakeholders in aphasia within an international context, will seek to eliminate the use of the term dysphasia.

  18. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Inés Ansaldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit.

  19. Quality of life in aphasia: Greek adaptation of the stroke and aphasia quality of life scale - 39 item (SAQOL-39)

    OpenAIRE

    Kartsona, A.; Hilari, K.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are becoming increasingly popular in evaluating health care interventions and services. The stroke and aphasia quality of life scale-39 item (SAQOL-39) is an English questionnaire that measures HRQL in people with aphasia. There is currently no measure to assess the HRQL of Greek-speaking people with aphasia. This study began the cross-cultural adaptation of the SAQOL-39 into Greek, by translating and linguistically validating the instrument...

  20. [Aphasia in practice--recent progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika

    2008-11-01

    In terms of practical view, the type of aphasia can be classified by four elementary symptoms: anarthria (apraxia of speech), phonemic paraphasia, word comprehension impairment, word finding difficulty. Each elementary symptom has been established by causative lesion: anarthria for lowed posterior part of the left precentral gyrus, phonemic paraphasia for the left marginal gyrus and underlying white matter, word comprehension impairment for the left middle frontal gyrus or the posterior part of superior and middle temporal gyrus (the area called Wernickle's area), word finding difficulty for the left inferior frontal gyrus or the left angular gyrus or the left posterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus. In addition to ordinary estimation of language some devised examination enables distinction of the symptoms due to frontal lesion and the symptom due to the posterior lesion. This methods taking advantage of the symptoms related apahasia is also useful for making diagnosis and knowing prognosis of progressive aphasia.

  1. AphasiaBank as BigData.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-02-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy.

  2. AphasiaBank as BigData

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2017-01-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy. PMID:26882361

  3. Baudelaire's aphasia: from poetry to cursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2007-01-01

    At 45 years of age, Charles Baudelaire suffered a left hemispheric stroke that left him with a right hemiplegia and severe aphasia. In this chapter, we investigate the nature of his symptoms, drawing mostly on his own and his contemporaries' correspondence. Before specifically examining his aphasia, we put the poet's life, work, and health in context, notably his tormented mind, his probable syphilitic infection and the intellectual milieu of 19th century France. The time when Baudelaire was struck with aphasia coincides with early discoveries and debates that centered on the nature and implications of this neurological disorder. Many of the questions raised at that time still await definitive answers. Here, we compare Baudelaire's language disorder with recent research that has shed new light on the poet's disease. Most interestingly, we explore the nature of his dramatic use of the expletive Cré nom!, which was the only word he was able to express. Finally, we discuss the links between disease and creativity and dismiss the frequent notion that Baudelaire, in the end, paid the price of his genius.

  4. Gesture recognition in patients with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniloff, J K; Noll, J D; Fristoe, M; Lloyd, L L

    1982-02-01

    This study focuses on the controversial issue of the integrity of gestural communication abilities in subjects with aphasia. To define the ability of subjects to interpret symbolic gestures, an Amer-Ind Recognition Test (ART) was developed which required no verbal response from the examiner or the subject. The relationships between impairment of Amer-Ind signal recognition and (a) severity of aphasia, (b) listening and talking abilities and (c) the type of response picture used were investigated. Whether subjects more often chose related foils than unrelated foils in a forced-choice format was also examined. Two training tests and the ART are described. Results from administration to 15 aphasic subjects indicated that: (a) all subjects performed equally well, regardless of their aphasia severity classification; (b) action picture recognition was related to listening ability; (c) action pictures were easier to identify than object pictures; and (d) on error responses, subjects overwhelmingly chose related over unrelated foils. The possibility that gestural abilities were relatively well preserved among the subjects tested, in the presence of a wide range of listening and talking deficits, is also discussed.

  5. You Don’t Say: Dynamic Aphasia, Another Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; McGinnis, Scott M.; Sapolsky, Daisy; Johnson, Keith; Searl, Meghan; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a language predominant neurodegenerative disorder that has three recognized variants: nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic. This report describes a 60-year-old man who presented with a progressive decline in verbal output that does not fit the currently accepted PPA subtypes. The patient exhibited a paucity of verbal output and impaired phonemic fluency with minimal associated language, cognitive, or behavioral deficits. Focal cortical thinning/hypometabolism of the left superior frontal region and a cerebrospinal fluid profile not consistent with Alzheimer’s disease pathology were identified. This case of isolated progressive dynamic aphasia extends the current boundaries of PPA diagnostic variants. PMID:23168447

  6. Time reference decoupled from tense in agrammatic and fluent aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Laura; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reference to an event's time frame can be accomplished through verb inflection. In agrammatic aphasia, a deficit in past time reference has been identified by Bastiaanse and colleagues (2011). In fluent aphasia, specific problems with this time frame (expressed by the past tense) have be

  7. Retrospective analysis of outcomes from two intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Carol; Wozniak, Linda; Kostopoulos, Ellina

    2013-01-01

    Positive outcomes from intensive therapy for individuals with aphasia have been reported in the literature. Little is known about the characteristics of individuals who attend intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and what factors may predict who makes clinically significant changes when attending such programs. Demographic data on participants from 6 ICAPs showed that individuals who attend these programs spanned the entire age range (from adolescence to late adulthood), but they generally tended to be middle-aged and predominantly male. Analysis of outcome data from 2 of these ICAPs found that age and gender were not significant predictors of improved outcome on measures of language ability or functional communication. However, time post onset was related to clinical improvement in functional communication as measured by the Communication Activities of Daily Living, second edition (CADL-2). In addition, for one sample, initial severity of aphasia was related to outcome on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised, such that individuals with more severe aphasia tended to show greater recovery compared to those with mild aphasia. Initial severity of aphasia also was highly correlated with changes in CADL-2 scores. These results suggest that adults of all ages with aphasia in either the acute or chronic phase of recovery can continue to show positive improvements in language ability and functional communication with intensive treatment.

  8. Aphasia friendly written health information: content and design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2011-08-01

    People with aphasia need communicatively accessible written health information. Healthcare providers require knowledge of how to develop printed education materials (PEMs) in formats that people with aphasia prefer and can read. This study aimed to explore formatting characteristics considered to be barriers and facilitators to reading PEMs. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 adults with aphasia who were selected using maximum variation sampling across aphasia severity, reading ability, and time post-stroke. Participants were shown stroke and aphasia PEMs obtained from the recruiting stroke services, asked to rank them from most liked to least liked, and comment on factors that made the PEMs easier and harder to read. The majority of participants ranked the aphasia friendly stroke (56.4%, n = 22) and aphasia (87.2%, n = 34) PEMs as most liked. Forty-five facilitator and 46 barrier codes were identified using qualitative content analysis and grouped into two categories; (1) content characteristics and (2) design characteristics. Findings support many of the recommendations found within the literature for developing best practice PEMs and accessible information for other patient groups. Routine consideration of the facilitators and barriers identified will contribute to making written information more accessible to people with aphasia.

  9. Renegotiation of Identity: The Social Context of Aphasia Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, Barbara B.; Agan, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses identity as it relates to aphasia and the resulting impact on life participation. The relationships among social identity, language, and social interaction are considered from the sociocultural perspective. Core social identity concepts are identified and used to examine the broad classifications of aphasia intervention.…

  10. A case of progressive aphasia without dementia: "temporal" Pick's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltens, P; Hazenberg, G J; Lindeboom, J; Valk, J; Wolters, E C

    1990-01-01

    We report a patient who suffered from progressive aphasia for nine years, before developing mild behavioural disturbances. Sequential computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging showed progressive bilateral temporal atrophy. The case is thought to be a temporal form of Pick's disease, in which isolated progressive aphasia was the only symptom over many years. Images PMID:2303835

  11. Brain Perfusion in Corticobasal Syndrome with Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Abe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain perfusion may differ between patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS with and without aphasia. Methods: Twenty-six (9 males and 17 females; mean age 76 ± 5.3 years patients with CBS were enrolled in the study. Brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in all subjects. Language was evaluated using the Standard Language Test of Aphasia. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of progressive aphasia. Differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF between the two groups were detected based on voxel-by-voxel group analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Results: All patients exhibited asymmetric motor symptoms and signs, including limb apraxia, bradykinesia, and akinetic rigidity. Of 26 patients, 9 had a clinically obvious language disturbance, characterized as nonfluent aphasia. Almost all CBS patients with aphasia exhibited cortical atrophy predominantly in the left frontal and temporal lobes with widening of the Sylvian fissure on MRI. The rCBF in the left middle frontal gyrus differed significantly between CBS patients with and without aphasia. Conclusion: CBS patients with aphasia exhibit motor symptoms predominantly on the right side and cortical atrophy mainly in the left perisylvian cortices. In particular, left frontal dysfunction might be related to nonfluent aphasia in CBS.

  12. International Patterns of the Public Awareness of Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Code, Chris; Papathanasiou, Ilias; Rubio-Bruno, Silvia; Cabana, María de la Paz; Villanueva, Maria Marta; Haaland-Johansen, Line; Prizl-Jakovac, Tatjana; Leko, Ana; Zemva, Nada; Patterson, Ruth; Berry, Richard; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Robert, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that public awareness of aphasia is vital for extending services, research support, social inclusion and targeted raising of awareness. Earlier studies show that knowledge of aphasia varies across a range of variables, but is very low compared with other conditions. Aims: To report a series of surveys of public…

  13. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a period

  14. Clinical and MRI models predicting amyloid deposition in progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Weigand, Stephen D; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition can be observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS). While it is typically associated with logopenic PPA, there are exceptions that make predicting Aβ status challenging based on clinical diagnosis alone. We aimed to determine whether MRI regional volumes or clinical data could help predict Aβ deposition. One hundred and thirty-nine PPA (n = 97; 15 agrammatic, 53 logopenic, 13 semantic and 16 unclassified) and PAOS (n = 42) subjects were prospectively recruited into a cross-sectional study and underwent speech/language assessments, 3.0 T MRI and C11-Pittsburgh Compound B PET. The presence of Aβ was determined using a 1.5 SUVR cut-point. Atlas-based parcellation was used to calculate gray matter volumes of 42 regions-of-interest across the brain. Penalized binary logistic regression was utilized to determine what combination of MRI regions, and what combination of speech and language tests, best predicts Aβ (+) status. The optimal MRI model and optimal clinical model both performed comparably in their ability to accurately classify subjects according to Aβ status. MRI accurately classified 81% of subjects using 14 regions. Small left superior temporal and inferior parietal volumes and large left Broca's area volumes were particularly predictive of Aβ (+) status. Clinical scores accurately classified 83% of subjects using 12 tests. Phonological errors and repetition deficits, and absence of agrammatism and motor speech deficits were particularly predictive of Aβ (+) status. In comparison, clinical diagnosis was able to accurately classify 89% of subjects. However, the MRI model performed well in predicting Aβ deposition in unclassified PPA. Clinical diagnosis provides optimum prediction of Aβ status at the group level, although regional MRI measurements and speech and language testing also performed well and could have advantages in predicting Aβ status in unclassified PPA subjects.

  15. Clinical and MRI models predicting amyloid deposition in progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Whitwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ deposition can be observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS. While it is typically associated with logopenic PPA, there are exceptions that make predicting Aβ status challenging based on clinical diagnosis alone. We aimed to determine whether MRI regional volumes or clinical data could help predict Aβ deposition. One hundred and thirty-nine PPA (n = 97; 15 agrammatic, 53 logopenic, 13 semantic and 16 unclassified and PAOS (n = 42 subjects were prospectively recruited into a cross-sectional study and underwent speech/language assessments, 3.0 T MRI and C11-Pittsburgh Compound B PET. The presence of Aβ was determined using a 1.5 SUVR cut-point. Atlas-based parcellation was used to calculate gray matter volumes of 42 regions-of-interest across the brain. Penalized binary logistic regression was utilized to determine what combination of MRI regions, and what combination of speech and language tests, best predicts Aβ (+ status. The optimal MRI model and optimal clinical model both performed comparably in their ability to accurately classify subjects according to Aβ status. MRI accurately classified 81% of subjects using 14 regions. Small left superior temporal and inferior parietal volumes and large left Broca's area volumes were particularly predictive of Aβ (+ status. Clinical scores accurately classified 83% of subjects using 12 tests. Phonological errors and repetition deficits, and absence of agrammatism and motor speech deficits were particularly predictive of Aβ (+ status. In comparison, clinical diagnosis was able to accurately classify 89% of subjects. However, the MRI model performed well in predicting Aβ deposition in unclassified PPA. Clinical diagnosis provides optimum prediction of Aβ status at the group level, although regional MRI measurements and speech and language testing also performed well and could have advantages in predicting Aβ status in unclassified

  16. The Third Man: Robert Dunn's (1799-1877) Contribution to Aphasia Research in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his medical career, Robert Dunn (1799-1877) published a number of clinical cases with postmortem reports involving acquired language disorders, with the first noted in 1842. He developed a physiologically informed approach to psychological function during the 1850s along with a group of notable colleagues Benjamin Collins Brodie, Henry Holland, Thomas Laycock, John Daniel Morell, and Daniel Noble. He was also active in ethnographic research on human origins and racial diversity. As such, Dunn represents an interesting player in the developing fields of neurology, psychology, and anthropology in England in the latter part of the nineteenth century. These various strands converged at the meeting of the British Association of the Advancement of Science in 1868, where Dunn shared the program of lectures on the cutting-edge topic of aphasia with Paul Broca (1824-1880) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911). Dunn's ideas developed over a longer time frame than his younger colleagues and as such represent a unique blending of concepts from the earlier work of Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828) and Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1798-1881) to the perspectives on language organization in the brain developed after 1861.

  17. Using conversation analysis to assess and treat people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeke, Suzanne; Maxim, Jane; Wilkinson, Ray

    2007-05-01

    This article gives an overview of the application to aphasia of conversation analysis (CA), a qualitative methodology for the analysis of recorded, naturally occurring talk produced in everyday human interaction. CA, like pragmatics, considers language use in context, but it differs from other analytical frameworks because the clinician is not making interpretations about how an aspect of language should be coded or judging whether an utterance is successful or adequate in terms of communication. We first outline the CA methodology before discussing its application to the assessment of aphasia, principally through the use of two published assessment tools. We then move on to illustrate applications of CA in the field of aphasia therapy by discussing two single case study interventions. Key conversation behaviors are illustrated with transcripts from interactions recorded by the person with aphasia and the person's habitual conversation partner in the home environment. Finally, we explore the implications of using CA as a tool for assessment and treatment in aphasia.

  18. Controle da ferrugem e da broca-dos-ramos da figueira com diferentes fungicidas e inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Júnior Mezzalira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperaturas e precipitações elevadas favorecem a incidência da ferrugem (Cerotelium fici(Cast. e da broca-dos-ramos (Azochis gripusalis (Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, limitando a produção comercial de figos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência de fungicidas e inseticidas alternativos em relação à de produtos convencionais registrados para a cultura. Foram realizados dois experimentos, no delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, no setor de fruticultura da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos. Para controle da ferrugem, foram utilizados, em 100 L de água, azoxistrobin (10 g, calda bordalesa (1.500 g de cal virgem + 1.500 g de sulfato de cobre e testemunha (água. No controle da broca-dos-ramos utilizaram-se, em 100 L de água, azadiractina (1.000 mL P.C., alho (Allium sativumL. (100 mL P.C., cinza (20.000 g, extrato de fumo (nicotina (10.000 mL do preparado, deltametrina (50 mL P.C., Bacillus thuringiensisBerliner (100 g P.C., rotenona (1.000 mL P.C., sabão de coco (1.000 g e testemunha (água. A calda bordalesa foi o tratamento mais efetivo no controle da ferrugem, promovendo aumento da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. A deltametrina promoveu o melhor controle da broca-dos-ramos da figueira. Entre os produtos alternativos testados, o alho foi o mais efetivo no controle dessa praga.

  19. Word finding deficitsin aphasia: diagnosis and treatment. Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jong-Hagelstein (Marjolein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAphasia Imagine finding yourself all of a sudden alone in a Chinese city and not speaking or understanding Chinese. How do you ask for the way or read the signs, buy food and other necessities, watch tv or listen to the news, let alone have a social conversation with someone? This though

  20. Clinical impression and western aphasia battery classification of aphasia in acute ischemic stroke: Is there a discrepancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aju Abraham John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language disturbance is a common symptom of stroke, a prompt identifier of the event, and can cause devastating cognitive impairments. There are many inconsistencies and discrepancies between the different methods used for its evaluation. The relationship between Western Aphasia Battery (WAB and a simple bedside clinical examination is not clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine if bedside clinical impression of aphasia type can reliably predict WAB classification of aphasia and to describe the discrepancies between them. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two consecutive cases of acute ischemic stroke and aphasia were evaluated with bedside aphasia assessment, handedness by Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and WAB scoring was done. Kappa statistics was used to find the overall agreement of clinical impression and WAB. Results: Disagreement was seen predominantly for the nonfluent aphasias when the clinical impression was compared with WAB classification. WAB also had diagnosed three cases as having anomic aphasia using taxonomic classification, but same cases had normal language by aphasia quotient scoring of WAB. There was an overall agreement of 63.4% between patient's bedside clinical impression and WAB classification of aphasia, with a P< 0.001. Conclusion: Clinical impression was fairly reliable, as compared to WAB in assessing the type of aphasia. Clinical impression was appropriate in an acute setting, but WAB was required to quantify the severity of deficit, which may help in accessing prognosis, monitoring progression, and rehabilitation planning. Along with WAB, a bedside clinical impression should be done for all the patients to strengthen the description of aphasic deficit.

  1. Prediction during sentence comprehension in aphasia

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    Michael Walsh Dickey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Much recent psycholinguistic work has focused on prediction in language comprehension (Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Federmeier, 2007; Levy, 2008. Unimpaired adults predict upcoming words and phrases based on material in the preceding context, like verbs (Altmann & Kamide, 1999 or constraining sentence contexts (Federmeier, 2007. Several models have tied rapid prediction to the language production system (Federmeier, 2007; Pickering & Garrod, 2013; Dell & Chang, 2014. Evidence for this link comes from that fact that older adults with lower verbal fluency show less predictive behavior (Federmeier, et al., 2010; DeLong, et al., 2012. Prediction in aphasic language comprehension has not been widely investigated, even though constraining sentence contexts are strongly facilitative for naming in aphasia (e.g., Love & Webb, 1977. Mack, et al. (2013 found in a visual-world task that people with aphasia (PWA do not predict upcoming objects based on verbs (cf. Altmann & Kamide, 1999. This finding suggests that prediction may be reduced in aphasia. However, it is unclear whether reduced prediction was caused by language-production impairments: all the PWA in their study had non-fluent aphasia. The current study examined whether PWA show evidence of prediction based on constraining sentence contexts (e.g., Federmeier, 2007. Specifically, it tested whether they exhibited facilitation for highly predictable words in reading, using materials that have previously demonstrated strong predictability effects for unimpaired adults (Rayner, et al., 2004. In addition, it tested whether differences in language-production ability among PWA accounted for differences in predictive behavior (viz. Pickering & Garrod, 2013; Dell & Chang, 2014. Eight PWA read sentences adapted from Rayner, et al. (2004 in a self-paced reading task. The materials crossed word frequency with predictability: high- vs. low-frequency words (bottle/diaper were preceded by contexts which made them

  2. The Aphasia Database On The Web

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    Axer, H.; Jantzen, Jan; Berks, G.;

    2000-01-01

    In aphasiology many inconsistencies exist in the definition and interpretation of aphasic syndromes. These syndromes are the co-occurrence of a set of symptoms. Thus, ambiguities in these clinical, aphasic categories are suited to be generalized to many problems of classification in medicine....... In this paper the aphasia database is launched as a model for data mining in medicine. Nominal and topological data about 265 aphasic patients is collected in this database, which is a model for benchmarking different methods of soft computing....

  3. Primary progressive aphasia: diagnosis, varieties, evolution.

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    Kertesz, Andrew; Davidson, Wilda; McCabe, Patricia; Takagi, Kenji; Munoz, David

    2003-07-01

    A referred cohort of 67 clinically defined PPA patients were compared to 99 AD patients with formal language and nonverbal cognitive tests in a case control design. Language fluency was determined at the first and last follow up visits. Quantitation of sulcal and ventricular atrophy on MRI was carried out in 46 PPA and 53 AD patients. Most PPA patients (57%) are relatively fluent when first examined. Visuospatial and memory functions are initially preserved. Aphemic, stuttering, "pure motor" presentation, or agrammatic aphasia are seen less frequently. Later most PPAs become logopenic and nonfluent, even those with semantic aphasia (dementia). In contrast, AD patients were more fluent and had relatively lower comprehension, but better overall language performance. MRI showed significant left sided atrophy in most PPA patients. Subsequent to PPA, 25 patients developed behavioral manifestations of frontotemporal dementia and 15 the corticobasal degeneration syndrome, indicating the substantial clinical overlap of these conditions. Language testing, particularly fluency scores supported by neuroimaging are helpful differentiating PPA from AD. The fluent-nonfluent dichotomy in PPA is mostly stage related. The aphemic-logopenic-agrammatic and semantic distinction is useful, but the outcomes converge.

  4. Decision Making Cognition in Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Szenkman, Daniela; Ibanez, Agustin; Richly, Pablo; Pose, Mariángeles; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to investigate the decision making profile of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) by assessing patients diagnosed with this disease (n = 10), patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 35), and matched controls (n = 14) using the Iowa Gambling Task, a widely used test that mimics real-life decision making. Participants were also evaluated with a complete neuropsychological battery. Patients with PPA were unable to adopt an advantageous strategy on the IGT, which resulted in a flat performance, different to that exhibited by both controls (who showed advantageous decision making) and bvFTD patients (who showed risk-appetitive behavior). The decision making profile of PPA patients was not associated with performance on language tasks and did not differ between sub-variants of the disease (namely, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia). Investigating decision making in PPA is crucial both from a theoretical perspective, as it can shed light about the way in which language interacts with other cognitive functions, as well as a clinical standpoint, as it could lead to a more objective detection of impairments of decision making deficits in this condition. PMID:22207422

  5. Processing of metaphors in transcortical motor aphasia

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    Renata Mancopes

    Full Text Available Abstract Great emphasis has been placed on the right hemisphere, due to its possible selective contribution, in the processing of metaphorical statements. Objectives: To describe the processing of metaphors in the case of a patient with transcortical motor aphasia, using specific tests for patients with encephalic injuries of the right hemisphere, and to contribute to the discussion on the inter-hemispheric relationships associated with this function. Methods: A 54 year-old man with transcortical motor aphasia was evaluated three years after a left hemisphere stroke. The tasks of comprehension of metaphors were based on the subtest Metaphor Comprehension Task of the Montreal Evaluation of Communications Scale (MEC. Two metaphor comprehension tests were applied, in 45-minute sessions with a 48 hour interval between each. Test 1 involved comprehension of the metaphors according to the options offered, and Test 2 the comprehension of metaphors measured by response time and visual field. Results: Although the right hemisphere was not affected by the stroke in this case, difficulties were observed in the processing of metaphors. Conclusions: This study suggests that the left hemisphere participates in the processing of figurative meanings. The adaptability of the brain can also re-accommodate the uninjured areas of the brain, causing the dynamic of the brain to be modified. As a result, deducing cerebral functions based on clinical data can be problematic. The value of this study is that it can contribute to clinical aspects of language rehabilitation.

  6. Alliteration and assonance in neologistic jargon aphasia.

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    Buckingham, H W; Avakian-Whitaker, H; Whitaker, H A

    1978-09-01

    This paper discusses certain aspects of the speech patterns of neologistic jargon aphasic patients, whose syndrome is one form of a more general classification referred to as Wernicke's or cortical sensory aphasia. The classical lesion site is in the posterior superior temporal convolution of the dominant hemisphere. Patients with such lesions typically have difficulties in the comprehension of auditory linguistic stimuli and their speech is often marked with neologistic jargon. A neologism is a phonological form produced by the patient for which one cannot recover with any reasonable degree of certainty some single item in the patient's vocabulary as it presumably existed before the onset of the disease. Specific analysis is focused on those stretches of speech which exhibit perseveration to the point where there is an excessive amount of alliteration and assonance. The data is described in terms of segments, syllables and sequences of syllables and related to both a mechanism underlying the production of this sort of speech and to the more general problems of neologisms in jargon aphasia.

  7. Decision Making Cognition in Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate the decision making profile of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA by assessing patients diagnosed with this disease (n = 10, patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 35, and matched controls (n = 14 using the Iowa Gambling Task, a widely used test that mimics real-life decision making. Participants were also evaluated with a complete neuropsychological battery. Patients with PPA were unable to adopt an advantageous strategy on the IGT, which resulted in a flat performance, different to that exhibited by both controls (who showed advantageous decision making and bvFTD patients (who showed risk-appetitive behavior. The decision making profile of PPA patients was not associated with performance on language tasks and did not differ between sub-variants of the disease (namely, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Investigating decision making in PPA is crucial both from a theoretical perspective, as it can shed light about the way in which language interacts with other cognitive functions, as well as a clinical standpoint, as it could lead to a more objective detection of impairments of decision making deficits in this condition.

  8. Implicit and explicit learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia.

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    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2014-06-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes.

  9. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

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    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. (National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

  10. Spelling Intervention in Post-Stroke Aphasia and Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Kyrana Tsapkini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spelling–a core language skill–is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA. We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant. Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual's therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease.

  11. Spelling intervention in post-stroke aphasia and primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Spelling - a core language skill - is commonly affected in neurological diseases such as stroke and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). We present two case studies of the same spelling therapy (learning of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences with help from key words) in two participants: one who had a stroke and one with PPA (logopenic variant). Our study highlights similarities and differences in the time course of each indivdual's therapy. The study evaluates the effectiveness and generalization of treatment in each case, i.e. whether the treatment affected the trained items and/or untrained items, and whether or not the treatment gains were maintained after the end of therapy. Both participants were able to learn associations between phonemes and graphemes as well as between phonemes and words. Reliable generalization to untrained words was shown only for the participant with post-stroke aphasia, but we were not able to test generalization to untrained words in the individual with PPA. The same spelling therapy followed a different time course in each case. The participant with post-stroke aphasia showed a lasting effect of improved spelling, but we were unable to assess maintenance of improvement in the participant with PPA. We discuss these differences in light of the underlying nature of each disease.

  12. Transient Crossed Aphasia: A Case Study with SPECT

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    José M. Ferro

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old right-handed man developed “crossed” anomie aphasia, neglect and inaccurate reaching of his left arm in both hemispaces due to a right parietal haemorrhage. Aphasia cleared in a few days. SPECT failed to demonstrate crossed left hemispheric diaschisis. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating patients in the acute stage and of coupling “static” and “functional” imaging methods when studying brain-behavior relationships.

  13. Apoplectic Aphasia Treated by Collaterals-Pricking and Bleeding Method

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    WANG Zhan-hui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Case Example The patient, male, 68 years old, had a sudden seizure of hemiplegia on the right body, deviation of the eye and mouth, aphasia and salivation after getting up in the morning, and was sent to the hospital immediately, and was diagnosed with cerebral infarction after examination and was treated upon diagnosis for over month. Hemiplegia in the limbs and deviation of the eye and mouth had been relieved, but aphasia was still there.

  14. A case of crossed aphasia with apraxia of speech

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    Yogesh Patidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apraxia of speech (AOS is a rare, but well-defined motor speech disorder. It is characterized by irregular articulatory errors, attempts of self-correction and persistent prosodic abnormalities. Similar to aphasia, AOS is also localized to the dominant cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of Crossed Aphasia with AOS in a 48-year-old right-handed man due to an ischemic infarct in right cerebral hemisphere.

  15. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

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    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.

  16. Probabilistic map of critical functional regions of the human cerebral cortex: Broca's area revisited.

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    Tate, Matthew C; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Tate, Joseph E; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-10-01

    The organization of basic functions of the human brain, particularly in the right hemisphere, remains poorly understood. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have improved our understanding of cortical organization but do not allow for direct interrogation or determination of essential (versus participatory) cortical regions. Direct cortical stimulation represents a unique opportunity to provide novel insights into the functional distribution of critical epicentres. Direct cortical stimulation (bipolar, 60 Hz, 1-ms pulse) was performed in 165 consecutive patients undergoing awake mapping for resection of low-grade gliomas. Tasks included motor, sensory, counting, and picture naming. Stimulation sites eliciting positive (sensory/motor) or negative (speech arrest, dysarthria, anomia, phonological and semantic paraphasias) findings were recorded and mapped onto a standard Montreal Neurological Institute brain atlas. Montreal Neurological Institute-space functional data were subjected to cluster analysis algorithms (K-means, partition around medioids, hierarchical Ward) to elucidate crucial network epicentres. Sensorimotor function was observed in the pre/post-central gyri as expected. Articulation epicentres were also found within the pre/post-central gyri. However, speech arrest localized to ventral premotor cortex, not the classical Broca's area. Anomia/paraphasia data demonstrated foci not only within classical Wernicke's area but also within the middle and inferior frontal gyri. We report the first bilateral probabilistic map for crucial cortical epicentres of human brain functions in the right and left hemispheres, including sensory, motor, and language (speech, articulation, phonology and semantics). These data challenge classical theories of brain organization (e.g. Broca's area as speech output region) and provide a distributed framework for future studies of neural networks.

  17. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

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    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  18. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

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    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  19. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

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    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  20. A systematic review of nursing rehabilitation of stroke patients with aphasia

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    Poslawsky, Irina; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra

    2010-01-01

    Patients with poststroke aphasia have higher mortality rates and worse functional outcome than patients without aphasia. Nurses are well aware of aphasia and the associated problems for patients with stroke because they have daily contact with them. The challenge is to provide evidence-based care di

  1. Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia

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    Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in…

  2. Effects of Sex, Age and Types of Stroke on Post-stroke Aphasia%性别、年龄、卒中类型与卒中后失语症类型的相关性分析

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    姚婧璠; 宋彦丽; 李磊; 周筠; 王春雪; 王拥军; 张玉梅

    2013-01-01

    龄、性别及卒中类型对卒中后失语症类型分布均无明显影响,男性卒中后失语发生率明显高于女性且患病平均年龄小于女性,两性中均以运动性失语最常见;除去女性脑出血患者外,均以运动性、完全性及命名性失语最常见。%Objective To explore the association between the types of aphasia and sex, age and stroke types. Methods Four hundred and twenty-one aphasiacs after stroke who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were admitted to Department of Neurology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University from July 2005 to July 2012 were restrospectively analyzed. The criteria of handedness instituted by Peking University First Hospital was used to judge patients' handedness. Western battery aphasia was used to assess the aphasiac type and calculate Aphasia Quotient (AQ) score. Patients were divided into youth, middle-aged and elderly groups, and stroke types include cerebral infraction (CI) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Finally we analyzed the types of aphasia in different ages, sex and stoke types. Results All subjects were dextromanual, in whom males and females accounted for 69.60%and 30.40%, respectively. The types of aphasia included Broca's aphasia (male 85, female 31), Wernicke's aphasia (male 20, female 15), conductive aphasia (male 10, female 5), transcortical motor aphasia (male 50, female 13), transcortical sensory aphasia (male 8, female 3), transcortical combined aphasia (male 13, female 14), anomic aphasia (male 47, female 26) and global aphasia (male 60, female 21). Male patients (69.60%) have a signiifcantly higher level of morbidity of aphasia than females (30.40%) after stroke (χ2=11.57, P=0.003), especially those under 65 years old (73.38%). After 65 years old, the morbidity of female tends to increase with age (42.97%). Sex has no remarkable effect on the types of aphasia (χ2=13.84, P=0.054), Broca's aphasia is the most common types in both males and

  3. Early activation of Broca's area in grammar processing as revealed by the syntactic mismatch negativity and distributed source analysis.

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    Hanna, Jeff; Mejias, Sandrine; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Van der Lely, Heather K J

    2014-01-01

    Though activation of Broca's region in the combinatorial processing of symbols (language, music) has been revealed by neurometabolic studies, most previous neurophysiological research found the earliest grammar indices in the temporal cortex, with inferior-frontal generators becoming active at relatively late stages. We use the attention- and task-free syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) event-related potential (ERP) to measure rapid and automatic sensitivity of the human brain to grammatical information in participants' native language (French). Further, sources underlying the MMN were estimated by applying the Parametrical Empirical Bayesian (PEB) approach, with the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) technique. Results showed reliable grammar-related activation focused on Broca's region already in the 150-190 ms time window, providing robust documentation of its involvement in the first stages of syntactic processing.

  4. Is Isolated Aphasia Associated with Atrial Fibrillation A Prospective Study

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    Carlijn P.A. Giesbers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A cardioembolic source, usually atrial fibrillation (AF, is detected in 14-30% of strokes. If AF is found, anticoagulation therapy provides a substantial decrease of the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic events. AF is often paroxysmal, and extensive diagnostic procedures may be necessary to detect it in patients. Considering cost-effectiveness and patient burden, however, not every suspected patient can be thoroughly screened. Therefore, the identification of risk factors for AF may be helpful. Previous studies have identified isolated aphasia as a risk factor for AF as the cause of the stroke. These studies, however, were performed with small population samples, in a retrospective setting or focused on a specific subtype of aphasia. The aim of this observational study is to prospectively evaluate whether there is a relation between isolated aphasia and AF as the cause of cerebrovascular ischemia. Methods: All patients admitted to the Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, the Netherlands, with cerebrovascular ischemia or transient ischemic attack in the period of August 2009 to March 2010 or October 2013 to January 2014 were included. The patients were evaluated by a neurologist and admitted to the Brain Care Unit for 24-48 h. Medical history, physical examination and diagnostic results were entered in a database. A diagnosis of isolated aphasia was assigned at admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Presence of AF was determined using a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG on admission and continuous ECG monitoring for 1-2 days. During admission, aphasia tests were done, notably the ScreeLing Test and the Boston Naming Test. Data were analyzed using Pearson's χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 347 patients were included, of which 115 (33.1% met the criteria for aphasia, with 26 (7.5% meeting the criteria

  5. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

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    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  6. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

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    Kirshner HS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Howard S KirshnerDepartment of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies.Keywords: FTD, behavior variant or frontal variant FTD, pick's disease, PPA, progressive nonfluent aphasia

  7. A Multimodal Communication Aid for Global Aphasia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Dalsgaard, Paul; Lindberg, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the basic rationale behind the development and testing of a multimodal communication aid especially designed for people suffering from global aphasia, and thus having severe expressive difficulties. The principle of the aid is to trigger patient associations by presenting...... various multimodal representations of communicative expressions. The aid can in this way be seen as a conceptual continuation of previous research within the field of communication aids based on uni-modal (pictorial) representations of communicative expressions. As patients suffering from global aphasia...... expressions can be used to support patients with global aphasia in communicating by means of short sentences with their surroundings. Only a limited evaluation is carried out, and as such no statistically significant results are obtained. The tests however indicate that the aid is capable of supporting...

