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Sample records for apf-ih type linac

  1. APF-IH type linac for PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are studying an APF-IH type linac for PIXE analysis use. The compact (L=1.5m) linac accelerate proton from 40 keV to 2.0 MeV. This APF (Alternating-Phase-Focus) system can not focus so high intense beam, but beam of several 100 μA is focused by combination of Focus-Defocus sequence. For PIXE analysis, intensity of bombard particles are several μA lower than several 100 μA. From particle orbit calculation, on energy width of ±0.25%, this linac can accept transverse emittance of 113 πmm·mrad, longitudinal phase of 35deg (by using a buncher, beam transmission get larger than 65%) and beam intensity of several 100 μA. The linac can accelerate proton to 2.0 MeV by RF power of about 10 kW. We designed the Interdigital H (IH) leaner accelerator by particle-orbit calculation. All PIXE analysis system occupy only 2mx3m. A half-model cavity was designed. The model is manufacturing now for measurement of RF characteristics. (author)

  2. Review of Linac-Ring Type Collider Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, A N; Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    There are three possibly types of particle colliders schemes: familiar (well known) ring-ring colliders, less familiar however sufficiently advanced linear colliders and less familiar and less advanced linac-ring type colliders. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to present possibly complete list of papers on linac-ring type collider proposals and to emphasize the role of linac-ring type machines for future HEP research.

  3. Development of multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a two-beam type IH-RFQ (Interdigital H type Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac system to prove the principle of a multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology. The multi-beam type RFQ linac has several beam channels in a cavity for accelerating high intensity and low energy heavy ion beams. The developed system consists of a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multi-beam type cavity, a two-beam type laser ion source with DPIS (Direct Plasma Injection Scheme) and beam analyzers mainly. As a result of the beam acceleration test, the linac system accelerates carbon ions from 5 keV/u to 60 keV/u and generates about 108 mA (2x54 mA/channel) in the total output current. In this paper, we describe the development of the linac system and some results of the beam acceleration test. (author)

  4. Towards a radiation-free linac of meson or neutron generator type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems with radiation cleanness of meson or neutron generator type linacs led to a research program on transverse phase volume filtering, longitudinal phase volume filtering, and the vacuum and magnetic characteristics of the beam channel for the acceleration of H- ions, results of which are described. (E.C.B.)

  5. Laser ion source: A direct plasma injection scheme for two-beam type interdigital-H radio frequency quadrupole linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a laser ion source using a direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) as an injection system for a two-beam type radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac with an interdigital-H (IH) type cavity. The laser ion source in the DPIS is directly connected to the RFQ cavity without the low energy beam transport system. We achieved a high current C2+ beam above 60 mA per beam channel from the ion source. The beam will be injected to the two-beam type IH-RFQ linac, and the linac will generate a beam current of approximately 44 mA per beam channel.

  6. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  7. Tests of the CERN Proton Linac Performance for LHC-Type Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C E; Scrivens, R; Vretenar, Maurizio; Feschenko, A V; Liou, A

    2000-01-01

    As the pre-injector of the LHC injector chain, the proton linac at CERN is required to provide a high-intensity (180mA) beam to the Proton Synchrotron Booster. The results of measurements at this intensity will be presented. Furthermore, the linac is now equipped with bunch shape monitors from INR, Moscow, which have allowed the comparison of the Alvarez tank RF settings with simulations.

  8. Tests of the CERN proton linac performance for LHC-type beams

    CERN Document Server

    Feschenko, A V; Lombardi, A M; Liou, A; Scrivens, R; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    As the pre-injector of the LHC injector chain, the proton linac at CERN is required to provide a high-intensity (180mA) beam to the Proton Synchrotron Booster. The results of measurements at this intensity will be presented. Furthermore, the linac is now equipped with bunch shape monitors from INR, Moscow, which have allowed the comparison of the Alvarez tank RF settings with simulations.

  9. The fourth generation, linac-ring type colliders, preons and so on

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Following a brief review of our contributions to the 2006 European PP Strategy, recent comments on several topics are presented. First of all, it is emphasized that only the simplest version of the fourth chiral generation, namely, minimal SM4 (mSM4) with only one Higgs doublet is in some tension with the recent LHC data on the Higgs boson search. This tension, which follows from the relative strengths of the H --> 4l and Higgs --> {\\gamma}{\\gamma} channels, can be naturally resolved if there is a mechanism to enhance the H-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma} width (although any charged and heavy particle could enhance the H-{\\gamma}-{\\gamma} loop, 2HDM can be given as an example). We then emphasize the possible role of the linac-ring type colliders, especially LHeC (QCD Exploder) and TAC super charm factory. The QCD Explorer will give opportunity to enlighten the origin of the 98.5% portion of the visible universe's mass. Especially the {\\gamma}-nucleus option seems to be very promising for QCD studies. The TAC super charm f...

  10. Design and development of cold prototypes of post coupled Alvarez type Drift Tube Linac for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez type Drift Tube Linac (DTL) is used for acceleration of proton beaming low energy section of beta ranging from 0.04 to 0.40. DTL form part of LEHIPA (Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator) for acceleration of protons from 3 MeV to 20 MeV energy. DTL is cylindrical RF cavity resonating in TM010 mode at 352.21 MHz frequency. It consists of array of drift tubes arranged ensuring that DTL centre and Drift Tube centre are concentric. The Drift Tubes also houses Permanent Magnet Quadrupole for transverse focusing of proton beam. A twelve cell cold prototype of DTL section is designed, developed and fabricated at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. Complete DTL accelerator consists of eight such DTL sections. High frequency microwave simulations are carried out in SOPRANO, vector fields and COMSOL simulation software. This prototype DTL is 1640.56 mm long cavity with 520 mm ID, 600 mm OD and consists of eleven Drift Tubes, two RF end flanges, three slug tuners, six post couplers, three RF field monitors, one RF waveguide coupler, two DN100 vacuum flanges and DTL tank platform with alignment features. Girder based Drift tube mounting arrangement utilizing uncompressing energy of disc springs for optimum combo RF-vacuum seal compression is worked out and implemented. This paper discusses design of this vacuum cavity and discusses results on mechanical accuracy achieved on scaled pre-prototype, and comments on low level RF measurements and vacuum integrity on the cold DTL prototype. (author)

  11. LINAC 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 13 March, a beam of negative hydrogen ions was injected into the first accelerator module of Linac 4, the linear accelerator which will replace Linac 2. The beam was created in the new source built for Linac 4 and accelerated from 45 kEV to 3 MeV by a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module, the first link in the Linac 4 accelerator chain. This crucial phase went off without a hitch. The video above shows the new Linac 4 ion source, the low-energy transfer line and the RFQ, with running commentary by Giulia Bellodi and Carlo Rossi from the Beams Department.

  12. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  13. Searching for the Vector-Like Top Quark T at the Future Linac-Ring-Type ep Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Chong-Xing; ZHANG Feng; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ The little-Higgs models typically contain a new vector-like top quark T, which plays a key role in breaking the electroweak symmetry. In the context of the littlest Higgs (LH) model, we study single production of this kind of new particles via the process ep → eb → veT in the future linac-ring-type ep collider (LC()LHC). We find that the production cross section is in the range of1.2 × 10-4-0.48pb at the LC()LHC with √s = 3.7 TeV.

  14. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  15. The Proto Type of Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source at 100 MeV LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J G; Guo, W; Lu, G C; Ma, Y G; Pan Qiang Yan; Shen, W Q; Wang, C B; Wang, H W; Wei, Z Y; Xu, J Q; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Yan, Z; Yuan, R Y

    2006-01-01

    The design for the proto type of the Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source (SLEGS) at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is introduced. Some detailed descriptions for design of related instruments are provided. The proto type can produce X-ray with energy of 10 keV order. A description of the kinematics of Compton backscattering mechanism and the related simulation results are presented and discussed. The backgrounds from dipole magnet and bremsstrahlung are estimated and the signal-noise ratio is also given.

  16. TOP LINAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita', ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given

  17. Investigation of multipactoring discharge in an H-type resonator of an ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the variation of parameters of an auto generator power supply of an ion linear accelerator which is under construction on the base of the H-type resonator with drift tube comb mounts has been made. The main attention was paid to investigating multipactor discharges. It is concluded, that presence of secondary autonomous self-oscillation circuit providing the field rise with the frequency close to operation frequency leads to the decrease of multipactor discharge intensity level, which is enough for the elimination of their harmful effect on accelerator steady-state performance. 8 refs., 3 figs

  18. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  19. Dual mode medical Linac development at SAMEER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMEER has developed a 6 MV Oncology machine. These types of machines are already tested and treating patients at Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Indore and Adyar Cancer Hospital at Chennai. Two more such machines are in the process of commissioning at Amravati Cancer Foundation, Amravati and B K L Walawalkar Hospital, Dervan. For treating malignant tumors, high energy X-rays are required and for treatment of skin cancer electrons are used. Therefore, to enhance the present low energy radiotherapy linac technology at SAMEER, a dual photon energy linac capable of giving 6 and 15 MV photons and multiple electron energies (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 MeV) for treatment is being developed indigenously. The prototype of a 15 MeV linac is already developed and tested at SAMEER. The sub-assemblies for the dual mode medical linac like gridded electron gun and target is designed and tested. A linac tube with a detuning plunger or energy switch is designed and assembled. The linac is tuned and tested at low power. The measured parameters are given. Outgassing of linac tube was carried out at a temperature of 250 C. The vacuum achieved after baking is ∼10-10 mbar. The linac tube is now integrated on the gantry head for high power testing. This paper will discuss the design, experimental measurement results and vacuum processing aspects of the linac tube. (author)

  20. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  1. IH linac development at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tuning method of the gap voltage distribution has been developed for an interdigital H type linac. With an asymmetrically ridged IH resonator, the voltage distribution was significantly improved by introducing a pair of Wing Tuners. The quality factor and the shunt impedance of the resonant cavity remained practically unchanged by these inductive tuning elements. The Wing Tuners strongly affect on linac characteristics similarly to the local reduction of the resonator diameter. A prototype IH linac has been constructed to demonstrate the operational capabilities of the tuning method. The linac is designed to accelerate protons from an energy of 15 to 161 keV with an rf frequency of 100 MHz. The linac tank is made of mild steel, and 48 and 92 cm in diameter and in length, respectively. The drift tube structure of π/3π mode is adopted, and an electrostatic quadrupole lens is installed in every 3π drift tube. The experimental results of the proton model agree well with the design characteristics. (author)

  2. The SNS super conducting linac architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. A conventional linac, accelerates a 52-mA beam to 186 MeV. The SRF linac accelerates the beam to 1.25 GeV using 117 elliptically shaped 6 cell cavities. Two cavity beta types are used, with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. This paper describes the optimization leading to the choice of cavity betas and number of different cavity types. Also, beam-dynamics throughout the entire linac are presented. (author)

  3. Linac working group technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group looked at linac injectors for a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) or Hadron Facility. Discussion includes rf power, a possible strawman linac, ion source/injector, radio-frequency quadrupole, and coupled-cavity linac

  4. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  5. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  6. Workshop: Linac90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960 the first linear accelerator (linac) conference was organized at Brookhaven by John Blewett. In the few years following, linear accelerator energies jumped from 50 MeV (at Brookhaven and CERN) to 2 GeV at Stanford. With the realization that, at least for electrons, circular accelerators have reached their practical limits, linacs are once more in the spotlight

  7. The Linac4 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting, 160 MeV H- ion accelerator that is being constructed within the scope of the LHC injectors upgrade project. Linac4 will be connected to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) during the next long LHC shut-down and it will replace the current 50 MeV hadron linac, Linac2. Linac4 is presently being commissioned, with the aim of achieving the final energy at the end of the year. A test of the injection chicane and a reliability run will follow. The beam commissioning, in steps of increasing energy, has been prepared by an extended series of studies and interlaced with phases of installation. In this paper we will detail the beam dynamics challenges and we will report on the commissioning results.

  8. Induction Linac Pulsers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at ∼100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 μs at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is reflected back into the line from

  9. Designs for a Linac-Ring LHeC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Frank; /CERN; Bruning, Oliver; /CERN; Ciapala, Edmond; /CERN; Haug, Friedrich; /CERN; Osborne, John; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Sun, Yipeng; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC; Calaga, Rama; /Brookhaven; Litvinenko, Vladimir; /Brookhaven; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Dainton, John; /Liverpool U.; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Eide, Anders; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2012-06-21

    We consider three scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electron-proton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): (i) a pulsed linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV ['p-60'], (ii) a higher luminosity configuration with two cw linacs and energy-recovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV ['erl'], and (iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac with 140-GeV final energy ['p-140']. We discuss parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and performance for the three scenarios.

  10. Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Ouchi, N.; Chishiro, E.; Tsukishima, C.; Mukugi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) proton linac is proposed in the JAERI/KEK Joint Project for a high-intensity proton accelerator in the energy region from 400 to 600 MeV. Highly stable fields in the SC cavities are required under the dynamic Lorentz force detuning. A new model describing the dynamic Lorentz detuning has been developed and the validity has been confirmed experimentally. The model has been applied successfully to the rf control simulation of the SC proton linac.

  11. RF linacs for esoteric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators of various types have been considered for many years in terms of their application to national defense. Recently, the Strategic Defense Initiative has focused and emphasized such applications. After appropriate and extensive development, accelerators could fulfill important roles in a defensive-system architecture and could compete effectively with other technologies. A great deal of the required development is engineering. Aspects of the R and D program on rf-linac-based applications are discussed, and potential long-term influences on accelerator technology are outlined

  12. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  13. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  14. Intense positron beams: linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams of monoenergetic positrons with energies of a few eV to many keV have been used in experiments in atomic physics, solid-state physics and materials science. The production of positron beams from a new source, an electron linac, is described. Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons were produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency, moderator geometry, beam spot size and other positron beam parameters were determined for electrons with energies from 60 to 120 MeV. Low-energy positron beams produced with a high-energy electron linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources. These higher intensity beams will make possible positron experiments previously infeasible. 10 references, 1 figure

  15. High field electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High field electron linacs are considered as potential candidates to provide very high energies beyond LEP. Since almost twenty years not much improvement has been made on linac technologies as they have been mostly kept at low and medium energies to be used as injectors for storage rings. Today, both their efficiency and their performances are being reconsidered, and for instance the pulse compression sheme developed at SLAC and introduced to upgrade the energy of that linac is a first step towards a new generation of linear accelerators. However this is not enough in terms of power consumption and more development is needed to improve both the efficiency of accelerating structures and the performances of RF power sources

  16. System design work on proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Science Project at JAERI calls for a high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW. The linac is required to operate in both pulse (up to 30% duty factor) and CW mode. The front end part of the linac, which consists of an RFQ, a DTL and an SDTL (Separated type DTL), uses normal conducting structures. The higher energy structure is superconducting (SC). The system design and beam dynamics studies have been performed with the PARMTEQ and modified PARMILA codes. An equipartitioned design approach has been taken for the DTL, the SDTL and the SC sections to obtain lower longitudinal emittance growth. The linac design parameters and the beam simulation results are presented. (J.P.N.)

  17. 10MeV 25KW industrial electron LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Y.

    1998-06-01

    A 10MeV 25KW plus class electron LINAC was developed for sterilisation of medical devices. The LINAC composed of a standing wave type single cavity prebuncher and a 2m electro-plated travelling wave guide uses a 5MW 2856MHz pulse klystron as an RF source and provides 25KW beam power at the Ti alloy beam window stably after the energy analysing magnet with 10MeV plus-minus 1 MeV energy slit. The practical maximum beam power reached 29 KW and this demonstrated the LINAC as one of the most powerful S-band electron LINACs in the world. The control of the LINAC is fully automated and the "One-Button Operation" is realised, which is valuable for easy operation as a plant system. 2 systems have been delivered and are being operated stably.

  18. The Fermilab Linac Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade is planned to increase the energy of the H- linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHz drift-tube tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of abut 7.5 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a klystron-based rf power supply. A prototype rf modulator has been built and tested at Fermilab, and a prototype 12 MW klystron is being fabricated by Litton Electron Devices. Fabrication of production accelerator modules is in progress. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. The Fermilab Linac Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1991-02-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade is planned to increase the energy of the H- linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHz drift-tube tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of abut 7.5 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a klystron-based rf power supply. A prototype rf modulator has been built and tested at Fermilab, and a prototype 12 MW klystron is being fabricated by Litton Electron Devices. Fabrication of production accelerator modules is in progress. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Designing self-matching linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present trend in ion-linac design is to begin with a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac followed by one or more drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks in which permanent-magnet quadrupoles are used for transverse focusing. The lack of adjustable elements (knobs) strongly suggests that one should seek linac designs with intertank matching solutions that are insensitive to beam currents and emittances, which can be accomplished if there are no sharp discontinuities in the focusing properties along the entire linac. Guidelines are presented for linac design and describe techniques for longitudinal as well as transverse matching between tanks. For a wide range of beam currents and emittances, a beam matched at the entrance to the RFQ should remain well matched throughout the entire linac

  1. The DARHT Phase 2 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, H L; Waldron, W L; Chow, K P; Vella, M C; Fawley, W M; Briggs, R; Nelson, S; Wolf, Z; Birx, D L; Rutkowski, HL; Reginato, LL; Waldron, WL; Chow, KP; Vella, MC; Fawley, WM

    2000-01-01

    The second phase accelerator for the Dual Axis Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) is designed to provide an electron beam pulse that is 2 microsec long, 2kA, and 20 MeV in particle energy. The injector provides 3.2 MeV so that the linac need only provide 16.8 MeV. The linac is made with two types of induction accelerator cells. The first block of 8 cells have a 14 in. beam pipe compared to 10 in. in the remaining 80 cells. The other principal difference is that the first 8 cells have reduced volt-sec in their induction cores as a result of a larger diameter beam pipe. The cells are designed for very reliable high voltage operation. The insulator is Mycalex. Results from prototype tests are given including results from solenoid measurements. Each cell contains a solenoid for beam transport and a set of x-y correction coils to reduce corkscrew motion. Details of tests to determine RF mode impedances relevant to BBU generation are given. Blocks of cells are separated by "intercells" some of which contain transpo...

  2. Indigenous 6 MV medical LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear Accelerators were made for physics research all over the world; in India too the first indigenous accelerator was made for research of materials using the 3.5 MeV Linear Accelerator in the 1960s at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Prof. R.V.S. Sitaram was the leading scientist who contributed in the development of the first indigenous linac that served research scholars for more than two decades. The travelling wave S-band Linac using a magnetron as a source of high power microwaves was a significant development towards the indigenous accelerator. The accelerating structure had magnetic coils for beam focusing, the HV modulator, microwave system and control unit were indigenously developed by TIFR scientists. Dr. Homi Bhabha, Director, TIFR had taken keen interest in the project and an appropriate room in the basement was selected for the accelerator facility. The Iinac tube cavities, magnetic coils and pulse transformer were designed and fabricated in TIFR laboratory and only raw material was imported. The group working on Radar transmitters developed the transmission line type modulator using components such as charging choke and locally available HV transformers. However, the rectifier diodes, cores switching tubes were imported. The complete system design was done in-house and also included operation and maintenance of the facility. Over its life of two decades, a second generation of technologists were developed with a first hand knowledge of an accelerator system

  3. R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Drees, K.A.; Ganetis, G.; Gamble, Michael; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jain, A.K.; Kayran, A.; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, R.F.; Lederle, D.L.; Mahler, G.J.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.C.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, Daniel; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Triveni; Reich, J.; Roser, Thomas; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.W.W.; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, A.; Bluem, Hans; Cole, Michael; Favale, Anthony; Holmes, D.; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Delayen, Jean; Funk, L.; Phillips, H.; Preble, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel Zigzag-type merger. We present the performance of the R&D ERL elements and detailed commissioning plan.

  4. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  5. S-band linac-based X-ray source with π/2-mode electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the π/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the π/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  6. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  7. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Bandyopadhyay

    2002-12-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is presently developing an ISOL post-acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for the post-acceleration. The design aspects of these postaccelerator LINAC modules will be discussed in this paper.

  8. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  9. Ion induction linacs: reference design and proposed test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LBL HIF program has concentrated on the induction linac approach because this type of machine is able to accelerate the entire charge required for fusion in a single, high current bunch, and because of our experience ten years ago using the Astron induction linac at LLL and subsequently building and operating our own machine at LBL. The operation of an rf linac with storage rings is based on an operating line where, excluding the tree of linacs at the lowest energies, acceleration is along a constant current trajectory to peak energy, and then along a constant energy trajectory as the current is compressed and multiplied to reach the required of beam power (> 100 TW). The operation of the linear induction accelerator is along a trajectory where the energy and current are increased simultaneously; at the end of acceleration the beam is split transversely into two groups of beams to provide for higher peak power and a left-right symmetrical pellet bombardment

  10. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  11. Study and characterization of dispenser cathode of 10 MeV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispenser cathode of pressed and sintered Ba-Ni powder is used as electron source in electron linac having 10 MeV beam energy and 10 kW beam power at RRCAT. This linac is planned for development of agricultural radiation processing facility. In this e-linac a triode type electron gun is used. This paper describes the cathode behavioural model during operation with addition of sparkle on materials characterization of diminished emission cathode surface. (author)

  12. LINAC control automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7 MeV Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) being used for pulse radiolysis experiments at RC and CDD, B.A.R.C. has been automated with a PLC based control panel designed and developed by Computer Division, B.A.R.C.. The control panel after power on switches ON various units in a pre-defined sequence and intervals on a single turn of START key from OFF to ON position. The control panel also generates various ramp signals in a pre-defined sequence and rate and steady values and feeds to the LINAC bringing it to the ready for experiment condition. Similarly on a single turn of STOP key from OFF to ON position, the panel ramps down the various signals in pre-defined manners and makes OFF the various units in predefined sequence and timing providing safety to the machine. The steady values for various signals are on line settable as and when required so. This automation system relieves the operator from fatigue of time consuming manual ramping up or down of various signals and running around in four rooms for switching ON or OFF the various units enhancing efficiency and safety. This also facilitates the user scientist to do start up and shutdown operation in the absence of skilled operators and thus adds flexibility for working up to extended timing. This unit has been working satisfactorily since August 2002. For extraordinary condition automation to manual or vice versa change over has been provided. (author)

  13. Optimization of SRF Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Tom [JLAB

    2013-09-01

    This work describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project.[1] The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs. The work was first published in an ICFA Beam Dynamics News Letter.[2] More recent additions to the software include the ability to save and restore input parameters as well as to adjust the Qo versus E parameters in order to explore the potential costs savings associated with doing so. Additionally, program changes now allow one to model the costs associated with a linac that makes use of energy recovery mode of operation.

  14. Simulations for CLIC Drive Beam Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Avni

    2012-01-01

    The Drive Beam Linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) has to accelerate an electron beam with 4.2 A up to 2.4 GeV in almost fully-loaded structures. The pulse contains about 70000 bunches, one in every second rf bucket, and has a length of 140 $\\mu$s. The beam stability along the beamline is of concern for such a high current and pulse length. We present different options for the lattice of the linac based on FODO, triplet and doublet cells and compare the transverse instability for each lattice including the effects of beam jitter, alignment and beam-based correction. Additionally longitudinal stability is discussed for different bunch compressors using FODO type of lattice.

  15. Progress in the Construction of Linac4 at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Baudrenghien, P; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Bellodi, G; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Roncarolo, F; Ramberger, S; Raich, U; Puccio, B; Paoluzzi, M; Nisbet, D; Mikulec, B; Mathot, S; Maglioni, C; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Lombardi, A; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Kozsar, I; Hansen, J; Hanke, K; Hammouti, L; Gerigk, F; Garoby, R; Funken, A; Fuchs, J F; Dos Santos, N; Dallocchio, A; Coupard, J; Corso, JP; Scrivens, R; Schwerg, N; Vollaire, J; Zickler, T; Weisz, S; Wegner, R; Vandoni, G; Rossi, C

    2013-01-01

    As first step of the LHC luminosity upgrade program CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normalconducting linac made of a 3 MeV injector followed by 22 accelerating cavities of three different types. The general service infrastructure has been installed in the new tunnel and surface building and its commissioning is progressing; high power RF equipment is being installed in the hall and installations in the tunnel will start soon. Construction of the accelerator parts is in full swing involving industry, the CERN workshops and a network of international collaborations. The injector section including a newly designed and built H¯ source, a 3-m long RFQ and a chopping line is being commissioned in a dedicated test stand. Beam commissioning of the linac will take place in steps of increasing energy between 2013 and 2015. From end of 2014 Linac4 could deliver 50 MeV protons i...

  16. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  17. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.; Owens, A.; Schuh, P.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stanek, M.; Wittmer, W.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  18. NPL superconducting linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Nuclear Physics Lab (NPL) linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with nine satellite computers. These satellites use single-board versions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high-performance graphics and touch-screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  19. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  20. LHC and VLHC Based ep Colliders: E-Linac vs e-Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Gladilin, L; Recepoglu, E; Sultansoy, S

    2005-01-01

    Linac-ring analogues of the LHC and VLHC based standard type ep collider proposals are discussed. It is shown that sufficiently high luminosities can be obtained with TESLA-like linacs, whereas essential modifications are required for CLIC technology. The physics search potential of proposed ep colliders is demonstrated using pair production of heavy quarks as an example.

  1. Klystron pulse mudulator for linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly stable klystron pulse modulator is required in constructing a linac with good beam characteristics. The De-Qing circuit has been used conventionally to stabilize the output of a pulse modulator, but this method can achieve a stability of 1 percent at best, which is far larger than the targeted stability (less than 0.1 percent). The following three types of regulators are available to stabilize the D.C. power source of a pulse modulator: series regulator, shunt regulator and switching regulator. Advantages and disadvantages of these regulators are examined and the shunt regulator is selected because of its simple circuit structure and easy adjustment. The klystron pulse modulator has the features of being able to serve as a component of a large-power pulse klystron, being high in pulse stability (reproducibility), giving good pulse profiles (free from evershoot or undershoot), being small in size, etc. The klystron pulse modulator consists of a power source step-up transfermer, three-phase full-wave rectifying circuit, smoothing circuit, constant voltage control circuit, switching circuit, PFN circuit and pulse transformer. (Nogami, K.)

  2. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller

    2009-05-22

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  3. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

  4. Linac transport and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of intense bunches maintaining high brightness is limited both by single-particle effects, e.g., misalignments, injection errors, and rf-steering, and collective phenomena, where the effects of the longitudinal and transverse wakefield on particles within a single bunch are the most severe. The working group has considered both problems and potentials of linac acceleration from ∼50 MeV to 1 GeV for free electron laser (FEL) applications, as well as from a few Gev to 1 TeV for linear colliders. The outlook for free electron lasers is bright: no fundamental problems seem to arise in the acceleration of peak currents in excess of 100 A with small emittance and low momentum spread. The situation of linear colliders is more complex and more difficult. Two examples, one operating at 11.4 GHz, the other at 30 GHz, are used to illustrate some of the difficulties and the exceedingly tight tolerances required. Both examples are based on round beams, and thus neither benefit from the advantages of flat beams nor address the increased care required in transporting beams of very small emittance in one plane. The working group acknowledges, but did not explore, promising concepts for colliders based on RF superconductivity

  5. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will...

  6. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  7. SRF cavities for CW option of Project X Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lunin, A.; Perunov, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Alternative option of Project X is based on the CW SC 2GeV Linac with the average current 1mA. Possible option of the CW Linac considered in the paper includes low energy part consisted of a few families SC Spoke cavities (from 2.5 MeV to 466 MeV) and high energy part consisted of 2 types of elliptical cavities (v/c=0.81 and v/c=1). Requirements and designed parameters of cavities are considered.

  8. RF system of FELI linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FELI (Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc.) is constracting a Free Electron Laser facility covering from 20μm (infrared region) to 0.35μm (ultra violet region), using an S-band linac. The building will be completed in November 1993 and linac will start to be installed in December 1993. RF system of linac for FEL is required of long pulse duration and high stability. An S-band klystron (Toshiba E3729) is operated in three pulse operation modes (pulse width and peak RF power); 24μs-24MW, 12.5μs-34MW, 0.5μs-70MW. Each klystron modulator has the PFN consisting of 4 parallel networks of 24 capacitors and 24 inductors, and it has a line switch of optical thyristor stack. (author)

  9. Linac3 - 1992-1994

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; A Van der Shueren; Jean-Claude Vialis

    1995-01-01

    This film reports the differents steps of the construction in differents places (Italy, Germany, France) from 29 October 1992 to 29 April 1994. This linac, commissioned in summer 1994, presently provides beams of 208Pb53+. A 14 GHz ECR ion source operating in the "afterglow" mode produces Pb 27+ ions at 2.5 keV/u. This beam is accelerated in an RFQ and a three tank IH linac to 4.2 MeV/u where stripping in a 1 um carbon foil to a charge state distribution centered around Pb53+ takes place. 53+ ions are selected from this mixture in a magnetic filter before being transported to the PS Booster and other circular machines. Linac3, the more common name for this machine, was built by a truly international collaboration involving France, Italy, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, India, the Czech Republic and CERN.

  10. R and D energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.N.; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Burrill, A.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Chang, X.; Drees, A.; Ganetis, G.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H-C.; Jain, A.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, D.; Pozdeyev, E.; Rao, T.; Reich, J.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Favale, A.; Bluem, H.; Cole, M.; Holmes, D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.; Delayen, J.; Funk, L.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.