  8. Degenerative Jargon Aphasia: Unusual Progression of Logopenic/Phonological Progressive Aphasia?

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    Paolo Caffarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary progressive aphasia (PPA corresponds to the gradual degeneration of language which can occur as nonfluent/agrammatic PPA, semantic variant PPA or logopenic variant PPA. We describe the clinical evolution of a patient with PPA presenting jargon aphasia as a late feature. At the onset of the disease (ten years ago the patient showed anomia and executive deficits, followed later on by phonemic paraphasias and neologisms, deficits in verbal short-term memory, naming, verbal and semantic fluency. At recent follow-up the patient developed an unintelligible jargon with both semantic and neologistic errors, as well as with severe deficit of comprehension which precluded any further neuropsychological assessment. Compared to healthy controls, FDG-PET showed a hypometabolism in the left angular and middle temporal gyri, precuneus, caudate, posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, and bilaterally in the superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri. The clinical and neuroimaging profile seems to support the hypothesis that the patient developed a late feature of logopenic variant PPA characterized by jargonaphasia and associated with superior temporal and parietal dysfunction.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG PERSONS WITH APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TASHKOVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aphasia is the most complicated and the most difficult form of disorder of speaking and language. Most often it appears as a consequence of a brain stroke. The occurrence of aphasias is in about one third of the patients suffering from a brain stroke in an acute phase, or from 21% to 24%, and there are data for even bigger frequency. In a certain number of patients the aphasia withdraws spontaneously, but in a bigger number of patients it takes over all four models of language activity; phoneme pronunciation, carrying out a discussion, writing a letter of a full text. It spreads from the automatic to the creative expression. The process of rehabilitation of the spoken communication at the persons with aphasia is complicated, multidisciplinary and long lasting.Around the World, a big accent is placed on the use of methods and strategies of alternative communication methods (AAK for the persons with aphasia. Although the augmentative and the AAK methods for the persons with aphasia are relatively novel in the speech therapy, their applicability deserves an attention as well as the fact that they are promising new paths for researching.The master thesis is written on 104 pages, which include 35 tables and 48 graphics, as well as a glossary with 114 biographical units. The content is divided into introduction, grounding theory and methodology of research. The introduction shows the meaning and the necessity for research of alternative methods in the therapy and the treatment of persons with aphasia. The section with the theoretical grounds contains several mutually connected chapters (parts. In methodology of research section are described the subject of the research, the aim and the character of the research. Further the text contains the tasks, hypothesis, research variables, methods and techniques of the research, as well as the sample and the organization of the research. The end of the section consist the analysis and interpretation of the

  10. APHASIA-EPILEPSY SINDROME LANDAU-KLEFFNER

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    Nada SIKIC

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the few past years the expert team in our institution identified five children with specific disorders in speech development caused by difficulties in understanding of speech.All children had normal psychophysical development up to three to four years of life, when speech disorders, very often entirely nonspecific, started. In some children the changes had been preceded by epileptic attacks either in vigilance or in sleep.Gradually speech expression lags behind, speech stops to be meaningful, it is not the result of child’s creativity but a series of learned schemes, sometimes related to current situation, so that in this period the environment very often does not detect the problem.Progressively behavior disturbance takes place as a result of incomprehension of verbal demands put upon a child. Parents usually start to suspect hearing impairment and this is the main reason for coming to our institution. Additional diagnostics confirmed the existence of non-specific disorder related to syndrome epilepsy-aphasia, whereupon medical treatment and rehabilitation started.

  11. Neural recruitment associated with anomia treatment in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow-Odom, Leigh; Moser, Dana; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the spatial distribution of cortical activity associated with anomia treatment in three persons with aphasia. Participants underwent three fMRI sessions before and after a period of intensive language treatment focused on object naming. The results revealed bilateral hemispheric recruitment associated with improved ability to name items targeted in treatment. This is the first study to employ multiple pre- and post-treatment fMRI sessions in the study of treatment-induced recovery from aphasia and has implications for future studies of brain plasticity in stroke.

  12. Deficits in Processing Case Markers in Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with aphasia demonstrated greater difficulties in the case marker assignment compared to their normal control group. Furthermore, noncanonical word-order and passive sentences elicited more errors on the task than canonical and active sentences. Passive sentences were the significant predictors for overall aphasia severity. The results suggested that PWA using a verb-final language with well-developed case-marking systems presented deficits in case marker processing. The syntactic structure and canonicity of word order need to be considered as critical linguistic features in testing their performance on dealing with case markers.

  13. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA.

  14. Elicitation of Specific Syntactic Structures in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…

  15. A Link Between Lexical Competition and Fluency in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Roxana Botezatu

    2014-04-01

    Results: Neurologically-intact controls exhibited the standard inhibitory effect of phonological neighborhood density: faster responses to words from low-density than high-density phonological neighborhoods (Estimate = 103.05, SE = 42.05, p = 0.014. For participants with aphasia, the effect of phonological neighborhood density was larger for those with lower fluency (χ2(1 = 3.95, p = 0.047; Figure 1, left panel, but was not modulated by overall aphasia severity (χ2(1 = 1.64, p = 0.2. Receptive vocabulary size also modulated the neighborhood density effect (χ2(1 = 7.93, p = 0.005, which was larger in participants with aphasia who had larger receptive vocabularies (Figure 1, right panel. The correlation between WAB Fluency and PPVT scores was not significant (r = -0.325, p = 0.257, indicating that the opposite effects of fluency and receptive vocabulary were not the same underlying pattern. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the view that fluency deficits in aphasia are a consequence of difficulty selecting among completing candidates – both in comprehension and in production. Furthermore, the fact that vocabulary size and fluency had opposite effects on sensitivity to neighborhood density indicates that the effect of fluency is not an effect of lexicon size.

  16. Script Training and Generalization for People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samantha; Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects and generalization of a modified script training intervention, delivered partly via videoconferencing, on dialogue scripts that were produced by 2 individuals with aphasia. Method: Each participant was trained on 2 personally relevant scripts. Intervention sessions occurred 3 times per week, with a combination of…

  17. Script Templates: A Practical Approach to Script Training in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rosalind C.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Script training for aphasia involves repeated practice of relevant phrases and sentences that, when mastered, can potentially be used in other communicative situations. Although an increasingly popular approach, script development can be time-consuming. We provide a detailed summary of the evidence supporting this approach. We then…

  18. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  19. Conditional and future tense impairment in non-fluent aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rofes, Adrià; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background:Morphological errors of tense and agreement are salient in agrammatic aphasia. The PADILIH predicts impairments in discourse linking that translate to greater difficulties in referring to a past event time than to a future or a present event time. In Catalan, the Periphrastic conditional...

  20. Gesturing by speakers with aphasia: How does it compare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mol (Linda); E. Krahmer (Emiel); W.M.E. van de Sandt-Koenderman (Mieke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can besemantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture

  1. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

  2. Donnees linguistiques, communication et aphasie (Linguistic Assumptions, Communication and Aphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand-Gelber, Regine

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses communication as a subject of psycholinguistic study, with reference to amnesiacal aphasia. The aphasic's problem is presented as a rupture of the communicative act, on the linguistic as well as on the extra-linguistic level. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  3. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

  4. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia…

  5. Patterns of Dysgraphia in Primary Progressive Aphasia Compared to Post-Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke. Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task. These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling.

  6. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  7. Interconnection and synchronization of neuronal populations in the mouse medial septum/diagonal band of Broca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Richardson N; Targino, Zé H; Colom, Luis V; Fisahn, André

    2015-02-01

    The medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) is crucial for hippocampal theta rhythm generation (4-12 Hz). However, the mechanisms behind theta rhythmogenesis are still under debate. The MS/DBB consists, in its majority, of three neuronal populations that use acetylcholine, GABA, or glutamate as neurotransmitter. While the firing patterns of septal neurons enable the MS/DBB to generate rhythmic output critical for the generation of the hippocampal theta rhythm, the ability to synchronize these action potentials is dependent on the interconnectivity between the three major MS/DBB neuronal populations, yet little is known about intraseptal connections. Here we assessed the connectivity between pairs of MS/DBB neurons with paired patch-clamp recordings. We found that glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons provide intraseptal connections and produce sizable currents in MS/DBB postsynaptic cells. We also analyzed linear and nonlinear relationships between the action potentials fired by pairs of neurons belonging to various MS/DBB neuronal populations. Our results show that while the synchrony index for action potential firing was significantly higher in pairs of GABAergic neurons, coherence of action potential firing in the theta range was similarly low in all pairs analyzed. Recurrence analysis demonstrated that individual action potentials were more recurrent in cholinergic neurons than in other cell types. Implementing sparse connectivity in a computer model of the MS/DBB network reproduced our experimental data. We conclude that the interplay between the intrinsic membrane properties of different MS/DBB neuronal populations and the connectivity among these populations underlie the ability of the MS/DBB network to critically contribute to hippocampal theta rhythmogenesis.

  8. Characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yating Kong; Xifeng Pan; Qimei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to stroke, subcortical aphasia, basal ganglia aphasia and language rehabilitation published in Chinese from January 1988 to December 2005 were searched in Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) using the keywords of"stroke, basal ganglia aphasia, language rehabilitation" in Chinese. Meanwhile, English articles about aphasia published from January 1982 to December 2005 were searched in and Pubmed database. Besides, several books associated with the contents were looked through manually.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, the articles about the pathomechanism and neurolinguistic characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, diagnostic methods of aphasia and language rehabilitation were selected, and those had no obvious relation with the above contents were excluded.Inclusive criteria: literatures explain the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, neurolinguistic pathogenesis and methods of rehabilitation therapy in details. The repetitive studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 95 literatures about basal ganglia aphasia were collected, including 31 about the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, 45 about its neurolinguistic pathogenesis, 5 about the evaluation and classification of aphasia, and 14 about its rehabilitation therapy. Thirty accorded with the inclusive criteria were used for review, and the other 65 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: Concisely introduced the definition, past investigation of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke, then dwelled on the multiplicity neurolinguistics characteristics. Aphasia evaluation was dependent upon clinical aphasic symptoms. The relationship between symptom and focus of infection was explored, and the mechanism of pathosis language behavior on basal ganglia aphasia patients was understood to provide consequence data that could

  9. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials.

  10. The effectiveness of Speech-Music Therapy for Aphasia (SMTA) in five speakers with Apraxia of Speech and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, Joost; Jonkers, Roel; de Bruijn, Madeleen; Boonstra, Anne M.; Hartman, Paul P.; Arendzen, Hans; Reinders - Messelink, Heelen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies using musical elements in the treatment of neurological language and speech disorders have reported improvement of speech production. One such programme, Speech-Music Therapy for Aphasia (SMTA), integrates speech therapy and music therapy (MT) to treat the individual with

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with Mixed Transcortical Aphasia: Insights into Echolalia

    OpenAIRE

    S. E. McPherson; J. D. Kuratani; Cummings, J L.; J. Shih; Mischel, P. S.; Vinters, H V

    1994-01-01

    Aphasia is a common manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and investigation of the linguistic disorders of CJD patients may provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of language and aphasia. We report an autopsy-confirmed case of CJD in which the presenting symptom was change in language abilities. The patient ultimately evidenced mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA) with echolalia. Disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits with environmental dependency accounts for the s...

  12. An Analysis of the Characteristics of Aphasia Caused by The Thalamic Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Chongxia

    2000-01-01

    The aphasia of 21 patients with thalamic stroke was din ically classified and analysed with the method of standard Chinese aphasic test, and the possible relationship between the thalamic damage and aphasia was discussed. The results showed that the notable characteris tics of the aphasia caused by thalamic stroke was subcortical aphasia and the language dominance of thalamus mainly located at the left side, but the right side of thalamus was also involved with language. The data in dicated that the thalamus is a constituent part in nervous network of lan guage.

  13. Brain stimulation over Broca's area differentially modulates naming skills in neurotypical adults and individuals with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Agosta, Sara; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that, in subjects with Asperger's syndrome (ASP), the dynamics of language-related regions might be abnormal, so that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over Broca's area leads to differential behavioral effects as seen in neurotypical controls. We conducted a five-stimulation-site, double-blind, multiple crossover, pseudo-randomized, sham-controlled study in 10 individuals with ASP and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Object naming was assessed before and after low-frequency rTMS of the left pars opercularis, left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis and right pars triangularis, and sham stimulation, as guided stereotaxically by each individual's brain magnetic resonance imaging. In ASP participants, naming improved after rTMS of the left pars triangularis as compared with sham stimulation, whereas rTMS of the adjacent left opercularis lengthened naming latency. In healthy subjects, stimulation of parts of Broca's area did not lead to significant changes in naming skills, consistent with published data. Overall, these findings support our hypothesis of abnormal language neural network dynamics in individuals with ASP. From a methodological point of view, this work illustrates the use of rTMS to study the dynamics of brain-behavior relations by revealing the differential behavioral impact of non-invasive brain stimulation in a neuropsychiatric disorder.

  14. Change in connection between corticospinal tract and Broca's area during motor recovery in a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeok Gyu Kwon; Sung Ho Jang

    2011-01-01

    The present study reported a 42-year-old male patient who underwent conservative management for a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the left corona radiata and the basal ganglia. The patient presented with complete weakness of the right upper and lower extremities at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage; however, he showed progressive motor recovery to the level that he was able to extent the affected extremities against some resistance at 5 weeks after onset. The corticospinal tract of the affected (left) hemisphere connected to the left Broca's area at 3 weeks after onset as shown by diffusion tensor tractography. By contrast, this connection had disappeared at 5 weeks after onset as shown by diffusion tensor tractogaphy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation study showed that no motor evoked potential was elicited from the affected (left) hemisphere at 3 weeks after onset, but motor evoked potentials were elicited at 5 weeks after onset. These findings suggest that the connection between the injured corticospinal tract and Broca's area in this patient appears to be a compensation for severe motor weakness; consequently, the connection seems to disappear with motor recovery.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of fMRI During Nonverbal Semantic Decisions in Moderate-Severe Nonfluent Aphasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie Kurland

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical reorganization in poststroke aphasia is not well understood. Few studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in severe aphasia patients, who are typically viewed as having a poor prognosis for language recovery. Although test-retest reliability is routinely demonstrated during collection of language data in single-subject aphasia research, this is rarely examined in fMRI studies investigating the underlying neural mechanisms in aphasia recovery.

  16. Living successfully with aphasia: a qualitative meta-analysis of the perspectives of individuals with aphasia, family members, and speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyla; Worrall, Linda E; Davidson, Bronwyn; Howe, Tami

    2012-04-01

    The concept of living successfully with aphasia has recently emerged as an alternative to more traditional "deficit" models in aphasiology, encouraging a focus on positive rather than negative outcomes. This research aimed to integrate findings from studies exploring the perspectives of three participant groups (individuals with aphasia, speech-language pathologists, and family members) about living successfully with aphasia. Qualitative meta-analysis of three studies conducted by the authors was used to integrate perspectives across the participant groups. Steps in the qualitative meta-analysis were based on those described in the process of "meta-ethnography" by Noblit and Hare (1988) . Analysis was an inductive process, in which data from each study were re-analysed and translated into each other in order to identify higher-level overarching themes that accounted for similarities and discrepancies across the original studies. A total of seven overarching themes related to living successfully with aphasia were identified. These were: participation, meaningful relationships, support, communication, positivity, independence and autonomy, and living successfully with aphasia as a journey over time. Findings indicate the need for a holistic, client-centred approach that considers communication in the broader context of an individual's daily life. The overarching themes may act as guides for areas of importance to be addressed in clinical practice, as well as in future research. By working in partnership with individuals with aphasia and their families, speech-language pathologists are challenged to continue to improve services and assist clients on their journey of living successfully with aphasia.

  17. REVIEW OF A CASE OF CHILD WITH ACQUIRED APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana FILIPOVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieved children speech disabilities are manifested at certain level of development of speech from the age of 3 to 12 years. The speech disabilities with children from the age of one to three years have developmental and acquired characteristics. It is well-known when and why the disabilities occurr at acquired aphasia or disphasia.The child with acquired aphasia or disphasia has early brain impairements and a relative improvement happens with adequate treatment and prompt rehabilitation treatment. It is more obvious with children than with adults.This fast and complete rehabilitation happens due to the plastic character of child’s brain and the possibilities for intro-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere reorganization of speech functions in childhood.

  18. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voos, J A [Clinical Engineering R and D Center, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Vigliecca, N S [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E A [Clinical Engineering R and D Center, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  19. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  20. The Classification of Aphasia%失语症的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Ha-kyung[韩国; 刘巧云; 周谢玲; 周文苑; 万勤

    2013-01-01

      目前,学术界对失语症的分类问题仍有不少争议,但以解剖-临床为基础将失语症分为Broca失语、Wernicke失语、传导性失语、经皮质运动性失语、经皮质感觉性失语、经皮质混合性失语、完全性失语和命名性失语8种的分类法是被广为认可的。本文以此分类方法为理论基础,重点介绍了失语症患者在自发性言语、命名、复述、听觉理解、阅读、书写等方面的临床表现,以及如何通过相应测试考察失语症患者以上能力,从而对其进行鉴别和分类。%Nowadays, there is a controversy concerning the classification of aphasia. On the anatomical and clinical basis, aphasia is divided into 8 categories, including Broca’s aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia, mixed transcortical aphasia, global aphasia and anomic aphasia. This paper introduces the clinical symptoms of aphasic patients in spontaneous speech, naming, repetition, auditory comprehension, reading and writing and discusses how to test these abilities though relevant examinations, based on which, the aphasia is classified and differentiated.

  1. Computerized assessment of the acoustics of primary progressive aphasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jalvingh, Fedor; Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    There are two variants of fronto-temporal dementia: a behavioral variant (behavioral FTD, bvFTD, Neary et al. (1998)), which causes changes in behavior and personality but leaves syntax, phonology and semantics relatively intact, and a variant that causes impairments in the language processing system (Primary Progessive Aphasia, PPA (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2004). PPA can be subdivided into subtypes fluent (fluent but empty speech, comprehension of word meaning is affected / `semantic dementia'...

  2. Framing ideas in aphasia: the need for thinking therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that some of the patterns seen in aphasia may reflect difficulties in the cognitive preparations for language. In particular, some individuals might be unable to carry out processes of 'Thinking for Speaking' (Slobin 1996), which frame thoughts for language production. Evidence to support this proposal is presented, together with signs that such thinking can be assisted with cues and therapy. It is argued that these preliminary data need to be pursued via a more comprehensive investigation of thinking therapy.

  3. Study of conduction aphasia by positron emission tomography

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    Shoji, Mikio; Harigawa, Yasuo; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Hirai, Shunsaku; Tamada, Junpei.

    1988-04-01

    We reported two cases of conduction aphasia with distinctive language disorder from early stage of stroke, as well as their cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption investigated with PET. The case was a 72-year-old right handed man whose speech disturbance began acutely. On admission, neurological examination revealed hand pronation sign on the right and speech disturbance. Other neurological findings including cortical functions were normal. Brain CT scan showed low density area in the white matter of the left supramarginal gyrus. The diagnosis was cerebral infarction. The case 2 was a 64-year-old right handed man. He suffered right hemiparesis 2 months before. Neurological examination revealed mild right hemiparesis and speech disturbance. Other cortical functions were noncontributory. Brain CT scan showed old subcortical infarction of the left frontal lobe and new cerebral infarction. with supramarginal gyrus. The low density area of the supramarginal cortex extended into the subcortical white matter. The language performances in these two cases were similar. Two patients were definitely fluent, but the verbal output was contaminated by paraphasias which were predominantly literal. They performed poorly when attempting to repeat despite good comprehension. Thus, the primary characteristics of conduction aphasia were present. PET studies resulted as follows. 1) rCBF reduced 36 % in the supramarginal cortex, 50 % in the white matter. 2) rCMRO/sub 2/ reduced 37 % in the supramarginal cortex, 45 % in the white matter. 3) The CBF and the CMRO/sub 2/ images indicated that cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption reduced in wider range of area than that shown by brain CT. These results indicated that not only the cortex but also the white matter were damaged in conduction aphasia and several methods including PET should be used to determine the locus of abnormality in conduction aphasia.

  4. Primary progressive aphasia: A dementia of the language network

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    Marsel Mesulam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer's disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician's task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions.

  5. A Study of Aphasia in“A Rose for Emily”

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    LUO Chun-fang; HU Ge

    2016-01-01

    “A Rose for Emily”is a famous short story, whose author is the 1949 Nobel Prize Winner William Faulkner. Influ-enced by his family and southern culture, his works are full of southern sense of humor. He describes many southern sensitive is-sues, such as the relation and the conflicts between the white and the black. Therefore, he depicts a lot of vivid images of south-ern people. Based on the southern society after American Civil War, Faulkner tells a miserable story of Miss Emily. Over these years, many experts and scholars have discussed“A Rose for Emily”from different aspects, such as the Gothic writing style, symbolism, character analysis and feminism, which made readers have a deep understanding on this story. However, related anal-ysis on Emily’s aphasia is rare. Therefore, combined with the theory of feminism and Foucault’s power discourse theory, the causes of Miss Emily’s aphasia and other people’s silence will be discussed. It mainly studies Emily’s aphasia from aspects of patriarchal oppression and southern aristocratic culture, revealing the primary cause of Emily’s tragedy is her loss of power to speak.

  6. Direct and indirect speech in aphasia : studies of spoken discourse production and comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke

    2015-01-01

    Speakers with aphasia (a language impairment due to acquired brain damage) have difficulty processing grammatically complex sentences. In this dissertation we study the processing of direct speech constructions (e.g., John said: “I have to leave”) by people with and without aphasia. First, we study

  7. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  8. Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Miranda L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

  9. Facilitating the participation of people with aphasia in research : a description of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalemans, R.; Wade, D.T.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Witte, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia are often excluded from research because of their communication impairments, especially when an investigation into the communication impairment is not the primary goal. In our research concerning social participation of people with aphasia, we wanted to include people

  10. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  11. White matter disease correlates with lexical retrieval deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Powers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia to measures of lexical retrieval.Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (n=11 and logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (n=13 patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n=34. Fractional anisotropy was calculated and analyzed using a white matter tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to fractional anisotropy and determine regions of reduced fractional anisotropy in patients. Results: We found widespread fractional anisotropy reductions in white matter for both variants of primary progressive aphasia. Fractional anisotropy was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Conclusions: Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the white matter disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval.

  12. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  13. Patterns of Dysfunction in Schizophrenic Patients on an Aphasia Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSimoni, Frank G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study comparing schizophrenic language performance with the language performance profiles characteristic of aphasia, apraxia of speech, generalized intellectual impairment, and confused language, 27 schizophrenic patients (20 to 67 years old) were tested with an aphasia test battery. (Author/IM)

  14. Impact of Personal Relevance and Contextualization on Word-Picture Matching by People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Miechelle L.; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; Beukelman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of personal relevance and contextualization of images on the preferences and word-picture matching accuracy of people with severe aphasia. Method: Eight adults with aphasia performed 2 experimental tasks to reveal their preferences and accuracy during word-picture matching. The researchers used 3 types of visual…

  15. Words in Action: retrieval errors in aphasia, a topic for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Visch-Brink (Evy)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAn aphasia is defined as an acquired impairment of language based on brain damage (Benson & Ardila 1996). All modes of language use may be involved: spontaneous speech, writing and comprehension of written and spoken language. Therefore, aphasia is labelled as a supramodal language disor

  16. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  17. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  18. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  19. Comparing Linguistic Complexity and Efficiency in Conversations from Stimulation and Conversation Therapy in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Meghan C.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Efficacy studies have demonstrated the benefit of group conversation therapy for a person with aphasia (PWA). However, a PWA typically participates in individual therapy prior to group therapy. Stimulation therapy (ST) is the most common type of individual aphasia therapy. Ultimately, the outcome of therapy is to enable the PWA to…

  20. Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included.

  1. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  2. Processing distinct linguistic information types in working memory in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Downey, Ryan A; Gravier, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2007-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have suggested that adults with aphasia present with a working memory deficit that may contribute to their language-processing difficulties. Working memory capacity has been conceptualised as a single "resource" pool for attentional, linguistic, and other executive processing-alternatively, it has been suggested that there may be separate working memory abilities for different types of linguistic information. A challenge in this line of research is developing an appropriate measure of working memory ability in adults with aphasia. One candidate measure of working memory ability that may be appropriate for this population is the n-back task. By manipulating stimulus type, the n-back task may be appropriate for tapping linguistic-specific working memory abilities. AIMS: The purposes of this study were (a) to measure working memory ability in adults with aphasia for processing specific types of linguistic information, and (b) to examine whether a relationship exists between participants' performance on working memory and auditory comprehension measures. METHOD #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Nine adults with aphasia participated in the study. Participants completed three n-back tasks, each tapping different types of linguistic information. They included the PhonoBack (phonological level), SemBack (semantic level), and SynBack (syntactic level). For all tasks, two n-back levels were administered: a 1-back and 2-back. Each level contained 20 target items; accuracy was recorded by stimulus presentation software. The Subject-relative, Object-relative, Active, Passive Test of Syntactic Complexity (SOAP) was the syntactic sentence comprehension task administered to all participants. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Participants' performance declined as n-back task difficulty increased. Overall, participants performed better on the SemBack than PhonoBack and SynBack tasks, but the differences were not statistically significant. Finally

  3. C-Speak Aphasia alternative communication program for people with severe aphasia: importance of executive functioning and semantic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients' ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: (1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and (2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the 10 participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment was also examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response.

  4. Penicibrocazines A–E, Five New Sulfide Diketopiperazines from the Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium brocae

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    Ling-Hong Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A–E (1–5, along with a known congener (6, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data and the structures of compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2–6 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/mL.

  5. Penicibrocazines A-E, five new sulfide diketopiperazines from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium brocae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-01-07

    Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A-E (1-5), along with a known congener (6), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data and the structures of compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2-6 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/mL.

  6. Transcortical Motor Aphasia in Recovery: A Case Report

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    Jacqueline Stark

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The symptomatology of transcortical motor aphasia (TMA or dynamic aphasia (Luria & Tsvetkova, 1970 allows the clinician to investigate “the particularly interesting stage in transition from initial thought to final verbal expression” and “to study in pure form the lack of speech initiative” (Rubens, 1976,p. 302. The symptoms described in the literature include: difficulty initiating speech, limited spontaneous speech, intact repetition, good auditory comprehension. In contrast, agrammatic sentence production is associated with Broca’s aphasia. Language data from a participant presenting with TMA and also agrammatic symptoms who showed a good recovery are analyzed. The aim of this presentation is to tease apart the observed language features to arrive at a better understanding of the nature of specific symptoms and their impact on language processing. Methods Participant GS: a 17-year-old carpenter’s apprentice, suffered a massive stroke. A complete occlusion of the left anterior-cerebral-artery was diagnosed. Procedure From 4 weeks to 10 months post onset GS was administered standardized language tests and tasks covering all linguistic levels. A matched control person (MH was also tested. Results Selected results and examples are given in Table 1. GS’s initiation of spontaneously produced speech is captured by his slow rate of production and verbal output for texts in comparison to control MH. As shown in Table 1, specific syntactic features showed impairment. At six months his aphasia had evolved into a mild impairment. Discussion The utterances produced by a classical TMA patient are usually grammatical. In part, this applies to G.S. However, he also reveals the following difficulties: simplification of syntactic structure, substitutions and omissions of articles, frequent omission of prepositions, verb agreement and selection errors, and reversal of subject and object noun phrases various sentence and discourse

  7. [Transcortical aphasia and echolalia; problems of speech initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Környey, E

    1975-05-01

    Transcortical aphasia accompanied by echolalia occurs with malacias involving the postero-median part of the frontal lobe which includes the supplementary motor field of Penfield and is nourished by the anterior cerebral artery. The syndrome manifests itself in such cases even in fine detials in the same form as does in Pick's atrophy. The same also holds true for cases in which a tumour involves the region mentioned. Sentences or fragments of sentences are echolalised; tendency to perseveration is very marked. It is hardly, if at all, possible to evaluate the verbal understanding of these patients. Analysis of their behaviour supports the assumption that they have not lost the adaptation to some situations. Echolalia is often associated with forced grasping and other compulsory phenomena. Therefore, it may be interpreted as a sign of disinhibition of the acusticomotor reflex present during the development of the speech. Competition between the intentionality and the appearance of compulsory phenomena greatly depends on the general condition of the patient, particularly on the clarity of consciousness. The integrity of the postero-median part of the frontal lobe is indespensable for a normal reaction by speech to stimuli received from the sensory areas. The influence of the supplementary motor field on speech intention seems to be linked to the dominant hemisphere. In case lesions of the territory of the anterior cerebral artery and the cortico-bulbar neuron system are coexisting in the dominant hemisphere, the speech disturbance shifts to complete motor aphasia. In such cases the pathomechanism is analogous to that of the syndrome of Liepmann, i.e., right-sided hemiparesis with left-sided apraxia. So-called transcortical motor aphasia without echolalia can be caused by loss of stimuli from the sensory fields.

  8. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with non-fluent aphasia disorder

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    Mohsen Saeidmanesh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Aphasia, after stroke in the left hemisphere, is a common symptom. These patients often experience incomplete recovery despite intensive speech therapy. Direct electrical stimulation of the brain is a technique to stimulate the brain in patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this stimulation on recovery of naming ability, working memory, and aphasia quotient and the lasting duration in patients with non-fluent aphasia.Methods: In this interventional study, 10 patients with after-stroke non-fluent aphasia were enrolled. Their aphasia quotient, working memory and naming ability scores were compared before and after sham and real treatments and two months after the real treatment. 10 sessions of 20-minutes sham electrical stimulation and 10 sessions of 20-minutes anodic and cathodic stimulation (2 mA at the dorsal lateral perifrontal cortex was done for each patient. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Friedman nonparametric tests.Results: The ability of naming and working memory scores were increased significantly after treatment and two months after it compared with before study and after sham treatment (p<0.05 for all. There was no significant improvement in aphasia quotient.Conclusion: The transcranial direct current stimulation can sustain improvement in naming function and working memory in patients with non-fluent aphasia. It can be used in the rehabilitation program of these patients.

  9. Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Jin Kim; Nam-Jong Paik

    2014-01-01

    Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the speciifc areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemi-paresis to deifne global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the signiifcantly involved anatomi-cal lesions were as follows:frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less signiifcantly involved. This study is the ifrst to demonstrate the heteroge-neous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images.

  10. Connected speech production in three variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Henry, Maya L; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer M; Dronkers, Nina F; Jarrold, William; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive deficits isolated to speech and/or language, and can be classified into non-fluent, semantic and logopenic variants based on motor speech, linguistic and cognitive features. The connected speech of patients with primary progressive aphasia has often been dichotomized simply as 'fluent' or 'non-fluent', however fluency is a multidimensional construct that encompasses features such as speech rate, phrase length, articulatory agility and syntactic structure, which are not always impacted in parallel. In this study, our first objective was to improve the characterization of connected speech production in each variant of primary progressive aphasia, by quantifying speech output along a number of motor speech and linguistic dimensions simultaneously. Secondly, we aimed to determine the neuroanatomical correlates of changes along these different dimensions. We recorded, transcribed and analysed speech samples for 50 patients with primary progressive aphasia, along with neurodegenerative and normal control groups. Patients were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based morphometry was used to identify regions where atrophy correlated significantly with motor speech and linguistic features. Speech samples in patients with the non-fluent variant were characterized by slow rate, distortions, syntactic errors and reduced complexity. In contrast, patients with the semantic variant exhibited normal rate and very few speech or syntactic errors, but showed increased proportions of closed class words, pronouns and verbs, and higher frequency nouns, reflecting lexical retrieval deficits. In patients with the logopenic variant, speech rate (a common proxy for fluency) was intermediate between the other two variants, but distortions and syntactic errors were less common than in the non-fluent variant, while lexical access was less impaired than in the semantic variant. Reduced speech rate was

  11. Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davinder Singh Rana; Anuradha Batra; Ish Anand; Samir Patel; Pooja Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the ifrst manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging ifndings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who initially presented with clinical manifestations of stroke in form of aphasia. The rarity of the disease and especially such a presentation can cause considerable delay in the diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Aphasia and right hemiplegia after cervical myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angiari, P.; Merli, G.A.; Crisi, G.

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of aphasia and right hemiplegia, developing after myelography with metrizamide and lasting for an unusually long time. The neurological disorders, manifested 1 h after the examination was completed, were due to accidental passage of contrast medium into the basal cisterns. In the light of analogous case reports in the literature, as well as experimental data concerning the biochemical activity of metrizamide, possible aetiopathogenetic mechanisms responsible for such disturbances are indicated. The authors underline the lack of effective therapeutic measures after the onset of the disorders, and thus the importance of preventing such complications that behave functionally as true ictuses although with no anatomic substratum.

  13. Motor aphasia: A rare complication of scorpion sting

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    Vinayak Y Kshirsagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting is common in villages, and is an important public health problem in India. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, causing a variety of symptoms. The leading causes of death are cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. We present herein a case of scorpion sting in a 9-year-old boy who developed pulmonary edema and gradually developed cytotoxic cerebral edema with infarct leading to motor aphasia with upper motor neuron facial palsy.

  14. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Head Presenting with Hemiparesis and Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saifudheen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pseudotumor most commonly occurs in the orbit and produces orbital pseudotumor, but extension into brain parenchyma is uncommon. We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor involving sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, orbital muscle, and intracranial extension into left temporal lobe producing right hemiparesis and wernicke's aphasia. The patient improved clinically and radiologically with steroid administration. This paper provides an insight into the spectrum of involvement of inflammatory pseudotumor and the importance of early diagnosis of the benign condition.