    2008-06-23

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R and D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel ZigZag-type merger. Recent development in the R and D ERL plans include gun and 5-cell cavity (G5) test and possibility of using R and D ERL for proof-of-principle test of Coherent Electron Cooling at RHIC.

  11. Cockcroft-Walton generator for Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1976-01-01

    Its higher voltage of 750 kV, compared to the 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton of Linac 1, contributed to the higher current that Linac 2 could deliver. The cubic container houses the electronics. The ion-source, in the spherical container, delivered protons and, for tests, also deuterons. In 1993 an RFQ replaced it as Linac 2 preinjector.

  12. IMPACT simulation and the SNS linac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-particle tracking simulations for the SNS linac beam dynamics studies are performed with the IMPACT code. Beam measurement results are compared with the computer simulations, including beam longitudinal halo and beam losses in the superconducting linac, transverse beam Courant-Snyder parameters and the longitudinal beam emittance in the linac. In most cases, the simulations show good agreement with the measured results

  13. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  14. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V; Ostigy, J -F; Alexandrov, A; Shishlo, A

    2012-01-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H- ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  15. Design of Normal-conducting Quadrupole Magnets for Linac4 at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vanherpe, L; Vorozhtsov, A; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is the first element of the LHC Injectors Upgrade Project and will replace the existing Linac2 as linear injector of protons for the CERN accelerators. A new transfer line will link Linac4 to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). Approximately hundred normal-conducting electro-magnets are required for beam steering and focusing along the linac and the transfer line. This text concentrates on the design of the Linac4 quadrupole magnets. The design and the first magnetic measurements of the inter-tank quadrupole electro-magnets are discussed. In addition, the design and optimization of the transfer line quadrupole magnets are highlighted. The compatibility of the magnetic requirements and the power converter constraints for the latter magnet type is assessed.

  16. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  17. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  18. Design of long induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent design strategy for induction linacs is presented which addresses the issues of brightness preservation against space charge induced emittance growth, minimization of the beam breakup instability and the suppression of beam centroid motion due to chromatic effects (corkscrew) and misaligned focusing elements. A simple steering algorithm is described that widens the effective energy bandwidth of the transport system

  19. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  20. Prototype of the RFD linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.5-MeV prototype of a 'Compact 12-MeV Proton Linac for PET Isotope Production' is under construction at Linac Systems. This unit will serve as the 'proof of principle' for the revolutionary new Rf Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure. Both the prototype and the production unit will operate at 600 MHz. The prototype comprises a 25- keV proton ion source, a short LEBT, a 0.65-m-long RFQ linac to 0.8 MeV, and a 0.35-m-long RFD linac to 2.5 MeV. Because of the similarity of the accelerating and focusing properties of the RFQ and RFD linac structures, no matching section is required between them. The two linac structures will be resonantly coupled together and powered by a collection of planar triodes. The prototype is scheduled for completion in the fall of 1997. (author)

  1. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support he high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  2. PROGRESS IN DESIGN OF THE SNS LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. HARDEKOPF

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac will initially produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadruple (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-cavity linac (SCL). Designs of each of these elements support the high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design, the cost and performance factors that drove architecture decisions, and the progress made in the R&D program.

  3. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardekopf, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support the high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  4. Florida State University superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As early as the fall of 1977 it was decided that the future research needs of their nuclear structure laboratory required an increase in energy capability to at least 8 MeV per nucleon for the lighter ions, and that these needs could be met by the installation of a 17 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The chief problem with this proposal was the high cost. It became apparent that a far less expensive option was to construct a linear accelerator to boost the energy from their existing 9 MV tandem. The options open to them among linac boosters were well represented by the room temperature linac at Heidelberg and the superconducting Stony Brook and Argonne systems. By the Spring of 1979 it had been decided that both capital cost and electric power requirements favored a superconducting system. As regards the two superconducting resonator technologies - the Argonne niobium-copper or the Caltech-Stony Brook lead plated copper - the Argonne resonators, though more expensive to construct, had the advantages of more boost per resonator, greater durability of the superconducting surface and less stringent beam bunching requirements. In 1980 pilot funding from the State of Florida enabled the construction of a building addition to house the linac and a new target area, and the setting up of a small, three resonator, test booster. Major funding by the NSF for the laboratory upgrade started in 1984. With these funds they purchased their present helium liquefaction and transfer system and constructed three large cryostats, each housing four Argonne beta = 0.105 resonators and two superconducting solenoids. The last large cryostat was completed and installed on-line early this year and the linac was dedicated on March 20. Nuclear physics experiments using the whole linac began in early June. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  5. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  6. Essay of accelerator R and D in a small laboratory of a university. Prototype of IHQ linac 1985-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a series of stories on developing particle accelerators employing new acceleration principles at a university laboratory. In this paper the design, the cold-model test, the fabrication and the acceleration test of a linear accelerator (linac) of 'IHQ' type are described. The word IHQ is coined by combining 'Inter-digital H' and 'Radio-Frequency Quadrupole', which are the words for types of linacs. The linac of IHQ type can accelerate particles with rather low injection energy and can perform a high acceleration efficiency. In the acceleration test, the proton beam from an RFQ linac with an energy of 0.8MeV was injected to the IHQ linac and accelerated up to 2 MeV as designed. The effective shunt impedance of the accelerator structure was measured to be as high as 132MΩ/m as expected. (K.Y.)

  7. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  8. Harmonic Analysis of Linac Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    McCrady, Rodney C

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the requirements on alignment of the focusing elements (quadrupole doublets) in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) side coupled linac. The analysis is performed in terms of harmonics of the quardrupole spacing. This allows us to determine the effect of intentional deviations from a straight line, such as following the curvature of the Earth, and of unintentional deviations introduced by measurement and alignment errors. Results are compared to measured positions of the doublets.

  9. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  10. Full power to the first Linac4 module

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Since last week the first of a total of 23 accelerating structures for Linac4 has been undergoing high-power tests. Although still a prototype, this structure is destined to be the first of the 12 PIMS cavities to be installed in the Linac4 tunnel and it has been completely designed, developed and constructed at CERN.   The PIMS prototype. The new Linac4 has 4 different types of accelerating structures. The PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) are the last stage and are designed to accelerate protons up to 160 MeV. “PIMS have never before been used to accelerate protons”, explains Frank Gerigk, the project engineer responsible for the Linac4 accelerating structures. “In LEP, they were used to accelerate electrons, and now we have modified them and improved several design features to make them suitable for protons”. The first prototype was entirely manufactured in the CERN workshop. Due to the size of the pieces it was difficult to achieve and preserve the required to...

  11. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  12. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  13. Diagnostic expert system in the PF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype diagnostic expert system (ES) was developed for the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV electron/positron LINAC injector system. The ES has been on-lined with the conventional linac computer network for receiving real data. This project was undertaken in an attempt to reduce the linac operator's mental workload, diagnosis duties, and to explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The outlook for ES and its problems, and what has been achieved are outlined in this presentation. (author)

  14. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  15. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rees, Daniel Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scheinker, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  16. Development of the low energy linac systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Development of the Low Energy Linac System' is aiming to develop the 20 MeV proton linac system. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV RFQ, and a 20 MeV DTL. We obtained the first beam signal after the 20 MeV linac. The high power switch installed in the ion source supplies the pulsed beam into the following LEBT. The pulse operation was successfully tested. The main role of the LEBT is to match the beam into the 3 MeV RFQ. The total length of the four-vane type RFQ is about 3.26m. For the field stabilization, we used the resonant coupling scheme and dipole stabilizer rods. An 1 MW klystron supplies the RF power into the RFQ. After tuning, the field deviation of the quadrupole mode is less than 2% of the design value and the dipole fraction is less than 5% of the operating mode. The following accelerating structure is DTL which accelerate 20 mA proton beams up to 20 MeV. It consists of 4 tanks and the length of each tank is less than 5 m. The lattice is FFDD type and the integrated fields of the quadrupole magnets are 1.75 T. The inner walls of the tanks are copper-plated by PR plating method. The thickness is 100m with the roughness of 0.3m. Each drift tube consists of 6 parts and assembled by e-beam welding. The tanks and drift tubes are aligned under the installation limit of 50m by using the laser-tracker. The tuning by the slug tuners and post couplers results in the field uniformity of 2% and field sensitivity of 100%/MHz. In order to detect the beam signal, we installed the Faraday cup after the RFQ or the DTL. For the RFQ, we observed the beam of 12 A under the forward RF power of 450 kW. The beam current after DTL is about 0.5 A when RF power of 150 kW was fed into each tank

  17. Linac-LHC EP Collider Options

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Bordry, Frederick; Braun, H H; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Çiftçi, A K; Chattopadhyay, S; Dainton, J B; de Roeck, A; Eide, A; Garoby, R; Holzer, B J; Klein, M; Linnecar, T; Mess, K H; Osborne, J; Rinolfi, L; Schulte, D; Sultansoy, S; Tomás, R; Tückmantel, Joachim; Vivoli, A; Willeke, F J

    2008-01-01

    We describe various parameter scenarios for a ring-linac ep collider based on LHC and an independent electron linac. Luminosities between $10^{31}$ and $10^{33} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ can be achieved with a s.c. linac, operated either in pulsed or in cw mode, with optional recirculation, at a total electric wallplug power of order 20 MW. Higher luminosities, of several $10^{33} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ can be reached by investing more electric power or by energy recovery. Finally, merits of a linac-ring ep collider are discussed.

  18. Status of the RFI Linac Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of the Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure is currently under construction at Linac Systems. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideröe) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The 200 MHz RFI prototype, consisting of a short RFQ linac followed by a short RFI linac, will accelerate a 20 mA beam of protons from an injection energy of 25 keV to an output energy of 2.50 MeV in a total linac structure length of 1.44 meters. The linac structures are designed for continuous (cw) operation, and will be tested initially at a 33% duty factor. The peak structure power of 66 kW and peak beam power of 50 kW will be supplied by a 144 kW, 33% duty rf power system. A microwave ion source will supply the proton beam and an articulated Einzel lens will steer and focus the beam into the RFQ aperture. The mechanical design of the linac structures will be presented, the calculated performance will be described, the status of the components will b...

  19. Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1998-01-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (

  20. Study of characteristics of linac with TWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power electron linac which is developed by PNC is an electron linac with the TWRR (Traveling Wave Resonant Ring). Some phenomena occurred on our high power test are mentioned. Some important characteristics such as stability and phase characteristic are discussed. (author)

  1. The linac coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is a self-amplified spontaneous emission based free electron laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre by a multi-laboratory collaboration. This facility will provide ultra-short pulses of coherent X-ray radiation with the fundamental harmonic energy tuneable over the energy range of 0.82 to 8.2 keV. In addition to the coherent X-ray radiation, which will have an extremely high peak and average brightness, a continuous spectrum of spontaneous synchrotron radiation (SR) of high brightness will also be produced. The characteristics of the LCLS and its associated radiological issues are discussed. (authors)

  2. Electron beam linac simulations, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of particle simulation studies of electron beam problems for the year 1985 are summarized. Although the main subjects this year were mostly the same as in previous years, namely foilless diodes, accelerating gaps, and beam extraction, a major new element this year was the addition of IFR (ion-focused-regime) channels to the various components of a linac beam line. Of particular interest may be the new results obtained for IFR autoacceleration gaps (relevant to MIMI), and the studies of extraction from a guide magnetic field onto an IFR propagation channel (relevant to RADLAC II). 49 figs., 20 refs

  3. Phase scan signature matching for linac tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively simple method for linac tuning has been devised, tested and used on the Alvarez and side coupled linacs. Tank or Module phase is varied over 360 degrees while the phase of signals from strip-line beam monitor is measured. Reference phase is taken from the master oscillator for the linac. Theoretical curves of beam phase versus tank/module phase are matched to the measured curves to determine the tank/module field amplitude and phase, and the input and output betas of the tanks/modules. Early experiments on tanks 4--7 of the Alvarez linac have demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Recently this method was used for commissioning of the Fermilab upgraded linac

  4. Contributed papers to the 1984 Linac Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEP Injector Linacs (LIL) are the first part of the LEP injection chain, and consist of a 200 MeV high current electron linac, followed by a 600 MeV low current electron/positron linac. First a description of the complete machine is presented. Then the accelerating structures are more particularly described. The automatic phasing system which shall be used during the operation of the linacs is also presented together with measurements and tests. At least the front end linac is described, with the instrumentation developped by LAL in order to measure the beam parameters intensity, energy, emittance, bunch length. Main results of the experimental program which took place in 1982 and 1983 are given

  5. System design for the FAIR proton LINAC BPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility will provide a beam current of 70 mA accelerated to 70 MeV by novel CH-type DTLs. Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC. The specification for position measurement is 0.1 mm spatial resolution and for time-of-flight beam velocity determination the accuracy must be 8.5 ps corresponding to 1 degree with respect to the 325 MHz acceleration frequency. Finite element and finite integration technique calculations by CST Particle Studio for non-relativistic velocities were performed to determine the signal characteristic in time- and frequency domain. Most of these BPMs are mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities and the BPM signal strength caused by the cavity residual rf-power was estimated. The technical layout of the BPM system is discussed.

  6. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  7. Development of input power coupler for ERL main linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing the 1.3GHz 9-cell superconducting cavities for realizing the ERL under the collaboration between KEK, JAEA, ISSP, and other institutes. A power coupler is designed for the ERL main linac superconducting cavity. Estimated input power is about 20kW for 20MV/m ERL operation. This coupler is based on the STF-BL input coupler, which adopts the TRISTAN type coaxial coupler, and some modifications are applied for the CW 20kW power operation. Now we are developing the high power coupler test stand to carry out the components test of the ceramic windows and bellows by using a 30kW IOT. In this paper, we report the design strategy of the input power coupler for ERL main linac and the recent status of the high power coupler test stand. (author)

  8. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes

  9. Development of Q-triplets for interdigital-H linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the prototype facility of the Exotic-arena at INS, unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/10 is accelerated from 170 to 1046 keV/u by an interdigital-H linac. IH linac consists of four tanks and three Q-triplets placed between tanks. In this type, the length of Q-triplets should be as short as possible in order to obtain a large longitudinal acceptance. The Q-triplet with high gradient and compact size was designed by 2D and 3D computer codes. A prototype model of the Q-triplet was constructed. The field measurement with a hole probe, carried out. (author)

  10. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  11. Superconducting resonator used as a phase and energy detector for linac setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2016-07-01

    Booster linacs for tandem accelerators and positive ion superconducting injectors have matured into standard features of many accelerator laboratories. Both types of linac are formed as an array of independently-phased resonators operating at room temperature or in a superconducting state. Each accelerating resonator needs to be individually set in phase and amplitude for optimum acceleration efficiency. The modularity of the linac allows the velocity profile along the structure to be tailored to accommodate a wide range charge to mass ratio. The linac setup procedure, described in this paper, utilizes a superconducting resonator operating in a beam bunch phase detection mode. The main objective was to derive the full set of phase distributions for quick and efficient tuning of the entire accelerator. The phase detector was operated in overcoupling mode in order to minimize de-tuning effects of microphonic background. A mathematical expression was derived to set a limit on resonator maximum accelerating field during the crossover search to enable extracting unambiguous beam phase data. A set of equations was obtained to calculate the values of beam phase advance and energy gain produced by accelerating resonators. An extensive range of linac setting up configurations was conducted to validate experimental procedures and analytical models. The main application of a superconducting phase detector is for fast tuning for beams of ultralow intensities, in particular in the straight section of linac facilities.