  15. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  16. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C.; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  17. Tense and aspect in aphasia and semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Koukoulioti

    2014-04-01

    There was no difference between past perfective and present imperfective for neither group, but there was an interaction between verb class and tense for the aphasic participants, as performance in unaccusative verbs in past perfective (unmarked condition was significantly better than in unergatives in past perfective (marked condition (Z=2.512, p=0.012 but performance in unaccusatives in present imperfective (marked condition was significantly worse than performance in unergatives in present imperfective (unmarked condition (Z=2.680, p=0.004. In sum, aphasic participants performed significantly better in the unmarked than in the marked conditions. Such an interaction was not found for the SD group. Aphasic participants performed significantly worse than the SD subjects in past perfective tense (M-W U= 7.5, p=0.029 in total, and the difference was significant only for unaccusative verbs (M-W U= 6.5, p=0.021, although both groups performed very well in this condition. There was no difference in present, neither for each verb class separately nor for the total score. A general past tense deficit cannot be upheld for either group. Rather, SD participants appear relatively impaired in producing present tense. We argue for slight morphosyntactic impairment in SD, although with a different underlying cause than in aphasia. Moreover, our data suggest an effect of aspectual markedness in aphasia but not in SD. We discuss this finding in the light of the different neuropathology of the two populations.

  18. Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Siqueira Soares-Ishigaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Meningoencephalitis early in life, of any etiology, is a risk factor for development of subsequent sequelae, which may be of physical, psychiatric, behavioral or cognitive origin. Anomia is a language abnormality frequently found in such cases, and other language deficits are rarely described. The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive and linguistic manifestations following a case of herpetic meningoencephalitis in a 13-year-old patient with eight years of schooling. CASE REPORT: The patient underwent a speech-language audiology assessment nine months after the neurological diagnosis. The battery of tests included the Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment test protocol (MT Beta-86, modified, the description from the Cookie Theft task of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, an informal assessment of the patient's logical and mathematical reasoning, and the neuropsychological subtests from the WAIS-III scale, which assess working memory. The patient presented mixed aphasia, impairment of short-term memory and working memory, and dyscalculia. This case also presented severe cognitive and linguistic deficits. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, in order to enable timely treatment and rehabilitation of this neurological infection and minimize the cognitive deficits caused by the disease.

  19. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'.

  20. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Koyuncu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  1. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engin Koyuncu; Pnar am; Nermin Altnok; Duygu Ekinci all; Tuba Yarbay Duman; Nee zgirgin

    2016-01-01

    hTe aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. hTe study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with ifrst stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assess-ment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and atfer treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved atfer treatment. hTis suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  2. Corpus-based Transitivity Biases in Individuals with Aphasia

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    Gayle DeDe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spontaneous speech samples in individuals with aphasia (IWA have been analyzed to examine many different psycholinguistic features. The present study focused on how IWA use verbs in spontaneous speech. Some verbs can occur in more than one argument structure, but are biased to occur more frequently in one frame than another. For example, "watch" appears in transitive and intransitive structures, but is usually used transitively. This is known as a transitivity bias. It is unknown whether IWA show the same transitivity biases in production as those reported in previous corpus studies with unimpaired individuals. Studies of sentence comprehension have shown that IWA are sensitive to verb biases (e.g., DeDe, 2013. In addition, IWA have shown an overall preference for transitive structures, which are the most frequent structures in English (Roland, Dick, & Elman, 2007. The present study investigated whether IWA show the same pattern of transitive and intransitive biases in spontaneous speech as unimpaired individuals. Method Participants: 278 interviews with IWA were taken from AphasiaBank. The IWA represented a range of aphasia types. Participants were omitted if they spoke English as a second language. Materials: 54 verbs were coded. We chose verbs with the goal of representing different bias types (e.g., transitive, intransitive, sentential complement. Of these, data from 11 transitively biased and 11 intransitively biased verbs (matched for frequency of use and number of syllables are presented here. Coding: All productions of the 54 verbs were coded. The coding protocol was based on Gahl, Jurafsky, and Roland (2004. We implemented an additional level of coding to indicate erroneous verb productions, such as ungrammatical structures and verb agreement errors. Results The (intransitivity biases for IWA were compared to biases from a previously published corpus study (Gahl et al., 2004. The IWA used transitively biased verbs in

  3. Theories of inter-hemispheric interactions in aphasia: the role of tDCS in rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H Hamilton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mounting data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that the process of recovery from aphasia is largely driven by the reorganization of brain networks related to language. Evidence implicates a variety of potential mechanisms in this reorganization, some of which involve substantive changes in brain functional activity within and between cerebral hemispheres. These changes include intrahemispheric recruitment of perilesional left-hemisphere regions and transcallosal interhemispheric interactions between lesioned left-hemisphere language areas and homologous regions in the right hemisphere. With respect to the role of the right hemisphere, it is debated whether interhemispheric interactions are beneficial or deleterious to recovering language networks. Recent years have also seen the emergence of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as potential novel treatments for post-stroke aphasia. Because these techniques are predicated on either focal excitation or inhibition of brain areas, characterization of the functional roles of the left and right hemispheres and transcallosal interactions in aphasia recovery is of central importance to the development and refinement of stimulation-based therapies. However, most treatment studies involving noninvasive brain stimulation in aphasia have tacitly accepted the interhemispheric inhibition model, in which right hemisphere activity interferes with language recovery that is mediated by left hemisphere perisylvian regions. Based on this account, many studies in aphasia involving TMS and tDCS have adopted one of two approaches consistent with the model: left hemisphere excitation or right hemisphere inhibition. In this presentation, we will review both clinical and cognitive neuroscience evidence that elucidates different hemispheric mechanisms that influence recovery from aphasia after stroke

  4. Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., "carrot-parrot") and cohort (e.g., "beaker-beetle") competitors. Broca's aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A re-analysis of previously reported data (Yee,…

  5. The TCM-Combined Treatment for Aphasia Due to Cerebrovascular Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of scalp acupuncture (with the cluster needling, a long needle-retention and an intermittent manipulation) combined with the Schuell's stimulation and psychological care for treatment of aphasia due to cerebrovascular disorders. Method: 36 eligible cases of aphasia were randomly assigned into a treatment group and a control group. The scoring system for assessment of aphasia in speaking Chinese set by CMA Neurological Branch and that of BADE were adopted for grading the severity/degree of aphasia before and after the treatment. Results: The total effective rate in the treatment group was 84.21%, and that in the control group was 70.59%, with a very statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: The combined scheme produced a better therapeutic effect.

  6. Community: the key to building and extending engagement for individuals with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Maura English

    2011-08-01

    The response by the aphasia community to the call of the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia Project Team to offer a framework for the management of aphasia was swift and expansive. Speech pathologists across the world accepted the paradigm shift from language goals within the clinic office to the short-term and long-term life objectives of their clients. The definition of service now included access to those communicative barriers that persons with aphasia face within their community. The recruitment, training, and shaping of that engagement must be individualized for successful (re)engagement. This article aims to present perspective on that process from a program that utilizes a unique center without walls concept.

  7. Which outcomes are most important to people with aphasia and their families?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Sarah J.; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To identify important treatment outcomes from the perspective of people with aphasia and their families using the ICF as a frame of reference. Methods: The nominal group technique was used with people with aphasia and their family members in seven countries to identify and rank important...... and 29 family members participated in one of 16 nominal groups. Inductive qualitative content analysis revealed the following six themes: (1) Improved communication; (2) Increased life participation; (3) Changed attitudes through increased awareness and education about aphasia; (4) Recovered normality...... for research outcome measurement and clinical service provision which currently focuses on the measurement of body function outcomes. The wide range of desired outcomes generated by both people with aphasia and their family members, highlights the importance of collaborative goal setting within a family...

  8. Does Handedness Affect the Cerebral Organization of Speech and Language in Individuals with Aphasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Baldo

    2014-04-01

    Although some earlier studies suggested distinct cerebral organizations for right- versus non-right-handed individuals, the neural correlates of fluency and comprehension were greatly overlapping between these groups in our sample of left hemisphere patients with aphasia.

  9. 卒中后失语的药物治疗%Pharmacotherapy of Poststroke Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莺; 李焰生

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. Traditional speech-language therapy remains the mainstay treatment of aphasia, however, its efficacy is uncertain. Although a number of studies have been carried out to investigate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of aphasia, the conclusions are controversial, This article reviews the state of pharma-colotherapy for poststroke aphasia.%卒中是引起失语的最常见病因.传统的言语-语言治疗仍是失语的主要治疗手段,但是其疗效并不肯定.尽管已开展了许多研究观察药物在治疗失语中的作用,但结论并不一致.文章就卒中后失语的药物治疗状况进行了综述.

  10. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation.

  11. Crossed Aphasia in a Dextral without “Minor” Hemisphere Signs

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    J. C. Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe aphasia after right hemisphere stroke, confirmed by CT, in an unambiguously dextral patient is reported. The patient showed no limb apraxia, and performed well on a test of “closure” (Mooney faces. Extensive testing revealed no signs of visuo-spatial neglect. We conclude that “pure” crossed aphasia can occur in the absence of symptoms normally associated with right hemisphere lesions.

  12. Classification and clinicoradiologic features of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Schwarz, Christopher G; Reid, Robert I; Spychalla, Anthony J; Senjem, Matthew L; Jones, David T; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-08-01

    The consensus criteria for the diagnosis and classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have served as an important tool in studying this group of disorders. However, a large proportion of patients remain unclassifiable whilst others simultaneously meet criteria for multiple subtypes. We prospectively evaluated a large cohort of patients with degenerative aphasia and/or apraxia of speech using multidisciplinary clinical assessments and multimodal imaging. Blinded diagnoses were made using operational definitions with important differences compared to the consensus criteria. Of the 130 included patients, 40 were diagnosed with progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS), 12 with progressive agrammatic aphasia, 9 with semantic dementia, 52 with logopenic progressive aphasia, and 4 with progressive fluent aphasia, while 13 were unclassified. The PAOS and progressive fluent aphasia groups were least impaired. Performance on repetition and sentence comprehension was especially poor in the logopenic group. The semantic and progressive fluent aphasia groups had prominent anomia, but only semantic subjects had loss of word meaning and object knowledge. Distinct patterns of grey matter loss and white matter changes were found in all groups compared to controls. PAOS subjects had bilateral frontal grey matter loss, including the premotor and supplementary motor areas, and bilateral frontal white matter involvement. The agrammatic group had more widespread, predominantly left sided grey matter loss and white matter abnormalities. Semantic subjects had bitemporal grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the uncinate and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi, whereas progressive fluent subjects only had left sided temporal involvement. Logopenic subjects had diffuse and bilateral grey matter loss and diffusion tensor abnormalities, maximal in the posterior temporal region. A diagnosis of logopenic aphasia was strongly associated with being amyloid positive (46

  13. How to improve repetition ability in patients with Wernicke's aphasia: the effect of a disguised task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, M; Soma, Y; Yoshimura, N; Miyashita, K; Nagatsuka, K; Naritomi, H

    2005-05-01

    Dissociation "automatico-voluntaire" is a symptom observed in aphasic patients. We elucidated the difference between voluntary and involuntary speech output in a quantitative manner using the same task materials in nine patients with Wernicke's aphasia. All the patients exhibited better ability and less paraphasias in a repetition task elicited in a disguised condition than in an ordinary repetition condition. This result indicates that the output difficulty in Wernicke's aphasia might be a disability of volitional control over the language system.

  14. “Struggling to stay connected”: comparing the social relationships of healthy older people and people with stroke and aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hilari, K.; Northcott, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Having a stroke and aphasia can profoundly affect a person’s social relationships. Further, poor social support is associated with adverse post-stroke outcomes such as psychological distress, worse quality of life, and worse recovery. To date, no study has used complex measures of social network and perceived social support to compare stroke survivors with aphasia, without aphasia, and the general older population. A better understanding of which aspects of social support are most...

  15. Aphasia secondary to tuberculosis: a review of a nineteenth-century case report by Booth and Curtis (1893).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The topic of aphasia secondary to tuberculosis deserves attention for two reasons: first, for better understanding rare etiologies of aphasia in medical history; and secondly, for initiating a multidisciplinary discussion relevant to aphasiologists, neurologists, pathologists, and clinicians generally. This article will focus on clinical observations of tuberculosis-related aphasia in the nineteenth century, highlighting a noteworthy case report presented by Booth and Curtis (1893).

  16. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiree eHeath

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (priming. This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days. Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network.

  17. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families.

  18. The effect of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for aphasia tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye, Mulugeta Tarekegne; De Bleser, Ria; Iribarren, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of literacy on oral language processing have shown that literacy provides phonological awareness skills in the processing of oral language. The implications of these results on aphasia tests could be significant and pose questions on the adequacy of such tools for testing non-literate individuals. Aiming at examining the impact of literacy on oral language processing and its implication on aphasia tests, this study tested 12 non-literate and 12 literate individuals with a modified Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis and Amberber, 1991, Bilingual Aphasia Test. Amharic version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.). The problems of phonological awareness skills in oral language processing in non-literates are substantiated. In addition, compared with literate participants, non-literate individuals demonstrated difficulties in the word/sentence-picture matching tasks. This study has also revealed that the Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test may be viable for testing Amharic-speaking non-literate individuals with aphasia when modifications are incorporated.

  19. Māori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

    2014-10-01

    This study explored Māori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" Māori with aphasia and their whānau (extended family). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa Māori research (a Māori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 Māori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated whānau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some Māori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for Māori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and whānau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and whānau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia.

  20. Setting a research agenda to inform intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hula, William D; Cherney, Leora R; Worrall, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    Research into intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) has yet to show that this service delivery model is efficacious, effective, has cost utility, or can be broadly implemented. This article describes a phased research approach to the study of ICAPs and sets out a research agenda that considers not only the specific issues surrounding ICAPs, but also the phase of the research. Current ICAP research is in the early phases, with dosing and outcome measurement as prime considerations as well as refinement of the best treatment protocol. Later phases of ICAP research are outlined, and the need for larger scale collaborative funded research is recognized. The need for more rapid translation into practice is also acknowledged, and the use of hybrid models of phased research is encouraged within the ICAP research agenda.

  1. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  2. Neurobehavioral response to increased treatment dosage in chronic, severe aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Mozeiko

    2014-04-01

    •\tIncreased activation in S2’s bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following the second treatment session indicates that a second Treatment Period can influence continued neuroplastic change in severe, chronic aphasia. •\tS1 appears to show the most activation following Treatment Period I. It is possible that his greater lesion volume or site did not allow for benefit from a second dose to the same degree as S2. •\tActivation changes (or lack thereof in both cases corresponded with performance on the naming task in the scanner, reflecting the effect of treatment. •\tFor S2, neuroimaging supported the behavioral results which favor a second dose of ILAT. For S1, behavioral results, particularly in his consistent increases on the BNT, are not supported by either the behavioral results in the scanner or the BOLD response.

  3. Novel Methods to Study Aphasia Recovery after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. It has been argued that the functional reorganization of language networks after left-hemisphere stroke may engage perilesional left brain areas as well as homologous right-hemisphere regions. In this chapter, we...... evidence from studies in healthy volunteers for a causal role of the right hemisphere in different language functions. Finally, we review recent studies that used TMS or tDCS to promote language recovery after stroke. Most of these studies applied noninvasive brain stimulation over contralateral right-hemisphere...... areas to suppress maladaptive plasticity. However, some studies also suggest that right-hemisphere regions may beneficially contribute to recovery in some patients. More recently, some investigators have targeted perilesional brain regions to promote neurorehabilitation. In sum, these studies indicate...

  4. [Dissociated preservation of written expression in aphasia with recurrent utterances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Masson, C; Robine, B

    1993-01-01

    In a female patient, aphasia with recurrent utterances resulted from a double lesion of the left hemisphere, located in the base of the third frontal gyrus and the upper temporal gyri. Predominant in the fluent oral expression was a repeated neologism of which the patient was unaware. The written expression, efficient for lexical entities, was devoid of syntax and had the features of phonological agraphia. Both orally and in written words comprehension was satisfactory but syntactic comprehension was deficient. The stereotyped verbal behaviour could be due to dysfunction of the phonemic programmer. Rupture of the audi-phonatory loop, confirmed by degradation of the verbal working, memory, made this dysfunction worse and accounted for the anosognosia. The participation of the right hemisphere and of the preserved left hemispheric structures in the persistence of various language activities are discussed.

  5. Anomia training and brain stimulation in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelli, Maria; Fertonani, Anna; Miozzo, Antonio; Rosini, Sandra; Manenti, Rosa; Padovani, Alessandro; Ansaldo, Ana Ines; Cappa, Stefano F; Miniussi, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have reported enhanced performance on language tasks induced by non-invasive brain stimulation, i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in patients with aphasia due to stroke or Alzheimer's disease (AD). The first part of this article reviews brain stimulation studies related to language recovery in aphasic patients. The second part reports results from a pilot study with three chronic stroke patients who had non-fluent aphasia, where real or placebo rTMS was immediately followed by 25 minutes of individualised speech therapy. Real rTMS consisted of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 8/9) for 25 minutes. Each patient underwent a total of four weeks of intervention. P1 underwent four weeks of real rTMS (5 days/week) where individualised speech therapy was provided for 25 minutes immediately following each rTMS session. P2 and P3 each underwent two weeks of placebo rTMS, followed immediately by individualised speech therapy; then two weeks of real rTMS, followed immediately by individualised speech therapy. Assessments took place at 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks post-entry/baseline testing. Relative to entry/baseline testing, a significant improvement in object naming was observed at all testing times, from two weeks post-intervention in real rTMS plus speech therapy, or placebo rTMS plus speech therapy. Our findings suggest beneficial effects of targeted behavioural training in combination with brain stimulation in chronic aphasic patients. However, further work is required in order to verify whether optimal combination parameters (rTMS alone or speech therapy alone) and length of rTMS treatment may be found.

  6. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

  7. Fenología y reproducción de la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari durante el desarrollo del fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Efra\\u00EDn Camilo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en La Cumbre, Santiago, República Dominicana (cosecha 2000-2001 para determinar el estado de posicionamiento y número de instares de broca del café, durante el desarrollo del fruto. El mismo consistió en muestreos sistemáticos semanales a partir de los 77 días post-floraci ón primaria (DPFP; se contó con cuatro repeticiones y se recolectaron 25 frutos por repetición (cinco frutos por rama en cinco plantas. Entre un 70% hasta un 86% de las brocas que emigraron, se mantuvieron en estado de posicionamiento B (susceptibles a las herramientas de manejo antes de los 112 DPFP. A partir de esta fecha se encontró un marcado descenso en el número de éstas a medida que aumentó la edad del fruto, hasta mantenerse en un 10% después de los 147 DPFP y por el contrario el porcentaje de brocas en estado de posición D (inicio de reproducción aumentó desde un dos hasta un 57%. El número de huevos y larvas se incrementó después de los 112 DPFP de 23 huevos y cuatro larvas hasta 286 y 396 respectivamente por cada 100 frutos de café. En esta fecha se observó la mayor capacidad de daño de los estadios inmaduros en el cotiledón. Se encontró un incremento en el número de pupas por cada 100 frutos desde nueve hasta 108 después de los 119 hasta 189 DPFP.

  8. The effects of direct and indirect speech on discourse comprehension in Dutch listeners with and without aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Wieling, Martijn; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on language comprehension in aphasia has primarily focused on comprehension of isolated words and sentences. Even though previous studies have provided insights into comprehension abilities of individuals with aphasia at the word and grammatical level, our understanding of the n

  9. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  10. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  11. The Influence of Phonomotor Treatment on Word Retrieval Abilities in 26 Individuals with Chronic Aphasia: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Diane L.; Oelke, Megan; Brookshire, Carmel Elizabeth; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of aphasia therapy should be to achieve gains in function that generalize to untrained exemplars and daily conversation. Anomia is one of the most disabling features of aphasia. The predominantly lexical/semantic approaches used to treat anomia have low potential for generalization due to the orthogonality of semantic…

  12. Verifying the hypothesis of disconnection syndrome in patients with conduction aphasia using diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqin Guo; Jing Xu; Yindong Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is thought in disconnection theory that connection of anterior and posterior language function areas, i.e. the lesion of arcuate fasciculus causes conduction aphasia.OBJECTIVE: To verify the theory of disconnection elicited by repetition disorder in patients with conduction aphasia by comparing the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging between healthy persons and patients with conduction aphasia.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Five male patients with cerebral infarction-involved arcuate fasciculus conduction aphasia, averaged (43±2) years, who hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College from February 2004 to February 2005 were involved in this experiment. The involved patients were all confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT and MRI, and met the diagnosis criteria revised in 1995 4th Cerebrovascular Conference. They were examined by the method of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (ABC) edited by Surong Gao. The results were poorer than auditory comprehension disproportionately, and consistented with the mode of conduction aphasia. Another 5 male healthy persons, averaged (43 ± 1 ) years, who were physicians receiving further training in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital were also involved in this experiment. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: All the subjects were performed handedness assessment with assessment criteria of handedness formulated by Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Medical University. Arcuate fasciculus of involved patients and health controls were analyzed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and divided into 3 parts (anterior, middle and posterior segments) for determining FA value (mean value was obtained after three times of measurements), and a comparison of FA value was

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  14. Guiding principles for printed education materials: design preferences of people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the preferences of people with aphasia for the design of stroke and aphasia printed education materials (PEMs) and to compare these preferences with recommendations in the literature for developing written information for other populations. A face-to-face quantitative questionnaire was completed with 40 adults with aphasia post-stroke. The questionnaire explored preferences for: (1) the representation of numbers, (2) font size and type, (3) line spacing, (4) document length, and (5) graphic type. Most preferences (62.4%, n = 146) were for numbers expressed as figures rather than words. The largest proportion of participants selected 14 point (28.2%, n = 11) and Verdana ref (33.3%, n = 13) as the easiest font size and type to read, and a preference for 1.5 line spacing (41.0%, n = 16) was identified. Preference for document length was not related to the participant's reading ability or aphasia severity. Most participants (95.0%, n = 38) considered graphics to be helpful, with photographs more frequently reported as a helpful graphic type. The identified preferences support many of the formatting recommendations found within the literature. This research provides guiding principles for developing PEMs in preferred formats for people with aphasia.

  15. Audiovisual Integration of Speech in a Patient with Broca’s Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Søren Andersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesions to Broca’s area cause aphasia characterised by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca’s area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca’s area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca’s aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca’s area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca’s aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca’s area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca’s area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke’s aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca’s aphasia.

  16. Aphasia Rehabilitation Methods%失语症的康复训练方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红云; 万勤; KIM Ha-kyung[韩国; 朱红; 刘巧云

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the therapies for aphasia, including speech therapy, functional communication therapy, cognitive neurorehabilitation, social psychotherapy and computer-aided therapy,and introduces the rehabilitation training methods for motor aphasia, sensory aphasia, complete aphasia and nominal aphasia in order to promote the speech rehabilitation of aphasic patients.%  本文概述了失语症康复的语言治疗、功能性交流治疗、认知神经康复治疗、社交心理治疗和计算机辅助治疗等技术,介绍了运动性失语症、感觉性失语症、完全性失语症及命名性失语症的康复训练方法,为促进失语症患者语言功能的恢复提供理论依据和实践指导。

  17. [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    We studied clinical significance of [sup 99m]Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author).

  18. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  19. Spontaneous speech: Quantifying daily communication in Spanish-speaking individuals with aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Observable disruptions in spontaneous speech are among the most prominent characteristics of aphasia. The potential of language production analyses in discourse contexts to reveal subtle language deficits has been progressively exploited, becoming essential for diagnosing language disorders (Vermeulen et al., 1989; Goodglass et al., 2000; Prins and Bastiaanse, 2004; Jaecks et al., 2012. Based on previous studies, short and/or fragmentary utterances, and consequently a shorter MLU, are expected in the speech of individuals with aphasia, together with a large proportions of incomplete sentences and a limited use of embeddings. Fewer verbs with a lower diversity (lower type/token ratio and fewer internal arguments are also predicted, as well as a low proportion of inflected verbs (Bastiaanse and Jonkers, 1998. However, this profile comes mainly from the study of individuals with prototypical aphasia types, mainly Broca’s aphasia, raising the question of how accurate spontaneous speech is to pinpoint deficits in individuals with less clear diagnoses. To address this question, we present the results of a spontaneous speech analysis of 25 Spanish-speaking subjects: 10 individuals with aphasia (IWAs, 7 male and 3 female (mean age: 64.2 in neural stable condition (> 1 year post-onset who suffered from a single CVA in the left hemisphere (Rosell, 2005, and 15 non-brain-damaged matched speakers (NBDs. In the aphasia group, 7 of the participants were diagnosed as non-fluent (1 motor aphasia, 4 transcortical motor aphasia or motor aphasia with signs of transcorticality, 2 mixed aphasia with motor predominance, and 3 of them as fluent (mixed aphasia with anomic predominance. The protocol for data collection included semi-standardized interviews, in which participants were asked 3 questions evoking past, present, and future events (last job, holidays, and hobbies. 300 words per participant were analyzed. The MLU over the total 300 words revealed a decreased

  20. Transcranial brain stimulation (TMS and tDCS for post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Iracema Zanotto de Mendonça

    Full Text Available Transcranial brain stimulation (TS techniques have been investigated for use in the rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. According to previous reports, functional recovery by the left hemisphere improves recovery from aphasia, when compared with right hemisphere participation. TS has been applied to stimulate the activity of the left hemisphere or to inhibit homotopic areas in the right hemisphere. Various factors can interfere with the brain's response to TS, including the size and location of the lesion, the time elapsed since the causal event, and individual differences in the hemispheric language dominance pattern. The following questions are discussed in the present article: [a] Is inhibition of the right hemisphere truly beneficial?; [b] Is the transference of the language network to the left hemisphere truly desirable in all patients?; [c] Is the use of TS during the post-stroke subacute phase truly appropriate? Different patterns of neuroplasticity must occur in post-stroke aphasia.

  1. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with Mixed Transcortical Aphasia: Insights into Echolalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. McPherson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a common manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, and investigation of the linguistic disorders of CJD patients may provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of language and aphasia. We report an autopsy-confirmed case of CJD in which the presenting symptom was change in language abilities. The patient ultimately evidenced mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA with echolalia. Disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits with environmental dependency accounts for the symptoms in MTA, including intact repetition and echolalia. Observation in this patient and a review of the literature suggest that frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction may contribute to the syndrome of echolalia. This hypothesis offers an alternative explanation to “isolation” of the speech area as the cause of MTA.

  2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with mixed transcortical aphasia: insights into echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, S E; Kuratani, J D; Cummings, J L; Shih, J; Mischel, P S; Vinters, H V

    1994-01-01

    Aphasia is a common manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and investigation of the linguistic disorders of CJD patients may provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of language and aphasia. We report an autopsy-confirmed case of CJD in which the presenting symptom was change in language abilities. The patient ultimately evidenced mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA) with echolalia. Disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits with environmental dependency accounts for the symptoms in MTA, including intact repetition and echolalia. Observation in this patient and a review of the literature suggest that frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction may contribute to the syndrome of echolalia. This hypothesis offers an alternative explanation to "isolation" of the speech area as the cause of MTA.

  3. Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Aguilar Mejía

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection between posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas

  4. Variations in the Presentation of Aphasia in Patients with Closed Head Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Oliver Kavanagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  5. Variations in the presentation of aphasia in patients with closed head injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver

    2012-01-31

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  6. Activity in preserved left hemisphere regions predicts anomia severity in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Bonilha, Leonardo; Baker, Julie M; Moser, Dana; Rorden, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the neural mechanism that supports preserved language processing in aphasia has implications for both basic and applied science. This study examined brain activation associated with correct picture naming in 15 patients with aphasia. We contrasted each patient's activation to the activation observed in a neurologically healthy control group, allowing us to identify regions with unusual activity patterns. The results revealed that increased activation in preserved left hemisphere areas is associated with better naming performance in aphasia. This relationship was linear in nature; progressively less cortical activation was associated with greater severity of anomia. These findings are consistent with others who suggests that residual language function following stroke relies on preserved cortical areas in the left hemisphere.

  7. Aphasia or neglect after thalamic stroke: the various ways they may be related to cortical hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani eSebastian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time to peak delays, but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Variable disruption of a syntactic processing network in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; DeMarco, Andrew T; Henry, Maya L; Gesierich, Benno; Babiak, Miranda; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-08-23

    Syntactic processing deficits are highly variable in individuals with primary progressive aphasia. Damage to left inferior frontal cortex has been associated with syntactic deficits in primary progressive aphasia in a number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies. However, a contrasting picture of a broader syntactic network has emerged from neuropsychological studies in other aphasic cohorts, and functional imaging studies in healthy controls. To reconcile these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of syntactic comprehension in 51 individuals with primary progressive aphasia, composed of all clinical variants and a range of degrees of syntactic processing impairment. We used trial-by-trial reaction time as a proxy for syntactic processing load, to determine which regions were modulated by syntactic processing in each patient, and how the set of regions recruited was related to whether syntactic processing was ultimately successful or unsuccessful. Relationships between functional abnormalities and patterns of cortical atrophy were also investigated. We found that the individual degree of syntactic comprehension impairment was predicted by left frontal atrophy, but also by functional disruption of a broader syntactic processing network, comprising left posterior frontal cortex, left posterior temporal cortex, and the left intraparietal sulcus and adjacent regions. These regions were modulated by syntactic processing in healthy controls and in patients with primary progressive aphasia with relatively spared syntax, but they were modulated to a lesser extent or not at all in primary progressive aphasia patients whose syntax was relatively impaired. Our findings suggest that syntactic comprehension deficits in primary progressive aphasia reflect not only structural and functional changes in left frontal cortex, but also disruption of a wider syntactic processing network.

  10. Cortical language activation in aphasia:a functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓俊; 张敏鸣; 商德胜; 汪启东; 罗本燕; 翁旭初

    2004-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging has been used in neurolinguistic research on normal subjects and on patients with brain damage. This study was designed to investigate the differences of the neural basis underlying language processing between normal subjects and aphasics.Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map the language network in 6 normal subjects and 3 patients with aphasia who were in the stage of recovery from acute stroke. The participants performed a word generation task during multi-slice functional scanning for the measurement of signal change associated with regional neural activity induced by the task. Results In normal subjects, a distributed language network was activated. Activations were present in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions. In the patient group, however, no activation was detected in the left inferior frontal gyrus whether the patient had a lesion in the left frontal lobe or not. Two patients showed activations in some right hemisphere regions where no activation appeared in normal subjects. Conclusions fMRI with word generation task is feasible for evaluating language function in aphasic patients. Remote effect of focal lesion and functional redistribution or reorganisation can be found in aphasic patients.

  11. Effect of lexical and syllable frequency in anomic aphasia

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    Janeth Hernández Jaramillo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study compares the performance of two groups of participants with and without aphasia anomic in a lexical decision tasks (LDT and spelling, in relation to the effect of the variables of word frequency and syllable. Materials and methods: a prospective study with a 2x2x2 design, which administered the LDT, in which each she/he had to decide if it was a real Spanish word or not, pressing one of two keys. To the task of spelling, they had to spell orally each of words presented auditorily. Results: It was found that in the LTD, the experimental group made more errors in the high-frequency stimuli syllable while the control group had more errors in the low-frequency syllables. In terms of reaction times was evident that the experimental group took longer to solve the task than the control group. The spelling task performance showed no difference in groups or conditions (lexical frequency and syllable. Conclusions: similar than other researches in normalized population, the results of this study demonstrate the effect of lexical frequency facilitation and inhibition that generates high syllable frequency.

  12. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia.

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    Hébert, Sylvie; Racette, Amélie; Gagnon, Lise; Peretz, Isabelle

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in a non-fluent patient, C.C., who had a severe expressive aphasia following a right-hemisphere stroke, but whose language comprehension and memory were relatively preserved. In experiment 1, C.C. repeated familiar song excerpts under four different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics on original melody, lyrics sung on new but familiar melody and melody sung to a neutral syllable "la". In experiment 2, C.C. repeated novel song excerpts under three different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics and sung-to-la melody. The mean number of words produced under the spoken and sung conditions did not differ significantly in either experiment. The mean number of notes produced was not different either in the sung-to-la and sung conditions, but was higher than the words produced, hence showing a dissociation between C.C.'s musical and verbal productions. Therefore, our findings do not support the claim that singing helps word production in non-fluent aphasic patients. Rather, they are consistent with the idea that verbal production, be it sung or spoken, result from the operation of same mechanisms.

  13. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

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    Luísa Farrajota

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT on naming ability in PPA. Methods: An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results: Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18 = 10.763; p = 0.005 on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion: Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial.

  14. Anomia in moderate aphasia: problems in accessing the lexical representation.

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    Le Dorze, G; Nespoulous, J L

    1989-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to determine through the analysis of surface manifestations of anomia whether one or several anomic syndromes exist, (2) to identify the psycholinguistic process at fault in anomia with reference to M. F. Garrett's (1982, in A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions, London/New York: Academic Press) language production model. Two naming tasks were administered to 24 moderate aphasics. Test A was a standard naming task, and test B was a similar task which included subtests designed to indicate which level of representation was affected whenever patients did not name the target word. The subtests required, respectively, the identification of (a) a conceptual property, (b) two semantic attributes, (c) the first and (d) last syllable of the target word, and (e) the target word itself. Descriptive statistics yielded three groups of subjects different in terms of surface anomic manifestations, yet unrelated to clinical type of aphasia. Moreover, no significant differences between groups emerged on the subtests. All groups showed a good performance on the conceptual and the semantic subtests, suggesting preservation of high-level cognitive and semantic processes. In contrast, subjects evidenced poorer performances in syllabic identification, indicating a disruption of lower level mechanisms which are assumed to retrieve and process formal lexical representations. Results support the view that aphasic anomia originates from a difficulty in accessing the formal lexical representation and not from a semantic problem.

  15. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia.

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    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice.

  16. Use of EEG Beta-1 Power and Theta/Beta Ratio Over Broca's Area to confirm Diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

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    Sangal, R Bart; Sangal, JoAnne M

    2015-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a medical device using the electroencephalogram (EEG) theta/beta ratio (tbr) to help assess pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Tbr is reported to be higher in ADHD, with increased theta and decreased beta. This study examined theta and beta-1 power differences between ADHD and normal children, during tasks of selective attention, and elucidated topographical differences. EEGs were collected from 28 normal and 58 ADHD children, aged 6 to 14 years, using 31 scalp electrodes during auditory and visual tasks requiring selective attention. Spectral analysis was performed. Tbr was higher in ADHD than in normal children (2.60 vs 2.25, P = .007), with lower beta-1 (3.66 vs 4.22, P = .01), but no difference in theta power. There was lower beta-1 (P power over Broca's area was the best diagnostic test, with sensitivity 0.86 and specificity 0.57. Tbr is higher and beta-1 power lower in ADHD than in normal children, especially over Broca's area. Beta-1 power and tbr assist in confirming the diagnosis of ADHD in a sample with moderate pretest probability of ADHD.