  12. Linac Upgrades for FERMI@ELETTRA

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, G; Craievich, P; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Ferianis, M; Pangon, G; Rumiz, R L; Tosi, T L; Zangrando, D

    2004-01-01

    To fulfill the stringent requirements expected from the FERMI project, the existing Linac needs some modifications in the layout and an upgrading of the present plants. Moreover, for the next two years, until the new injection system (now under construction) is fully commissioned, the Linac has to be kept in operation as injector for the ELETTRA Storage Ring. Therefore most of the planned activities have to be carried out without interfering with the normal operation of the machine. Details on the new Linac layout and related activities are discussed.

  13. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  14. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  15. The superconducting linac booster at the ANU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the progress of the installation of the superconducting Linac booster at the Australian National University. The Linac is based upon four modules, three of which contain three split-loop resonators. The fourth cryostat was intended to be a superbuncher and so houses only one resonator. The first stage of Linac operation will employ only three modules with 2 MV/m from each resonator. It is expected that the implementation of all nine modules, in subsequent stages, would boost beams by 18 MV/q. The project has fostered productive international collaboration between UK and Australian scientists. 1 tab., 6 figs

  16. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Dragoş E.; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet a...

  17. Modeling of the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

  18. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  19. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  20. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-β region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the φs=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs, no beam losses

  1. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  2. Progress in the photocathode linac project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress achieved so far in the Photocathode Linac Project have developed and tested linear accelerator structures at 2856 MHz, commissioned the klystron modulator and microwave systems, and developed the beamline, and are ready to commence acceleration experiments

  3. Operational experience with the CERN hadron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present CERN proton linac (Linac2) was commissioned in 1978 and since that date has been the primary source of protons to the CERN accelerator complex. During the past 18 years, the machine has had a very good reliability record in spite of the demands made upon it. Modifications have been made with the view of maintaining this reliability with reduced resources and new requirements from the users. Further demands will be made in the future for LHC operation. In 1994, a new linac for heavy ion production was put into service replacing the original CERN proton linac. As this machine was built within an international collaboration, operation had to take into account the novelty of the techniques used and the variety of equipment supplied by outside collaborators. Even so, the new machine has also had very good reliability. (author)

  4. Data archive system using EPICS tool at the KEK linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the KEK Linac, we have used the home-made data archive system for the device status and the beam parameters. However, they are recorded by a different format for each type of local controller, and they need different kinds of display softwares. It causes the difficulty to study the correlation of the parameters coming from different types of local controller. For an effective data-mining, we developed the data archive system based on EPICS. It is very useful for a quick identification of the abnormal parameters. In this paper, we will present on these watch software tools. (author)

  5. BLIP. [Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, Jr, L G

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) is discussed. Topics covered include targets, target holders, linac specifications, beam transport, and current production performance. The use of the BLIP is confined exclusively to the development of radionuclides that are, or should be, of medical interest, and the facility is moving rapidly into a self-supporting state from the income of the products. (PMA)

  6. First MR images obtained during megavoltage photon irradiation from a prototype integrated linac-MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    permanent magnet; however, other types of magnets and field strengths could also be incorporated. Usable MR images were obtained during linac irradiation from the linac-MR prototype. The authors' prototype design can be used as the functional starting point in developing real-time MR guidance offering soft-tissue contrast that can be coupled with tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy.

  7. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to (ge) 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focusing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  8. Physics design of the National Spallation Neutron Source linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) requires a linac that accelerates a H- beam to 1.0 GeV. The linac starts with a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL), and a conventional coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In this paper, the authors focus on the DTL, CCDTL, and CCL parts of the accelerator. They discuss the linac design parameters and beam dynamics issues. The design rationale of no separate matching sections between different accelerating sections maintains the current independence of beam behavior

  9. Linac4 H⁻ ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Alessi, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Briefi, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; David, N; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Fantz, U; Fink, D A; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Haase, M; Hatayama, A; Jones, A; Koszar, I; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Machado, C; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Voulgarakis, G

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H(-) linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H(-) source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H(-) source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described. PMID:26932021

  10. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaboration of scientists from SLAC, UCLA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have proposed to build the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) facility, a free-electron laser (FEL) on the SLAC site, spanning photon energies 0.8-8 keV. The laser output will be 8-10 GW with pulse lengths 230 fsec or less. The LCLS will offer unprecedented experimental opportunities in the areas of atomic physics, chemical dynamics, plasma physics, nanoscale dynamics, and biomolecular imaging. SLAC has proposed to begin engineering design of the laser in 2003, leading to project completion in 2008. The laser produces x-rays by the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process: an intense, highly collimated pulse of 14.5 GeV electrons, traveling through a 122 m-long undulator magnet system, is induced by its own synchrotron radiation to form sub-nanometer-scale bunches. The bunching process enhances the coherence and hence the intensity of the emitted synchrotron radiation. The process is analogous to the instability of a high-gain amplifier; the ''noise'' signal that seeds the instability is the shot noise in the electron beam

  11. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  12. Linac4 H- ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Alessi, J.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Briefi, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Faircloth, D.; Fantz, U.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Hatayama, A.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; Nishida, K.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Scrivens, R.; Shibata, T.; Steyaert, D.; Thaus, N.; Voulgarakis, G.

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ṡ mm ṡ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H- source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H- source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  13. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  14. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and to adjust the commissioning strategies.

  15. Support of accelerator section of KEK injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reexamination of the support of accelerator section is required for the recovery from the damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th, March, 2011. The general idea of KEK injector linac support has the feature of flexible structure, and these were not able to sustain under the shake of lower-6th on the Japanese intensity scale. We investigated the vibration characteristic aiming at the more rigid structure. Furthermore, some new supports were installed on the beamline for positron capture section of SuperKEKB. This report describes the two types of supports of accelerator section. (author)

  16. Dispersion and betatron matching into the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high energy linear colliders, the low emittance beam from a damping ring has to be preserved all the way to the linac, in the linac and to the interaction point. In particular, the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) should provide an exact betatron and dispersion match from the damping ring to the linac. A beam with a non-zero dispersion shows up immediately as an increased emittance, while with a betatron mismatch the beam filaments in the linac. Experimental tests and tuning procedures have shown that the linearized beta matching algorithms are insufficient if the actual transport line has some unknown errors not included in the model. Also, adjusting quadrupole strengths steers the beam if it is offset in the quadrupole magnets. These and other effects have lead to a lengthy tuning process, which in the end improves the matching, but is not optimal. Different ideas will be discussed which should improve this matching procedure and make it a more reliable, faster and simpler process. 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. RFI-Based Ion Linac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.

    A new company, Ion Linac Systems, Inc., has been formed to promote the development, manufacture, and marketing of intense, RFI-based, Ion Linac Systems. The Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure was invented by the author while at Linac Systems, LLC. The first step, for the new company, will be to correct a flaw in an existing RFI-based linac system and to demonstrate "good transmission" through the system. The existing system, aimed at the BNCT medical application, is designed to produce a beam of 2.5 MeV protons with an average beam current of 20 mA. In conjunction with a lithium target, it will produce an intense beam of epithermal neutrons. This system is very efficient, requiring only 180 kW of rf power to produce a 50 kW proton beam. In addition to the BNCT medical application, the RFI-based systems should represent a powerful neutron generator for homeland security, defence applications, cargo container inspection, and contraband detection. The timescale to the demonstration of "good transmission" is early fall of this year. Our website is www.ionlinacs.com.

  18. Effects of machine errors on the ILC main linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逗; 高杰

    2011-01-01

    For a practical linac, the beam property is affected seriously by any machine imperfections. In this paper, the effects of several main errors in the ILC main linac, such as quadrupole misalignment, magnet strength error and cavity misalignment, were stud

  19. Preliminary study on the possible use of superconducting half-wave resonators in the IFMIF Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driver of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) consists of two 125 mA, 40 MeV cw deuteron linacs, providing a total of 10 MW beam power to the liquid lithium target. A superconducting (SC) solution for the 5 to 40 MeV accelerator portion could offer some advantages compared with the copper Alvarez-type Drift Tube Linac reference design: linac length reduction and significant plug power saving. A SC scheme, based on multi-gap CH-structures has been proposed by IAP in Frankfurt. Another SC scheme, using half-wave resonators (HWR), which are in an advanced stage of development at different places, would allow a shorter focusing lattice, resulting in a safe beam transportation with minimal beam loss. In order to investigate the feasibility of the superconducting HWR option, faced with the very high space charge regime of the IFMIF linac, beam dynamics calculations have been performed. This paper presents an optimized linac layout, together with extensive multi-particle simulations including various field and alignment errors. (authors)

  20. The booster linac of the Sparkle Company 18 MeV Cyclotron: main design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sparkle Company (Casarano, Le) that is setting up a centre for production and research on radioisotopes for medical use, has requested to the ENEA Accelerator Laboratory a specific design of a linear accelerator for boosting the energy of its commercial cyclotron from 18 to 24 MeV, with the aim of implementing a small proton irradiation facility for radiobiology studies. This is the first case of coupling a cyclotron beam to a linac, that, if successful, can give rise to a new class of accelerators for proton therapy. The linac can accelerate only a very small portion of the cyclotron beam, due to the intrinsic mismatching of the two kind of accelerators both in the vertical and in the longitudinal phase planes. A beam transport line has been studied that besides matching at best the beam to the linac in the transverse plane, is equipped with a chopping system to lower drastically the primary beam power in order to protect the linac structure. The linac is SCDTL type, and operates at 3 GHz. In the following the results of the design are presented.

  1. Magnetron based high energy S-band linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the study of magnetron based high energy S-band linear accelerator (linac) system operating at spot frequency 2.998 GHz. The energy and dose are two important parameters of linac system which depend on input power of microwave source and length of linac tube. Here the author has studied how these parameters can be improved for side coupled standing wave S-band linac system

  2. Intense positron beams: linacs - preworkshop copy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams of monoenergetic positrons with energies of a few eV to many keV have been used in experiments in atomic physics, solid-state physics and materials science. The production of positron beams from a new source, an electron linac, is described. Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency, moderator geometry, beam spot size and other positron beam parameters have been determined for electrons with energies from 60 to 120 MeV. Low-energy positron beams produced with a high-energy electron linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources. These higher-intensity beams will make possible positron experiments previously infeasible

  3. Intense positron beams: linacs. Preworkshop copy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams of monoenergetic positrons with energies of a few eV to many keV have been used in experiments in atomic physics, solid state physics and materials science. The production of positron beams from a new source, an electron linac, is described. Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency, moderator geometry, beam spot size and other positron beam parameters have been determined for electrons with energies from 60 to 120 MeV. Low-energy positron beams produced with a high-energy electron linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources. These higher intensity beams will make possible positron experiments previously infeasible

  4. Transverse Matching Techniques for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon Dong Oh; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2005-01-01

    It is crucial to minimize beam loss and machine activation by obtaining optimal transverse matching for a high-intensity linear accelerator such as the Spallation Neutron Source linac. For matching the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL), there are four wire-scanners installed in series in CCL module 1 as proposed by the author.* A series of measurements was conducted to minimize envelope breathing and the results are presented here. As an independent approach, Chu et al is developing an application based on another technique by estimating rms emittance using the wire scanner profile data.** For matching the Medium Energy Beam Transport Line to the DTL, a technique of minimizing rms emittance was used and emittance data show that tail is minimized as well.

  5. The Linac Cooherent Light Source (LCLS) Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Such an FEL requires a high energy, high brightness electron beam to drive the FEL instability to saturation. When fed by an RF-photocathode gun, and modified to include two bunch compressor chicanes, the SLAC linac will provide such a high quality beam at 14 GeV and 1-{micro}m normalized emittance. In this paper, we report on recent linac studies, including beam stability and tolerances, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, conventional and time-resolved diagnostics, and beam collimation systems. Construction and installation of the injector through first bunch compressor will be completed by December 2006, and electron commissioning is scheduled to begin in January of 2007.

  6. Drive linac for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacki, E.; Konecny, R.; Rosing, M.; Simpson, J.

    1993-08-01

    The drive linac in Phase I of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) will be used to accelerate short duration (10 ps), high charge (100 nC) electron bunches from 2 MV to 20 MV for use in a variety of wakefield acceleration and measurement studies. The high charge is required since this drive bunch will generate the wakefields of interest in various test sections and their amplitudes are proportional to bunch charge. The short bunch duration is required to drive high-frequency wakefields without intra-bunch cancellation effects. The drive linac design was a balance between having a small wake function to maintain a drive bunch energy spread of {le}10% and obtaining an adequate accelerating gradient of {ge}10 MV/m. This yielded a large aperture, low shunt impedance, high group velocity, L-band, standing-wave linac. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing are presented in the following.

  7. Status of the TOP Linac project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascatim(Rome) (Italy)]. E-mail: picardi@frascati.enea.it; Concetta Ronsivalle [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 {mu}s 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7-65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65-200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The status of the project will be presented. The 7 MeV injector is installed at ENEA-Frascati laboratories. The first SCDTL module structure, composed by nine DTL tanks coupled by eight side cavities, has been built and tested on RF bench, so that it is ready for proton acceleration. The results of the measurements done will be also shown.

  8. Status of the TOP Linac project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 μs 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7-65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65-200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The status of the project will be presented. The 7 MeV injector is installed at ENEA-Frascati laboratories. The first SCDTL module structure, composed by nine DTL tanks coupled by eight side cavities, has been built and tested on RF bench, so that it is ready for proton acceleration. The results of the measurements done will be also shown

  9. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  10. Required energy gain in the linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this note is to determine how much energy is required for each bunch at the end of the linac such that 100 GeV center of mass collision energy at the IP may be achieved. Once this has been ascertained it is possible to decide how much energy per station in the linac is needed, considering the effects of beamloading, shortened pieces of DLWG, and RF detuning. An appendix is included to cover a related topic: assuming lower bunch currents and lower collision energies, how many low power klystrons can remain in the linac. An attempt has been made to indicate what assumptions have been made so that the readers may try other assumptions to see what happens.

  11. Beam steering in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control emittance growth due to transverse wakefields it will be necessary to transport electrons and positrons through the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac to within a hundred μm of the centers of the linac irises. Beam centering will be accomplished using computer routines to read stripline beam position monitors and in turn correct the orbits with dipole magnets. Several different steering algorithms have been investigated using electrons in the first third of the SLC linac lattice. The most promising scheme is a cascade of modified ''three-bumps'' in conjunction with long spanning harmonic corrections. General features of the orbit correcting software are discussed along with the mathematical recipes for correction. Experimental results and a discussion of future plans are presented

  12. Integrated design of the SSC linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H- beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

  13. An Object-Oriented linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESRF linac has been working since the start of its commissioning (1991) with an industrial turnkey Control System which was not giving reliable service and was difficult to interface to the ESRF machine control system (MCS). It was decided in 1992 to redesign the entire linac electronic interface, using ESRF standards. Following this, it was decided to redesign the control system and to integrate it as part of the proven ESRF distributed control system [W.D. Klotz, Proc. Int. Conf. on Accelerator and Large Physics Experiments (ICALEPS-91), Tsukuba, Japan]. Preparation of the software began in spring 93. The installation and commissioning of the hardware and software has been carried out during a six week summer shutdown. The linac delivered its first beam on schedule using the complete control software. ((orig.))

  14. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A → (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  15. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Perez L, L. H., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Instituto Zacatecano del Tumor, A. C., Lago de la Encantada No. 294, Fracc. Lomas del Lago, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A {yields} (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  16. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Such an FEL requires a high energy, high brightness electron beam to drive the FEL instability to saturation. When fed by an RF-photocathode gun, and modified to include two bunch compressor chicanes, the SLAC linac will provide such a high quality beam at 14 GeV and 1-(micro)m normalized emittance. In this paper, we report on recent linac studies, including beam stability and tolerances, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, conventional and time-resolved diagnostics, and beam collimation systems. Construction and installation of the injector through first bunch compressor will be completed by December 2006, and electron commissioning is scheduled to begin in January of 2007

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  18. Analysis of the microbunching instability in a mid-energy electron linac

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Dazhang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Meng; Ng, King Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Microbunching instability usually exists in the linear accelerator (linac) of a free electron laser (FEL) facility. If it is not controlled effectively, the beam quality will be damaged seriously and the machine will not operate properly. In the electron linac of a soft X-Ray FEL device, because the electron energy is not very high, the problem can become even more serious. As a typical example, the microbunching instability in the linac of the proposed Shanghai Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility (SXFEL) is investigated in detail by means of both analytical formulae and simulation tools. In the study, a new mechanism of introducing random noise into the beam current profile as the beam passes through a chicane-type bunch compressor is proposed. The higher-order modes that appear in the simulations suggest that further improvement of the current theoretical model of the instability is needed.

  19. A hospital-based proton linac for neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab's Alvarez proton linac has been used routinely for neutron therapy since 1976. The Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) operates in a mode parasitic to the laboratory's high energy physics program, which uses the linac as an injector for a synchrotron. Parasitic operation is possible because the linac delivers /approximately/1.2 /times/ 1013 protons per pulse at a 15 Hz rate, while the high energy physics program requires beam at a rate not greater than 0.5 Hz. Protons not needed for physics experiments strike a beryllium target to produce neutrons for neutron therapy. Encouraging clinical results from NTF have led to a study of the issues involved in providing hospitals with a neutron beam of the type available at Fermilab. This paper describes the issues addressed by that study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. A linac generator program as pre-processor for the simulation code DYNAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linac generator program, GENAC, has been developed, capable of generating an accelerating structure through interpolation of SUPERFISH output files. GENAC can handle long and complex accelerating elements, such as asymmetric ones or elements consisting of several accelerating gaps in one go. GENAC is a pre-processor to the beam simulation code DYNAC; both programs are based on the same set of quasi-Liouvillian beam dynamics equations. With the DYNAC code one has the possibility of using multistep space-charge calculations within the accelerating elements of a linac. Therefore, the combination of the linac generator GENAC with the simulation code DYNAC constitutes a powerful tool for the development of new types of accelerators. (author)

  1. A Linac generator program as pre-processor for the simulation code DYNAC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapostolle, Pierre M; Valéro, S

    1996-01-01

    A linac generator program, GENAC, has been developed, capable of generating an accelerating structure through interpolation of SUPERFISH output files. GENAC can handle long and complex accelerating elements, such as asymmetric ones or elements consisting of several accelerating gaps in one go. GENAC is a pre-processor to the beam simulation code DYNAC [1]; both programs are based on the same set of quasi-Liouvillian beam dynamics equations. With the DYNAC code one has the possibility of using multistep space-charge calculations [2],[3],[4] within the accelerating elements of a linac. Therefore, the combination of the linac generator GENAC with the simulation code DYNAC constitutes a powerful tools for the development of new types of accelerators.

  2. Development of the High Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is studying the extension plan of the proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) 100-MeV Linac. It includes three categories. One is studying operation plan of the PEFP linac and its extended accelerators, and developing a distribution system of 100-MeV proton beams with a laser striping. Other is designing superconducting RF (SRF) modules and fabricating and testing a copper cavity model. The other is designing a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The operation scheme of the PEFP linac is related to the optimization in the operation of the 100-MeV linac, 200-MeV SRF, and RCS. We studied several operational method to increase the validity of the accelerators. The beam distribution system has two roles. One is supplying proton beams of 100 MeV to the user group. The laser stripping of the negative hydrogen atoms is used in this case. The other beams are directed to the next high energy accelerators. This study contributes to increase the availability of the proton beams. The SRF is one of candidates to extend the PEFP linac system. Since the accelerating gradient of the SRF is much higher than the normal conducting accelerator, a lot of institutes over the world are developing the SRF structure. Main purposes are designing an SRF module, fabricating and testing an copper model which has similar material properties as Nb of the usual SRF cavity material. The RCS is a synchrotron whose injector is the PEFP 100-MeV linac. Main purposes are determining the lattice structure, studying the fast and slow extraction system, simulating beam behavior in the designed synchrotron. The RCS will be used as the spallation neutron source and tools in the basic and applied science including medical application

  3. Development of the Medium Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is developing 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for proton engineering frontier project (PEFP). In the first phase of the PEFP, the development of the 20-MeV linac has successfully finished. Hence the work scope of this project is designing the linac to accelerate proton beams from 20-MeV up to 100-MeV, fabricating the linac up to 45 MeV, fabricating one set of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) tank, and developing the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system and the control system. The basic role of the new proton accelerator is accelerating 20-mA proton beams from 20 MeV up to 100 MeV. The first step of the design procedure is optimizing and determining the accelerator parameters. The beam loss is also main concern in the design stage. The drift tube (DT) and the quadrupole magnets are designed to be optimized to the new linac design. The other purpose is confirming the new design by fabricating and tuning the drift tube linac (DTL). The 20MeV proton beam divided into two directions. One is supplying the beams to user group by turning on the 45-degree bending magnet. The other is guided into the 100-MeV DTL by tuning off the dipole magnet. That is why the PEFP MEBT located after 20-MeV DTL. The MEBT is realized as two small DTL tanks with three cells and a 45-degree bending magnet. The fabrication of one MEBT tank is another purpose of this project. The other purposes of this project is developing the LLRF system to control the RF signal and control system to monitor and control the vacuum system, magnet power supply, etc

  4. Beam lines from Linac 1 and Linac 2 to the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    View against the direction of the beams. Both Linacs are behind the concrete wall at the back of the picture. The 50 MeV proton beam from Linac 1 enters the PS tunnel through the hole at left. The line from Linac 2, in the process of being installed, comes from the hole at right. The lines converge at a switching magnet (prominently in the foreground), which selects which of the 2 beams to send on to the Booster. See also 7802261 and further explanations there.

  5. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  6. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  7. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  8. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  9. TU-C-BRE-03: Aggregation of Linac Measurement Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, J; Alvarez, P; Followill, D; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Summers, P; Kry, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate data of linear accelerator radiation characteristics is important for treatment planning system commissioning as well as regular quality assurance of the machine. The RPC has performed site visits of numerous machines . Data gathered from Varian machines from the past 15 years are presented. The data collected can be used as a secondary check or when commissioning a new machine to verify that values are reasonable. Methods: Data from the past 15 years of RPC site visits was compiled and analyzed. Data was composed from measurements from approximately 400 Varian machines. Each dataset consists of several point measurements at various locations in a water phantom to measure percentage depth dose, output factors, including small MLC fields, off-axis factors, and wedge factors if applicable. Common statistical values are presented for each machine type. Where applicable, data was compared to other reference data given by the vendor or a select number of previous researchers. Results: Data is separated by energy and parameter and then analyzed by machine class. Data distributions of the parameter data were normal except occasionally at the tails. Distributions of the data for each class and parameter are tabulated to give not simply a singular reference value, but metrics about the distribution: 5th and 95th percentile values and the standard deviation as well as the median. Conclusion: The RPC has collected numerous data on Varian linacs and presented the finding of the past 15 years. The data can be used as a reference data set for physicists to compare against. A linac that deviates from the values does not necessarily indicate there is a problem as long as the treatment planning system correlates to the machine. Comparison of linac and treatment planning system data to external reference data can prevent serious treatment errors.

  10. Vacuum system for superconducting LINAC at TIFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting heavy ion LINAC booster at the TIFR-BARC facility has been operational. Seven super conducting cryostats containing 4 quarter wave resonators each along with beam lines, bending magnets, switching magnet, diagnostics and vacuum system have been commissioned. The heart of the cryogenic system for the heavy ion superconducting LINAC booster is a custom-built liquid helium refrigerator made by Linde Kryotechnik, Switzerland. The Refrigerator is rated for 300 Watts at 4.5 K with a dual JT (Joule-Thomson valve) at the final cooling stage, which allows simultaneous connections to the cryogenic loads (the LINAC module cryostats) and to a liquid helium storage dewar (1000 litres). The two-phase helium at 4.5 K produced at the JT stage in the refrigerator is delivered to the cryostats through a cryogenic distribution system. The cryogenic distribution system for the LINAC is designed to deliver both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to the cryostats. The details of UHV system, indigenously developed beam line components, pumps and module cryostats will be presented

  11. Upgrade of GUI for linac control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are now upgrading GUI(Graphical User Interface) of the control system at Tohoku Linac. This system uses Personal Computer (DECpc466D2LP-66MHz) and Visual Basic which makes coding GUI easy and simple. The first results of this system are presented. (author)

  12. Status of the Novosibirsk energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser is based on the energy recovery linac (ERL) with room-temperature radiofrequency system. Some features of the ERL are discussed. The results of emittance measurements and electron optics tests are presented. The second stage of the ERL, which has four orbits, is described briefly

  13. Linac based radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were discussed: Definition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT); Stereo market; Indications for SRS/SRT; History of linac-based SRS/SRT; Variety of systems; QA for SRS; Localization; and Imaging. (P.A.)

  14. First beam in Linac4 DTL

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Following the installation of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) earlier this summer (see here), the first DTL tank saw beams at 12 MeV on 5 August.   Transverse emittance measured at 12 MeV after the DTL tank1 using a temporary slit-and-grid emittance device. You never forget your first beam. That was especially true for the Linac4 DTL team, as it followed years of design, construction and vigorous testing. "We performed countless measurements of the geometry, vacuum and magnet polarisation of the DTL tanks while we were in the workshop," says Suitbert Ramberger, project engineer for the Linac4 DTL. "Add that preparation to the excellent RF conditioning that we carried out in the weeks before the beam tests and I was confident that the acceleration with beam would fully meet expectations!" Indeed it did. Beam commissioning tests ran until 21 August and found the DTL operating with nominal transmission. This successful run has confirmed the innovative design ...

  15. Linac LU-20 as injector of Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac LU-20 created as an injector of Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron is described. Tables of main parameters and beam intensities are included. The functional diagram of LU-20 is shown. Injection channels, diagnostic and control systems are described also. The scheme of beam transport line is also provided. (author)

  16. Preinjector for Linac 1, ion source

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Inside the drum-shaped container shown in 7403081X, is the ion source with its associated electronics. It sits at the HV end of the accelerating column seen also in 7403081.

  17. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10–6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  18. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. - Highlights: • Portland cement samples were located inside a treatment hall with a 15 MV linac. • Induced radioisotopes were measured with a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. • 56Mn, 24Na, and 28Al were identified and the specific activity was estimated. • In a wedge, 56Mn was induced by the photoneutrons

  19. Making electron beams for the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A source of high-intensity, single-bunch electron beams has been developed at SLAC for the SLC. The properties of these beams have been studied extensively utilizing the first 100-m of the SLAC linac and the computer-based control system being developed for the SLC. The source is described and the properties of the beams are summarized. (orig.)

  20. Project for the development of the linac based NCT facility in University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project team headed by University of Tsukuba launched the development of a new accelerator based BNCT facility. In the project, we have adopted Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)+Drift Tube Linac (DTL) type linac as proton accelerators. Proton energy generated from the linac was set to 8 MeV and average current was 10 mA. The linac tube has been constructed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co. For neutron generator device, beryllium is selected as neutron target material; high intensity neutrons are generated by the reaction with beryllium and the 80 kW proton beam. Our team chose beryllium as the neutron target material. At present beryllium target system is being designed with Monte-Carlo estimations and heat analysis with ANSYS. The neutron generator consists of moderator, collimator and shielding. It is being designed together with the beryllium target system. We also acquired a building in Tokai village; the building has been renovated for use as BNCT treatment facility. It is noteworthy that the linac tube had been installed in the facility in September 2012. In BNCT procedure, several medical devices are required for BNCT treatment such as treatment planning system, patient positioning device and radiation monitors. Thus these are being developed together with the linac based neutron source. For treatment planning system, we are now developing a new multi-modal Monte-Carlo treatment planning system based on JCDS. The system allows us to perform dose estimation for BNCT as well as particle radiotherapy and X-ray therapy. And the patient positioning device can navigate a patient to irradiation position quickly and properly. Furthermore the device is able to monitor movement of the patient's position during irradiation. - Highlights: • A project team headed by University of Tsukuba launched a development of new accelerator based BNCT facility. • The project adopted an 8 MeV RFQ+DTL type linac as proton accelerator. • The linac tube is completed and

  1. Radiological safety around a Linac of 18 MV; Seguridad radiologica alrededor de un LINAC de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron R, P.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09868 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    There are now several neutron detection systems, such as proportional counters based on BF{sub 3}, He{sub 3} and Bonner sphere spectrometers. However, the cost and complexity of the implementation of such systems makes them inaccessible for dosimetry purposes in radiotherapy rooms (Rt) and other facilities with this type of radiation fields. For these reasons the use of a neutron detection system is proposed composed by a paraffin moderator media forming an array 4π (spheres) and several pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700 inside, in order to make useful measurements for radiation protection around high-energy lineal accelerators (Linacs). In the first part of this work the system response when irradiated with a source of Pu Be and their corresponding calibration factor is displayed. In the second part are presented the ambient dose equivalent (H(10)) due to neutrons at various points of a living of Rt with a Linac of 18 MV, which are in the order mSv/Gy by X-ray treatment. The measurements made are similar to those taken in the memories of the accelerator and in previous work for this type of facility. (Author)