  17. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

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    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efecto de cinco Dosis de Heterorhabditis indica Poinat cepa P2M sobre la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari.

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    Yander Fernández Cancio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de Heterorhaditis indica cepa P2M en el manejo de la broca del café (Hypotenemushampei Ferrari se realizó la investigación en condiciones controladas en el Laboratorio Provincial de Sanidad Vegetal de Sancti Spíritus con cinco dosis del patógeno: 20, 45, 75, 100 y 200 individuos juveniles infestiles/adulto (iji/adulto. Se diseñaron dos experimentos: variante 1 con aplicaciones directa sobre los adultos del insecto en placas Petri con siete repeticiones y variante 2 con la aplicación al suelo en bolsas de nylon con granos de la variedad Robusta con presencia de larvas y adultos del insecto. Se determinó la susceptibilidad de los adultos del insecto a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y el efecto de las dosis sobre el porcentaje de mortalidad de las larvas y adultos. Como resultado relevante de la variante 1 se destaca que los adultos tuvieron una susceptibilidad por encima del (50 % en 24 horas con las dosis superiores a 20 iji/adultos y en la variante 2 lo valores de mortalidad de las larvas fueron superiores a los adultos del insecto a las 72 horas. El nematodo constituye una alternativa viable en el control de la broca con valores de mortalidad de 50% en 24 horas.

  19. GABA and glutamate receptors in the horizontal limb of diagonal band of Broca (hDB): effects on cardiovascular regulation.

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    Nasimi, Ali; Hatam, Masoumeh

    2005-11-01

    The horizontal limb of diagonal band of Broca (hDB) is a part of the limbic system. It has been shown that microinjection of L-glutamate into the hDB elicited cardiovascular depressive responses in anesthetized rats and pressor effect in unanesthetized rats. But the role of glutamate receptor subtypes has not yet been investigated. In addition the role of the GABAergic system of the hDB in cardiovascular responses is not known. Therefore, we examined the cardiovascular responses elicited by glutamate and GABA receptors in the hDB by using their agonists and antagonists. Drugs (50 nl) were microinjected into the hDB of anaesthetized rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and throughout each experiment. The average changes in the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at different intervals were compared both within each case group and between the case and control groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Microinjection of GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 1 mM) increased both the mean arterial pressure and heart rate, and muscimole, a GABA(A) agonist (500 pmol) caused a significant decrease in the mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Microinjection of L-glutamate (0.25 M) into the hDB resulted in a maximum decrease of the mean arterial pressure of 24.4 +/- 3.7 mmHg and heart rate of 25.2 +/- 3.08 beats/min. Injection of AP5, an antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptor (1 and 2.5 mM), and CNQX, an antagonist of glutamate AMPA receptor (0.5 and 1 mM) caused small, nonsignificant changes of the heart rate and the blood pressure. Either AP5 or CNQX when coinjected with glutamate abolished the depressor effect of glutamate, suggesting that simultaneous activation of both glutamate receptors is necessary for the effect of glutamate to emerge. The depressor effect of the glutaminergic system of the hDB on the cardiovascular system was similar to the previous studies. For the first time, the effects of CNQX, AP5, BMI, and muscimole

  20. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

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    JoAnn P Silkes

    2015-04-01

    Data collected to date demonstrate a clear difference between individuals with and without aphasia in their ability to perceive masked real words, but there appears to be no difference between groups for non-words and non-linguistic stimuli, although a trend is seen for these groups. Given the high variability for the NW and NL conditions, these analyses may be underpowered; therefore, data collection is ongoing and a clearer picture should be available by the time of presentation. Regardless of the eventual outcome, this poster will discuss the theoretical motivation for the study, and will discuss the possible implications for understanding the nature of underlying deficits in aphasia.

  1. Handedness and language learning disability differentially distribute in progressive aphasia variants.

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    Miller, Zachary A; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine P; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda C; Frazier, Darvis T; Lobach, Iryna V; Bettcher, Brianne M; Wu, Teresa Q; Rabinovici, Gil D; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2013-11-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative clinical syndrome that presents in adulthood with an isolated, progressive language disorder. Three main clinical/anatomical variants have been described, each associated with distinctive pathology. A high frequency of neurodevelopmental learning disability in primary progressive aphasia has been reported. Because the disorder is heterogeneous with different patterns of cognitive, anatomical and biological involvement, we sought to identify whether learning disability had a predilection for one or more of the primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We screened the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center's primary progressive aphasia cohort (n = 198) for history of language-related learning disability as well as hand preference, which has associations with learning disability. The study included logopenic (n = 48), non-fluent (n = 54) and semantic (n = 96) variant primary progressive aphasias. We investigated whether the presence of learning disability or non-right-handedness was associated with differential effects on demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging features of primary progressive aphasia. We showed that a high frequency of learning disability was present only in the logopenic group (χ(2) = 15.17, P learning disability was associated with earlier onset of disease, more isolated language symptoms, and more focal pattern of left posterior temporoparietal atrophy. Non-right-handedness was instead over-represented in the semantic group, at nearly twice the prevalence of the general population (χ(2) = 6.34, P = 0.01). Within semantic variant primary progressive aphasia the right-handed and non-right-handed cohorts appeared homogeneous on imaging, cognitive profile, and structural analysis of brain symmetry. Lastly, the non-fluent group showed no increase in learning disability or non-right-handedness. Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and developmental dyslexia both

  2. A Dextral Primary Progressive Aphasia Patient with Right Dominant Hypometabolism and Tau Accumulation and Left Dominant Amyloid Accumulation

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    Young Kyoung Jang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA. Patients and Methods: We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA. Unlike other LPA patients, however, this patient showed a right hemisphere predominant glucose hypometabolism and tau accumulation and a left hemisphere predominant amyloid deposition. The right-handed patient presented with comprehension difficulty followed by problems naming familiar objects. This isolated language problem had deteriorated rapidly for 2 years, followed by memory difficulties and impairment of daily activities. Using a Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, aphasia was consistent with a severe form of Wernicke's aphasia. According to the brain magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, right hemisphere atrophy and hypometabolism, more predominant on the right hemisphere than the left, were apparent despite the fact that Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire scores indicated strong right-handedness. On Pittsburgh compound B-PET, amyloid accumulation was asymmetrical with the left hemisphere being more predominant than the right, whereas 18F-T807-PET showed a right dominant tau accumulation. Conclusions: This is the first report of atypical PPA, in which the patient exhibited crossed aphasia and asymmetrical amyloid accumulation.

  3. The Definition and Assessment of Aphasia%失语症定义和失语症评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Ha-kyung[韩国; HWANG Young-jin[韩国; 刘巧云; 周谢玲

    2013-01-01

      根据美国失语症协会定义,失语症是一种因大脑损伤引起的获得性语言障碍,患者主要表现为口语表达、听觉理解和阅读、书写能力损失。失语症多数由脑卒中或脑外伤引起,有时也可由脑肿瘤、阿尔兹海默症等其他中枢性神经损伤引起,在言语语言治疗后会有一定程度的改善。本文主要介绍了失语症的定义和波士顿失语症诊断量表、西部失语症成套测验、明尼苏达失语症鉴别诊断测验、Porch交往能力指数测试4种标准化失语症评估量表。%Aphasia is an acquired disorder caused by brain damage. The principal symptom of aphasia is the impairment in oral expression, auditory comprehension, reading and writing skills. The most common cause of aphasia is stroke or brain damage, and some neurological disorders can also induce aphasia such as brain tumor and Alzheimer’s disease. The conditions of the patients are different, but most aphasic patients can benefit from the speech and language therapy. This article introduces the definition of aphasia and 4 standardized scales for the assessment of aphasia, including Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE),Western Aphasia Battery (WAB),Minnesota Test for the Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA),Porch Index of Communicative Ability (PICA).

  4. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.Q.; Miller, Z.A.; Adhimoolam, B.; Zackey, D.C.; Khan, B.K.; Ketelle, R.; Miller, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Methods Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural MRI. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. Results All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). Conclusions New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may associate with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  5. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices.

  6. What can speech production errors tell us about cross-linguistic processing in bilingual aphasia? Evidence from four English/Afrikaans bilingual individuals with aphasia

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    Diane Kendall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is contribute to clinical practice of bilinguals around the globe, as well as to add to our understanding of bilingual aphasia processing, by analysing confrontation naming data from four Afrikaans/English bilingual individuals with acquired aphasia due to a left hemisphere stroke.Methods: This is a case series analysis of four Afrikaans/English bilingual aphasic individuals following a left cerebrovascular accident. Error analysis of confrontation naming data in both languages was performed. Research questions were directed toward the between language differences in lexical retrieval abilities, types of errors produced and degree of cognate overlap.Results: Three of the four participants showed significantly higher naming accuracy in first acquired language (L1 relative to the second acquired language (L2 and the largest proportion of error type for those three participants in both L1 and L2 was omission. One of the four participants (linguistically balanced showed no between language accuracy difference. Regarding cognate overlap, there was a trend for higher accuracy for higher cognate words (compared to low.Discussion: This study showed that naming performance in these four individuals was reflective of their relative language proficiency and use patterns prior to their stroke. These findings are consistent with the hierarchical model, in normal bilingual speakers and with persons with bilingual aphasia.

  7. Apraxic agraphia: An insight into the writing disturbances of posterior aphasias

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    Krishnan Gopee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading and writing disturbances are common accompaniments of aphasia following brain damage. However, impaired writing in the absence of apparent primary linguistic disturbances is infrequently reported in the literature. Materials and Methods: A 67-year-old right-handed subject underwent neurological, neuroradiological, and linguistic investigations following development of a minimal right upper limb weakness. Result: The patient had polycythemia and the neurological investigation revealed right upper limb paresis. The neuroradiological investigation revealed hypodense areas involving the gray-white matter of the left postero-parietal and frontal lobe, left caudate and lentiform nuclei, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule, suggesting an infarct. The linguistic investigation revealed a mild anomic aphasia with apraxic agraphia. This mild anomic aphasia resulted primarily from the relatively poor scores on the verbal fluency tests. Discussion: The marked writing impairment, even with the left hand, points to disturbances in written output - apraxic agraphia - in the presence of near-normal spoken output. This finding should raise suspicion about hidden apraxic agraphia in subjects with posterior aphasias.

  8. Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies

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    Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.…

  9. Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels

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    Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

  10. Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation

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    Priyanka eShah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stroke victims tend to prioritize speaking, writing and walking as the three most important rehabilitation goals. Of note is that two of these goals involve communication. This underscores the significance of developing successful approaches to aphasia treatment for the several hundred thousand new aphasia patients each year and over 1 million stroke survivors with chronic aphasia in the U.S. alone. After several years of growth as a research tool, noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS is gradually entering the arena of clinical aphasiology. In this review, we first examine the current state of knowledge of post-stroke language recovery including the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Next, we briefly discuss the methods and the physiologic basis of the use of inhibitory and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as research tools in patients who experience post-stroke aphasia. Finally, we provide a critical review of the most influential evidence behind the potential use of these two brain stimulation methods as clinical rehabilitative tools.

  11. Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavis, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

  12. Verb argument structure in narrative speech: Mining the AphasiaBank

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    Dirk B. Den Ouden

    2015-04-01

    These results show that verb retrieval itself is not limited by argument structure complexity in speakers with aphasia, suggesting that problems with VAS may occur ‘down the line’, i.e. with the use of VAS in sentence production and/or processing.

  13. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals with and without Aphasia

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    Chapman, Laura R.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of…

  14. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  15. Impact of Co-occurring Dysarthria and Aphasia on Functional Recovery in Post-stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the impact of co-occurring dysarthria and aphasia on functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Methods The medical records, including results of primary screening tests and secondary definite examinations for language problems, of 130 patients admitted to our institute's Department of Rehabilitation Medicine were retrospectively reviewed. Functional outcomes were assessed longitudinally using the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean version (MMSE-K), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions 3-Level version (EQ-5D-3L), the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), and Motricity Index (MI) of the hemiplegic side. Results Patients were classified into four groups regarding language function: aphasia only (group A, n=9), dysarthria only (group D, n=12), aphasia and dysarthria (group AD, n=46), and none (group N, n=55). The initial functional outcome scores in the group AD were significantly poor compared to those of the groups N and A. Within groups, there were significant improvements in all outcome measurements in the groups AD and N. A between-group analysis revealed significant improvements in K-MBI for the group AD after adjusting for the initial severity and patient's age compared to other groups. Conclusion Post-stroke patients suffering from aphasia with dysarthria showed significantly lower initial functional level and relatively wide range of recovery potential in activities of daily living compared to patients without language problems. PMID:28119830

  16. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

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    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  17. 卒中后失语的药物治疗%Drug treatment of poststroke aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许璇; 刘晓加

    2010-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the common neurological symptoms of stroke, which can seriously affect the social skills and self-care ability of patients, therefore it imposes a heavy burden on the family and society. In recent years, drug treatment of poststroke aphasia has received extensive attention. Some drugs that can affect monoamine, cholinergic and amino acid neurotransmitters have demonstrated a certain efficacy of poststroke aphasia. This article reviews the recent progress in research on drug treatment of poststroke aphasia.%失语是卒中的常见神经系统症状之一,严重影响了患者的社交能力和生活自理能力,给家庭和社会带来很大负担.近年来,卒中后失语的药物治疗方法 受到广泛关注,一些影响单胺类、胆碱能类和氨基酸类神经递质的药物对卒中后失语症显示出一定的疗效.文章就卒中后失语症的药物治疗研究进展进行了综述.

  18. 卒中后失语的药物治疗%Pharmacotherapy of poststroke aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付英子; 伞勇智; 李峰

    2012-01-01

    Poststroke aphasia is an acquired language disorder caused by stroke.It seriously affects the social ability in patients and reduces their quality of life.It might be an unbearable burden on the family and on society.However,the traditional treatment of aphasia has no positive effect.Therefore,pharmacotherapy of aphasia has received much attention.This article reviews the recent progress in researches on pharmacotherapy of poststroke aphasia.%卒中后失语是由卒中导致的获得性语言障碍,严重影响患者的社交能力并降低其生活质量,给社会和家庭都带来很大负担.传统的治疗方法没有肯定的疗效,因此失语的药物治疗备受关注.文章就卒中后失语的药物治疗研究进展进行了综述.

  19. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  20. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  1. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  2. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Janette

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the 1950s and 1960s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the 1930s. However, Jakobson used Goldstein's clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology. In particular, Jakobson fed the symptoms described by Goldstein into a structuralist model, allowing him to predict different types of aphasia deductively. Goldstein, however, saw the clinical manifestations of aphasia as a particular way of being in the world. By studying the changes associated with the patient's reaction to the disease, Goldstein wanted to reach an understanding of language functioning in the normal subject. He distinguished between an instrumental use and a symbolic use of language, the latter mainly characteristic of language use in the normal subject. Only a symbolic use reveals the essence of language by showing its intimate nature, the psychic link tying the subject to the world.

  3. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research : Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present bot

  4. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  5. Practitioners' Perspectives on Quality of Life in Aphasia Rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruice, Madeleine; Isaksen, Jytte; Jensen, Lise Randrup

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports on Danish speech and language therapists' knowledge and understanding of quality of life (QoL) in aphasia, including therapists' views on education and training in relation to preparedness for working on QoL, use of measures, and barriers to applying QoL in practice...

  6. Implementation of supported conversation for communication between nursing staff and in-hospital patients with aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Randrup; Løvholt, Annelise P.; Sørensen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    access has prompted speech-language therapists to direct intervention at contextual factors, including communication partner training (Simmons-Mackie, Raymer, Armstrong, Holland, & Cherney, 2010). Aims: An implementation project is described in which supported conversation for adults with aphasia (SCA...

  7. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  8. Activation of syntax in lexical production in healthy speakers and in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Ruth; Anderson, Elizabeth; Best, Wendy; Gregory, Emma

    2014-08-01

    Theories of spoken word production agree that semantic and phonological representations are activated in spoken word production. There is less agreement concerning the role of syntax. In this study we investigated noun syntax activation in English bare noun naming, using mass and count nouns. Fourteen healthy controls and 13 speakers with aphasia took part. Participants named mass and count nouns, and completed a related noun syntax judgement task. We analysed speakers' noun syntax knowledge when naming accurately, and when making errors in production. Healthy speakers' noun syntax judgement was accurate for words they named correctly, but this did not correlate with naming accuracy. Speakers with aphasia varied in their noun syntax judgement, and this also did not correlate with naming accuracy. Healthy speakers' syntax for semantic errors was less accurate, as was that for speakers with aphasia. For phonological errors half the participants with aphasia could access syntax, half could not, indicating two types of phonological error. Individual differences were found in no responses. Finally, we found no effect of frequency for any of the above. The lack of a relationship between syntax and naming accuracy suggests that syntax is available, but access is not obligatory. This finding supports theories incorporating non-obligatory syntactic processing, which is independent of phonological access. The semantic error data are best explained within such a theory where there is damage to phonological access and hence to independent syntax. For the aphasia group we identify two types of phonological error, one implicating syntax and phonology, and one implicating phonology only, again supporting independent access to these systems. Overall the data support a model within which syntax is independent of phonology, and activation of syntax operates flexibly dependent on task demands and integrity of other processing routines.

  9. Individualized treatment with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic nonfluent aphasia due to stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eShah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS may facilitate language recovery in chronic post-stroke aphasia, individual variability in patient response to different patterns of stimulation remains largely unexplored. We sought to characterize this variability among chronic aphasic individuals, and to explore whether repeated stimulation with an individualized optimal montage could lead to persistent reduction of aphasia severity. In a two-phase study, we first stimulated patients with 4 active montages (left hemispheric anode or cathode; right hemispheric anode or cathode and one sham montage (Phase 1. We examined changes in picture naming ability to address 1 variability in response to different montages among our patients, and 2 whether individual patients responded optimally to at least one montage. During Phase 2, subjects who responded in Phase 1 were randomized to receive either real-tDCS or to receive sham stimulation (10 days; patients who were randomized to receive sham stimulation first were then crossed over to receive real-tDCS (10 days. In both phases, 2mA tDCS was administered for 20 minutes per real-tDCS sessions and patients performed a picture naming task during stimulation. Patients’ language ability was re-tested after 2-weeks and 2-months following real and sham tDCS in Phase 2.In Phase 1, despite considerable individual variability, the greatest average improvement was observed after left-cathodal stimulation. Seven out of 12 subjects responded optimally to at least 1 montage as demonstrated by transient improvement in picture-naming. In Phase 2, aphasia severity improved at 2-weeks and 2-months following real-tDCS but not sham.Despite individual variability with respect to optimal tDCS approach, certain montages result in consistent transient improvement in persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia. This preliminary study supports the notion that individualized tDCS treatment may enhance

  10. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Improves Aphasia of Mixed Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective is to observe whether the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid improves aphasia of mixed stroke. Methods. A total of 102 patients with aphasia of mixed stroke were divided into two groups by a single blind random method. The patients treated by standard Western medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n=58 were assigned to the treatment group while the remaining patients treated only by standard Western medicine (n=58 constituted the control group. Changes in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, Modified Rankin Scale (mRS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, and hemorheology parameters were assessed to evaluate the effects of the treatments. Results. Excluding the patients who dropped out, 54 patients in the treatment group and 51 patients in the control group were used to evaluate the effects. Significant and persistent improvements in the WAB score, specifically comprehension, repetition, naming, and calculating, were found in the treatment group when the effects were evaluated at the end of week 2 and week 4, respectively, compared with baseline. The naming and writing scores were also improved at the end of week 4 in this group. The comprehension and reading scores were improved at the end of week 4 in the control group compared with the baseline, but the improvements were smaller than those in the treatment group. The percentages of patients at the 0-1 range of mRS were increased at the end of week 2 and week 4 in both groups, but the improvements in the treatment group were much larger than those in the control group. Greater improvements in the NIHSS scores and the hemorheology parameters in the treatment group were also observed compared with the control group at the end of week 2 and week 4. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid formulation improved aphasia in mixed stroke patients and thus might be a potentially effective drug for treating stroke aphasia.

  11. Functional connectivity in post-stroke aphasia: innovative tools at the service of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Durand

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an innovative approach to clinical management in post-stroke aphasia. Specifically, the evidence shows that specific anomia therapy for verbs normalizes DMN integration, thus reflecting the large scope impact of speech therapy. Also, the correlation between DMN integration values and reactivity to SFA/V shows that DMN status before therapy can be predictive of response to specific therapy. Altogether, these results show that functional integration measures of the DMN can highlight prognosis and therapy efficiency in aphasia rehabilitation.

  12. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Conduction Aphasia from a Close Proximity Blast Resulting in Arcuate Fasciculus Damage Diagnosed on DTI Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    November 2009 issue. 1 The authors present a case demonstrating that a blast injury was associated with both conduction aphasia and an abnormality in...communication which are described below as conduction aphasia and neurogenic stuttering secondary to the aphasia. Also, his family felt that his personality... stuttering , and “mumbling” speech. In continued evaluation, estimated premorbid intellectual ability was at least in the average range. Speech

  13. A new test battery to assess aphasic disturbances and associated cognitive dysfunctions -- German normative data on the aphasia check list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Elke; Reinhold, Nadine; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J; Kessler, Josef

    2005-10-01

    Aphasia, defined as an acquired impairment of linguistic abilities, can be accompanied by a diversity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Accordingly, the necessity to include cognitive testing in the diagnosis of aphasia is increasingly recognized. Here we present the Aphasia Check List (ACL), a new test battery for the assessment of aphasic and associated cognitive disorders. The language part of the battery provides a differentiated profile of important linguistic abilities. In addition, the ACL includes nonverbal screening tests for three neuropsychological domains: memory, attention, and reasoning. Dysfunctions in these domains have been observed in aphasic patients and can have an impact on language function. The ACL is applicable to patients with language disturbances of different etiologies, different stages of disease, and to patients with mild to severe aphasia. As the entire test duration is only about 30 minutes, the ACL is also economically valuable. It thus presents an adequate starting point in aphasia diagnosis for a wide range of patients. Here we describe the construction of the ACL, and the normative study of its original German version with 154 aphasic patients and 106 healthy comparison subjects. The ACL cognition part revealed additional neuropsychological dysfunction in the aphasia group. We present the patterns of these dysfunctions and their correlations with language deficits.

  14. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  15. Research Progress in Aphasia after Stroke Based on Collateral Disease Theory%从络病论卒中后失语研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏裕盛; 陈立典

    2014-01-01

    卒中后失语属于络病范畴,本文从卒中后失语症发病机制研究络病理论治疗卒中后失语的临床进展,为临床治疗卒中后失语提供参考。%Aphasia after stroke belongs to the category of collateral disease, this article studies the research progress in collateral disease theory treat-ing aphasia after stroke according to the pathogenesis of aphasia after stroke, to provide the reference for clinical therapy on aphasia after stroke.

  16. Melodic Intonation Therapy in chronic aphasia: evidence from a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Van Der Meulen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT. Subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list randomized controlled trial design. Patients with chronic (>1 year post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT. Assessments were done at baseline (T1, after 6 weeks (T2, and 6 weeks later (T3. Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β=13.32, p=.02. This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This

  17. Relationship between linguistic functions and cognitive functions in a clinical study of Chinese patients with post-stroke aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zeng-zhi; JIANG Shu-jun; BI Sheng; LI Jun; LEI Di; SUN Li-ling

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a long debate among scholars surrounding the relationship between language and cognition.The worldwide study of aphasia is actively exploring the function of language from cognitive point of view.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between linguistic functions and cognitive functions in a clinical study of Chinese patients with post-stroke aphasia.Methods Cognitive functions of 63 Chinese patients with aphasia following a stroke were assessed with the Chinese version of the second edition of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery and their linguistic functions were tested with the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) Scale,respectively.The correlation between the results observed on the LOTCA battery and those on the WAB was analyzed.Aphasia quotient,performance quotient,cortical quotient,and linguistic function of the patients were compared.Then,each language function was analyzed by way of dependent adopt multiple regression analysis.Results The total score of 63 patients as shown on the LOTCA battery was significantly correlated with the aphasia quotient,performance quotient,and cortical quotient observed on the WAB Scale (P <0.05,P <0.01).However,the correlation between visuomotor organization under LOTCA and repeat under WAB was not significant (P >0.05).The attention of LOTCA and WAB's spontaneous speech,repeat,naming,and aphasia quotient was not relevant either (P>0.05).In addition,correlations between the results observed on the LOTCA battery and the WAB were significant (P<0.05,P <0.01).Among the significant variables finally entered into the standardized canonical discriminant functions,main factors affected the aphasia.Multiple regression analysis showed that orientation,spatial perception,and visual perception had a notable influence on aphasia quotient and naming.Orientation and thinking operation was found to have a notable influence on spontaneous speech.Spatial perception and

  18. Quantitative assessment of impairment in constructional ability by cube copying in patients with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Ueyoshi, Akitaka; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Boh-Oka, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Itakura, Toru

    2002-02-01

    Constructional apraxia was evaluated in patients with aphasia using a cube-copying task. It was assessed whether quantitative assessment of cube copying could be used to estimate the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) according to neuropsychological tests. Abnormality in the cube-copying test was observed in 42 of 46 patients (91.3%). Performance according to Raven's coloured progressive matrices and the revised Wechshler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) in patients with poor cube copying was significantly lower than in the other four patients. Numbers of the connections completed and plane-orientation errors made in the cube-copying test were significantly correlated with performance IQ on the WAIS-R, correlating particularly with block design, digit symbol, and object assembly in performance IQ subtests. The quantitatively scored cube-copying test, then, can roughly predict non-verbal IQ in patients with aphasia.

  19. Examining the value of lexical retrieval treatment in primary progressive aphasia: two positive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M L; Rising, K; DeMarco, A T; Miller, B L; Gorno-Tempini, M L; Beeson, P M

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression.

  20. Aphasia in a user of British Sign Language: Dissociation between sign and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane; Atkinson, Jo; Smulovitch, Elaine; Thacker, Alice; Woll, Bencie

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports a single case investigation of "Charles", a Deaf man with sign language aphasia following a left CVA. Anomia, or a deficit in sign retrieval, was a prominent feature of his aphasia, and this showed many of the well-documented characteristics of speech anomia. For example, sign retrieval was sensitive to familiarity, it could be cued, and there were both semantic and phonological errors. Like a previous case in the literature (Corina, Poizner, Bellugi, Feinberg, Dowd, & O'Grady-Batch, 1992), Charles demonstrated a striking dissociation between sign and gesture, since his gesture production was relatively intact. This dissociation was impervious to the iconicity of signs. So, Charles' sign production showed no effect of iconicity, and gesture production was superior to sign production even when the forms of the signs and gestures were similar. The implications of these findings for models of sign and gesture production are discussed.

  1. Linguistic analysis of discourse in aphasia: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lucy; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This review examined previous research applications of linguistic discourse analysis to assess the language of adults with aphasia. A comprehensive literature search of seven databases identified 165 studies that applied linguistic measures to samples of discourse collected from people with aphasia. Analysis of methodological applications revealed an increase in published research using linguistic discourse analysis over the past 40 years, particularly to measure the generalisation of therapy outcomes to language in use. Narrative language samples were most frequently subject to analysis though all language genres were observed across included studies. A total of 536 different linguistic measures were applied to examine language behaviours. Growth in the research use of linguistic discourse analysis and suggestions that this growth may be reflected in clinical practice requires further investigation. Future research directions are discussed to investigate clinical use of discourse analysis and examine the differences that exist between research and clinical practice.

  2. Engaging People with Aphasia in Design of Rehabilitation Through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    The research literature on participatory design in relation to people with communicative and cognitive disabilities often focuses on the challenges of communication among the participants. This paper presents a case study involving people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain...... injury (aphasia) early in a design process of an avatar-mediated virtual learning environment for rehabilitation. The example demonstrates how providing time and space and supporting the communication with well-suited tools and artefact opens for firth-hand domain knowledge of living with aphasia....... The results demonstrate that participatory design methods might result in much more than just being a step in the design process. In this specific case, it turns out to be a tool to engage, involve, and empower people with communication disabilities to interact and communicate. The paper argues...

  3. Usefulness of MRI and SPECT studies in evaluating the lesion of aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Arai, Hisayuki; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Since the introduction of CT scanning, correlations between neuropsychological findings and anatomical lesions have been studied. Anatomical studies by CT scans may, however, be misleading in delineating the extent of lesions in aphasia. We have carried out MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and SPECT (single photon emission CT) examinations in 15 aphasic patients with cerebrovascular disease and discussed the usefulness of these studies. Compared to CT scan, MRI or SPECT studies were considered to be very useful in 8 of 15 patients. The useful points of these studies were: (1) easy detection of lesions with undetectable damages on CT, (2) demonstration of functional abnormalities in areas adjacent or distant from cerebrovascular lesions, and (3) precise definition of topographical abnormalities because of the three-dimensional imaging capability of MRI. As MRI or SPECT may define the actual extent of lesions and show areas of functional abnormality, these studies are useful and necessary in the assessment of lesions causing aphasia. (author).

  4. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms.

  5. 'It really makes good sense': the role of outcome evaluation in aphasia therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    as well as the role the outcome evaluation had in their work with people with aphasia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by means of qualitative thematic analysis. Outcomes & ResultsSix themes corresponding with the aims of this study were identified. These show that the SLTs initially...... others. Not only it is seen as a product in which outcome and/or client satisfaction is documented, but also it is described as a dynamic process that benefits the clients, significant others, the therapy and the SLTs themselves in various ways. This role of outcome evaluation ranges from enhancement...... of insight and promotion of acceptance for the clients and significant others to planning the next step in therapy or in life with aphasia after therapy. In all of which the clients play a significant role, since their active participation is sought throughout the sessions. Conclusion & Implications...

  6. Neural activity associated with semantic versus phonological anomia treatments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Sophia; McMahon, Katie; Angwin, Anthony; de Zubicaray, Greig; Copland, David A

    2014-02-01

    Naming impairments in aphasia are typically targeted using semantic and/or phonologically based tasks. However, it is not known whether these treatments have different neural mechanisms. Eight participants with aphasia received twelve treatment sessions using an alternating treatment design, with fMRI scans pre- and post-treatment. Half the sessions employed Phonological Components Analysis (PCA), and half the sessions employed Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA). Pre-treatment activity in the left caudate correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with SFA, whereas recruitment of the left supramarginal gyrus and right precuneus post-treatment correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with PCA. The results support previous studies that have found greater treatment outcome to be associated with activity in predominantly left hemisphere regions, and suggest that different mechanisms may be engaged dependent on the type of treatment employed.

  7. Substituição do processo de usinagem pelo processo de forjamento a quente na fabricação da pré-forma de brocas de furação de rochas

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Chemale Yurgel

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar a viabilidade da troca de processo de usinagem pelo processo de forjamento a quente na fabricação da cavidade interna da pré-forma de brocas de furação de rochas, onde se observa na comparação entre os processos uma menor perda de matéria prima na utilização do novo processo, o que caracteriza a viabilidade dessa mudança. Foram realizados ensaios de forjamento para fabricação da cavidade da broca. Primeiramente, se utilizou um punção cônico, com um form...

  8. Crossed Aphasia. I: A Case-Study with Purely Deep Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laiacona

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the case of a right-handed man, MR, who after right thalamic haemorrhage presented subtranscortical aphasia. Of the disturbances generally associated with standard left hemisphere functions, the patient presented acalculia but not apraxia. Among the functions attributed to the standard right hemisphere, MR showed impairment in affective language and presented unilateral neglect and a strong position preference.

  9. A reappraisal of echolalia in aphasia: A case-series study with multimodal neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    López-Barroso, Diana; Torres-Prioris, María José; Roé-Vellvé, Nuria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Paredes-Pacheco, José; López-González, Francisco; Tubío, Javier; Alfaro, Francisco; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Dávila, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Verbal echoes are commonplace in patients with aphasia, yet information on their cognitive and neural mechanisms remains unexplored (Berthier et al., in press). This study aims to instantiate the concept of echolalia (Berthier et al., 2016) by reappraising its relevance in the frame of modern neuroscience in three different types: (1) automatic echolalia (AE) (parrot-like repetition of all verbal stimuli); (2) mitigated echolalia (ME) (changes in echoes for communica...

  10. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke.

  11. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Aldo; Belvisi, Daniele; Marsili, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Entrapment of the temporal horn is an extremely rare pathologic condition occurring as a result of surgery for tumors, intraventricular infections, hemorrhage, or traumatic events involving the peritrigonal area. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed. PMID:26251784

  12. Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibb, Jonathan A; Woollams, Anna M; Hodges, John R; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-10-01

    The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia.

  13. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual masking of primes is a method used to tap into automatic processing while reducing or eliminating conscious processing of the primes. Masking is achieved by presenting primes very rapidly and preceding and/or following them with additional visual stimuli that interfere with conscious processing of the primes (Greenwald, Klinger & Liu, 1989; Forster, Mohan & Hector, 2003). A recent series of studies using masked priming with aphasia (Silkes, Dierkes & Kendall, 2012;...

  14. Cortical blindness along with motor aphasia: An unusual presentation of fat embolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Umesh Kumar; Lamoria, Ravinder Kumar; Millan, Ravi Kant; Agarwal, Piyush; Singh, Mahendra; Bansal, Mahesh Chand

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome presented with the classical triad of respiratory manifestations (95%), cerebral effects (60%) and Petechial rash (33%). Focal neurological symptoms in the form of combined bilateral cortical blindness and motor aphasia even prior to respiratory symptoms have been never reported in previous literature. We describe a case of these rare focal neurological symptoms secondary to the fat embolism syndrome in a young adult male following closed femur fracture.