  2. Operating experience of 10 MeV industrial linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past three years, an Industrial 10 MeV RF Electron linac has been in operation at Electron Beam Centre, Navi Mumbai. This pulsed linac has an on-axis coupled cavity bi-periodic π/2 structure and operates at frequency of 2856 MHz. The linac has been tested up to a maximum beam power of 5 kW and is being used for industrial applications. A successful 24-hour continuous run, at 3 kW, established the long term stability of all the linac parameters. This paper describes the high power operating experience of the 10 MeV linac. Details of RF conditioning and performance of the linac during long term tests is presented. Effect of various linac parameters, including injection voltage, RF input power, PRF, gun filament heating power, on the output beam power and energy has been discussed. (author)

  3. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements

  4. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  5. Development of quadrupole focussing lenses for drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear accelerator comprising of Radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) is being developed by BARC. The alvarez type post-coupled cw DTL accelerates protons from an energy of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The drift tube linac is excited in TM010 mode, wherein the particles are accelerated by longitudinal Electric fields at the gap crossings between drift tubes. The particles are subjected to transverse RF defocusing forces at the gap crossings due to the increasing electric fields in the gap. The transverse defocusing is corrected by housing magnetic quadrupole focussing lenses inside the drift tubes. The permanent magnet quadrupoles are placed inside the hermetically sealed drift tubes and provide constant magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture. The drift tubes are mounted concentrically inside the resonating DTL tank and are attached to the tank body with stems. Rare earth permanent magnets have been used to achieve the high field gradient. The drift tube body is subjected to RF heating due to eddy currents and hence the sealed drift tubes are to be cooled from inside. The temperature rise of the drift tube assemblies has to be limited to avoid demagnetization of permanent magnets and also to limit thermal expansion of the tubes. This paper discusses various aspects of magnetic design, selection of magnetic materials and the engineering development involved in the assembly of the drift tubes. (author)

  6. Status of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) Cryo-Module

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Montesinos, E; Schirm, K; Vande Craen, A; Vandoni, G; Van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art SRF technology. Such an accelerator could serve as a driver in new physics facilities for neutrinos and/or radioactive ion beams [1]. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium beta=1 elliptical cavities (operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m) and the test of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase, only four out of the eight cavities of the SPL cryo-module will be tested in a half-length cryo-module developed for this purpose, which nonetheless preserves the main features of the full size module. This paper presents the final design of the cryo-module and the status of the construction of the main cryostat parts. Preliminary plans for the assembly a...

  7. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units

  8. Operation of the tandem-linac accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tandem-linac accelerator system is operated as a source of energetic heavy-ion projectiles for research in several areas of nuclear physics and occasionally in other areas of science. The accelerator system consists of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and a superconducting-linac energy booster that can provide an additional 20 MV of acceleration. A figure shows the layout of this system, which will be operated in its present form until September 1985, when it will be incorporated into the larger ATLAS system. In both the present and future forms the accelerator is designed to provide the exceptional beam quality and overall versatility required for precision nuclear-structure research

  9. Bunch Shape Monitor for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and the Institute for Nuclear Research ore collaboratively developing a Bunch Shape Monitor diagnostics for commission the SSCL linac. The Bunch Shape Monitor is designed to measure the intensity of beam as a function of time over the micro-bunch of the beam. Design resolution for the SSCL monitors is approximately 7 psec. The first monitor will operate at the fundamental frequency of 428 MHz and will be used to measure the output beam of the RFQ Linac. First available results will be presented and compared with predictions. Further development will allow the monitors to fit in a standard SSCL beam box and one will operate at the third harmonic of 428 MHz. Proposals to use the Bunch Shape Monitor to measure the longitudinal phase space distribution of the beam will be discussed

  10. Bunch shape measurements at the INR linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bunch shape analyser (BSA) has been developed in the INR and is used for the INR linac tuning. The operation of the device is based on a transverse scanning of a low energy secondary electrons emitted from a thin target crossed by an accelerated beam. The phase resolution obtained is better than 1deg (f = 198.2 MHz). The results of the bunch shape measurements at the exit of the first (20 MeV) accelerating cavity as well as at the exit of the drift tube linac part (100 MeV) of the accelerator are presented. The methods and the results of rf amplitudes and phases setting and a longitudinal emittance measurements with the help of BSA are described. (author)

  11. Bunch shape monitor for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and the Institute for Nuclear Research are collaboratively developing a Bunch Shape Monitor diagnostic for commissioning the SSCL linac. The Bunch Shape Monitor is designed to measure the intensity of beam as a function of time over the micro-bunch of the beam. Design resolution for the SSCL monitors is approximately 7 psec. The first monitor will operate at the fundamental frequency of 428 MHz and will be used to measure and output beam of the RFQ Linac. First available results will be presented and compared with predictions. Further development will allow the monitors to fit in a standard SSCL beam box and one will operate at the third harmonic of 428 MHz. Proposals to use the Bunch Shape Monitor to measure the longitudinal phase space distribution of the beam will be discussed

  12. Electronics Platform of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For servicing during shutdowns, a draw-bridge from a door in the Faraday cage led to the "electronics platform" of the linac 1 preinjector (at 520 kV when in operation) and the top of the electronics platform was lifted on hydraulic jacks for easy access. Henry Charmot is busy with a service. The platform contained the electronics for the ion source, controlled from outside the Faraday cage via an infrared optical link. The ion source, also at 520 kV potential, is housed in the drum, visible in the background, on the insulator column, which at its right end is mounted at ground potential. Behind the wall, to the right, is the 50 MeV linac 1. See also 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403124.

  13. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  14. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10ΜA recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10ΜA average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing

  15. Impedances for electron linacs and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic concepts and results are presented concerning the impedances of electron linacs and storage rings. The impedances of an accelerator or ring completely characterizes the interaction of the beam with its environment. Not only does the impedance (or its Fourier transform, the wake potential) determine the energy loss by a bunched beam to its environment, but it is also the chief ingredient required for any calculation of beam stability

  16. Making electron beams for the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A source of high-intensity, single-bunch electron beams has been developed at SLAC for the SLC. The properties of these beams have been studied extensively utilizing the first 100-m of the SLAC linac and the computer-based control system being developed for the SLC. The source is described and the properties of the beams are summarized. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  17. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed

  18. Stereotactic linac radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, B G; Hitchcock, E. R.; Kitchen, G.; Dalton, A E; Yates, D A; Chavda, S V

    1992-01-01

    Stereotactic linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery has been in operation in the West Midlands since 1987, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Forty two patients with high-flow cerebral arteriovenous malformations have been treated, 26 of whom have been followed up. Angiography one year after treatment showed that five lesions were obliterated, 11 were reduced in size and/or flow rate and 10 were unchanged. Overall results show that nine out of 10 patients reviewed at 24 months had ...

  19. PHOTOCATHODES FOR THE ENERGY RECOVERY LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various Energy Recovering Linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed

  20. Photocathodes for the energy recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various Energy Recovering Linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed

  1. Photocathodes for the energy recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various energy recovering linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed

  2. Cost projection for a superconducting linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of energy of the present 800 MeV proton linac at LAMPF to 1.6 to 2.2 GeV is of primary importance for the proposed future experimental program of this Laboratory. Layout and cost studies have been performed for (a) normalconducting and (b) superconducting accelerating structures. A more recent cost analysis for a superconducting structure is given in this report. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Photocathodes for the energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Chang, X. Y.; Smedley, J.; Nishitani, T.; Hernandez Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Seddon, E.; Hannon, F. E.; Sinclair, C. K.; Lewellen, J.; Feldman, D.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various energy recovering linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed.

  4. Linac for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nominally 100 MeV electron linear accelerator to be used as an injector for the booster synchrotron of the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. The machine utilizes a combination of Varian and SLAC accelerating guides and is interfaced by means of a microprocessor-based Intel Multibus system, to the Data General central control computer. Provision for emittance and momentum measurement is provided in the transport line between the linac and the booster synchrotron

  5. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  6. The new GSI prestripper linac for high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original UNILAC injector uses PENNING type ion sources and charge states up to 10+ for uranium beams. The beam intensities for very heavy ion species out of that injector are too low by almost a factor 300 to fill the Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS up to its space charge limit. At present only ion sources like CHORDIS (1+ and 2+ charged ions) or MEVVA, which generates charge states up to 4+ above mass 180 can provide the requested beam intensities during a pulse duration of 100 μs. The IH-DTL with its high acceleration efficiency offers the possibility to replace the 34 MV prestripper linac by a new 91 MV linac while keeping the positions of the pre-injectors and of the gas stripper untouched. The actual prestripper frequency of 27 MHz will be replaced by 36 MHz, being one third of the poststripper linac frequency. The beam dynamics of 'Combined Zero Degree Synchronous Particle Sections' is applied on the two IH cavities.They generate averaged effective voltage gains of 4.3 MV/m. The paper describes the new linac, especially focusing on the rf structures and on the beam dynamics along the IH-DTL. (author)

  7. Measurement of Schottky-like Signals from Linac Bunched Hadron Beams for Momentum Spread Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Kowina, P; Caspers, F; Singh, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the measurement of Linac beam parameters in the longitudinal phase space. The longitudinal momentum spread can be evaluated by means of Schottky type signal analysis of bunched beams. There is a close similarity between a repetitive Linac bunch train and a circulating beam with a single short batch in a large machine like the LHC. A dedicated longitudinal cavity pick-up was used in the Linac where resonance frequency and Q-value were carefully selected in order to get an optimum compromise between the unavoidable coherent signal and the desired incoherent part of the beam spectrum. A time domain gating similar to the 4.8 GHz LHC Schottky front-end is applied. As a cross-check of the validity of the interpretation in terms of momentum spread, the Linac beam is analyzed in the downstream synchrotron using standard Schottky methods. In principle, this approach can be understood as an extension of Schottky analysis for circular machines with a perfect “mixing” between subsequent ...

  8. Advanced RF power sources for linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    In order to maintain a reasonable over-all length at high center-of-mass energy, the main linac of an electron-positron linear collider must operate at a high accelerating gradient. For copper (non-superconducting) accelerator structures, this implies a high peak power per unit length and a high peak power per RF source, assuming a limited number of discrete sources are used. To provide this power, a number of devices are currently under active development or conceptual consideration: conventional klystrons with multi-cavity output structures, gyroklystrons, magnicons, sheet-beam klystrons, multiple-beam klystrons and amplifiers based on the FEL principle. To enhance the peak power produced by an rf source, the SLED rf pulse compression scheme is currently in use on existing linacs, and new compression methods that produce a flatter output pulse are being considered for future linear colliders. This paper covers the present status and future outlook for the more important rf power sources and pulse compression systems. It should be noted that high gradient electron linacs have applications in addition to high-energy linear colliders; they can, for example, serve as compact injectors for FEL`s and storage rings.

  9. Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    1998-01-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, we study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Our main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  10. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  11. Machining of cavities for travelling wave LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Traveling Wave (T.W.), 2π/3 mode electron linear accelerator of 2856 MHz is under development at CAT for radiation processing of agricultural products. This LINAC consists of a thermionic triode electron gun, TW buncher section and Regular Section. Machining of input/output couplers, regular section cells and disc were carried out using CNC lathe LAL- 2 BT and CNC milling machine BMV - 40. This paper highlights the dimensional and geometrical requirements of cavities, problems encountered during machining of OFE copper and their solutions to achieve high precision with ultrahigh surface finish. The performance of Linac depends upon a number of factors such as operating vacuum level, accuracies of cavity dimensions, materials, and surface finish of cavities comprising the LINAC. Each of these depends upon material and fabrication techniques used for manufacturing OFE copper of higher purity has been used since they offer lower surface resistivity and lower power losses. With CNC tuning and milling machines, the high surface finish has been achieved with higher dimensional and geometrical accuracies

  12. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Smith, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  13. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  14. Cryogenic Plants for SRF Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    Review of the types of considerations that go into cryoplant design. Arenius is a world expert on this topic and has led the completion of the upgraded cryoplant at Jefferson Lab, and has recently provided substantial input on this question to the new LCLS II project.

  15. A 2--4 nm Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of the SLAC linac to drive a unique, powerful. short wavelength Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Operating as an FEL, lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a high peak current electron beam through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The main components are a high-brightness rf photocathode electron gun; pulse compressors; about 1/5 of the SLAC linac; and a long undulator with a FODO quadrupole focussing system. Using electrons below 8 GeV, the system would operate at wavelengths down to about 3 nm, producing ≥10 GW peak power in sub-ps pulses. At a 120 Hz rate the average power is ∼ 1 W

  16. Bunch Extension Monitor for LINAC of SPIRAL2 facility

    OpenAIRE

    Revenko, R.V.; Vignet, J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch longitudinal shape of beam particles are crucial for optimization and control of the LINAC beam parameters and maximization of its integrated luminosity. The non-interceptive bunch extension monitor for LINAC of SPIRAL2 facility is being developed at GANIL. The five bunch extension monitors are to be installed on the entrance of LINAC between superconducting cavities. The principle of monitor operation is based on registration of x-rays induced by ions of accelerator...

  17. Investigations of Slow Motions of the SLAC Linac Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Seryi, Andrei

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of slow transverse motion of the linac tunnel of the Stanford Linear Collider have been performed over period of about one month in December 1999 -- January 2000. The linac laser alignment system, equipped with a quadrant photodetector, allowed submicron resolution measurement of the motion of the middle of the linac tunnel with respect to its ends. Measurements revealed two major sources responsible for the observed relative motion. Variation of the external atmospheric pressu...