  15. Contrasting effects of errorless naming treatment and gestural facilitation for word retrieval in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Anastasia M; McHose, Beth; Smith, Kimberly G; Iman, Lisa; Ambrose, Alexis; Casselton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of two treatments for aphasic word retrieval impairments, errorless naming treatment (ENT) and gestural facilitation of naming (GES), within the same individuals, anticipating that the use of gesture would enhance the effect of treatment over errorless treatment alone. In addition to picture naming, we evaluated results for other outcome measures that were largely untested in earlier ENT studies. In a single participant crossover treatment design, we examined the effects of ENT and GES in eight individuals with stroke-induced aphasia and word retrieval impairments (three semantic anomia, five phonological anomia) in counterbalanced phases across participants. We evaluated effects of the two treatments for a daily picture naming/gesture production probe measure and in standardised aphasia tests and communication rating scales administered across phases of the experiment. Both treatments led to improvements in naming of trained words (small-to-large effect sizes) in individuals with semantic and phonological anomia. Small generalised naming improvements were noted for three individuals with phonological anomia. GES improved use of corresponding gestures for trained words (large effect sizes). Results were largely maintained at one month post-treatment completion. Increases in scores on standardised aphasia testing also occurred for both ENT and GES training. Both ENT and GES led to improvements in naming measures, with no clear difference between treatments. Increased use of gestures following GES provided a potential compensatory means of communication for those who did not improve verbal skills. Both treatments are considered to be effective methods to promote recovery of word retrieval and verbal production skills in individuals with aphasia.

  16. 原发性进行性失语患者脑内影像学特点:1例核磁共振分析%Intracerebral image features of the patient with primary progressive aphasia: One case of nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德信; 张彤

    2005-01-01

    complaint and was diagnosed in Department of Neurology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital on March 20th, 2004. 3 years before that time, the patient could not tell the name of daily living appliances while his comprehensive ability was generally normal. 2 years before, he could still be in business. 1 year before, his language disorder was aggravated, auditory and comprehensive abilities gradually decreased and the changes of character turned up while he could take care of himself and had no obvious degeneration in memory ability. Neural systemic examination: systolic pressure was 130 mmHg and diastolic pressure was 80 mmHg, with clear consciousness, poor language expression ability, and nomenclatural disability while no abnormity was inspected in other neural systematic examinations. He was assessed as sensory aphasia with normal memory and intelligence according to aphasia assessment measuring scale made by the First Hospital of Beijing Medical University.METHODS: First, general magnetic resonance examination was taken to fix the lesion area of the patient. Then, functional magnetic resonance was carried out, which mainly included using magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis to determine the metabolic rates of N-acetyl-aspartic acid, choline and creatine in the lesion area and then compare them with those in the contralateral corresponding area; Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging was carried out to detect regional cerebral blood volume, regional cerebral blood flow, average pass time and peak time of the contrast medium; Fibertracking method was used to track corticospinal tract and the amount of connecting fibers between left Broca and Wernicke areas and then compare them with those in the contralateral corresponding area.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Detection of the metabolic rates of Nacetyl-aspartic acid, choline and creatine in lesion area and the contralateral area; Detection of regional cerebral blood volume, regional cerebral blood flow, average pass time and peak time of

  17. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.

  18. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  19. Global aphasia as a predictor of mortality in the acute phase of a first stroke

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    F F Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish whether vascular aphasic syndromes can predict stroke outcomes. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults were evaluated for speech and language within 72 hours after a single first-ever ischemic brain lesion, in blind association to CT and/or MR. RESULTS: Speech or language disabilities were found in seven (87.5% of the eight deceased patients and twenty-six (89.7% of the twenty-nine survivors. Global aphasia was identified in eleven patients, all with left hemisphere lesions (nine mute; five deceased, consisting on a risk factor for death in the acute stroke phase (ρ=0.022. Age (z=1.65; ρ>0.09, thrombolysis (ρ=0.591, infarct size (ρ=0.076 and side (ρ=0.649 did not significantly influence survival. Absence of aphasia did not predict a better evolution, regardless of the affected hemisphere. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was similar for all patient groups. CONCLUSION: Global aphasia in acute stroke can adversely affect prognosis, translated into impairment of dominant perisylvian vascular territories, with mutism as an important semiological element.

  20. Gesture discrimination in primary progressive aphasia: the intersection between gesture and language processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sunaert, Stefan; Fannes, Katrien; Dupont, Patrick; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2010-05-05

    The issue of the relationship between language and gesture processing and the partial overlap of their neural representations is of fundamental importance to neurology, psychology, and social sciences. Patients suffering from primary progressive aphasia, a clinical syndrome characterized by comparatively isolated language deficits, may provide direct evidence for anatomical and functional association between specific language deficits and gesture discrimination deficits. A consecutive series of 16 patients with primary progressive aphasia and 16 matched control subjects participated. Our nonverbal gesture discrimination task consisted of 19 trials. In each trial, participants observed three video clips showing the same gesture performed correctly in one clip and incorrectly in the other two. Subjects had to indicate which of the three versions was correct. Language and gesture production were evaluated by means of conventional tasks. All participants underwent high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Ten of the primary progressive aphasia patients showed a significant deficit on the nonverbal gesture discrimination task. A factor analysis revealed that this deficit clustered with gesture imitation, word and pseudoword repetition, and writing-to-dictation. Individual scores on this cluster correlated with volume in the left anterior inferior parietal cortex extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Probabilistic tractography indicated this region comprised the cortical relay station of the indirect pathway connecting the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal cortex. Thus, the left perisylvian temporoparietal area may underpin verbal imitative behavior, gesture imitation, and gesture discrimination indicative of a partly shared neural substrate for language and gesture resonance.

  1. Validity and reliability of a new test for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients: Ege Aphasia Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, Funda Atamaz; On, Arzu Yagiz; Durmaz, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that the phonetic, morphological and syntactic structures of the Turkish language differ significantly from other European languages, the translated forms of the currently available aphasia assessment batteries are not adequate for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ege Aphasia Test that we have developed. The test, which includes the 8 subtests of praxia, spontaneous language, auditory and verbal comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing and calculating, was applied into 100 aphasic patients, 40 dysarthric patients and 40 healthy subjects. All test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were found to be excellent (ICC = 0.99). The Cronbach's coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. All the subtests showed significantly greater scores in aphasic patients (p language, which is spoken mainly in Turkey and in the surrounding regions. We believe that this study will pioneer the development of aphasia rehabilitation in these countries and contribute to future studies.

  2. [The phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia, a single case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2011-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression of deficits that can involve any aspect of language, including word finding, object naming, fluency, syntax, phonology and word comprehension. The initial symptoms occur in the absence of major deficits in other cognitive domains, including episodic memory, visuospatial abilities and visuoconstruction. According to recent diagnostic guidelines, PPA is typically divided into three variants: nonfluent variant PPA (also termed progressive nonfluent aphasia), semantic variant PPA (also termed semantic dementia) and logopenic/phonological variant PPA (also termed logopenic progressive aphasia). The paper describes a 79-yr old man, who presented with normal motor speech and production rate, impaired single word retrieval and phonemic errors in spontaneous speech and confrontational naming. Confrontation naming was strongly affected by lexical frequency. He was impaired on repetition of sentences and phrases. Reading was intact for regularly spelled words but not for irregular words (surface dyslexia). Comprehension was spared at the single word level, but impaired for complex sentences. He performed within the normal range on the Dutch equivalent of the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT) Pictures Test, indicating that semantic processing was preserved. There was, however, a slight deficiency on the PPT Words Test, which appeals to semantic knowledge of verbal associations. His core deficit was interpreted as an inability to retrieve stored lexical-phonological information for spoken word production in spontaneous speech, confrontation naming, repetition and reading aloud.

  3. [The significance of the study of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia at present time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M

    1999-12-01

    Neuropsychology initiated by the study of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia had been regarded as one division of psychiatry. This is one of the reasons why neuropsychology is minor territory in neurology. Some people say that neuropsychology seems difficult to understand, not scientific, not useful and is rather a man's taste than a medicine. I try to respond in this paper to these critics by way of analyzing our own cases while insisting on the today's importance of the study of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia. Our personal cases consist of the following three categories. 1) Primary progressive apraxia: proposal of the symptomatic concept suggested by the investigation of our own eight cases and those in the literature. 2) Musical alexia with agraphia in a trombone player: study of the cerebral localization in a person with special ability. 3) Disturbance of reaching proposal of intracerebral pathways in kinesthesia. Therefore it is highly possible that the significance of the study of aphasia, apraxia and agnosia should become enlarged now and after; and it seems urgent to answer its need that younger neurologists participate in this area.

  4. How intensive does anomia therapy for people with aphasia need to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Snell, Claerwen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of aphasia therapy has been a key clinical question. The aim of this case-series study was to compare the outcome of intensive and non-intensive therapy in the relearning of words for people with aphasia. Eight participants took part in a study comparing the intensity of delivery of the therapy. Participants received two courses of the same therapy (each lasting 10 sessions) delivered either intensively or non-intensively. Therapy consisted of confrontation naming with progressive phonemic and orthographic cues. Post-therapy assessments were carried out immediately after the study and one month later. Performance was also monitored during each therapy session. Immediately post-therapy, both types of therapy had improved naming accuracy considerably and there was no significant difference between the two interventions. One month later, seven out of eight participants showed a small yet significant difference in naming accuracy, favouring non-intensive over intense therapy. There were no differences in the learning patterns during the therapy sessions between the intensive and non-intensive therapies. For the majority of people with aphasia post-stroke, both intense and non-intense therapy for anomia leads to improved naming performance. Retention at one-month post therapy is relatively superior after non-intensive therapy.

  5. CONTROLE QUÍMICO E BIOLÓGICO DA BROCA-PELUDA, Hyponeuma sp. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, NA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvelena Vanzolini Segato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é uma cultura que vem se expandindo gradativamente e vem mostrando grandepotencial econômico. Devido às diversas condições climáticas e demais fatores, muitas lavouras estão sendoinfestadas por novas pragas. Uma das mais recentes é a broca-peluda, Hyponeuma taltula (Schaus (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae, com poucas informações geradas e sem medidas de controle até o momento.O presente estudo teve porobjetivo avaliar a eficácia de inseticidas e fungos entomopatogênicos no controle da broca-peluda em cana-deaçúcar,em Ribeirão Preto, SP. O ensaio foi instalado na variedade SP 81-3250, cana-soca, em um delineamento emblocos casualizados, onde cinco tratamentos foram repetidos quatro vezes, em parcelas de 42 m2. Os tratamentosforam: (i Beauveria bassiana (Boveriz®Biocontrol, 5x1013 conídios ha-1; (ii Metarhizium anisopliae(Metarriz®Biocontrol, 5x1013 conídios ha-1; (iii carbofurano (Furadan® 350 SC, 5 L ha-1; (iv tiametoxam (Actara®250 WG, 1,5 Kg ha-1; (v testemunha. As avaliações foram periódicas, contando-se o número de lagartas vivas emum metro linear por repetição. Os fungos testados não foram eficazes no controle da broca-peluda, provavelmentepor que foram aplicados em período seco. Os inseticidas carbofurano e tiametoxam foram eficientes no controle dapraga a partir dos 14 dias após a aplicação, mas tiametoxam causou redução de 93,4% aos 28 dias após a aplicação,sendo esse o inseticida mais eficiente.The sugarcane is a crop that has been expanding gradually and is showing great economic potential.Due to various weather conditions and other factors, many crops are infested by new pests. One of the most recent isHyponeuma taltula (Schaus (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, with little information generated and without controlmeasures so far. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi to controlHyponeuma sp. in sugarcane, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo state. The

  6. TEORÍA DE BILL MUNDY EN EL MECANIZADO DE COBRE CON BROCAS Y MACHOS ESPECIALES BILL MUNDY THEORY. SPECIAL DRILLS AND TAPS TOOLS IN COPPER MACHINING

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    Alejandro Colque C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El mecanizado del cobre, debido a su fluidez, produce una viruta plástica y continua que afecta la calidad superficial de las piezas mecanizadas. El método desarrollado por el ingeniero norteamericano Bill Mundy permite obtener el mejor ángulo de corte para mecanizar un material. El taladrado y el roscado con machos son dos procesos de mecanizado que tienen aspectos en común. Diseños de nuevas herramientas, nuevos materiales y técnicas de mecanizado, mejorías en la lubricación, diferentes velocidades de corte y avances, son variables que se deben estudiar para obtener una menor potencia, mayor duración de la herramienta y buen acabado superficial. En este trabajo probetas de cobre fueron ensayadas a tracción y se determinó experimentalmente el ángulo efectivo de corte, de acuerdo con la teoría de Bill Mundy. Posteriormente se fabricaron nuevas probetas que fueron perforadas con brocas tipo H, N y W, con refrigeración externa, refrigeración interna y en seco. Se usaron machos de máquina de dos y tres hélices. En cada perforación se midió la velocidad de rotación, avance, fuerza de corte, momento torsor y potencia necesaria. Se verificó que en el taladrado de cobre un ángulo mayor de la hélice favorece el desmenuzado de la viruta y disminuye el momento torsor. Brocas con refrigeración interna pueden ser utilizadas con mayores velocidades y muestran una mejor calidad superficial del perforado. Las brocas y machos con un ángulo de ataque próximo al ángulo calculado experimentalmente por la teoría de Bill Mundy muestran un buen comportamiento en el mecanizado y menor consumo de potencia.Copper drilling produces plastic and continuous chip. Bill Mundy a North American engineer developed a method who allows determines experimentally the best cutting angle material machining. Drilling and threading processes has several aspects in common. New tools design, new materials, new techniques, new lubrication and cooling improvement

  7. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  8. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

  9. A Comparison of the Visual Attention Patterns of People with Aphasia and Adults without Neurological Conditions for Camera-Engaged and Task-Engaged Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Hux, Karen; Longenecker, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia and adults without neurological conditions when viewing visual scenes with 2 types of engagement. Method: Eye-tracking technology was used to measure the visual attention patterns of 10 adults with aphasia and 10 adults without neurological…

  10. Implicit learning in aphasia: Evidence from serial reaction time and artificial grammar tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schuchard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Implicit learning involves extracting patterns through repeated exposure to stimuli. Little is known about this learning process in individuals with aphasia, although evidence suggests that implicit learning mechanisms remain intact in aphasia (Goschke et al., 2001; Schuchard & Thompson, 2014. The purpose of the present research was to test implicit learning in aphasia in two experiments. Method. Nine individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 21 age-matched healthy adults served as participants for both experiments. Experiment 1 examined nonverbal sequence learning, which required participants to perform a visuomotor serial reaction time task by pressing buttons corresponding to the location of an asterisk that appeared on a computer monitor. Unknown to participants, the location of the asterisk followed a repeating sequence until the final block of the experiment, in which the locations were randomized. Experiment 2 tested grammar learning. Participants were exposed to pseudowords ordered in short sentences according to the rules of an artificial phrase structure grammar (Saffran, 2002. On the first day of the study, all aphasic participants and twelve of the healthy participants received grammar training by listening to grammatical sentences in the artificial language for 30 minutes, followed by completion of a grammaticality judgment test. These participants returned the next day, during which they completed the grammaticality judgment test again, participated in a second session of training (i.e., listening to sentences, and completed a final administration of the judgment test. Untrained healthy control participants completed the three tests but did not receive the two training sessions. Results. Results from the serial reaction time task showed a significant increase in reaction time during the final randomized block compared to the preceding sequenced block, indicating implicit learning of the sequence, for both

  11. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Wilson, Stephen M; Henry, Maya L; Filippi, Massimo; Agosta, Federica; Dronkers, Nina F; Henry, Roland G; Ogar, Jennifer M; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome that encompasses three major phenotypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. These clinical entities have been associated with characteristic patterns of focal grey matter atrophy in left posterior frontoinsular, anterior temporal and left temporoparietal regions, respectively. Recently, network-level dysfunction has been hypothesized but research to date has focused largely on studying grey matter damage. The aim of this study was to assess the integrity of white matter tracts in the different primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We used diffusion tensor imaging in 48 individuals: nine non-fluent, nine semantic, nine logopenic and 21 age-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to identify bilateral inferior longitudinal (anterior, middle, posterior) and uncinate fasciculi (referred to as the ventral pathway); and the superior longitudinal fasciculus segmented into its frontosupramarginal, frontoangular, frontotemporal and temporoparietal components, (referred to as the dorsal pathway). We compared the tracts' mean fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities for each tract in the different diagnostic categories. The most prominent white matter changes were found in the dorsal pathways in non-fluent patients, in the two ventral pathways and the temporal components of the dorsal pathways in semantic variant, and in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal bundles in logopenic patients. Each of the primary progressive aphasia variants showed different patterns of diffusion tensor metrics alterations: non-fluent patients showed the greatest changes in fractional anisotropy and radial and mean diffusivities; semantic variant patients had severe changes in all metrics; and logopenic patients had the least white matter damage, mainly involving diffusivity, with fractional anisotropy altered only in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal pathway. This study demonstrates

  12. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae and Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n = 8) and older unimpaired controls (n = 60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb's selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n = 4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n = 4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests

  13. Advance in Diagnosis and Therapy for Chinese Aphasia%失语症的研究进展

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    周延华; 王东

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to analyse and review the literature of diagnosis and treatment of Chinese aphasia at homein recent years. The traditional neuropsychological check method, had been much more applicated and studied in the diagnostic research of Chinese aphasia at present, and in thefuture the check methods of Chinese aphasiashowed diversification, systematic and standardized development. Reshearches tended to comprehensive treatment as the main approach for Chinese aphasia in a conclusion.%  本文就近年来对于汉语失语症的诊断与治疗研究文献进行综述,旨在进一步说明失语症的检查方法多样及治疗方法倾向于综合治疗。

  14. A Single-subject Study to Examine the Effects of Constrained-induced Aphasia Therapy on Naming Deficit

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    Shohre Kavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is prevalent in people following stroke, which can have a significant impact on the quality of life of the patients with stroke. One of the new methods for treatment of patients with aphasia is constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CIAT on naming deficits in individuals with chronic aphasia. This study had a prospective, single-subject study with A-B-A design. The CIAT was administered to two patients with chronic aphasia. Participants were a 57-year-old male and a 45-year-old female and had a stroke 60 and 36 months ago, respectively. In this study, the naming test was used as the outcome measure. The naming test was administered in three baseline sessions with 1 week interval between tests (phase A. Patients received CIAT for four consecutive weeks (3 days/week. Four measurements were taken during the treatment phase (phase B. In follow-up phase (phase A two other measurements were performed. Visual analysis consisting of level, regression line, and variability were used to determine the effects of CIAT on naming. Both participants increased scores on naming test after phase A and B. The mean of the naming score improved from the baseline to the intervention phase in both participants. There was a positive trend in naming scores during the treatment phase compared with the trend in the baseline demonstrated by both participants. The results of this study showed that the CIAT can be effective in improving the naming deficit in patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIONAL SKILLS OF PERSONS WITH BROCA’S APHASIA AS A CONCOMITANCE FROM CEREBROVASCULAR INSULT

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    Ilija TODOROV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Persons with Broca’s aphasia socialize in societymuch faster, because of the early rehabilitationtreatment using the speech therapy. In thebeginning of the illness, the voice production isarduous and the speech is with variable prosody.The patient expresses himself exceptionally withnouns and working verbs, also using mimics andgestures.The main purpose of the research is the evaluationof the communicational language skills of personswith Broca’s aphasia, even in the acuteness of theillness. The goal is also to examine and establishthe opinion of persons with Broca’s aphasia, theirfamily members and medical staff regarding theuse of early rehabilitation treatment with speechtherapy.The basic tasks of this research are to determinewhether the disturbance of verbal interaction isoften followed with speech apraxia andagrammatism among the persons suffering fromBroca’s aphasia. Two types of examinees areincluded in the research. The survey was conductedin Skopje and in a period of three months.The data gained from the research are grouped,tabulated, processed and graphically shownusing the program Microsoft Office Excel 2003.The differecnces in the data of the examinees isanalyzed with Chi square test with level of significanceр<0.05. From the analyzis and interpretationof the results we can see that personswith Broca’s aphasia, although produce incompletesentences, they verbalise sentences withcontent which are informative for their interlocutorand the auditory understending is less demagedthan the expressive funcion of the speech.In conclusion, the study found that earlyrehabilitation treatment using speech therapyfor persons with Broca’s aphasia resulted infaster improvements and better capabilities forspeech-language communicational skills.

  16. Stroke and aphasia quality of life scale in Kannada-evaluation of reliability, validity and internal consistency

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    S Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life (QoL dwells in a person′s overall well-being. Recently, QoL measures have become critical and relevant in stroke survivors. Instruments measuring QoL of individuals with aphasia are apparently rare in the Indian context. The present study aimed to develop a Kannada instrument to measure the QoL of people with aphasia. Study objectives were to validate Stroke and aphasia quality of life-39 (SAQOL-39 into Kannada, to measure test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Materials and Methods: The original English instrument was modified considering socio-cultural differences among native English and Kannada speakers. Cross-linguistic adaptation of SAQOL-39 into Kannada was carried out through forward-backward translation scheme. The scale was administered on 32 people from Karnataka (a state in India having aphasia. For a direct understanding of the subject′s QoL, scores were categorized into QoL severity levels. Item reliability of the Kannada version was examined by measuring Cronbach′s alpha. Test-retest reliability was examined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: Kannada SAQOL-39 showed good acceptability with minimum missing data and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.8. Value of Cronbach′s α observed for four items modified in the original version was 0.9 each and the mean α of all Kannada items was 0.9, demonstrating high internal consistency. Conclusions: The present study offers a valid, reliable tool to measure QoL in Kannada-speaking individuals with aphasia. This tool is useful in a cross-center, cross-national comparison of QoL data from people with aphasia. This instrument also permits direct translation into other Indian languages as the items are culturally validated to the Indian population. This study promotes future research using the Kannada SAQOL-39.

  17. Treatment-Induced Neuroplasticity Following Intensive Speech Therapy and a Home Practice Program in Fifteen Cases of Chronic Aphasia

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    Jacquie Kurland

    2015-04-01

    •\tActivity in R posSTG decreased over time for CORR pictures while increasing over time for TR/PR pictures Discussion Short-term intensive treatment followed by a home practice program can produce enduring language improvements that provide rich opportunities for investigating treatment-induced neuroplasticity in aphasia. Given the high degree of individual variability in lesion location/extent, and the resulting variability in aphasia type/severity, it makes sense to examine treatment-induced changes in neural activity patterns within subjects where ‘signature’ patterns of activity are remarkably reliable across time.

  18. Preserved processing of musical syntax in a person with agrammatic aphasia

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    Sadhvi Saxena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work suggests that processing hierarchical structure in language and in music rely on shared systems (review: Slevc, 2012, however this conclusion is tempered by neuropsychological dissociations between linguistic and musical processing (i.e., aphasia and amusia; review: Peretz, 2006. An influential reconciliation comes from Patel’s (2003 shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH, which suggests that evidence for shared processes reflect reliance on shared syntactic integration processes whereas dissociations result from damage to domain-specific syntactic representations. The SSIRH thus predicts that patients with deficits in the processing of linguistic syntax–such as agrammatic aphasics–should show parallel deficits in musical structural (harmonic processing. This prediction is countered by findings of impaired harmonic processing in patients with (apparently spared linguistic syntactic processing (e.g., Sammler et al., 2011, however evidence for the opposite dissociation–preserved harmonic processing in agrammatic aphasia–is lacking. While there are reports of preserved musical abilities despite global aphasia (Basso & Capitani, 1985 or severe Wernicke’s aphasia (Luria, Tsvetkova, & Futer, 1965, of preserved reading and writing of music in the face of alexia and agraphia (Signoret et al., 1987, and of preserved musical sound naming in the face of severe anomia (Tzortzis et al., 2000, no study (to our knowledge has demonstrated preserved musical structural processing in an agrammatic patient. In addition, at least one group of agrammatic aphasics did not show normal effects of harmonic priming, and showed a relationship between accuracy on acceptability judgments in language and in music (Patel et al., 2008. Here, we report a detailed analysis of structural processing in language and in music in HV, a 63 year-old native English-speaking female musician who sustained a left peri-Sylvian stroke. She

  19. Please Don't Stop the Music: Song Completion in Patients with Aphasia

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    Anna Victoria Kasdan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many patients with aphasia, particularly those with nonfluent aphasia, have been observed to be able to sing the lyrics of songs more easily than they can speak the same words (Wan et al., 2010. The observation that not only singing, but even intoning words, can facilitate speech output in nonfluent aphasia patients provided the foundation for Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT; Sparks, 1974, an intensive therapy lasting ten or more weeks (Schlaug et al., 2008. The current study aims to look at patients with aphasia in their ability to complete song lyrics by either singing, speaking, or humming them. Methods: Thus far, 11 patients with aphasia and 6 age- matched healthy controls have participated in an experimental stem-completion task examining singing abilities. The task consists of three conditions each consisting of 20 well-known songs and all participants completed all three conditions. Participants heard the first half of a phrase that was either sung in its original format (e.g., “Mary had a Little Lamb”, spoken, or intoned on the syllable “bum”, and were asked to complete the phrase according to the format in which the stimulus was presented, (i.e., either by singing, speaking the words, or humming/singing the melody correspondingly. The task was untimed, though most finished the task within an hour. Each participant completed a survey about their musical experience. Results: Patients were scored on their ability to complete the melody and words together in the sung condition, only the words in the spoken condition, and only the tune of the song in the melody condition. A parametric t-test indicated no significant difference between groups in the sung condition (mean patients=45.3%, mean controls=68.2%, t-value= -1.96, p=0.0684, though this test almost reached significance. There was also no significant difference between groups in the melody condition (mean patients= 18.2%, mean controls=20.0%, t-value= -0.335, p=0

  20. Progress in the last decade in our understanding of primary progressive aphasia

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    Ratnavalli Ellajosyula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a focal neurodegeneration of the brain affecting the language network. Patients can have isolated language impairment for years without impairment in other areas. PPA is classified as primary progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, semantic dementia (SD, and logopenic aphasia, which have distinct patterns of atrophy on neuroimaging. PNFA and SD are included under frontotemporal lobar degenerations. PNFA patients have effortful speech with agrammatism, which is frequently associated with apraxia of speech and demonstrate atrophy in the left Broca′s area and surrounding region on neuroimaging. Patients with SD have dysnomia with loss of word and object (or face meaning with asymmetric anterior temporal lobe atrophy. Logopenic aphasics have word finding difficulties with frequent pauses in conversation, intact grammar, and word comprehension but impaired repetition for sentences. The atrophy is predominantly in the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal regions. Recent studies have described several progranulin mutations on chromosome 17 in PNFA. The three clinical syndromes have a less robust relationship to the underlying pathology, which is heterogeneous and includes tauopathy, ubiquitinopathy, Pick′s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer′s disease. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that a better characterization of the clinical phenotype (apraxic, agrammatic, semantic, logopenic, jargon increases the predictive value of the underlying pathology. Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of PPAs but developing new biomarkers is essential in making accurate causative diagnoses in individual patients. This is critically important in the development and evaluation of disease-modifying drugs.

  1. A controlled study of changes in conversation following aphasia therapy for anomia.

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    Best, Wendy; Grassly, Jennie; Greenwood, Alison; Herbert, Ruth; Hickin, Julie; Howard, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between change in picture naming with anomia therapy and changes in word retrieval in conversations between adults with aphasia and a regular conversational partner. We present data from two therapy projects (Hickin et al. [ 1 ] and Best et al. [ 2 ]). In each study, therapy involved cueing with the aim of improving retrieval of a set of nouns. Naming of the experimental items was assessed twice prior to therapy and again immediately afterwards. There was a significant change in word finding, as measured by picture naming, for the group and for 11 of the 13 participants. At the same time points, we collected conversations between the person with aphasia and a regular conversational partner. We analysed these using Profile of Word Errors and Retrieval in Speech (Herbert et al. [ 3 ]) and investigated a set of conversational variables predicted to change with therapy. Unsurprisingly, the conversation data is not straightforward. There is no significant change on the conversation measures for the group but some changes for individuals. We predicted change in word retrieval after therapy would relate to change in everyday conversations and tested this by correlating the change (post-therapy minus mean pre-therapy) in picture naming with the change in conversation variables. There was a significant positive relationship between the change in picture naming and change in some conversation measures including the number of nouns produced in 5 min of conversation (r = 0.50, p < 0.05, one-tailed) and the number of nouns produced per substantive turn (r = 0.55, p < 0.05, one-tailed). The findings suggest changes in word finding following therapy for aphasia can be reflected in changes in conversation. The clinical implications of the complex results are explored.

  2. Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

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    Mesulam, Marsel; Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra

    2009-09-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word-object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for natural kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the semantic factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia.

  3. Integrating Lesion-Symptom Mapping with Other Methods to Investigate Language Networks and Aphasia Recovery

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    Peter E Turkeltaub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM has provided valuable insights into the neural underpinnings of various language functions. Integrating lesion mapping methods with other neuroscience techniques may provide new opportunities to investigate questions related both to the neurobiology of language and to plasticity after brain injury. For example, recent diffusion tensor imaging studies have explored relationships between aphasia symptomology and damage in specific white matter tracts (Forkel et al., 2014 or disruption of the white matter connectome (Bonilha, Rorden, & Fridriksson, 2014. VLSM has also recently been used to assess correlations between lesion location and response to transcranial direct current stimulation aphasia treatment (Campana, Caltagirone, & Marangolo, 2015. We have recently undertaken studies integrating VLSM with other techniques, including voxel-based morphometry (VBM and functional MRI, in order to investigate how parts of the brain spared by stroke contribute to recovery. VLSM can be used in this context to map lesions associated with particular patterns of plasticity in brain structure, function, or connectivity. We have also used VLSM to estimate the variance in behavior due to the stroke itself so that this lesion-symptom relationship can be controlled for when examining the contributions of the rest of the brain. Using this approach in combination with VBM, we have identified areas of the right temporoparietal cortex that appear to undergo hypertrophy after stroke and compensate for speech production deficits. In this talk, I will review recent advances in integrating lesion-symptom mapping with other imaging and brain stimulation techniques in order to better understand the brain basis of language and of aphasia recovery.

  4. Recovery of Sentence Production Processes Following Language Treatment in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking

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    Mack, Jennifer E.; Nerantzini, Michaela; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sentence production impairments in aphasia often improve with treatment. However, little is known about how cognitive processes supporting sentence production, such as sentence planning, are impacted by treatment. Methods: The present study used eyetracking to examine changes in sentence production resulting from a 12-week language treatment program focused on passive sentences (Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF); Thompson and Shapiro, 2005). In two pre-treatment and two post-treatment sessions, nine participants with mild-to-moderate agrammatic aphasia performed a structural priming task, which involved repeating primed sentences (actives or passives) and then, using the same verb, producing sentences describing pictured events. Two individuals with aphasia performed the eyetracking task on the same schedule without intervening language treatment. Ten unimpaired older adults also performed the task to identify normal performance patterns. Sentence production accuracy and speech onset latencies were examined, and eye movements to the pictured Agent and Theme characters were analyzed in the first 400 ms after picture onset, reflecting early sentence planning, and in the regions preceding the production of the sentence subject and post-verbal noun, reflecting lexical encoding. Results: Unimpaired controls performed with high accuracy. Their early eye movements (first 400 ms) indicated equal fixations to the Agent and Theme, consistent with structural sentence planning (i.e., initial construction of an abstract structural frame). Subsequent eye movements occurring prior to speech onset were consistent with encoding of the correct sentence subject (i.e., the Agent in actives, Theme in passives), with encoding of the post-verbal noun beginning at speech onset. In participants with aphasia, accuracy improved significantly with treatment, and post-treatment (but not pre-treatment) eye movements were qualitatively similar to those of unimpaired controls

  5. Healthy brain connectivity predicts atrophy progression in non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

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    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vilaplana, Eduard; Brown, Jesse A; Hubbard, H Isabel; Binney, Richard J; Attygalle, Suneth; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Miller, Zachary A; Pakvasa, Mikhail; Henry, Maya L; Rosen, Howard J; Henry, Roland G; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration has been hypothesized to follow predetermined large-scale networks through the trans-synaptic spread of toxic proteins from a syndrome-specific epicentre. To date, no longitudinal neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis in vivo in frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that longitudinal progression of atrophy in non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia spreads over time from a syndrome-specific epicentre to additional regions, based on their connectivity to the epicentre in healthy control subjects. The syndrome-specific epicentre of the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was derived in a group of 10 mildly affected patients (clinical dementia rating equal to 0) using voxel-based morphometry. From this region, the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), we derived functional and structural connectivity maps in healthy controls (n = 30) using functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and diffusion-weighted imaging tractography. Graph theory analysis was applied to derive functional network features. Atrophy progression was calculated using voxel-based morphometry longitudinal analysis on 34 non-fluent/agrammatic patients. Correlation analyses were performed to compare volume changes in patients with connectivity measures of the healthy functional and structural speech/language network. The default mode network was used as a control network. From the epicentre, the healthy functional connectivity network included the left supplementary motor area and the prefrontal, inferior parietal and temporal regions, which were connected through the aslant, superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes were found in the left language-related regions and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Functional connectivity strength in the healthy speech/language network, but not in the default network, correlated with

  6. Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to study and treat aphasia

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    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    - What are the challenges of using tDCS for hypothesis testing and how can I reduce the risk of misinterpreting my results? In summary, the symposium is designed to (a promote the theoretical understanding of the basic science of tDCS, and (b to tackle several pragmatic issues when designing tDCS studies, with the ultimate goal of cultivating higher standards for using a potentially invaluable technique for both clinical and research purposes. Given the growing interest in the aphasia community for using tDCS and the sophistication of the audience, we believe that the Academy’s annual meeting is the ideal venue for this symposium.

  7. The relationship of music to the melody of speech and to syntactic processing disorders in aphasia.

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    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2005-12-01

    Two new empirical studies address the relationship between music and language. The first focuses on melody and uses research in phonetics to investigate the long-held notion that instrumental music reflects speech patterns in a composer's native language. The second focuses on syntax and addresses the relationship between musical and linguistic syntactic processing via the study of aphasia, an approach that has been explored very little. The results of these two studies add to a growing body of evidence linking music and language with regard to structural patterns and brain processing.