  18. Measurements of longitudinal phase space in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron and positron bunch distributions in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac have been measured using a Hamamatsu, model N3373-02, 500-femtosecond streak camera. The distributions were measured at the end of the SLC linac versus the bunch compressor RF voltage. The energy spread at the end of the linac was also measured using a wire scanner. The effects of the bunch compressor on the shape of the bunch distribution are also presented

  19. Beam position correction in the Fermilab linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbit correction has long been an essential feature of circular accelerators, storage rings, multipass linacs, and linear colliders. In a drift tube linear accelerator (DTL) such as the H- Linac at Fermilab, beam position monitors (BPMs) and dipole corrector magnets can only be located in between accelerating tanks. Within a tank many drift tubes (from 20 to 60) each house a quadrupole magnet to provide strong transverse focusing of the beam. With good alignment of the drift tubes and quadrupoles and a sufficiently large diameter for the drift tubes, beam position is not typically a major concern. In the Fermilab DTL, 95% of the beam occupies only 35% of the available physical aperture (4.4 cm). The recent upgrade of the Fermilab Linac from a final energy of 200 MeV to 400 MeV has been achieved by replacing four 201.25 MHz drift tube linac tanks with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules (the high energy portion of the linac or HEL). In order to achieve this increase in energy within the existing enclosure, an accelerating gradient is required that is a factor of 3 larger than that found in the DTL. This in turn required that the physical aperture through which the beam must pass be significantly reduced. In addition, the lattice of the side-coupled structure provides significantly less transverse focusing than the DTL. Therefore in the early portion of the HEL the beam occupies over 95% of the available physical aperture (3.0 cm). In order to prevent beam loss and the creation of excess radiation, the ability to correct beam position throughout the HEL is of importance. An orbit smoothing algorithm commonly used in the correction of closed orbits of circular machines has been implemented to achieve a global least-squares minimization of beam position errors. In order to accommodate several features of this accelerator a refinement in the algorithm has been made to increase its robustness and utilize correctors of varying strengths

  20. Front-end physics design of APT linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator for the Accelerator based Production of Tritium (APT), uses a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled- cavity linac (CCL). The production target requires the APT linac to deliver a 100 mA proton beam with an energy of 1.3 -1.7 GeV. The main challenge in the design comes from the requirement to minimize beam loss. Hands-on maintenance of the entire linac requires very little beam loss

  1. SIMULATIONS OF A MUON LINAC FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard, Alex Bogacz ,Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin

    2011-04-01

    The Neutrino Factory baseline design involves a complex chain of accelerators including a single-pass linac, two recirculating linacs and an FFAG. The first linac follows the capture and bunching section and accelerates the muons from about 244 to 900 MeV. It must accept a high emittance beam about 30 cm wide with a 10% energy spread. This linac uses counterwound, shielded superconducting solenoids and 201 MHz superconducting cavities. Simulations have been carried out using several codes including Zgoubi, OptiM, GPT, Elegant and G4beamline, both to determine the optics and to estimate the radiation loads on the elements due to beam loss and muon decay.

  2. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  3. Boeing 120 MeV RF linac for FEL research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electron linac for high power, visible wavelength, free electron laser research is under construction at the Boeing Radiation Laboratory in Seattle. The linac is a five section, traveling wave, L band structure with a specialized comb pulse format of widely separated high charge micropulses. The paper describes the accelerator design and prototyping of key components of the linac. These include a double subharmonic injector and a long pulse phase and amplitude stabilized RF source which have been tested on Boeing's 20 MeV S band linac

  4. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Garoby, R; Rohlev, A; Serrano, J

    2004-01-01

    A VME based control system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in linac accelerating structures. It is an all-digital system built on a single VME card, providing digital detection, processing, and modulation. It is foreseen to be used, in different versions, for the needs of both present and future CERN hadron linacs. The first application will be in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3). Design principle and the experimental results are described.

  5. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  6. Effects of Linac Wakefield on CSR Microbunching in the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) requires two-stage bunch compression for stability against timing and charge jitters. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced in these bunch compressors can drive a microbunching instability that may degrade the beam brightness. In this paper, we study effects of the longitudinal wakefield in the accelerator on this instability. We show that significant energy modulation can be accumulated in the linac through the geometrical wakefield and can enhance the CSR microbunching in these compressors. Analytical calculations are compared with numerical simulations to evaluate the gain of microbunching for the entire LCLS accelerator system.

  7. Effects of Linac Wakefield on CSR Microbunching in the Linac Coherent Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Z

    2003-01-01

    The design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) requires two-stage bunch compression for stability against timing and charge jitters. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced in these bunch compressors can drive a microbunching instability that may degrade the beam brightness. In this paper, we study effects of the longitudinal wakefield in the accelerator on this instability. We show that significant energy modulation can be accumulated in the linac through the geometrical wakefield and can enhance the CSR microbunching in these compressors. Analytical calculations are compared with numerical simulations to evaluate the gain of microbunching for the entire LCLS accelerator system..

  8. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  9. Acceleration test of heavy ion RFQ linac at TIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 80 MHz heavy ion RFQ Linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT) was constructed for researches on inertial fusion and plasma experiments. The first acceleration was accomplished with low intensity He+ ion beam in 1993. This four vane type RFQ accelerates particles with charge to mass ratio (q/A) of 1/16 from 5 keV/amu to 214 keV/amu. Two-dimensional (2D) machining was applied for cutting of the RFQ vane-tips. The vane parameters for the RFQ were optimized considering the effects of multipole components at inter-vane field. In order to increase the acceleration efficiency synchronous phase was gradually raised from -30 degrees to -20 degrees at the open-quotes accelerator sectionclose quotes. The beam transmission is expected to be 68.4% for the beam current of 10 mA. Details of the RFQ tuning and performance will be reported

  10. First operation of the rf-focused interdigital linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new rf-focused interdigital (RFI) linac structure came into operation at the Linac Systems laboratory in May of 2006, after a multi-year development program supported by the US Department of Energy. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideroee) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The RFI prototype operates at 200-MHz and consists of an ECR ion source, an Einzel lens LEBT, a radial-strut, four-bar RFQ linac section to 0.75 MeV and an RFI linac section to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. The total length of the prototype is 2.2 m. The RFQ and RFI linac sections are resonantly coupled and require a total of 120 kW of rf power for cavity excitation. The energy of the accelerated beam was confirmed by requiring it to pass through a 2.25-MeV energy-degrading foil. The specifications for the RFI linac prototype were chosen to address the demanding Boron Neutron Capture Therapy medical application. There are, however, many other potential applications for the structure as it has efficiency and size advantages for both protons and heavy ions at a variety of energies and currents. To date, we have achieved a beam current of approximately 1 mA peak at a relatively low duty factor. We continue to improve the performance of the prototype structure on a daily basis as we better understand the optimal operational settings for the prototype system. Now that the first operational milestone for the RFI linac structure has been achieved, Linac Systems will vigorously pursue projects and partnerships for multiple applications such as compact and intense neutron sources, proton and carbon injector linacs for synchrotrons and PET isotope production

  11. Capacitive beam position monitors for the low-β beam of the Chinese ADS proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wu, Jun-Xia; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Jia, Huan; Xue, Zong-Heng; Zheng, Hai; Xie, Hong-Ming; Kang, Xin-Cai; He, Yuan; Li, Lin; Denard, Jean Claude

    2016-02-01

    Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) for the low-β beam of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Subcritical system (CADS) Proton linac are of the capacitive pick-up type. They provide higher output signals than that of the inductive type. This paper will describe the design and tests of the capacitive BPM system for the low-β proton linac, including the pick-ups, the test bench and the read-out electronics. The tests done with an actual proton beam show a good agreement between the measurements and the simulations in the time domain. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405240) and “Western Light” Talents Training Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  12. Design considerations for a superconducting linac as an option for the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Bräutigam, W F; Schug, G; Zaplatin, E N; Meads, P F; Senichev, Yu V

    1999-01-01

    An approach for a superconducting high-current proton linac for the ESS has been discussed as an option in the "Proposal for a Next Generation Neutron Source for Europe-the European Spallation Source (ESS)". The following work studies the technical and economic conditions for a superconducting linac at the high-energy end of the proposed accelerator system. The use of superconducting elliptical cavities for the acceleration of high-energetic particles beta =v/c-1 is certainly state of the art. This is documented by many activities (TJNAF, TESLA, LEP, LHC, and KEK). A design study for the cavities is described in another paper on this conference. For low energy particles ( beta <<1) quarter wave type cavities and spoke-type cavities have been discussed. The main motivation for this study is the expectation of significant cost reduction in terms of operational and possibly investment cost. (5 refs).

  13. Development, qualification and commissioning of high power microwave systems and components for electron Linac program at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design, development and qualification of indigenous travelling wave electron Linac has been taken up at RRCAT. The electron linac needs microwave system with peak power upto 6 MW for the desired energy and current. A high power microwave system has been designed and developed using 6 MW klystron. A 140 kV line type pulse modulator with command charging scheme has been built indigenously along with the pulse transformer and the high voltage deck for the klystron. The output of the klystron is fed to the linac by means of WR 284 waveguide transmission line with adequate safety and interlock protection systems. Also several crucial components like the electron gun, electron beam collimator were developed and deployed for during the development efforts of the electron linac. The present paper describes the various efforts done for the indigenous development of these components and subsystems for achieving self- reliance with excellence in the crucial area of technology. The results obtained after interfacing the system with the electron linac are also presented. (author)

  14. Design of a 10 MeV normal conducting CW proton linac based on equidistant multi-gap CH cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The continue wave (CW) high current proton linac has wide applications as the front end of the high power proton machines. The low energy part is the most difficult one and there is no widely accepted solution yet. Based on the analysis of the focusing properties of the CW low energy proton linac, a 10 MeV low energy normal conducting proton linac based on equidistant seven-gap Cross-bar H-type (CH) cavities is proposed. The linac is composed of ten 7-gap CH cavities and the transverse focusing is maintained by the quadrupole doublets located between cavities. The total length of the linac is less than 6 meters and the average acceleration gradient is about 1.2 MeV/m. The electromagnetic properties of the cavities are investigated by Microwave Studio. At the nominal acceleration gradient the maximum surface electric field in the cavities is less than 1.3 times Kilpatrick limit, and the Ohmic loss of each cavity is less than 35 kW. The multi-particle beam dynamics simulations are performed with the help of the...

  15. LINAC quality assurance tool for EPID systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There are dual purposes for this work: (1) to establish the clinical feasibility of using a commercial LINAC and scanning-liquid ion chamber electronic portal imaging device (SLIC-EPID) for performing quality control checks; and (2) to demonstrate a convenient software tool for performing the tasks. Specifically, our objectives pertain to beam flatness and symmetry, output constancy and enhanced dynamic wedge field verification measurements. Materials and Methods: A Varian C-series accelerator with an SAD of 100 cm was used along with PortalVisionTM Dosimetry Research Mode experimental software. The EPID was calibrated according to the equipment manufacturer's specifications. For output constancy check and flatness and symmetry checks, a portal image was taken at dmax using a 20 x 20 cm2 field for both 6 MV and 18 MV photons. Dose measurements were made at five a priori locations in the image relative to the central axis (one at the central axis, two at either end of the in-plane axis and two at either end of the cross-plane axis). For both output constancy and flatness/symmetry checks, the portal imaging system was operating in normal clinical mode and special dosimetry mode. The central axis value was taken as an average of an array of pixels. The output constancy estimation was established by comparing central axis values over five measurements. Verification of the enhanced dynamic wedge fields occurred with the portal imaging system operating in special dosimetry research mode. Line images were taken at dmax using 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. wedge settings with a field size of 20 x 20 cm2 for both energies. An original delivered wedge profile was established as a reference image and five other images were taken and compared with least-squares analysis to quantify the differences. In order to perform routine LINAC quality checks using a portal imaging system, it must be quick and convenient. However, commercial implementations currently lack

  16. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL)

  17. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  18. Transverse quadrupole wake field effects in high intensity linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse quadrupole wake fields exist whenever the beam is not round, and therefore in an alternating-gradient focusing system these fields cannot be eliminated. As a result, these fields represent a potential limitation on high-intensity linac performance. In this note we calculate the magnitude of quadrupole wake field effects for the SLAC linac. (author)

  19. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described

  20. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  1. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Energy feedback system for the SSRL Injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSRL Injector microwave gun, linac, and booster were commissioned last year. For efficient injection into the booster the linac beam energy must be stable to within about 1%. Unfortunately, fluctuations in the line voltage supplying the unregulated klystron modulators cause fluctuations in the linac beam energy, thus making the operation of the booster potentially very difficult. Without any corrections, the linac energy may drift by as much as one percent per minute or it may jump suddenly by one percent. Fortunately, the linac beam energy can be kept close to the desired value by using feedback on the low level controls of the klystrons feeding two of the linac sections. The energy of the linac is sampled at a beam position monitor (BPM) downstream of the first magnet following the linac. The feedback loop is closed using a low-pass filter that filters out noise from the BPM processing electronics. The feedback is implemented as a computer program (energy feedback) written in C for the SSRL Injector control system, and is robust against various fault conditions, as a result of the many changes and adjustments suggested by the commissioning team who are mentioned in the acknowledgements

  3. Present status of the electron linacs in ISIR, Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center, attached to the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, was founded in 2002 for developing Bottom-up Nanotechnology, Top-down Nanotechnology, and their Industrial Application. The Radiation Laboratory attached to the center, are conducting management, operation, and maintenance of the 40 MeV L-band electron linac, the 150 MeV S-band electron linac and the 40 MeV laser photo-cathode RF-gun linac. The L-band linac restarted the joint-use from the latter half of 2004 fiscal year after its large-scale upgrade, and 2005 fiscal year became first full-year use after the upgrade. From 2006 fiscal year, in addition to the L-band linac, the S-band linac and the RF-gun linac also began the joint-use in the Osaka University. We report on the present status of three linacs in 2005 fiscal year. (author)

  4. Commissioning of the SPPS Linac Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First results and beam measurements are presented for the recently installed linac bunch compressor chicane. The new bunch compressor produces ultra-short electron bunches for the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source (SPPS) and for test beams such as the E164 Plasma Wakefield experiment. This paper will give an overview of the first experiences with tuning and optimizing the compressor together with a description of the beam diagnostics and beam measurements. These measurements form the basis for further detailed study of emittance growth effects such as CSR and wakefields in a previously unmeasured regime of ultra-short bunch lengths

  5. Development of the Medium Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of the proton engineering frontier project is developing a proton linac which accelerates 20 mA proton beams up to 100 MeV and supplying 20 MeV and 100 MeV proton beams to the user groups. The project 'Development of the medium energy linac systems' is aiming to design the 100 MeV proton linac, to construct an accelerating cavity, to design a MEBT system, and to develop a energy measurement system. The 100 MeV linac consists of 20 DTL tanks which are operated by five additional klystrons. The focusing lattice is FFDD as the 20 MeV DTL. However the hollow conductors are used for coils of the quadrupole magnets. The shape of the drift tubes in the new tanks is changed to compensate the reduction of the accelerating efficiency in the high energy region. For example, the face angle of drift tubes begins at 40 degrees. The bore radius is selected as 10 mm in order to eliminate beam loss in the beam line. We can obtain the 100 MeV proton beams by using these accelerating structure. We have designed some of the tanks in detail. It covers the modification of the structure by including the stem, post-coupler, and sulg-tuner effects, the error analysis, the thermal and structure analysis, the drift tube design, the magnet design, the various ports design, the support structure design, the end-plate design, etc. Now the first DTL tank is constructed by a local company. An beam extraction system is essential after 20 MeV DTL in order to supply 20 MeV proton beams. Since there are no focusing elements in the structure, the beam should be spread out. The MEBT which consists of two 3-cell DTL tanks is designed to control the beam size in the beam extraction system by magnets in the first tank and to transversely match the beam into the next DTL by magnets in the the second tank. The longitudinal matching is done by the RF in both tanks. We have also developed an energy measurement system using the time of flight method

  6. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  7. A new RFQ linac fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydrogen furnace brazing has been applied as a joining technology to the fabrication of a Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac for the Los Alamos Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility (APDF). The design concept provides a monolithic cavity with no longitudinal rf, vacuum, or mechanical joints. A 530 MHz, 0.46 meter long engineering model RFQ has been fabricated and tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a technical demonstration of this concept. It is planned that two funneled RFQ's for the APDF (7 MeV, 350 MHz, 100 mAmp CW, each eight meters in length) will be manufactured by this method

  8. Linac based free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic treatment of the principle of the linac-driven free-electron laser (FEL) is given. The first part of the paper describes the FEL in low-gain approximation, and in the second part the high-gain FEL theory is given. The majority of the treatment describes FELs in one dimensional approximation, neglecting effects by diffraction of radiation and by electron beam emittance. Only in the final section a few remarks on these issues are given. The ambition of the paper is by no means any progress in FEL theory but a clear presentation of basic FEL theory concepts with explicit derivation of the formulae from first principles. (orig.)