  8. Expressive aphasia caused by Streptococcus intermedius brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient

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    Khaja M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Misbahuddin Khaja,1 Darryl Adler,2 George Lominadze2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Affiliated with Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Division of Critical Care Medicine, New York Presbyterian‑Lawrence Hospital Center, Affiliated with Columbia University College of Physician and Surgeons, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: Brain abscess is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. It involves a focal, intracerebral infection that begins in a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus, surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Brain abscess still poses a significant problem in developing countries but rarely in developed countries. Predisposing factors vary in different parts of the world. With the introduction of antibiotics and imaging studies, the mortality rate has decreased between 5% and 15%. If left untreated it may lead to serious neurologic sequelae. The temporal lobe abscess can be caused by conditions like sinusitis, otitis media, dental infections, and mastoiditis if left untreated or partially treated. Additionally, in neurosurgical procedures like craniotomy, the external ventricular drain can get infected, leading to abscess formation. Case presentation: We present the case study of an elderly female patient who presented with expressive aphasia caused by brain abscess, secondary to Streptococcus intermedius infection. The 72-year-old female with a medical history of hypertension came to hospital for evaluation with word-finding difficulty, an expressive aphasia that began a few days prior to presentation. Computed tomography of the head showed a left temporal lobe mass-like lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema. The patient was empirically started on courses of antibiotics. The next day, she was subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, which showed a left temporal lobe septated rim-enhancing mass lesion, with bright restricted

  9. The age of second language acquisition determines the variability in activation elicited by narration in three languages in Broca's and Wernicke's area.

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    Bloch, Constantine; Kaiser, Anelis; Kuenzli, Esther; Zappatore, Daniela; Haller, Sven; Franceschini, Rita; Luedi, Georges; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula

    2009-02-01

    It is generally accepted that the presence of a second language (L2) has an impact on the neuronal substrates build up and used for language processing; the influence of the age of L2 exposure, however, is not established. We tested the hypothesis that the age of L2 acquisition has an effect on the cortical representation of a multilingual repertoire in 44 multilinguals with different age of exposure to a L2 (simultaneous or covert simultaneous exposure to L1 and L2, sequential acquisition of L1 and L2 between 1 and 5 years, late learning of L2 after 9 years of age) and all fluent in a late learned L3. Regional activation in a language production task showed a high in-between-subject variability, which was higher than within-subject variability between L1, L2, and L3. We, therefore, performed a single subject analysis and calculated the within-subject variance in the numbers of activated voxels in Broca's and Wernicke's area. Subjects with early exposure to L2 showed low variability in brain activation in all three languages, in the two early as well as the late learned language. In contrast, late multilinguals exhibited higher variability. Thus, cerebral representation of languages is linked to the age of L2 acquisition: early exposure to more than one language gives rise to a language processing network that is activated homogeneously by early and late learned languages, while the inhomogeneous activation in late multilinguals indicates more independent access to the multilingual repertoire. Early passive exposure to L2 results in the same low variance as active bilingual upbringing. Variability in local brain activity increases progressively from the simultaneous to late L2 exposure, indicating a gradual transition from the mode of early bilingual language representation to that of late ones.

  10. Effects of nicotine stimulation on spikes, theta frequency oscillations, and spike-theta oscillation relationship in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca slices

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    Dong WEN; Ce PENG; Gao-xiang OU-YANG; Zainab HENDERSON; Xiao-li LI; Cheng-biao LU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Spiking activities and neuronal network oscillations in the theta frequency range have been found in many cortical areas during information processing.The aim of this study is to determine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate neuronal network activity in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca (MSDB) slices.Methods:Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the slices using an Axoprobe 1A amplifier.Data analysis was performed offline.Spike sorting and local field potential (LFP) analyses were performed using Spike2 software.The role of spiking activity in the generation of LFP oscillations in the slices was determined by analyzing the phase-time relationship between the spikes and LFP oscillations.Circular statistic analysis based on the Rayleigh test was used to determine the significance of phase relationships between the spikes and LFP oscillations.The timing relationship was examined by quantifying the spike-field coherence (SFC).Results:Application of nicotine (250 nmol/L) induced prominent LFP oscillations in the theta frequency band and both small-and large-amplitude population spiking activity in the slices.These spikes were phase-locked to theta oscillations at specific phases.The Rayleigh test showed a statistically significant relationship in phase-locking between the spikes and theta oscillations.Larger changes in the SFC were observed for large-amplitude spikes,indicating an accurate timing relationship between this type of spike and LFP oscillations.The nicotine-induced spiking activity (large-amplitude population spikes) was suppressed by the nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.3 μmol/L).Conclusion:The results demonstrate that large-amplitude spikes are phase-locked to theta oscillations and have a high spike-timing accuracy,which are likely a main contributor to the theta oscillations generated in MSDB during nicotine receptor activation.

  11. Desenvolvimento da broca-das-cucurbitáceas em diferentes tipos de substratos alimentares Development of melonworm on different feeding substrates

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos biológicos de Diaphania nitidalis foram estudados sob dietas natural e artificial em condições de laboratório, à temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Como dieta natural foi utilizada abóbora 'Jacaré', pepino 'Japonês' e abobrinha 'Caserta' e, como artificial, a dieta utilizada em criações de Diatraea saccharalis, broca da cana-de-açúcar. As lagartas de D. nitidalis foram inoculadas nos diferentes tipos de substratos e criadas por todo o ciclo. Ocorreu diferença significativa entre a maioria dos parâmetros testados dentro dos tratamentos, sendo as dietas à base de abóbora e artificial as que proporcionaram maior potencial biótico para criação de D. nitidalis. Pela facilidade de aquisição dos ingredientes e manipulação dos insetos, a dieta artificial se torna mais eficaz para criação massal dessa espécie em laboratório.The aim of this research was to evaluate the biological behaviour of melonworm at different natural and artificial diet under laboratory conditions (25ºC, 70% RH, 14 h photofase. Squash 'Jacaré', cucumber 'Japonês' and zucchini 'Caserta' were used as natural substrates compared to na artificial diet developed for the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis. The caterpillars were inoculated in each substrate and reared for a full cycle. The biological parameters were different among treatments. An artificial diet and squash cv. Jacaré substrate showed higher performance for the multiplication of D. nitidalis. The artificial diet is recommended because it is easy to obtain the ingredients and nultiply this insect under laboratory conditions.

  12. Activation of serotonin2A receptors in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex enhanced working memory in the hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Bo; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yi-Na; Han, Ling-Na; Wu, Zhong-Heng; Zhang, Qiao-Jun; Liu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors are highly expressed in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS-DB), especially in parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons linked to hippocampal theta rhythm, which is involved in cognition. Cognitive impairments commonly occur in Parkinson's disease. Here we performed behavioral, electrophysiological, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies in rats with complete unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to assess the importance of dopamine (DA) depletion and MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors for working memory. The MFB lesions resulted in working memory impairment and decreases in firing rate and density of MS-DB PV-positive neurons, peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, and DA levels in septohippocampal system and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to control rats. Intra-MS-DB injection of high affinity 5-HT2A receptor agonist TCB-2 enhanced working memory, increased firing rate of PV-positive neurons and peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, elevated DA levels in the hippocampus and mPFC, and decreased 5-HT level in the hippocampus in control and lesioned rats. Compared to control rats, the duration of the excitatory effect produced by TCB-2 on the firing rate of PV-positive neurons was markedly shortened in lesioned rats, indicating dysfunction of 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats induced working memory deficit, and activation of MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors enhanced working memory, which may be due to changes in the activity of septohippocampal network and monoamine levels in the hippocampus and mPFC.

  13. 强制性诱导语言治疗对脑卒中后慢性失语症的效果观察%Effect of Constraint-induced Aphasia Therapy on Chronic Aphasia after Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑛; 刘惠林; 吴春薇; 李新宇; 郑萍; 陈宸; 李欣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨短期强制性诱导语言治疗对脑卒中后慢性失语症的疗效。方法30例脑卒中后慢性失语症患者接受共30 h言语康复训练,对照组(n=15)为传统言语康复训练,治疗组(n=15)为每天3 h强制性诱导语言治疗。治疗前后采用西方失语症成套测验(WAB)和交流能力问卷(CAL)进行评定。结果治疗后,治疗组WAB口语表达、命名及复述功能显著改善(P<0.001),听理解恢复不明显(P=0.066);对照组口语表达显著改善(P<0.001)。治疗后,治疗组CAL评分显著改善(P<0.001)。结论强制性诱导语言治疗可短期内明显改善脑卒中后慢性失语症患者的语言功能。%Objective To investigate the effect of short-term constraint-induced aphasia therapy on chronic aphasia after stroke. Meth-ods 30 stroke patients with chronic aphasia accepted speech therapy for a total of 30 hours. The control group (n=15) accepted routine speech training and the treatment group (n=15) accepted constraint-induced aphasia therapy 3 hours a day. They were assessed with the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and the Communicative Activity Log (CAL) before and after treatment. Results The treatment group im-proved significantly in oral expression, naming and repetition function of WAB after treatment (P<0.001), but not significantly in listening understanding (P=0.066);while the control group improved significantly in oral expression (P<0.001). The treatment group also significant-ly improved in CAL (P<0.001). Conclusion Constraint-induced aphasia therapy can significantly improve the speech for stroke patients with chronic aphasia in the short term.

  14. Crossed Aphasia and Visuo-Spatial Neglect Following a Right Thalamic Stroke: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

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    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD following pure subcortical lesions is rare. This study describes a right-handed patient with an ischemic lesion in the right thalamus. In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a unique combination of ‘crossed thalamic aphasia’ was found with left visuo-spatial neglect and constructional apraxia. On the basis of the criteria used in Mariën et al. [67], this case-report is the first reliable representative of vascular CAD following an isolated lesion in the right thalamus. Furthermore, this paper presents a detailed analysis of linguistic and cognitive impairments of ‘possible’ and 'reliable' subcortical CAD-cases published since 1975. Out of 25 patients with a pure subcortical lesion, nine cases were considered as ‘possibly reliable or reliable’. A review of these cases reveals that: (1 demographic data are consistent with the general findings for the entire group of vascular CAD, (2 the neurolinguistic findings do not support the data in the general CAD-population with regard to (a the high prevalence of transcortical aphasia and (b the tendency towards a copresence of an oral versus written language dissociation and a ‘mirror-image’ lesion-aphasia profile, (3 subcortical CAD is not a transient phenomenon, (4 the lesion-aphasia correlations are not congruent with the high incidence of anomalous cases in the general CAD-population, (5 neuropsychological impairments may accompany subcortical CAD.

  15. The differential effects of direct and indirect speech on discourse comprehension in Dutch and English listeners with and without aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Wieling, Martijn; Huiskes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that narratives containing direct speech constructions were easier to comprehend than narratives with indirect speech constructions for Dutch listeners with and without aphasia. There were two possible explanations for this finding: either that direct

  16. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  17. Separate neural systems support representations for actions and objects during narrative speech in post-stroke aphasia

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    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The finding that the two major grammatical classes in human speech rely on two dissociable networks has both important theoretical implications for the neurobiology of language and clinical implications for the assessment and potential rehabilitation and treatment of patients with chronic aphasia due to stroke.

  18. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  19. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Aguiar, Vania; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance

  20. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  1. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  2. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  3. Overview of the pathogenesis of stroke aphasia%中风失语症病机概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 李燕梅

    2013-01-01

    中风失语症属中医学“音哑”范畴。现代中医家对中风失语症病机认为风、痰、瘀,三者相互为因。西医学者认为失语发生的机制可能为病变本身直接破坏了语言功能区。中风失语症病机多认为肝肾精气亏虚、心脾痰浊壅阻是病机共性,风火痰瘀阻滞心神之经络扰及神明,阻闭舌窍是导致中风失语症病理因素,病变涉及五脏,而心神、肝魂、肺魄以及经脉官窍皆受损害。%Stroke aphasia is included in TCM “sound dumb”category. Modern TCM realized that pathogenesis of stroke aphasia are wind, phlegm, blood stasis, as a result of three mutual. Western scholars believe that the pathogenesis of aphasia may be lesions directly undermine the language area. TCM realized that reasons of pathogenesis of stroke aphasia are Ganshen Jingqi Kuixu, Xinpi Tanzhuo Yongzu, Fenghuo Tabyu Zuzhi Xinshen, Zubi Sheqiao. Lesions involving Wuzang, Xinshen, Ganhun, Feipo, meridians are damaged.

  4. 汉语失语症诊治进展%Advance in Diagnosis and Therapy for Chinese Aphasia (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田野; 林伟; 叶祥明; 周亮

    2011-01-01

    本文就近年来国内对于汉语失语症的诊断与治疗研究文献进行综述.除了包括传统的神经心理学检查对于汉语失语症的诊断研究外,目前多应用先进的脑功能成像技术和事件相关电位进行研究,旨在进一步揭示汉语失语症检查法正朝着多样化、系统化以及标准化发展.已有的大量研究工作显示,汉语失语症的康复治疗仍倾向以综合治疗为主.%This paper aimed to analyse and review the literature of diagnosis and treatment of Chinese aphasia at home in recent years.The advanced brain imaging technology and events related potentials, besides the traditional neuropsychological check method, had been much more applicated and studied in the diagnostic research of Chinese aphasia at present, and in the future the check methods of Chinese aphasia showed diversification, systematic and standardized development.A large number of clinical reshearches tended to comprehensive treatment as the main approach for Chinese aphasia in a conclusion.

  5. "Hopeless, Sorry, Hopeless": Co-Constructing Narratives of Care with People Who Have Aphasia Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support for user involvement in health care, people with aphasia (PWA) report feeling ignored and disempowered in care contexts. They also rarely have the opportunity to give feedback on their experiences of care post-stroke. However, it is important for health care professionals to hear this feedback, both to understand the…

  6. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  7. Duration of content and function words in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Lee

    2014-04-01

    Words that had occurred ten times or more in the speech materials was arbitrarily categorized as ‘unique words’ that could more reliably reflect syllable duration. There were a total of 206 unique words (141 content and 65 function words in the aphasia speech materials and 253 unique words (187 content and 66 function in the normal materials, most of them were disyllabic or monosyllabic. A higher lexical diversity in the normal group, but similar number of different function words for both groups, was consistent with earlier findings of impaired lexical access in aphasia. Table 1 displays the average duration per syllable and per word for content and function words among the two speaker groups. Our study showed that word duration in aphasic speech was longer than that in control speech. This is in line with our earlier results of higher speaking rate in normal speech. While content words were longer than function words in the aphasic speech, the difference was not as significant as that in controls.

  8. Slowing of Event-Related Potentials in Primary Progressive Aphasia. A case report

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    Salvatore Giaquinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA is a rare and insidious language impairment that worsens over time. It belongs to the group of fronto–temporal dementias. This study was aimed at assessing the role of speed of cognitive abilities, such as word recognition, in PPA. The design is a single-case, longitudinal study. A male patient suffering from PPA was enrolled and 15 healthy older adults were the control group. An event-related electrical potential connected with word recognition, namely the N400, was delayed by 200 msec at baseline compared to healthy controls and progressively deteriorated. One year later, the delay was greater and two years later the potential had disappeared. Reduced speed of processing is an early pathological factor that negatively affecting higher cognitive functions in APP. Event–related electrical potentials are recommended in the field of aphasia and cognitive decline. They permit observation of a speed decline in higher cognitive abilities, when pathological changes at a central level begin and language comprehension seems to be unaffected.

  9. Progressive nonfluent aphasia associated with a new mutation V363I in tau gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David G; Ros, Raquel; Fatas, Marta; Bermejo, Felix; de Yebenes, Justo García

    2007-01-01

    Reported here is a new missense mutation V363I in exon 12 of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene associated with progressive nonfluent aphasia, with onset at the age of 69 years in a woman. Although near mute, she maintained complex activities and had no discernible deficits outside of language until the age of 75 years, when progressive gait and swallowing disturbances appeared. There was a history of late-onset aphasia and apraxia in her father. All of her children were asymptomatic adults, but psycholinguistic abnormalities were detected in those bearing the mutation, consisting of difficulties in comprehension, both reading (symbol discrimination and comprehension of oral spelling) and oral (matching sentences to pictures and comprehension of locative relationships). A mutation-bearing sibling showed no abnormalities at 70 years old, consistent with the limited penetrance expected in late-onset disease. The mutation, corresponding to a highly conserved residue in the fourth tubulin-binding repeat, was not present in 194 normal individuals with the same genetic background.

  10. tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex improves speech production in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eMarangolo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and an intensive Conversational therapy treatment on discourse skills in twelve persons with chronic aphasia. Six short videoclips depicting everyday life contexts were prepared. Three videoclips were used to elicit spontaneous conversation during treatment. The remaining three were presented only before and after the therapy. Participants were prompted to talk about the contents of each videoclip while stimulated with tDCS (20 minutes, 1mA over the left hemisphere in three conditions: anodic tDCS over the Broca’s area, anodic tDCS over the Wernicke’s area, and a sham condition. Each experimental condition was performed for ten consecutive daily sessions with 14 days of intersession interval. After stimulation over Broca’s area, the participants produced more Content Units, verbs and sentences than in the remaining two conditions. Importantly, this improvement was still detectable one month after the end of treatment and its effects were generalized also to the three videoclips that had been administered at the beginning and at the end of the therapy sessions. In conclusion, anodic tDCS applied over the left Broca’s area together with an intensive Conversational Therapy treatment improves informative speech in persons with chronic aphasia. We believe that positive tDCS effects may be further extended to other language domains, such as the recovery of speech production.

  11. Clinicopathologic analysis of progressive non-fluent aphasia and corticobasal degeneration:Case report and review

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    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate progressive non-fluent aphasia and histopathologically-proven corticobasal degeneration. Methods: We evaluated symptoms, signs, neuropsychological deficits, and radiology data longitudinally, in a patient with autopsy-proven corticobasal degeneration and correlated these observations directly to the neuroanatomic distribution of the disease. Results: At presentation, a specific pattern of cognitive impairment was evident with an extreme extrapyramidal motor abnormality. Follow-up examination revealed persistent impairment of praxis and executive functioning, progressive worsening of language performance, and moderately preserved memory. The motor disorder manifested and worsened as the condition progressed. Many of the residual nerve cells were ballooned and achromatic with eccentric nuclei. Tau-immunoreactive pathology was significantly more prominent in neurons in the frontal and parietal cortices and dentate nuclei than in temporal neocortex, hippocampi and brainstem. Conclusion: The clinical diagnosis of progressive non-fluent aphasia secondary to corticobasal degeneration hinged on a specific pattern of impaired cognition as well as an extrapyramidal motor disorder, reflecting the neuroanatomic distribution of the disease in frontal and anterior temporal cortices and the dentate nuclei.

  12. [Aphasia, prosopagnosia and mania: a case diagnosed with right temporal variant semantic dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Çetin; Kesebir, Sermin; Meteris, Handan; Ülker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic disorders can produce "secondary" mania, and clinicians must distinguish secondary mania from bipolar disorders (BD). Patients with new and late onset mania require an evaluation that includes a thorough history, a neurologic examination, neuroimaging, and other selected tests. Neurologic causes of mania include strokes in the right basotemporal or inferofrontal region, strokes or tumors in the perihypothalamic region, Huntington's disease and other movement disorders, multiple sclerosis and other white matter diseases, head trauma, infections such as neurosyphilis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The term Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is suggested for neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal degeneration such as Primer Progressive Aphasia (PPA), Frontal Lobe Dementia, PPA- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Corticobasal Degeneration. In this article, we report a frontotemporal dementia (FTD) case that referred with manic symptoms. The female patient was 46 years old, married, graduated from primary school, and had been admitted with complaints of hyperactivity, excessive talking, and decreased sleep for one week. She presented first with complaints that began three years ago that included the inability to remember names, recognize faces, use household appliances, and follow rules. She had also been repeating the same words and behaviors. Prosopagnosia, aphasia, and a positive family history of ALS were discussed with related index in our case.

  13. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  14. Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth L; Carney, Anne

    2014-02-01

    The proliferation of tablet technology and the development of apps to support aphasia rehabilitation offer increasing opportunities for speech-language pathologists in a clinical setting. This article describes the components of an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program at Boston University and details how usage of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) was incorporated. We describe how the iPad was customized for use in individual, dyadic, and group treatment formats and how its use was encouraged through home practice tasks. In addition to providing the participants with step-by-step instructions for the usage of each new app, participants had multiple opportunities for practice across various treatment formats. Examples of how the participants continued using their iPad beyond the program suggest how the usage of this device has generalized into their day-to-day life. An overall summary of performance on targeted linguistic measures as well as an analysis of functional and quality-of-life measures reveal statistically significant improvements pre- to posttreatment.

  15. Effects of syntactic cueing therapy on picture naming and connected speech in acquired aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Ruth; Webster, Dianne; Dyson, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Language therapy for word-finding difficulties in aphasia usually involves picture naming of single words with the support of cues. Most studies have addressed nouns in isolation, even though in connected speech nouns are more frequently produced with determiners. We hypothesised that improved word finding in connected speech would be most likely if intervention treated nouns in usual syntactic contexts. Six speakers with aphasia underwent language therapy using a software program developed for the purpose, which provided lexical and syntactic (determiner) cues. Exposure to determiners with nouns would potentially lead to improved picture naming of both treated and untreated nouns, and increased production of determiner plus noun combinations in connected speech. After intervention, picture naming of treated words improved for five of the six speakers, but naming of untreated words was unchanged. The number of determiner plus noun combinations in connected speech increased for four speakers. These findings attest to the close relationship between frequently co-occurring content and function words, and indicate that intervention for word-finding deficits can profitably proceed beyond single word naming, to retrieval in appropriate syntactic contexts. We also examined the relationship between effects of therapy, and amount and intensity of therapy. We found no relationship between immediate effects and amount or intensity of therapy. However, those participants whose naming maintained at follow-up completed the therapy regime in fewer sessions, of relatively longer duration. We explore the relationship between therapy regime and outcomes, and propose future considerations for research.

  16. Crosslinguistic semantic and translation priming in normal bilingual individuals and bilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Lebel, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined lexical representation in early Spanish-English bilinguals using an unmasked semantic and translation priming paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups based on performance (more-balanced bilinguals, MB and less-balanced bilinguals, LB) on the experimental task. In Experiment 2, four patients with bilingual aphasia (BA) performed the same experiment. Results from both experiments revealed that all groups were more accurate for English targets (S-E direction) than Spanish targets (S-E direction). In Experiment 1, semantic priming was observed from English to Spanish in both the LB and MB groups although the effect was greater for the LB group. Further, only the LB group showed priming from Spanish to English. For both normal groups, there was no difference between translation and semantic priming effects. In Experiment 2, patients with bilingual aphasia demonstrated different patterns of activation with no clear trends. Two participants demonstrated greater priming from Spanish to English whereas two participants demonstrated the opposite effect.

  17. Recruiting comparative crosslinguistic evidence to address competing accounts of agrammatic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, A; Piñango, M; Patterson, J; Harford, C

    1999-05-01

    Several hypotheses have been advanced whose aim has been to provide a descriptive generalization of comprehension patterns in agrammatic aphasia in terms of current linguistic theory, most notably, the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis. The basic insight of these syntactic accounts of aphasia is that chains are disrupted. In this paper, we seek to confront the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) and one of its variants, the Double-Dependency Hypothesis (DDH), with discriminating, crosslinguistic data. We adduce evidence that on raising constructions both hypotheses are able to derive Spanish agrammatic data correctly. However, neither the TDH nor the DDH are able to account for above-chance performance on SV or VS truncated passives. Finally, only the DDH explains the observed data on passive constructions in which a postverbal subject follows the by phrase (V-by phrase-S). The VS word order data are the critical cases because focusing simply on English would not allow these structures to be tested and, in the case of the V-by phrase-S passive, both hypotheses make different predictions. While the data on raising constructions extend the range of both the TDH and the DDH, the VS data suggest that modifications are required.

  18. Language processing in bilingual aphasia: a new insight into the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Elvira; Vanhoof, Gertie; Beyens, Hilde; Goeleven, Ann; Thijs, Vincent; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a bilingual person should not be considered as two monolinguals in a single body, a view that has gradually been adopted in the diagnosis and treatment of bilingual aphasia. However, its investigation is complicated due to the large variety in possible language combinations, pre- and postmorbid language proficiencies, and age of second language acquisition. Furthermore, the tests and tasks used to assess linguistic capabilities differ in almost every study, hindering a direct comparison of their outcomes. Behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging data from healthy population show that the processing of second language domains (semantics, syntax, morphology) depends on factors such as age and method of acquisition, proficiency level and environment in which the second language was acquired. A number of single and multiple case reports that rely on behavioral testing of bilingual aphasics replicate these results. Additionally, they show that the patient's performance depends on the size and location of the lesion, as well as language typology and morphological characteristics. Furthermore, the impairment and recovery patterns and recovery generalization from treated to untreated language depend on the lexical and orthographic distances between the two languages. For healthy bilinguals, language processing is usually studied in comparison to monolinguals. We advocate that a good starting point for identifying patterns specific for bilingual aphasia is to compare patient studies of bilinguals and monolinguals.

  19. Rehabilitation of Aphasia: application of the Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy to the Italian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela eCortese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (~38%, with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Proper approaches are mandatory to devise an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, among these with neurobehavioral ratio, the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT .Van Eeckhout’s adaptation to the French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing the French prosody.Purposes of this study were to adapt the MRT rehabilitation procedures to the Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of 6 chronic patients (5 males with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments at least from 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up. The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy.

  20. For a new look at 'lexical errors': evidence from semantic approximations with verbs in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvignau, Karine; Tran, Thi Mai; Manchon, Mélanie

    2013-08-01

    The ability to understand the similarity between two phenomena is fundamental for humans. Designated by the term analogy in psychology, this ability plays a role in the categorization of phenomena in the world and in the organisation of the linguistic system. The use of analogy in language often results in non-standard utterances, particularly in speakers with aphasia. These non-standard utterances are almost always studied in a nominal context and considered as errors. We propose a study of the verbal lexicon and present findings that measure, by an action-video naming task, the importance of verb-based non-standard utterances made by 17 speakers with aphasia ("la dame déshabille l'orange"/the lady undresses the orange, "elle casse la tomate"/she breaks the tomato). The first results we have obtained allow us to consider these type of utterances from a new perspective: we propose to eliminate the label of "error", suggesting that they may be viewed as semantic approximations based upon a relationship of inter-domain synonymy and are ingrained in the heart of the lexical system.

  1. TREATMENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY WITH APHASIA BY LINGUISTIC TRAINING COMBINED WITH ACUPUNCTURE

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    LIU Zhen-huan; MA Mei-mei; PAN Pei-guang; FU Wen-jie; HU Jing-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the best remedies for cerebral palsy with aphasia. Methods: A total of 76 cases of cerebral palsy children with aphasia were evenly randomized into control group and treatment group. Patients of treatment group were treated with "consciousness-restoring needling" plus linguistic training and those of control group treated with simple linguistic training method. Acupuncture was given once every other day, and linguistic training conducted once 6 times a week, with 10 times being a therapeutic course and the interval between two weeks being 10 -15 days. Following 3 courses of treatment, the therapeutic effect was analyzed. Results: After 3 courses of treatment, of the two 38 cases in treatment and control groups, 27 (71.1%) and 13 (34.2%) had remarkable improvement in their symptoms. The therapeutic effect of treatment group was significantly superior to that of control group (P<0.01). The developmental quotient values of speech of treatment and control groups were 56.36 ±19.77 and 46.96±15.63 respectively, displaying that acupuncture could significantly improve cerebral palsy patients' speaking ability (P<0.05). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy plus linguistic training is significantly superior to that of simple linguistic training.

  2. Unravelling Boléro: progressive aphasia, transmodal creativity and the right posterior neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, William W; Matthews, Brandy R; Crawford, Richard K; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Foti, Dean; Mackenzie, Ian R; Miller, Bruce L

    2008-01-01

    Most neurological lesion studies emphasize performance deficits that result from focal brain injury. Here, we describe striking gains of function in a patient with primary progressive aphasia, a degenerative disease of the human language network. During the decade before her language deficits arose, Anne Adams (AA), a lifelong scientist, developed an intense drive to produce visual art. Paintings from AA's artistic peak revealed her capacity to create expressive transmodal art, such as renderings of music in paint, which may have reflected an increased subjective relatedness among internal perceptual and conceptual images. AA became fascinated with Maurice Ravel, the French composer who also suffered from a progressive aphasia, and painted his best-known work, 'Boléro', by translating its musical elements into visual form. Later paintings, achieved when AA was nearly mute, moved towards increasing photographic realism, perhaps because visual representations came to dominate AA's mental landscape during this phase of her illness. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that, despite severe degeneration of left inferior frontal-insular, temporal and striatal regions, AA showed increased grey matter volume and hyperperfusion in right posterior neocortical areas implicated in heteromodal and polysensory integration. The findings suggest that structural and functional enhancements in non-dominant posterior neocortex may give rise to specific forms of visual creativity that can be liberated by dominant inferior frontal cortex injury.

  3. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

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    Kerstin Spielmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  4. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  5. Using lexical variables to predict picture-naming errors in jargon aphasia

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    Catherine Godbold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Individuals with jargon aphasia produce fluent output which often comprises high proportions of non-word errors (e.g., maf for dog. Research has been devoted to identifying the underlying mechanisms behind such output. Some accounts posit a reduced flow of spreading activation between levels in the lexical network (e.g., Robson et al., 2003. If activation level differences across the lexical network are a cause of non-word outputs, we would predict improved performance when target items reflect an increased flow of activation between levels (e.g. more frequently-used words are often represented by higher resting levels of activation. This research investigates the effect of lexical properties of targets (e.g., frequency, imageability on accuracy, error type (real word vs. non-word and target-error overlap of non-word errors in a picture naming task by individuals with jargon aphasia. Method Participants were 17 individuals with Wernicke’s aphasia, who produced a high proportion of non-word errors (>20% of errors on the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach et al., 1996. The data were retrieved from the Moss Aphasic Psycholinguistic Database Project (MAPPD, Mirman et al., 2010. We used a series of mixed models to test whether lexical variables predicted accuracy, error type (real word vs. non-word and target-error overlap for the PNT data. As lexical variables tend to be highly correlated, we performed a principal components analysis to reduce the variables into five components representing variables associated with phonology (length, phonotactic probability, neighbourhood density and neighbourhood frequency, semantics (imageability and concreteness, usage (frequency and age-of-acquisition, name agreement and visual complexity. Results and Discussion Table 1 shows the components that made a significant contribution to each model. Individuals with jargon aphasia produced more correct responses and fewer non-word errors relative to

  6. Measuring prosodic deficits in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia

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    Tan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Prosody refers to the part of phonology that includes speech rhythm, stress, and intonation (Gandour, 1998. Proper intonation is crucial for expressing one’s emotion and linguistic meaning. Most studies examining prosodic deficits have been primarily focused on Broca’s aphasia (e.g., Danly & Shapiro, 1982. The current study proposed a computer-assisted method for systematic and objective examination of intonation patterns in aphasic oral discourse. The speech materials were in Hong Kong Cantonese, which is known of being rich in tones. Since surface F0 contour is the result of complicated interplay between sentence-level intonation and syllable-level lexical tones, the challenge is on how to extract meaningful representations of intonation from acoustic signals. Methods Four individuals with fluent aphasia (two anomic and two transcortical sensory and four gender-, age-, and education-matched controls participated. Based on the Cantonese AphasiaBank protocol (Kong, Law, & Lee, 2009, narrative samples and corresponding audio recordings were collected using discourse tasks of personal monologue, picture and sequential description, and story-telling. There were eight recordings for each subject. Each oral discourse was divided into sentences by manual inspection of the orthographic transcription and the respective acoustic signal. A sentence was defined as a sequence of words that in principle covers a complete thought. However, it was common in spontaneous oral discourse, especially in aphasia, that some of the sentences did not end with a completed expression but switched to a new topic. Occasionally, an obvious interjection was observed during an attempt of restarting a statement. Phoneme-level automatic time alignment was performed on each audio recording using hidden Markov model (HMM based forced alignment technique (Lee, Kong, Chan, & Wang, 2013. F0 was estimated from the acoustic signal at intervals of 0.01 second by

  7. Individualized treatment with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia due to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Norise, Catherine; Garcia, Gabriella; Torres, Jose; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Hamilton, Roy H

    2015-01-01

    While evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may facilitate language recovery in chronic post-stroke aphasia, individual variability in patient response to different patterns of stimulation remains largely unexplored. We sought to characterize this variability among chronic aphasic individuals, and to explore whether repeated stimulation with an individualized optimal montage could lead to persistent reduction of aphasia severity. In a two-phase study, we first stimulated patients with four active montages (left hemispheric anode or cathode; right hemispheric anode or cathode) and one sham montage (Phase 1). We examined changes in picture naming ability to address (1) variability in response to different montages among our patients, and (2) whether individual patients responded optimally to at least one montage. During Phase 2, subjects who responded in Phase 1 were randomized to receive either real-tDCS or to receive sham stimulation (10 days); patients who were randomized to receive sham stimulation first were then crossed over to receive real-tDCS (10 days). In both phases, 2 mA tDCS was administered for 20 min per real-tDCS sessions and patients performed a picture naming task during stimulation. Patients' language ability was re-tested after 2-weeks and 2-months following real and sham tDCS in Phase 2. In Phase 1, despite considerable individual variability, the greatest average improvement was observed after left-cathodal stimulation. Seven out of 12 subjects responded optimally to at least one montage as demonstrated by transient improvement in picture-naming. In Phase 2, aphasia severity improved at 2-weeks and 2-months following real-tDCS but not sham. Despite individual variability with respect to optimal tDCS approach, certain montages result in consistent transient improvement in persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia. This preliminary study supports the notion that individualized tDCS treatment may enhance aphasia

  8. [Kurt Goldstein's understanding of amnesic aphasia and its underlying disorder - an early model of the pensée opératoire of the French psychosomatic school?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, G; Eisenblätter, A; Belz, W; Schulz, A; Klapp, B F

    2002-07-01

    Kurt Goldstein's understanding of amnesic aphasia in some regards anticipated the model of the pensée opératoire, a concept developed during the 60's and 70's by the French psychoanalytical school of psychosomatics. Goldstein interpreted amnesic aphasia within the framework of a "basic disorder". Closely following the philosopher Ernst Cassirer, Goldstein described amnesic aphasia as an expression of a general alteration following localized or generalised brain damage. Due to various historical events (world war, fascism, the holocaust) as well as developments during the 20(th) century (dominance of the English language in many areas of science), these connections were forgotten or were no longer recognised as such. Without wanting to determine the extent to which the concept of pensée opératoire possesses validity, one can interpret Goldstein's reflections on aphasia as a heretofore unreceived preliminary model of the psychosomatic concept of the French School.

  9. Effect of early rehabilitation training on aphasia after stroke%早期康复训练对脑卒中后失语症的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春燕; 周晔; 刘驰

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:Stroke is the main reason of aphasia which etiology is very complicated and living quality of patients is often affected.Language trainning has an important significance for patients to return to society.

  10. A Survey into Western Studies of Aphasia, Language and Formulaic Chunks%域外失语症与语言、语块研究纵览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美霞; 谢媛

    2015-01-01

    失语症传统上隶属临床医学和神经科学范畴,近些年来随着语言学与认知神经科学、临床医学等学科的交叉合作,它也成了语言学研究的重大课题。在欧美国家,失语症与语言及语块相结合的研究已取得令人瞩目的成就。本文将从失语症研究中大脑与语言关系之理论演变,失语症与语言及语块研究历史进程以及失语症与语言及语块研究未来发展趋势3方面对失语症与语言及语块在域外相结合的研究作一综述,以期梳理该领域的研究进程,为国内失语症与语言及语块研究者提供新的研究思路、研究视角和研究方法,从而加速汉语失语症与语言及语块相结合的研究步伐,推动语言学、神经科学等学科的发展。%Traditionally aphasia has been a very important topic in the domains of clinical medicine and neuroscience. In recent decades, with the multidisciplinary cooperation of linguistics and cognitive neuroscience, clinical medicine, etc., aphasia has become a hot topic in the ifeld of linguistics. In western countries, studies on aphasia and language (including formulaic chunks) are numerous and fruitful. In the present article, we are going to summarize and comment on the studies of aphasia and language (including formulaic chunks) abroad from the following three aspects: (1) the changing processes of the theories of aphasia and language (including formulaic chunks); (2) the historical developments of the studies between aphasia and language as well as formulaic chunks;(3) the development trend of aphasia and language, and aphasia and formulaic chunks. Thus, this article aims to marshal the research processes in this area, and to provide new insights and research methods for linguistic aphasia studies at home so as to accelerate the research on aphasia and Chinese language, esp. aphasia and formulaic chunks, and ifnally to promote the development of linguistics, neuroscience and

  11. Does the individual adaption of standardized speech paradigmas for clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) effect the localization of the language-dominant hemisphere and of Broca's and Wernicke's areas; Beeinflusst die individuelle Anpassung standardisierter Sprachparadigmen fuer die klinische funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) die Lokalisation der sprachdominanten Hemisphaere, des Broca- und des Wernicke-Sprachzentrums?

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    Konrad, F.; Nennig, E.; Kress, B.; Sartor, K.; Stippich, C. [Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Ochmann, H. [Neurochirurgische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes Broca's area (B) and Wernicke's area (W) and the hemisphere dominant for language. In clinical fMRI, adapting the stimulation paradigms to each patient's individual cognitive capacity is crucial for diagnostic success. To interpret clinical fMRI findings correctly, we studied the effect of varying frequency and number of stimuli on functional localization, determination of language dominance and BOLD signals. Materials and Methods: Ten volunteers (VP) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla during visually triggered sentence generation using a standardized block design. In four different measurements, the stimuli were presented to each VP with frequencies of (1/1)s, (1/2)s,(1/3)s and (1/6)s. Results: The functional localizations and the correlations of the measured BOLD signals to the applied hemodynamic reference function (r) were almost independent from frequency and number of the stimuli in both hemispheres, whereas the relative BOLD signal changes ({delta}S) in B and W increased with the stimulation rate, which also changed the lateralization indices. The strongest BOLD activations were achieved with the highest stimulation rate or with the maximum language production task, respectively. Conclusion: The adaptation of language paradigms necessary in clinical fMRI does not alter the functional localizations but changes the BOLD signals and language lateralization which should not be attributed to the underlying brain pathology. (orig.)

  12. Language-Specific Effects on Story and Procedural Narrative tasks between Korean-speaking and English-speaking Individuals with Aphasia

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    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Results suggested that Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia produced more numbers of different verbs, number of verbs per utterance and higher VNRs than English speakers. Both groups generated more words in story. The significant two-way interactions between the language group and task type suggested that there are task-specific effects on linguistic measures across the groups. The study implied that the linguistic characteristics differentially affected language symptoms of aphasia across the different languages and task types.

  13. 失语症恢复的研究与进展%Research and development of aphasia recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金旻; 赵纯; 曹京波

    2006-01-01

    目的:临床中约有70%的脑卒中患者存在着不同程度的功能障碍,其中失语症影响了患者的社会交往能力,甚至给社会和家庭带来沉重的经济负担.本文综述了有关失语症恢复机制的文献,力求为进一步的研究提供借鉴.资料来源:应用计算机检索Medline1980-01/2004-01期间的相关文章,检索词"aphasia,recovery","language,recovery",并限定文章语言种类为English.资料选择:对资料进行初审,选取有关失语症恢复机制的相关文献,然后筛除明显不随机临床试验的研究,对剩余的文献查找全文,进一步判断是否为随机对照实验.纳入标准为随机对照临床研究,无论是否为盲法.资料提炼:共收集到22篇关于失语症恢复机制的相关文献,12篇符合纳入标准.排除的10篇试验均为重复的同一研究.资料综合:语言功能的恢复与性别、年龄、受教育程度、病变性质、病变范围、发病到语言康复的时间及患者语言障碍的自知力、自我纠正能力等因素有关,因此,以往的有关失语症恢复机制的研究各有不同的发现和观点.结论:关于失语症的恢复机制,目前尚无统一的结论.脑语言功能的可塑性可能为失语症的恢复机制.%OBJECTIVE: About 70% patients with stroke have dysfunction at various degrees in clinic, especially aphasia would affect their social communication and even offer a serious economic load for family and social. This paper aims to summarize the relevant articles on aphasia recovery so as to provide researching evidences in the future. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were retrieved from the Medline with the key words of "aphasia, recovery, language, recovery" in English from January 1980 to January 2004. STUDY SELECTION: All articles were selected firstly, those which were related to aphasia recovery were selected, and the non-randomly clinical papers were excluded. The full text of rest was looked up to determine whether

  14. The role of semiochemical traps in the management of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei/ O papel das armadilhas com semioquímicos no manejo da broca-do-café,Hypothenemus hampei

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    Lauro Morales

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Coffee berry borer (CBB is the most important pest in the coffee plantings. Losses are due to quality and quantity reductions. In most plantings, CBB is controlled using insecticides. Alternative management strategies are strongly demanded due to increasing production and demand for organic products. This paper revises the use of traps for CBB management. Color and trap designs, attractants and release rates are the factors directly related to trap efficiency. Methanol and ethanol mixture is used as attractant. Interactions among these factors in the CBB attraction are reported. Environment conditions under which the coffee plantings are conducted influence trap captures. These aspects may explain some differences in results for different studies. Conflicting results are also found in relation to traps efficiency when they are used as a unique control strategy in the field. Additional research may be encouraged to understand more deeply the interactions between the CBB and coffee plant. In the same way, we must study the interactions of the several intrinsic factors of the traps and the environment. The use of the trap, associated with other strategies to reduce pest population, is a recommended strategy for CBB management.A broca-do-café é a praga mais importante do cafeeiro. Provoca prejuízos em quantidade e qualidade da produção. Normalmente, é controlada por aplicações de inseticidas. Estratégias alternativas de manejo são necessárias principalmente pelo aumento da produção e demanda por produtos orgânicos. O uso de armadilhas para manejo da broca é revisado. A cor, o modelo da armadilha, os atraentes e as taxas de liberação são fatores diretamente relacionados com a eficiência das armadilhas. Metanol e etanol são os compostos utilizados como atraentes. Ocorrem interações entre estes fatores na atração da broca. As condições ambientais nas quais o cafeeiro é cultivado também devem influenciar as capturas

  15. [Clinical types of FTLD: progressive nonfluent aphasia; comparative discussions on the associated clinical presentations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2009-11-01

    Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) is one of the 3 clinical presentations of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the other 2 being frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia (SD). PNFA and SD, both representing relentlessly progressive language impairment in the realm of FTLD, may share a large part with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). A salient distinction between PPA and PNFA or SD is that PPA includes another clinical type, namely, logopenic/phonemic aphasia (LPA), which is not represented in FTLD. This is primarily because LPA is usually caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the brunt of the lesion is localized at the left temporo-parietal region of the brain. Further, PNFA/SD should be limited to the clinical consequencies of FTLD while PPA is more generous with regard to its causal pathology. By definition, PNFA is an expressive language impairment which is characterized by effortful speech, phonemic errors, grammatical impairment, and word-finding difficulties. Reading and writing may be comparatively impaired. Comprehension of single word meaning is normal, while comprehension of sentencies may sometimes be impaired. PNFA should be differentiated from SD, LPA, and pure progressive apraxia of speech (AOS or alternatively referred to as aphemia or anarthria). SD may be distinguished from PNFA by virtue of its fluency, characteristic loss of word meaning and absence of agrammatism. LPA is similar to PNFA, yet differs in that there is preservation of grammatical skills and speech motor function that is devoid of AOS and/or dysarthria. AOS is an impairment at the level of speech motor programming without language impairment. Thus, there may be a double dissociation between AOS and PNFA i. e., PNFA may or may not accompany AOS and vice versa. PNFA is associated with a localized lesion in the left frontotemporal area of the brain. Immunohistochemical investigations have revealed that ubiquitin/TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDA-43) positive and tau

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying the facilitation of naming in aphasia using a semantic task: an fMRI study

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    Heath Shiree

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous attempts to investigate the effects of semantic tasks on picture naming in both healthy controls and people with aphasia have typically been confounded by inclusion of the phonological word form of the target item. As a result, it is difficult to isolate any facilitatory effects of a semantically-focused task to either lexical-semantic or phonological processing. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study examined the neurological mechanisms underlying short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation of naming from a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form, in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results Behavioral results showed that a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form can successfully facilitate subsequent picture naming in both healthy controls and individuals with aphasia. The whole brain neuroimaging results for control participants identified a repetition enhancement effect in the short-term, with modulation of activity found in regions that have not traditionally been associated with semantic processing, such as the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the participants with aphasia showed significant differences in activation over both the short- and the long-term for facilitated items, predominantly within either left hemisphere regions linked to semantic processing or their right hemisphere homologues. Conclusions For control participants in this study, the short-lived facilitation effects of a prior semantic task that did not include the phonological word form were primarily driven by object priming and episodic memory mechanisms. However, facilitation effects appeared to engage a predominantly semantic network in participants with aphasia over both the short- and the long-term. The findings of the present study

  17. Treatment of Aphasia Combining Neuromodulation and Behavioral Intervention: Taking an Impairment and Functional Approach

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    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2014-04-01

    Baseline measures of naming nouns and verbs in single words, and sentences, were obtained. While there was no improvement in production of nouns or verbs in single words or sentence production after sham tDCS, and no improvement of noun production after anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment, production of verbs in sentences improved after a 10-session treatment block of anodal tDCS and behavioral therapy. Conclusion Administering a behavioral treatment that is impairment-based as well as functionally-based in conjunction with tDCS is both feasible and promising. Anodal tDCS in conjunction with behavioral intervention is a treatment approach that warrants continued investigation. The results will be discussed in relation to the tDCS and aphasia literature.

  18. A Survey on Aphasia of Chinese Culture among Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟腾飞

    2014-01-01

    Chinese college students have learned English for years, but they have put too much emphasis on English language and the culture in English speaking countries and societies. Therefore, they have great difficulty in expressing their own traditional culture in English, failing in inter-cultural communication. Since the foreign language education in China has almost occupied by English and its culture, linguistic imperialism and educational imperialism come into our vision. This paper makes a survey on Aphasia of Chinese Culture among Chinese college students, including the textbooks used and students' performance in specific Chinese culture items. And this paper aims at getting to know its current situation and tries to find possible solutions to this problem.

  19. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

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    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  20. Cognitive neuropsychological analysis of differential reading and spelling disorder mechanisms in a patient with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kosei; Uno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differential reading and spelling mechanisms were involved in a Japanese patient with aphasia. In our case, the patient scored low on all of the administered reading tasks, suggesting that both the reading lexical and non-lexical routes were impaired. In contrast, his writing-to-dictation score for Kana nonwords was high, suggesting that the spelling non-lexical route was intact. However, the patient scored low on a writing-to-dictation task comprised of high-familiarity Kanji words. The spelling lexical route was thought to be impaired. Therefore, the mechanism(s) involved in reading and spelling may differ in this case.

  1. Action and Object Word Writing in a Case of Bilingual Aphasia

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    Maria Kambanaros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the spoken and written naming of a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency and script Greek and English. AA presented with difficulties in spoken picture naming together with preserved written picture naming for action words in Greek. In English, AA showed similar performance across both tasks for action and object words, i.e. difficulties retrieving action and object names for both spoken and written naming. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive processes used for spoken and written naming are independent components of the language system and can be selectively impaired after brain injury. In the case of bilingual speakers, such processes impact on both languages. We conclude grammatical category is an organizing principle in bilingual dysgraphia.

  2. Measuring working memory in aphasia: Comparing performance on complex span and N-back tasks

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    Maria Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    No significant correlations were observed between performance on complex span task and N-back tasks.Furthermore, performance on the modified listening span was related to performance on the comprehension subtest of the QASA, while no relationship was found for 2-back and 0-back tasks.Our results mirror studies in healthy controls that demonstrated no relationship between performance on the two tasks(Jaeggi et al., 2010; Kane et al., 2007. Thus although N-back tasks seem similar to traditional complex span measures and may also index abilities related to cognitive processing, the evidence to date does not warrant their direct association with the construct of WM. Implications for future investigation of cognitive deficits in aphasia will be discussed.

  3. Syntactic and Morphosyntactic Processing in Stroke-Induced and Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Cynthia K. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively. We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2, using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57] and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version test batteries, respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to

  4. The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

    2012-10-01

    This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is

  5. Is the logopenic-variant of primary progressive aphasia a unitary disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Cristian E; Hodges, John R; McLean, Catriona A; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-06-01

    Logopenic progressive aphasia is one of the clinical presentations of primary progressive aphasia and formally defined by the co-occurrence of impaired naming and sentence repetition. Impaired naming is attributed to failure of lexical retrieval, which is a multi-staged process subserved by anatomically segregated brain regions. By dissecting the neurocognitive processes involved in impaired naming, we aimed to disentangle the clinical and neuroanatomical heterogeneity of this syndrome. Twenty-one individuals (66.7% females, age range 53-83 years) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for logopenic variant and had at least two clinical and language assessments, 1 year apart, were recruited and matched for age, sex distribution and level of education with a healthy control sample (n = 18). All participants underwent a structural brain scan at the first visit and surface-wise statistical analysis using Freesurfer. Seventeen participants with logopenic variant underwent amyloid imaging, with 14 demonstrating high amyloid retention. Based on their performance on single-word comprehension, repetition and confrontation naming, three subgroups of logopenic cases with distinctive linguistic profiles and distribution of atrophy were identified. The first subgroup (n = 10) demonstrated pure anomia and left-sided atrophy in the posterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral temporal cortex. The second subgroup (n = 6), presented additional mild deficits in single-word comprehension, and also exhibited bilateral thinning of the fusiform gyri. The third subgroup (n = 5) showed additional impaired single-word repetition, and cortical thinning focused on the left superior temporal gyrus. The subgroups differed in the proportion of cases with high amyloid retention and in the rate of decline of naming performance over time, suggesting that neurodegeneration spreads differentially throughout regions subserving word processing. In line with previous reports, these results

  6. Ipsilesional and contralesional regions participate in the improvement of poststroke aphasia: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vanessa; Giglia, Giuseppe; Brighina, Filippo; Indovino, Serena; Fierro, Brigida

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, noninvasive cerebral stimulations have been used to modulate language task performance in healthy and aphasic patients. In this study, a dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on anterior and posterior language areas was applied for 2 weeks to a patient with a possible crossed aphasia following a right hemisphere stroke. Inhibitory cathodal stimulation of the right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and simultaneous anodal stimulation of the left BA 44/45 improved the patient's performance in picture naming. Conversely, the same bilateral montage on BA 39/40 did not produce any significant improvement; finally, electrode polarity inversion over BA 39/40 yielded a further improvement compared with the first anterior stimulation. Our findings suggest that ipsilesional and contralesional areas could be useful in poststroke functional reorganization and provide new evidences for the therapeutic value of tDCS in aphasia.

  7. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language ...

  8. Clinical Application of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Battery-Second Edition in Evaluating of Cognitive Function of Chinese Patients with Post-stroke Aphasia

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    Zeng-zhi Yu; Shu-jun Jiang; Jun Li; Sheng Bi; Fei Li; Tao Xie; Rui Wang; Xiao-tan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application value of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery in Chinese patients with post-stroke aphasia. Methods Cognitive functions of 59 Chinese patients with aphasia following a stroke were assessed with the Chinese version of the second edition of LOTCA battery and their linguistic functions were tested with the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) Scale, respectively. The results of LOTCA were analyzed and compared across different groups, in the light of gender, age, educational background, the length of illness, and the degree of aphasia. Results Neither the score of subtests of the LOTCA nor the overall scores of LOTCA of aphasia patients with different gender and educational background differed (all P>0.05). In different age groups, apart from thinking operation (F=3.373, P=0.016), visuomotor organization (F=3.124, P=0.022), attention (F=3.729, P=0.009) and the total score (F=2.683, P=0.041), there was no difference in terms of the other subtest scores of LOTCA (all P>0.05). In the groups of different length of time with illness, apart from orientation (F=2.982, P=0.039) and attention (F=3.485, P=0.022), the score of other subtests and the total score of LOTCA were not different (all P>0.05). In the groups of different degree of aphasia, apart from attention (F=2.061, P=0.074), both the score of other subtests and the total score of LOTCA differed (all P Conclusion LOTCA might be suitable to assessing the cognitive ability of post-stroke Chinese patients with aphasia.

  9. Combining Teletherapy and On-line Language Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic Aphasia: An Outcome Study

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    Richard D. Steele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 12-week outcome study in which nine persons with long-term chronic aphasia received individual and group speech-language teletherapy services, and also used on-line language exercises to practice from home between therapy sessions.  Participants were assessed at study initiation and completion using the Western Aphasia Battery, a portion of the Communicative Effectiveness Index, ASHA National Outcome Measurement System, and RIC Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia; additionally participants were polled regarding satisfaction at discharge.  Pre-treatment and post-treatment means were calculated and compared, and matched t-tests were used to determine significance of improvements following treatment, with patterns of independent on-line activity analyzed.  Analysis of scores shows that means improved on most measures following treatment, generally significantly: the WAB AQ improved +3.5 (p = .057; the CETI Overall (of items administered — +17.8 (p = .01, and CCRSA Overall — + 10.4 (p = .0004.  Independent work increased with time, and user satisfaction following participation was high.

  10. Translational Treatment of Aphasia Combining Neuromodulationand Behavioral Intervention for Lexical Retrieval: Implications from a Single Case Study

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    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, a non-invasive method of brain stimulation, is an adjunctive research-therapy for aphasia. The concept supporting translational application of tDCS is that brain plasticity, facilitated by language intervention, can be enhanced by non-invasive brain stimulation. This study combined tDCS with an ecologically-focused behavioral approach that involved training nouns and verbs in sentences. MethodParticipant: A 43-year-old, right-handed male with fluent-anomic aphasia who sustained a single-left-hemisphere-temporal-parietal stroke was recruited. Treatment: Instrumentation included the Soterix Medical 1x1 Device. Anodal tDCS was applied over Broca’s area. Behavioral materials included: sentence production, naming in the sentence context, and implementation of a social-conversational-discourse treatment.Design and Procedures: The independent variable of this crossover case-study was tDCS, and the dependent variables were language and quality-of-life measures. In each session the subject received language treatment with the first twenty minutes additionally including tDCS. ResultsPerformance in naming nouns and verbs in single words and sentences were obtained. Verb production in the sentence context increased after active anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment. ConclusionAphasia treatment that involves naming in the sentence context in conjunction with translational application of tDCS may be a promising approach for language-recovery post stroke.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on the element technologies for a home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients. First, studies were performed on an authoring procedure for aphasia patient training, and partial trial production and development were carried out on an authoring system for the training program formula. Then, studies were executed on a training simulation and analysis filter, and partial trial production and development were implemented on a home rehabilitation supporting and self-teaching system. Next, an input and output mechanism for voice signal processing was studied, and aphasia patient and caregiver human interface was partially fabricated on a trial basis. In addition, a remote rehabilitation communicating method was researched, and partial trial production was carried out on a remote rehabilitation evaluation and diagnosis support means. Finally, communication assisting means were researched, and a communication assisting system was partially produced on a trial basis. Good evaluation results were given on a demonstration system. Although partial indications were given on minute parts, practical agreement was obtained as a whole. Great expectation was given particularly on the remote rehabilitation system and the authoring system. (NEDO)

  12. The application of aphasia strengthening training software system in aphasia after stroke%失语症强化训练软件系统在脑卒中后失语治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨标; 古剑雄; 梁钊明; 黄小妹; 林长缨; 李波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of aphasia strengthening training software system on aphasia patients after stroke .Methods Forty aphasia patients after stroke in our hospital were selected in recent years and randomly divided into observation group (n=20) and control group (n=20).In control group, speech therapists with routine and artificial method was provided , and family self training by the help of the family members to complete the speech therapist project arrangement were given to the subjects;while in observation group , speech therapists using self -developed aphasia training software system were provided , and the generated system training packages for training in the home environment were given .Before and after the treatment , the Chinese standard aphasia examination ( CRRCAE ) of language function evaluation were recorded for analysis .Results The repetition, oral expression, oral reading, reading, copying, description and dictation ability were significantly improved in both groups , while they were significantly in ob-servation group (P<0.05).Conclusion The aphasia training software system is well developed with satisfied efficacy on aphasia after stroke .%目的:研发及应用失语症强化训练软件系统,观察其对脑卒中后失语的治疗效果。方法选取40例脑卒中后失语症患者,分为观察组和对照组,每组20例。对照组由言语治疗师对患者采用常规人工方法进行治疗,再由家属协助患者进行家庭自我训练,完成言语治疗师安排的作业项目;观察组由言语治疗师使用自行研发的失语症强化训练软件系统对患者进行治疗,再使用该系统生成的训练软件包在家庭环境进行强化训练。在治疗前后两组患者均采用汉语标准失语症检查表进行语言功能评估,统计并对比两组结果。结果治疗2个月后,两组患者的复述、口语表达、朗读、阅读理解、抄写、描写、听写

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi isolates to control the borer of yerba mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; CerambycidaeIsolados de fungos entomopatogênicos visando ao controle da broca da erva-mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Pereira Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is an important crop of southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, with socio-economic and environmental importance. Due the lack of native herbals, yerba mate has become a monoculture, and as a consequence, insects have become pests, and the borer, Hedypathes betulinus, one of the most important. In order to improve biological control in the crop, this work aims to select in laboratory the most virulent, of 32 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and 18 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. Initially, isolates virolence was evaluated by immersing the adults borers in a fungal suspension, containing 1×108 conidia mL-1, and after, those caused highest confirmed mortality were selected for the second step, wherein it was evaluated the virulence, vegetative growth and conidia production in culture medium, rice and borer bodies. Three isolates of B. bassiana (UNIOESTE 4, UNIOESTE 52 and UNIOESTE 64 and one of M. anisopliae (IBCB 352 reached confirmed mortality equal or superior to 90%, these isolates were selected for the second step, together with the standard isolated GC 716 (B. bassiana. The isolated IBCB 352 of M. anisopliae, despite being the only of this species to be selected for the second step, promoted the high confirmed mortality and conidiogenesis in adults borer, indicating a high inoculums production i, being nominated for field evaluations. A erva-mate é uma cultura importante da região sul do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, tendo grande importância sócio-econômica e ambiental. Com a escassez de ervais nativos, a cultura da erva-mate passou a ser cultivada em sistema de monocultivo e como consequência, alguns insetos tornaram-se pragas, sendo a broca, Hedypathes betulinus, muito importante. A fim de incrementar o controle biológico na cultura, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar em laboratório os isolados mais virulentos de 32 isolados do fungo entomopatog

  14. Variability in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in patients with stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia

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    B. Bonakdarpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fMRI is increasingly used to assess language-related brain activation in patients with aphasia, few studies have examined the hemodynamic response function (HRF in perilesional, and contralesional areas of the brain. In addition, the relationship between HRF abnormalities and other variables such as lesion size and severity of aphasia has not been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in HRF signal during language-related neural activation in patients with stroke-induced aphasia (SA. We also examined the status of the HRF in patients with aphasia due to nonvascular etiology, namely, primary progressive aphasia (PPA. Five right handed SA patients, three PPA patients, and five healthy individuals participated in the study. Structural damage was quantified with T1-weighted MR images. Functional MR imaging was performed with long trial event-related design and an overt naming task to measure BOLD signal time to peak (TTP and percent signal change (ΔS. In SA patients, the average HRF TTP was significantly delayed in the left hemisphere regions involved in naming compared to healthy participants and PPA patients. However, ΔS was not different in SA patients compared to the other two groups. Delay in HRF TTP in the left hemisphere naming network of SA patients was correlated with lesion size and showed a negative correlation with global language function. There were no significant differences in the HRF TTP and ΔS in the right hemisphere homologues of the naming network or in the left and the right occipital control regions across the three groups. In PPA patients, HRF had a normal pattern. Our results indicate that abnormal task-related HRF is primarily found in the left hemisphere language network of SA patients and raise the possibility that abnormal physiology superimposed on structural damage may contribute to the clinical deficit. Follow-up investigations in a larger sample of age-matched healthy individuals

  15. Toward a P300 based Brain-Computer Interface for aphasia rehabilitation after stroke: Presentation of theoretical considerations and a pilot feasibility study

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    Sonja C Kleih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available People with post-stroke motor aphasia know what they would like to say but cannot express it through motor pathways due to disruption of cortical circuits. We present a theoretical background for our hypothesized connection between attention and aphasia rehabilitation and suggest why in this context, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI use might be beneficial for patients diagnosed with aphasia. Not only could BCI technology provide a communication tool, it might support neuronal plasticity by activating language circuits and thereby boost aphasia recovery. However, stroke may lead to heterogeneous symptoms that might hinder BCI use which is why the feasibility of this approach needed to be investigated first. In this pilot study, we included five participants diagnosed with post-stroke aphasia. Four participants were initially unable to use the visual P300 speller paradigm. By adjusting the paradigm to their needs, all participants could successfully learn to use the speller for communication with accuracies up to 100%. We describe necessary adjustments to the paradigm and present future steps to further investigate the here presented approach.

  16. Toward a P300 Based Brain-Computer Interface for Aphasia Rehabilitation after Stroke: Presentation of Theoretical Considerations and a Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleih, Sonja C.; Gottschalt, Lea; Teichlein, Eva; Weilbach, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    People with post-stroke motor aphasia know what they would like to say but cannot express it through motor pathways due to disruption of cortical circuits. We present a theoretical background for our hypothesized connection between attention and aphasia rehabilitation and suggest why in this context, Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) use might be beneficial for patients diagnosed with aphasia. Not only could BCI technology provide a communication tool, it might support neuronal plasticity by activating language circuits and thereby boost aphasia recovery. However, stroke may lead to heterogeneous symptoms that might hinder BCI use, which is why the feasibility of this approach needs to be investigated first. In this pilot study, we included five participants diagnosed with post-stroke aphasia. Four participants were initially unable to use the visual P300 speller paradigm. By adjusting the paradigm to their needs, participants could successfully learn to use the speller for communication with accuracies up to 100%. We describe necessary adjustments to the paradigm and present future steps to investigate further this approach. PMID:27891083

  17. Assessment of arcuate fasciculus with diffusion-tensor tractography may predict the prognosis of aphasia in patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, Akiko; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    It is often clinically difficult to assess the severity of aphasia in the earliest stage of cerebral infarction. A method enabling objective assessment of verbal function is needed for this purpose. We examined whether diffusion tensor (DT) tractography is of clinical value in assessing aphasia. Thirteen right-handed patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts who were scanned within 2 days after stroke onset were enrolled in this study. Magnetic resonance data of ten control subjects were also examined by DT tractography. Based on the severity of aphasia at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: six patients in the aphasic group and seven in the nonaphasic group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and number of arcuate fasciculus fibers were evaluated. Asymmetry index was calculated for both FA and number of fibers. FA values for the arcuate fasciculus fibers did not differ between hemispheres in either the patient groups or the controls. Number of arcuate fasciculus fibers exhibited a significant leftward asymmetry in the controls and the nonaphasic group but not in the aphasic group. Asymmetry index of number of fibers was significantly lower (rightward) in the aphasic group than in the nonaphasic (P = 0.015) and control (P = 0.005) groups. Loss of leftward asymmetry in number of AF fibers predicted aphasia at discharge with a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.86. Asymmetry of arcuate fasciculus fibers by DT tractography may deserve to be assessed in acute infarction for predicting the fate of vascular aphasia. (orig.)

  18. Review of research progress of computer used in aphasia rehabilitation nursing%计算机应用于失语症患者康复护理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶颖; 何小俊

    2016-01-01

    The computer used in aphasia rehabilitation nursing status are reviewed. This paper will mainly elaborate the overview of computer implementation in aphasia rehabilitation nursing and several applications of computer are used in aphasia rehabilitation nursing, so as to trace the progress of computer application in aphasia rehabilitation nursing and provide clinical guidance for aphasia rehabilitation nursing.%对计算机在失语症康复护理中应用现况进行综述,主要阐述国内外计算机在失语症康复护理中应用的概况及计算机在失语症康复护理中的几种应用,以期追踪计算机应用于失语症康复护理研究的进展,为失语症康复护理提供临床信息指导.

  19. 丘脑性失语症的临床研究%Clinical research on thalamic aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦卫华; 寇丽; 刘汉伟; 韩蓉蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨丘脑血管病所致的丘脑性失语症的言语特点、解剖机制及预后.方法 选择2002年6月至2008年7月我科收治的13例丘脑性失语症患者,采用汉语失语症检查法进行失语检查,同时行神经系统检查、常规实验室检查,及头颅CT、MRI检查.所有患者按原发病治疗.结果 13例患者均有自发言语减少,音量减少;3例伴命名障碍;10例伴错语;11例伴理解障碍.3例头颅CT示优势半球侧丘脑出血;头颅CT正常的10例中,9例头部MRI示优势半球丘脑腹外侧核中上部处腔隙性梗死灶、1例示优势半球丘脑背内侧核腔隙性梗死灶.所有患者于5~12天丘脑性失语的临床表现肖失.结论 丘脑性失语症有其独特的言语特点,优势半球侧丘脑腹外侧核和丘脑背内侧核可能为责任病灶区.头颅MRI对丘脑出血及梗死均敏感,能明确丘脑性失语症的病灶.经积极治疗原发病,丘脑性失语症预后较好.%Objective To study the language characteristics, anatomical mechanism and prognosis of thalamic aphasia caused by cerebrovascular diseases of thalamus. Methods Thirteen patients with thalamic aphasia during June 2002 to July 2008 in our department were studied. Aphasia examination, physical examination of central nervous system, routine laboratory examinations, as well as CT and MRI scanning of brain were taken. All patients were treated according to thalamic infarction or hemorrhage. Results All patients presented as sparse verbal output and low tone, 3 cases accompanied with anomia, 10 cases with paraphasia, and 11 cases with disturbance of comprehension. Thalamic hemorrhage in dominant hemisphere was detected in three cases by CT scanning. Among the other ten patients with normal CT, lacunar infarction in ventrolateral nucleus of thalamas (VL) of dominant hemisphere was detected in nine cases, while lacunar infarction in dorsomedial nucleus of thalamas ( DM ) of dominant hemisphere was detected in one

  20. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex enhances treatment outcome in post-stroke aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Darkow, Robert; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation has shown promise to improve recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia, but previous studies have only assessed stimulation effects on impairment parameters, and evidence for long-term maintenance of transcranial direct current stimulation effects from randomized, controlled trials is lacking. Moreover, due to the variability of lesions and functional language network reorganization after stroke, recent studies have used advanced functional imaging or current modelling to determine optimal stimulation sites in individual patients. However, such approaches are expensive, time consuming and may not be feasible outside of specialized research centres, which complicates incorporation of transcranial direct current stimulation in day-to-day clinical practice. Stimulation of an ancillary system that is functionally connected to the residual language network, namely the primary motor system, would be more easily applicable, but effectiveness of such an approach has not been explored systematically. We conducted a randomized, parallel group, sham-controlled, double-blind clinical trial and 26 patients with chronic aphasia received a highly intensive naming therapy over 2 weeks (8 days, 2 × 1.5 h/day). Concurrently, anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation was administered to the left primary motor cortex twice daily at the beginning of each training session. Naming ability for trained items (n = 60 pictures that could not be named during repeated baseline assessments), transfer to untrained items (n = 284 pictures) and generalization to everyday communication were assessed immediately post-intervention and 6 months later. Naming ability for trained items was significantly improved immediately after the end of the intervention in both the anodal (Cohen's d = 3.67) and sham-transcranial direct current stimulation groups (d = 2.10), with a trend for larger gains in the anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation group (d

  1. Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Hyman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT; Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these results further argue that larger scale studies of this therapeutic intervention, including Phase 3 trials, are warranted in dementias. In addition

  2. Neighbourhood Density Effects in Auditory Non-Word Processing in Aphasic Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates neighbourhood density effects on lexical decision performance (both accuracy and response times) of aphasic patients. Given earlier results on lexical activation and deactivation in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia, the prediction was that smaller neighbourhood density effects would be found for Broca's aphasic patients,…

  3. Action observation as a tool for neurorehabilitation to moderate motor deficits and aphasia following stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denis Ertelt; Ferdinand Binkofski

    2012-01-01

    The mirror neuron system consists of a set of brain areas capable of matching action observation with action execution. One core feature of the mirror neuron system is the activation of motor areas by action observation alone. This unique capacity of the mirror neuron system to match action perception and action execution stimulated the idea that mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in the understanding of the content of observed actions and may participate in procedural learning. These features bear a high potential for neurorehabilitation of motor deficits and of aphasia following stroke. Since the first articles exploring this principle were published, a growing number of follow-up studies have been conducted in the last decade. Though, the combination of action observation with practice of the observed actions seems to constitute the most powerful approach. In the present review, we present the existing studies analyzing the effects of this neurorehabilitative approach in clinical settings especially in the rehabilitation of stroke associated motor deficits and give a perspective on the ongoing trials by our research group. The data obtained up to date showed significant positive effect of action observation on recovery of motor functions of the upper limbs even in the chronic state after stroke, indicating that our approach might become a new standardized add-on feature of modern neurorehabilitative treatment schemes.

  4. Neural correlates of syntactic processing in the nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

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    Wilson, Stephen M; Dronkers, Nina F; Ogar, Jennifer M; Jang, Jung; Growdon, Matthew E; Agosta, Federica; Henry, Maya L; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2010-12-15

    The left posterior inferior frontal cortex (IFC) is important for syntactic processing, and has been shown in many functional imaging studies to be differentially recruited for the processing of syntactically complex sentences relative to simpler ones. In the nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), degeneration of the posterior IFC is associated with expressive and receptive agrammatism; however, the functional status of this region in nonfluent PPA is not well understood. Our objective was to determine whether the atrophic posterior IFC is differentially recruited for the processing of syntactically complex sentences in nonfluent PPA. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified tissue volumes and functional responses to a syntactic comprehension task in eight patients with nonfluent PPA, compared to healthy age-matched controls. In controls, the posterior IFC showed more activity for syntactically complex sentences than simpler ones, as expected. In nonfluent PPA patients, the posterior IFC was atrophic and, unlike controls, showed an equivalent level of functional activity for syntactically complex and simpler sentences. This abnormal pattern of functional activity was specific to the posterior IFC: the mid-superior temporal sulcus, another region modulated by syntactic complexity in controls, showed normal modulation by complexity in patients. A more anterior inferior frontal region was recruited by patients, but did not support successful syntactic processing. We conclude that in nonfluent PPA, the posterior IFC is not only structurally damaged, but also functionally abnormal, suggesting a critical role for this region in the breakdown of syntactic processing in this syndrome.

  5. Treatment for apraxia of speech in nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia.

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    Henry, M L; Meese, M V; Truong, S; Babiak, M C; Miller, B L; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature examining the utility of behavioral treatment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). There are, however, no studies exploring treatment approaches to improve speech production in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS) associated with the nonfluent variant of PPA. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel approach to treatment of AOS in nonfluent PPA. We implemented a treatment method using structured oral reading as a tool for improving production of multisyllabic words in an individual with mild AOS and nonfluent variant PPA. Our participant showed a reduction in speech errors during reading of novel text that was maintained at one year post-treatment. Generalization of improved speech production was observed on repetition of words and sentences and the participant showed stability of speech production over time in connected speech. Results suggest that oral reading treatment is an efficient and effective means of addressing multisyllabic word production in AOS associated with nonfluent PPA, with lasting and generalized treatment effects.

  6. Does linguistic ability impact nonlinguistic learning? The neural bases of nonlinguistic learning in aphasia

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    Sofia Vallila-Rohter

    2015-05-01

    We have collected data from 6 PWA and two controls and anticipate enrolling 10 PWA. Whole brain analyses reveal a set of regions activated for the learning>baseline contrast across all participants that includes bilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, right angular gyrus and bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG. ROI analyses over data for two PWA and two controls demonstrate that controls produce positive percent signal change differences in the caudate (implicit system and negative percent signal change difference in the hippocampus (verbal, explicit system. In contrast, PWA show positive signal change in the hippocampus and negative percent signal change in the caudate. Conclusions PWA and controls engage a similar overall network of regions during probabilistic category learning. ROI analyses suggest, however, that PWA may exhibit a greater reliance on verbally mediated strategies, compared with a greater reliance on implicit strategies in controls. PWA with mild aphasia who have access to language, may be predisposed to utilize that language to learn, even if it is not a productive strategy.

  7. Lack of Frank Agrammatism in the Nonfluent Agrammatic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia

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    Graham, Naida L.; Leonard, Carol; Tang-Wai, David F.; Black, Sandra; Chow, Tiffany W.; Scott, Chris J.M.; McNeely, Alicia A.; Masellis, Mario; Rochon, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Frank agrammatism, defined as the omission and/or substitution of grammatical morphemes with associated grammatical errors, is variably reported in patients with nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfPPA). This study addressed whether frank agrammatism is typical in agrammatic nfPPA patients when this feature is not required for diagnosis. Method We assessed grammatical production in 9 patients who satisfied current diagnostic criteria. Although the focus was agrammatism, motor speech skills were also evaluated to determine whether dysfluency arose primarily from apraxia of speech (AOS), instead of, or in addition to, agrammatism. Volumetric MRI analyses provided impartial imaging-supported diagnosis. Results The majority of cases exhibited neither frank agrammatism nor AOS. Conclusion There are nfPPA patients with imaging-supported diagnosis and preserved motor speech skills who do not exhibit frank agrammatism, and this may persist beyond the earliest stages of the illness. Because absence of frank agrammatism is a subsidiary diagnostic feature in the logopenic variant of PPA, this result has implications for differentiation of the nonfluent and logopenic variants, and indicates that PPA patients with nonfluent speech in the absence of frank agrammatism or AOS do not necessarily have the logopenic variant.

  8. Aphasia in a bilingual user of British signlanguage and english: Effects of cross-linguistic cues( ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane; Atkinson, Jo; Woll, Bencie; Thacker, Alice

    2005-09-01

    This paper is a single case investigation of "Maureen," a Deaf woman who was bilingual in British Sign Language (BSL) and English, and who had aphasia following a left-hemisphere CVA. Input Investigations revealed that comprehension of British Sign Language was severely impaired. The presence of semantic errors, and comparable difficulties in English, suggested that the problem arose, at least in part, from a central semantic deficit. This was also supported by the results of a BSL lexical judgement task, showing that she could differentiate real BSL signs from minimally related nonsigns. Maureen was completely unable to sign, but produced occasional English spoken words, particularly as echolalic translations of BSL signs. This observation was investigated in assessments of cued English naming. These showed that Maureen could be cued to produce English spoken nouns (but not verbs) by the provision of the corresponding BSL sign. In contrast, gesture cues had no effect. This cueing effect with signs is informative about the nature of the bilingual language system, and suggests that Maureen may be able to exploit direct (nonsemantic) links between her BSL and English lexicons.

  9. Treatment for Apraxia of Speech in Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature examining the utility of behavioral treatment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA. There are, however, no studies exploring treatment approaches to improve speech production in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS associated with the nonfluent variant of PPA. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel approach to treatment of AOS in nonfluent PPA. We implemented a treatment method using structured oral reading as a tool for improving production of multisyllabic words in an individual with mild AOS and nonfluent variant PPA. Our participant showed a reduction in speech errors during reading of novel text that was maintained at one year post-treatment. Generalization of improved speech production was observed on repetition of words and sentences and the participant showed stability of speech production over time in connected speech. Results suggest that oral reading treatment may offer an efficient and effective means of addressing multisyllabic word production in AOS associated with nonfluent PPA, with lasting and generalized treatment effects.

  10. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso Global aphasia without hemiparesis: case report

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    MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH. Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos.Symptoms and signs of a stroke indicate which areas of the brain are affected and may also suggest the pathophysiology. We report herein a case of global aphasia without hemiparesis due to embolic infarct. Our case suggests that this situation may be an important sign for embolic cerebral infarction, as reported in literature.

  11. Neuroradiological findings in primary progressive aphasia: CT, MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnatamby, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Antoun, N.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Freer, C.E.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Miles, K.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hodges, J.R. [Dept. of Neurology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is defined as progressive decline in language for 2 or more years with preservation of activities of daily living and general cognitive functions. Whereas the clinical features of this syndrome have been well documented, the neuroradiological findings have not been studied systematically. We studied 13 patients with PPA retrospectively: 10 underwent CT, 12 MRI and 12 cerebral perfusion studies using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. CT and MR images were scored for focal atrophy by two independent assessors. Initial qualitative assessment of SPECT images was confirmed by quantitative analysis. CY was normal in 5 patients. Focal atrophy, affecting predominantly the left temporal lobe, was seen in 4 of 10 patients on CT, and 10 of 12 on MRI. Atrophy was localised primarily to the superior and middle temporal gyri on MRI. All 12 patients who underwent SPECT had unilateral temporal lobe perfusion defects, in 2 patients of whom MRI was normal. CT is relatively insensitive to focal abnormalities in PPA; MRI and SPECT are the imaging modalities of choice. MRI allows accurate, specific localisation of atrophy with the temporal neocortex. SPECT may reveal a functional decrease in cerebral perfusion prior to establishment of structural change. (orig.)

  12. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  13. Praxis and writing in a right-hander with crossed aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Adam D; Burtis, D Brandon; Acosta, Lealani M; Salazar, Liliana; Shushrutha Hedna, Vishnumurthy; Khanna, Anna Y; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2014-06-01

    Studies of patients with brain lesions have demonstrated that language and praxis are mediated by dissociable networks. However, language has the capacity to influence the selection of purposeful actions. The abilities to use language and to program purposeful movements are often mediated by networks that have anatomic proximity. With hemispheric injury, the diagnosis of apraxia is often confounded by the specific influence of language impairments on the ability to select and produce transitive gestures. We report a patient who illustrates this confound. This patient is a right-handed man who developed global aphasia and neglect after a right hemispheric stroke. His right hand remained deft, and when asked to produce specific transitive gestures (pantomimes), he often performed normally but did make some body part as object and perseverative errors. However, he did not demonstrate the temporal or spatial errors typical of ideomotor apraxia. He also had a perseverative agraphia. Our patient's left hemisphere praxis system appeared to be intact, and the error types demonstrated during production of transitive gestures cannot be attributed to a degradation of postural and movement (praxis) programs mediated by his left hemisphere. The praxis errors types are most consistent with a deficit in the ability to select the necessary praxis programs. Thus, our patient appeared to have dissociation between language and praxis programs that resulted in body part as object and perseverative errors.

  14. 语言疗法和作业疗法对脑卒中后运动性失语伴口颜面失用的作用%Speech therapy and occupational therapy on Broca aphasia with bucco-facial-apraxia following hemiplegia after stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭红; 张智博

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨语言疗法结合作业疗法对脑卒中致运动性失语伴口颜面失用的语言康复方法.方法 55名脑卒中致运动性失语伴口颜面失用患者随机分为训练组和对照组.用前瞻法对两组进行比较分析,训练组患者进行语言康复训练的同时,用作业疗法对其进行失用症康复训练;对照组只进行语言康复训练.分别于训练前后进行测评.结果训练组口颜面失用现象改善效果优于对照组(P<0.05);语言表达能力(复述、说、出声读)训练组优于对照组(P<0.05).结论脑卒中致运动性失语伴口颜面失用患者在语言康复训练同时,运用作业疗法进行口颜面失用的康复训练,可明显改善口颜面失用,并提高语言表达能力.

  15. The role of written language in the rehabilitation process of brain injury and aphasia: the memory of the movement in the reacquisition of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi-Vittorio, Limor

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes the use of written language over a period of two years, with a young adult who sustained brain injury and as a result has expressive and receptive aphasia. The study demonstrates the ways in which written language can enhance the development of the expression of thoughts. The "memory of the movement" strategy enabled him to initiate ideation and restore his language. One of the powerful aspects of the research was the natural choice of mediating his thoughts through the writing of poetry. The importance of this research is the encouragement of holistic and interdisciplinary approaches to promote the language rehabilitation process of individuals who have aphasia.

  16. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalizion after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

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    Vânia ede Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance generalization has not been systematically investigated. Here, we test the efficacy of ACTION (a linguistically motivated protocol and tDCS in producing item-specific and generalized improvement in aphasia.Method. Nine individuals with post-stroke aphasia participated in this study. Participants were pre-tested with a diagnostic language battery and a cognitive screening. Experimental tasks were administered over multiple baselines. Production of infinitives, of finite verbs and of full sentences were assessed before and after each treatment phase. Nonword repetition was used as a control measure. Each subject was treated in two phases. Ten daily 1-hour treatment sessions were provided per phase, in a double-blind, cross-over design. Linguistically-motivated language therapy focusing on verb inflection and sentence construction was provided in both phases. Each session began with 20 minutes of real or sham tDCS. Stimulation site was determined individually, based on MRI scans.Results. Group data showed improved production of treated and untreated verbs, attesting the efficacy of behavioral treatment, and its potential to yield generalization. Each individual showed significant item-specific improvement. Generalization occurred in the first phase of treatment for all subjects, and in the second phase for two subjects. Stimulation effects at the group level were significant for treated and untreated verbs altogether, but a ceiling effect for Sham cannot be excluded, as scores between real tDCS and Sham differed only before treatment.Conclusion. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of ACTION and suggest that tDCS may enhance both item-specific effects and

  17. The contribution of the right cerebral hemisphere to the recovery from aphasia: a single longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Arguin, Martin; Roch Lecours, André

    2002-08-01

    We examined the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in the recovery from aphasia of HJ, a 50-year-old right-handed and unilingual man who suffered from severe aphasia caused by an extensive left hemisphere (LH) lesion. He was followed-up over 10 months at 4-month intervals, with a lateralized lexical decision task (LDT), an attentional task, and a language battery. Testing started when HJ was 2 months poststroke. In the LDT, words were presented to central vision or lateralized to the left or right visual hemifield. At each test period, we examined the effect of the degree of imageability (high vs. low), and the grammatical class (noun vs. verb) of the targets on HJ's response times and error rates, with left visual field, right visual field, and central vision presentations. The results of the experiment showed that the pattern obtained with the LDT could not be accounted for by fluctuations in attention. There was an interaction of grammatical class with degree of imageability with left visual field displays only. The right hemisphere (RH) was faster with high-imageability words than with low-imageability words, regardless of their grammatical class. There was also an overall RH advantage on response times at 2 and 6 months after onset. This RH predominance coincided with a major recovery of language comprehension and the observation of semantic paralexias, while no major change in language expression was observed at that point. Ten months after onset, the pattern of lateralization changed, and response times for the LDT with either presentation site were equivalent. This LH improvement coincided with some recovery of language expression at the single-word level. The results of this study suggest that, in cases of severe aphasia caused by extensive LH lesions, the RH may play an important role in the recovery process. Furthermore, these results show that the contribution of the two cerebral hemispheres to recovery may vary overtime and affect specific aspects

  18. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

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    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  19. The feasibility of using pupillometry to measure cognitive effort in aphasia: Evidence from a working memory span task

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    Esther Sung Kim

    2015-05-01

    In this study, three PWA completed a computerized picture span task while an eye-tracker measured pupil dilation. As short-term memory demands (i.e., span size increased, average pupil size significantly increased in all three PWA. These data provide preliminary support for the use of pupillometry to gauge cognitive effort in PWA. A larger study of PWA and demographically-matched control participants is currently underway, allowing for analysis of change in pupil size within and between groups. Examination of cognitive effort will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of linguistic and cognitive functioning in aphasia.

  20. Efeito do ensacamento na qualidade dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos da atemoieira e da pinheira Bagging effect upon either quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer in atemoya and sweetsop

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    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso de diferentes invólucros nos frutos de atemoieira e pinheira na qualidade físico-química dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos, Cerconota anonella. Os experimentos foram instalados em dois pomares comerciais: um de atemoieira no município de Matias Cardoso e outro de pinheira no município de Verdelândia, Norte de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos para a atemoieira consistiram em: 1 Testemunha (sem ensacamento; 2 Saco plástico leitoso; 3 Saco de TNT (tecido-não-tecido branco sem fundo e 4 Saco de TNT branco com fundo. Para a pinheira foi modificado apenas o tratamento 2 para saco de papel pardo. Avaliaram-se número de dias da polinização à colheita, número de dias da colheita ao amadurecimento, ocorrência de injúrias e brocas e características físico-químicas dos frutos. Observam-se maior número de dias entre a colheita e o amadurecimento e mais firmeza nos frutos de pinheira não-ensacados. O uso do plástico leitoso controlou a broca em frutos de atemoieira. As características físico-químicas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa não foram influenciados pelo uso dos invólucros.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect from using different involucres for fruits of the atemoya and sweetsop upon either physiochemical quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer Cerconota anonella. The experiments were set up in two commercial orchards: one with atemoya at Matias Cardoso county and the other one with sweetsop at Verdelândia on northern Minas Gerais state. The treatments for atemoya consisted of: 1 Control (without bagging; 2 Milky plastic bag; 3 White, bottomless, tissue-non-tissue (TNT bag; and (4 With bottom TNT bag. For the sweetsop, only treatment 2 was modified to brown paper bag. The following evaluation were performed: the number of days from pollination to harvest, number of days from harvest to ripening

  1. Using big-data to validate theories of rehabilitation in aphasia

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    Swathi Kiran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While the evidence for efficacy of rehabilitation of language disorders is fairly robust and conclusive (Allen, et al., 2012; Brady, et al., 2012; Kelly, Brady, & Enderby, 2010; Cherney, et al., 2008, a major limitation identified by these reviews is that the sample size of patients in each of the interventions have been modest (5-20 patients. As technology moves our field forward, we can now collect and analyze larger sets of data to validate theories of rehabilitation. As a first step, we report data from a recently completed study examining the effectiveness of software platform (Constant Therapy to deliver, monitor and analyze treatment for individuals with aphasia (Des Roches et al., 2015. Methods. Fifty one individuals with language and cognitive deficits were administered standardized tests (Western Aphasia Battery, Boston Naming Test, Pyramids and Palm Trees, and Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test prior to initiation and following completion of therapy. Forty-two experimental patients used the iPad-based therapy once a week with the clinician and up to six days a week for home practice. Nine control patients practiced therapy on the iPad once per week with the clinician only. Thirty-eight therapy tasks were divided into language and cognitive activities that were developed (Des Roches et al., 2015, 28 of these tasks included buttons that revealed a hint to assist the patient answer the item. The assigned therapy tasks were tailored to that individual’s language and cognitive impairment profile based on an initial baseline assessment. Each task was practiced until accuracy on task reached 100% on multiple occasions at which point that task was replaced with the task at the next level of difficulty. The 51 patients each completed a 10 week program leading to total of 3327 therapy sessions across patients. Analysis and Results: Mixed regression models showed that both the experimental and control groups improved but

  2. Behavioral neurology in language and aphasia: from basic studies to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    With increasing aging population, cognitive deteriorations due to neuro- degenerative diseases or stroke are so commonly observed that it is thought to be inevitable with aging. For dementia and stroke, a communication disorder due to language deterioration is one of the main problems. Behavioral neurology aims to clarify the relationship between brain function and behavior; language deterioration is one of the main targets, and its clinical applications are really useful for making better understanding of patients. Language is sequences of sound or characters that carry meanings for communication. From the evolutionary perspective, "language" can be thought about by considering birds and dogs: the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate, and the thalamus and cerebral cortex are thought to provide the neurobiological background, respectively. Humans can use language. The language area is a newly developed brain area in evolution and is mainly localized in the left cerebral hemisphere. Semantic memory has also developed in humans. There are two routes, the superficial and deep routes, with the latter associated with meaning, and three brain areas are involved: the peri-Sylvian area, per-peri-Sylvian area, and right hemisphere. Using these principles, language symptoms of dementia with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PA), semantic dementia (SD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) can be understood. Namely, the symptoms of PA is understood by the dysfunction of peri-Sylvian language area, those of SD and AD by that of peri-peri-Sylvian language area, and those of some VaD cases and AD cases by that of right hemisphere.

  3. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia: clinical and neuroimaging evidence in single subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Iaccarino

    Full Text Available We present a clinical-neuroimaging study in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, with the aim to provide clinical-functional correlations of the cognitive and behavioral manifestations at the single-subject level.We performed neuropsychological investigations, 18F-FDG-PET single-subject and group analysis, with an optimized SPM voxel-based approach, and correlation analyses. A measurement of white matter integrity by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was also available for a subgroup of patients.Cognitive assessment confirmed the presence of typical semantic memory deficits in all patients, with a relative sparing of executive, attentional, visuo-constructional, and episodic memory domains. 18F-FDG-PET showed a consistent pattern of cerebral hypometabolism across all patients, which correlated with performance in semantic memory tasks. In addition, a majority of patients also presented with behavioral disturbances associated with metabolic dysfunction in limbic structures. In a subgroup of cases the DTI analysis showed FA abnormalities in the inferior longitudinal and uncinate fasciculi.Each svPPA individual had functional derangement involving an extended, connected system within the left temporal lobe, a crucial part of the verbal semantic network, as well as an involvement of limbic structures. The latter was associated with behavioral manifestations and extended beyond the area of atrophy shown by CT scan.Single-subject 18F-FDG-PET analysis can account for both cognitive and behavioral alterations in svPPA. This provides useful support to the clinical diagnosis.

  4. The time course of neurolinguistic and neuropsychological symptoms in three cases of logopenic primary progressive aphasia.

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    Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Südmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease. However, the dynamics of changes in language and non-linguistic abilities are not well understood. Most studies on progression used cross-sectional designs, which provide only limited insight into the course of the disease. Here we report the results of a longitudinal study in three cases of logopenic PPA over a period of 18 months, with exemplary longitudinal data from one patient even over 46 months. A comprehensive battery of neurolinguistic and neuropsychological tests was applied four times at intervals of six months. Over this period, deterioration of verbal abilities such as picture naming, story retelling, and semantic word recall was found, and the individual decline was quantified and compared between the three patients. Furthermore, decrease in non-verbal skills such as divided attention and increasing apraxia was observed in all three patients. In addition, inter-subject variability in the progression with different focuses was observed, with one patient developing a non-fluent PPA variant. The longitudinal, multivariate investigation of logopenic PPA thus provides novel insights into the progressive deterioration of verbal as well as non-verbal abilities. These deficits may further interact and thus form a multi-causal basis for the patients' problems in every-day life which need to be considered when planning individually targeted intervention in PPA.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation effects on neural processing in post-stroke aphasia.

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    Darkow, Robert; Martin, Andrew; Würtz, Anna; Flöel, Agnes; Meinzer, Marcus

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance recovery after stroke. However, fundamental knowledge about how tDCS impacts neural processing in the lesioned human brain is currently lacking. In the present study, it was investigated how tDCS modulates brain function in patients with post-stroke language impairment (aphasia). In a cross-over, randomized trial, patients named pictures of common objects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Concurrently, excitatory (anodal-) or sham-tDCS (1 mA, 20 min, or 30 s, respectively) was administered to the left primary motor cortex, a montage with demonstrated potential to improve aphasic language. By choosing stimuli that could reliable be named by the patients, the authors aimed to derive a pure measure of stimulation effects that was independent of treatment or performance effects and to assess how tDCS interacts with the patients' residual language network. Univariate fMRI data analysis revealed reduced activity in domain-general regions mediating high-level cognitive control during anodal-tDCS. Independent component functional network analysis demonstrated selectively increased language network activity and an inter-correlated shift from higher to lower frequency bands, indicative of increased within-network communication. Compared with healthy controls, anodal-tDCS resulted in overall "normalization" of brain function in the patients. These results demonstrate for the first time how tDCS modulates neural processing in stroke patients. Such information is crucial to assure that behavioral treatments targeting specific neural circuits overlap with regions that are modulated by tDCS, thereby maximizing stimulation effects during therapy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1518-1531, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Role of Executive Function in the Semantic Comprehension Deficits of Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtiss Chapman

    2015-05-01

    Results from 5 SD patients and 4 SA patients in our ongoing study suggest similar patterns of impairment on both semantic and executive function tasks for both patient groups. Both showed multi-modal semantic deficits via poor performance on at least 3 out of 5 semantic tasks tapping different modalities. Also, SA and SD patients showed no difference in consistency across semantic tasks (see Fig. 1a & b. Both groups also showed consistently poor performance on trail-making and verbal Stroop tasks compared to controls (see Figs. 1c & 1d. SD patients seem to be less impaired on both span measures (word span range: 2.17 – 4.43; digit span: 3.17 – 5.5 than SA patients (word span range: 1.63 – 3.75; digit span: 1.17 – 4.17, and performance was variable for both groups on non-verbal Stroop and picture-word interference. SD patients found many executive tasks too difficult to understand, which may be the reason for limited prior data for them on EF tasks.. These findings suggest that the use of syndrome categories like semantic dementia and comprehension-impaired stroke aphasia are not useful in distinguishing between storage and access deficits. Patients classified as having SD seem as likely as SA patients to have certain kinds of executive deficits and SA patients may be as likely as SD patients to show consistency across semantic tasks. The results imply that some other behavioral or neuroanatomical basis rather than syndrome classification should be used to address the hypothesized separation of storage vs. control aspects of semantic memory.

  7. Positive effects of language treatment for the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

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    Beeson, Pélagie M; King, Rachel M; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Henry, Maya L; Cho, Hyesuk; Rapcsak, Steven Z

    2011-11-01

    Despite considerable recent progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes, relatively little attention has been directed toward the examination of behavioral interventions that may lessen the pervasive communication problems associated with PPA. In this study, we report on an individual with a behavioral profile and cortical atrophy pattern consistent with the logopenic variant of PPA. At roughly two-and-a-half years post onset, his marked lexical retrieval impairment prompted administration of a semantically based intervention to improve word retrieval. The treatment was designed to improve self-directed efforts to engage the participant's relatively preserved semantic system in order to facilitate word retrieval. His positive response to an intensive (2-week) dose of behavioral treatment was associated with improved lexical retrieval of items within trained categories, and generalized improvement for naming of untrained items that lasted over a 6-month follow-up interval. These findings support the potential value of intensive training to achieve self-directed strategic compensation for lexical retrieval difficulties in logopenic PPA. Additional insight was gained regarding the neural regions that supported improved performance by the administration of a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol before and after treatment. In the context of a picture-naming task, post-treatment fMRI showed increased activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal regions that have been implicated in functional imaging studies of generative naming in healthy individuals. The increased activation in these frontal regions that were not significantly atrophic in our patient (as determined by voxel-based morphometry) is consistent with the notion that neural plasticity can support compensation for specific language loss, even in the context of progressive neuronal degeneration.

  8. Frontal white matter tracts sustaining speech production in primary progressive aphasia.

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    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Lobach, Iryna; Block, Nikolas; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L; Henry, Roland G; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-07-16

    In primary progressive aphasia (PPA), speech and language difficulties are caused by neurodegeneration of specific brain networks. In the nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), motor speech and grammatical deficits are associated with atrophy in a left fronto-insular-striatal network previously implicated in speech production. In vivo dissection of the crossing white matter (WM) tracts within this "speech production network" is complex and has rarely been performed in health or in PPA. We hypothesized that damage to these tracts would be specific to nfvPPA and would correlate with differential aspects of the patients' fluency abilities. We prospectively studied 25 PPA and 21 healthy individuals who underwent extensive cognitive testing and 3 T MRI. Using residual bootstrap Q-ball probabilistic tractography on high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI), we reconstructed pathways connecting posterior inferior frontal, inferior premotor, insula, supplementary motor area (SMA) complex, striatum, and standard ventral and dorsal language pathways. We extracted tract-specific diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics to assess changes across PPA variants and perform brain-behavioral correlations. Significant WM changes in the left intrafrontal and frontostriatal pathways were found in nfvPPA, but not in the semantic or logopenic variants. Correlations between tract-specific DTI metrics with cognitive scores confirmed the specific involvement of this anterior-dorsal network in fluency and suggested a preferential role of a posterior premotor-SMA pathway in motor speech. This study shows that left WM pathways connecting the speech production network are selectively damaged in nfvPPA and suggests that different tracts within this system are involved in subcomponents of fluency. These findings emphasize the emerging role of diffusion imaging in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Word-finding difficulty: a clinical analysis of the progressive aphasias.

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    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Knight, William D; Warren, Jane E; Fox, Nick C; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2008-01-01

    The patient with word-finding difficulty presents a common and challenging clinical problem. The complaint of 'word-finding difficulty' covers a wide range of clinical phenomena and may signify any of a number of distinct pathophysiological processes. Although it occurs in a variety of clinical contexts, word-finding difficulty generally presents a diagnostic conundrum when it occurs as a leading or apparently isolated symptom, most often as the harbinger of degenerative disease: the progressive aphasias. Recent advances in the neurobiology of the focal, language-based dementias have transformed our understanding of these processes and the ways in which they breakdown in different diseases, but translation of this knowledge to the bedside is far from straightforward. Speech and language disturbances in the dementias present unique diagnostic and conceptual problems that are not fully captured by classical models derived from the study of vascular and other acute focal brain lesions. This has led to a reformulation of our understanding of how language is organized in the brain. In this review we seek to provide the clinical neurologist with a practical and theoretical bridge between the patient presenting with word-finding difficulty in the clinic and the evidence of the brain sciences. We delineate key illustrative speech and language syndromes in the degenerative dementias, compare these syndromes with the syndromes of acute brain damage, and indicate how the clinical syndromes relate to emerging neurolinguistic, neuroanatomical and neurobiological insights. We propose a conceptual framework for the analysis of word-finding difficulty, in order both better to define the patient's complaint and its differential diagnosis for the clinician and to identify unresolved issues as a stimulus to future work.

  10. Visual and statistical analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in primary progressive aphasia

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    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A.; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Garcia-Ramos, Rocio; Fernandez-Matarrubia, Marta; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Matias-Guiu, Jorge [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Neurology, Madrid (Spain); Cabrera-Martin, Maria Nieves; Perez-Castejon, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Rey, Cristina; Ortega-Candil, Aida; Carreras, Jose Luis [San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC) Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosing progressive primary aphasia (PPA) and its variants is of great clinical importance, and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may be a useful diagnostic technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability in the interpretation of FDG PET images in PPA as well as the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the technique. We also aimed to compare visual and statistical analyses of these images. There were 10 raters who analysed 44 FDG PET scans from 33 PPA patients and 11 controls. Five raters analysed the images visually, while the other five used maps created using Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Two spatial normalization procedures were performed: global mean normalization and cerebellar normalization. Clinical diagnosis was considered the gold standard. Inter-rater concordance was moderate for visual analysis (Fleiss' kappa 0.568) and substantial for statistical analysis (kappa 0.756-0.881). Agreement was good for all three variants of PPA except for the nonfluent/agrammatic variant studied with visual analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of each rater's diagnosis of PPA was high, averaging 87.8 and 89.9 % for visual analysis and 96.9 and 90.9 % for statistical analysis using global mean normalization, respectively. In cerebellar normalization, sensitivity was 88.9 % and specificity 100 %. FDG PET demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of PPA and its variants. Inter-rater concordance was higher for statistical analysis, especially for the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. These data support the use of FDG PET to evaluate patients with PPA and show that statistical analysis methods are particularly useful for identifying the nonfluent/agrammatic variant of PPA. (orig.)

  11. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

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    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  12. [Is Freud the author of the "aphasia" article in Villaret's Handwörterbuch der Gesamten Medizin (1888)? A reply to Anneliese Menninger].

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    Scherrer, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    In 2011/12 Menninger rejected my proposition that Freud could not have composed the "aphasia" article in Villaret's medical dictionary. In this reply I argue in favour of my initial view that Freud is not the author of the article that has been attributed to him for over 60 years.

  13. The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test for Assessment and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Modulate Language Acquisition in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

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    Schneider, Harry D.; Hopp, Jenna P.

    2011-01-01

    Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT)…

  14. Self-Awareness and Self-Monitoring of Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia and Probable Alzheimer's Disease

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    Banks, Sarah; Weintraub, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lack of insight is a core diagnostic criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and is believed to be intact in the early stages of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In other neurological conditions, symptom-specific insight has been noted, with behavioral symptoms appearing especially vulnerable to reduced insight.…

  15. The Role of the Cognitive Control System in Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia: A Multiple Single-Case fMRI Study

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    Mouthon, Michael; Di Pietro, Marie; Gaytanidis, Chrisovalandou; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia in bilingual patients is a therapeutic challenge since both languages can be impacted by the same lesion. Language control has been suggested to play an important role in the recovery of first (L1) and second (L2) language in bilingual aphasia following stroke. To test this hypothesis, we collected behavioral measures of language production (general aphasia evaluation and picture naming) in each language and language control (linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks), as well as fMRI during a naming task at one and four months following stroke in five bilingual patients suffering from poststroke aphasia. We further applied dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analyses to the connections between language and control brain areas. Three patients showed parallel recovery in language production, one patient improved in L1, and one improved in L2 only. Language-control functions improved in two patients. Consistent with the dynamic view of language recovery, DCM analyses showed a higher connectedness between language and control areas in the language with the better recovery. Moreover, similar degrees of connectedness between language and control areas were found in the patients who recovered in both languages. Our data suggest that engagement of the interconnected language-control network is crucial in the recovery of languages. PMID:27965899

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in poststroke aphasia%卒中后失语患者的功能磁共振成像

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    刘少霓; 肖壮伟; 庄伟端

    2009-01-01

    Aphasia is the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. Stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. The language function in most patients with aphasia will get recovery with different degrees no matter whether they have performed language training or not. In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology has been widely used in neuro-linguistic research, This article reviews the advances in research on investigating the recovery mechanisms of poststroke aphasia with fMRI.%失语是脑损害所致语言受损或丧失.卒中是失语的常见原因之一.无论是否经过语言康复治疗,大部分失语患者的语言功能都会有不同程度的恢复.近年来,功能磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging,fMRI)技术已被广泛应用于神经语言学研究中.文章埘探讨卒中后失语恢复机制的fMRI研究进展进行了综述.

  17. Semantic Diversity Accounts for the "Missing" Word Frequency Effect in Stroke Aphasia: Insights Using a Novel Method to Quantify Contextual Variability in Meaning

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    Hoffman, Paul; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Word frequency is a powerful predictor of language processing efficiency in healthy individuals and in computational models. Puzzlingly, frequency effects are often absent in stroke aphasia, challenging the assumption that word frequency influences the behavior of any computational system. To address this conundrum, we investigated divergent…

  18. Identifying depression post-stroke in patients with aphasia : A systematic review of the reliability, validity and feasibility of available instruments

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    van Dijk, Mariska J; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and critically appraise the evidence for instruments assessing depression in stroke patients with aphasia. METHODS: The PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Psych Info and Cochrane databases were searched from inception until May 2015. RESULTS: Of the 383 titles found in the search

  19. Jean Langlais (1907-91): an historical case of a blind organist with stroke-induced aphasia and Braille alexia but without amusia.

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    Fisher, C A H; Larner, A J

    2008-11-01

    The subject of a prior report of a blind organist with aphasia and Braille alexia without amusia, published in French, has been identified as Jean Langlais. His artistic and medical history is presented, the latter via translation of the original 1987 paper.

  20. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…