  9. Event Registration System for INR Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software of the Event registration system for the linear accelerators is described. This system allows receiving of the information on changes of operating modes of the accelerator and supervising of hundreds of key parameters of various systems of the accelerator. The Event registration system consists of the source and listeners of events. The sources of events are subroutines built in existing ACS Linac. The listeners of events are software Supervisor and Client ERS. They are used for warning the operator about change controlled parameter of the accelerator

  10. Design studies of SSC coupled cavity linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC coupled cavity linac (CCL) will be a side coupled structure operating at 1284 MHz to accelerate a nominal 25 mA H- beam from 70 MeV to 600 MeV. The authors present results of both cavity design and beam dynamics studies. Each accelerating cavity is optimized by SUPERFISH; coupled cavity characteristics in the region of low-, mid- and high-energies are checked by MAFIA-3D. MAFIA-3D was also used to design the bridge coupler systems. The beam dynamics and error analysis are simulated by CCLDYN and CCLTRACE. Possible future upgrade of the CCL to 1 GeV is also discussed

  11. An induction linac developed for FEL application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mascureau, J.; Anthouard, Ph.; Bardy, J.; Eyharts, Ph.; Eyl, P.; Launspach, J.; Thevenot, M.; Villate, D.

    1992-07-01

    An induction linac is being studied and built at CESTA for FEL application. At first we studied the induction technology and namely the high-voltage (HV) generators and the induction cells. A HV generator designed to feed the cells with calibrated pulses (150 kV, 50 ns, δV/V dispenser cathode. Numerical codes have been developed and simulations have been compared with experimental results for HV generators, induction cells, and the injector. An induction accelerating module has been studied and we plan to have the accelerator working at 3 MeV in 1992.

  12. Fermilab linac upgrade. Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and discusses the near-on-line commissioning plans for this accelerator. (Author) ref., 4 figs

  13. Fermilab Linac Upgrade: Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz Side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side-cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and disc the near-online commissioning plans for this accelerator

  14. Evaluation of ferromagnetic materials for induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For design works of induction linac, it is important to obtain B-H curve of ferromagnetic core materials as a function of magnetization rate. In order to evaluate cost effective induction module, various laminated ferromagnetic materials; silicon steels, amorphous including FINEMET, are magnetized up to 10T/μs. We can conclude that FINEMET is the most excellent materials from the point of core loss, especially at high magnetization rate. From the evaluation of energy loss and heat conduction in the core materials, we conclude that FINEMET cores can operate up to 1 kHz. (author)

  15. Evaluation of ferromagnetic materials for induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Dai; Morimoto, Iwao; Nakajima, Mituo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Kouno, Toshiyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Science, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Zheng, Xiaodong; Maebara, Sunao; Shiho, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    For design works of induction linac, it is important to obtain B-H curve of ferromagnetic core materials as a function of magnetization rate. In order to evaluate cost effective induction module, various laminated ferromagnetic materials; silicon steels, amorphous including FINEMET, are magnetized up to 10T/{mu}s. We can conclude that FINEMET is the most excellent materials from the point of core loss, especially at high magnetization rate. From the evaluation of energy loss and heat conduction in the core materials, we conclude that FINEMET cores can operate up to 1 kHz. (author)

  16. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the use of the SLAC linac to drive FELs at wavelengths down to a few Angstroms. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE). About 1013 photons per pulse can be produced in 100 fs pulses at a 120 Hz rate, corresponding to brightness levels of about 1022 average and 1032 peak. Peak power level are tens of GW. Electron energies of 10-20 GeV are required. Significant improvement of FEL performance seems possible using harmonic generation techniques according to results from numerical simulations

  17. Upgrade of kek linac control network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEK Linac has been supplying a stable beam to the ring four different. In order to provide a highly available beam over a long period of time, a stable network communication between the server computer and the local control device is essential. By the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, part of the network system were damaged. Further, because it promotes the advancement of injector toward SuperKEKB, was performed updates to the network system with high reliability and high performance. In this paper, I will report more information about network monitoring system and update of network system. (author)

  18. Linac design for the LCLS project at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC is being designed to produce intense, coherent 0.15-nm x-rays. These x-rays will be produced by a single pass of a 15 GeV bunched electron beam through a long undulator. Nominally, the bunches have a charge of 1 nC, normalized transverse emittances of less than 1.5π mm-mr and an rms bunch length of 20 μm. The electron beam will be produced using the last third of the SLAC 3-km linac in a manner compatible with simultaneous operation of the remainder of the linac for PEP-II. The linac design necessary to produce an electron beam with the required brightness for LCLS is discussed, and the specific linac modifications are described

  19. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10-6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  20. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  1. A compact high-power proton linac for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional designs for proton linacs use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL). For higher final beam energies, a coupled cavity linac (CCL) follows the DTL. A new structure, the coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of an Alvarez DTL and the CCL. Operating in a π/2 structure mode, the CCDTL replaces the DTL and part of the CCL for particle velocities in the range 0.1 < β < 0.5. The authors present a design concept for a compact linac using only an RFQ and a CCDTL. This machine delivers a few mA of average beam current at a nominal energy of 70 MeV and is well suited for radioisotope production

  2. Present status of KEK electron/positron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron/Positron Linac injects electron and positron beams into four different rings; KEKB High Energy Ring(electron 8GeV), KBKB Low Energy Ring(positron 3.45 GeV), PF(electron 2.5 GeV), PF-AR(electron 2.5 GeV). During the summer shutdown of 1999, many improvements such as upgrade of an SHB1 power supply, installation of a new SHB2 cavity with an improved cooling channel, introduction of a new workstation for feedback systems etc.. Stability of the linac has been improved and beam switching among these rings is performed in a short time. Operation time of the linac during FY 1999 was 7,296 hours. Statistics of linac operation and activities for obtaining high reliability of the linac are presented. (author)

  3. SNS Linac Modulator Operational History And Perfomance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) were initially installed at the Spallation Neutron Source Linear Accelerator (SNS Linac) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2005. A fifteenth HVCM was added in 2009. Each modulator provides a pulse of up to 140 kV at a maximum width of 1.35 msec. Peak power level is 11 MW with an 8% duty factor. The HVCM system must be available for neutron production (NP) 24/7 with the exception being two, 6-week maintenance periods per year. HVCM reliability is one of the most important factors to maximize Linac availability and achieve SNS performance goals. During the last few years several modifications have been implemented to improve the overall system reliability. This paper presents operational history of the HVCM systems and examines failure mode statistical data since the modulators began operating at 60 Hz. System enhancements and upgrades aimed at providing long term reliable operation with minimal down time are also discussed in the paper.

  4. Linac-driven spallation-neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong interest has arisen in accelerator-driven spallation-neutron sources that surpass existing facilities (such as ISIS at Rutherford or LANSCE at Los Alamos) by more than an order of magnitude in beam power delivered to the spallation target. The approach chosen by Los Alamos (as well as the European Spallation Source) provides the full beam energy by acceleration in a linac as opposed to primary acceleration in a synchrotron or other circular device. Two modes of neutron production are visualized for the source. A short-pulse mode produces 1 MW of beam power (at 60 pps) in pulses, of length less than 1 ms, by compression of the linac macropulse through multi-turn injection in an accumulator ring. A long-pulse mode produces a similar beam power with 1-ms-long pulses directly applied to a target. This latter mode rivals the performance of existing reactor facilities to very low neutron energies. Combination with the short-pulse mode addresses virtually all applications

  5. Development of wide band FCT for TW Linac of agriculture radiation processing facility at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-destructive FCT is required for the monitoring of continuous 10 microsec pulse current of 300 mA at 300 Hz repetition rate in the 10 MeV electron linac of ARPF. The current monitor of beam current in a Linac must be non-destructive type and free of obstruction on the beam trajectory and independent of beam position. The FCT should have a high resolution and provide an output proportional to the beam current, covering the entire frequency range as determined by the time structure of the beam. A high precision and non-destructive wide band fast current transformer for the measurement of electron beam currents has been developed using in-house developed large ferrite toroidal core. The details of FCT design, current monitor development, calibration and the wide band pulse measurements will be discussed in this paper

  6. A CW superconducting linac as the proton driver for a medium baseline neutrino beam in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    In a long-term planning for neutrino experiments in China, a medium baseline neutrino beam is proposed which uses a CW superconducting linac of 15 MW in beam power as the proton driver. The linac will be based on the technologies which are under development by the China-ADS project, but with much weaker requirement on reliability. It is composed of a 3.2-MeV normal conducting RFQ and 5 different types of superconducting cavities. The nominal design energy and current are 1.5 GeV and 10 mA, respectively. The general considerations and preliminary results on the physics design will be presented here. In addition, the alternative designs such as 2.0 GeV and 2.5 GeV as they may be required by the general design can be easily extended from the nominal one.

  7. New injectors the Linac4 project and the new H− source

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J

    2015-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator designed to improve by a factor of 2 the beam brightness out of the LHC injection chain for the needs of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The project started in 2008 and beam commissioning takes place in 2014–2015. The new linac accelerates H− ions that are then stripped at injection into the PS Booster; production of the H− beam takes place in a state-of-the-art ion source of the RF-driven caesiated surface type. Acceleration is provided by four different accelerating sections matched to the increasing beam velocity, including two of novel designs, and focusing is provided by a combination of permanent-magnet and electromagnetic quadrupoles.

  8. Beam optimization of helium injector for coupled RFQ–SFRFQ linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled RFQ–SFRFQ (CRS) cavity designed in Peking University is a new type linac that coupled radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) structure into a single cavity. An upgraded helium injector for the CRS cavity consisting of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a 1.16 m low energy beam transport (LEBT) has been constructed and tested. The beam conditions of the injector were carefully optimized to satisfy the requirements of the CRS linac, the corresponding control system and a two-dimension scanner code CRSv1.0 were developed for optimizing the beam transmission from LEBT section to the entrance of the CRS cavity. The beam transmission efficiency has reached to approximately 87.5% as well as the optimized operating parameters were obtained by means of the scanner code

  9. The SSRL linacs for injection to the storage ring and rf gun testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) operates two linac systems. One has three SLAC type linac sections powered by two klystrons for injection of electrons at 120 MeV into the booster ring, boosting the energy to 2.3 GeV to fill the SPEAR. After the ramping, the SPEAR stores up to 100 mA of the beam at 3.0 GeV. The preinjector consists of a thermionic RF gun, an alpha magnet, and a chopper along with focusing magnets. The other has one 10 foot section powered by the injector klystron for the testing of RF gun with photocathode, which is driven by a separate klystron. This paper describes present systems with their operational parameters, followed by plans for the upgrades and RF gun development efforts at the SSRL. (author)

  10. Commissioning of the 1.4 Mev/u High Current Heavy Ion Linac at Gsi

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    2000-01-01

    The disassembly of the Unilac prestripper linac of the Wideroe type took place at the beginning of 1999. An increase of more than two orders of magnitude in particle number for the most heavy elements in the SIS had to be gained. Since that time the new High Current Injector (HSI) consisting of H-type RFQ and DTL-structures for dual beam operation was installed and successfully commissioned. The High Charge Injector (HLI) supplied the main linac during that time. Simultaneously conditioning and running in of the rf-transmitters and rf-structures were done. The HSI commissioning strategy included beam investigation after each transport and acceleration section, using a versatile diagnostic test stand. Results of the extensive commissioning measurements (e.g. transverse emittance, bunch width, beam transmission) behind LEBT, RFQ, Super Lens, IH tank I and II and stripping section will be discussed. An 40Ar1+ beam coming from a MUCIS ion source was used to fill the linac up to the theoretical space charge limit....

  11. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  12. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  13. First Linac4 DTL & CCDTL cavities installed in tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was successfully transported to its forever home in the Linac4 tunnel. Similarly, the first Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) was installed on 6 June. These moves marked the end of years of design and manufacturing by Linac4 teams.   Although it may seem like a relatively routine transport operation, the DTL's move was a landmark event for the entire Linac4 collaboration. "Along with the first four Cell-Coupled DTL modules, which were installed on the following two working days, these are the first accelerating structures after front-end commissioning to be installed in the tunnel," says Frank Gerigk, who is responsible for all Linac4 accelerating structures. "It is a major milestone, because work on all these structures started well over a decade ago." The transport operation was also quite a victory for the Linac4 DTL team, whose journey to a complete DTL structure has been a bit of a wild ride. &qu...

  14. Alignment and Field Error Tolerance in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L; Lallement, J B; Lanzone, S; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P; Sargsyan, E

    2011-01-01

    LINAC4 [1] is a linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton LINAC (LINAC2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The higher output energy (160 MeV) together with charge-exchange injection will allow increasing beam intensity in the following machines. LINAC4 is about 80 m long, normal-conducting, and will be housed in a tunnel 12 m below ground on the CERN Meyrin site. The location has been chosen to allow using LINAC4 as the first stage of acceleration for a Multi-MegaWatt superconducting LINAC (SPL [2]). A 60 m long transfer line brings the beam towards the present LINAC2-to-PS Booster transfer line, which is joined at the position of BHZ20. The new transfer line consists of 17 new quadrupoles, an RF cavity and 4 bending magnets to adjust both the direction and the level for injection into the PS Booster. End-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been carried out in parallel with the codes PATH [3] and TRACEWIN[4]. Following the definition of the layout...

  15. The Superconducting Proton Linac plasma generator and Linac4 H-Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the course of the sLHC project, CERN is studying a new plasma generator for the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) similar to the RF driven volume H- source of Linac4. The new plasma generator has been designed for a higher duty factor of up to 6% and has therefore been equipped with several cooling systems for the ceramic plasma chamber, ignition element, extraction area, RF antenna and matching network. This resulted in a redesign of the magnetic cusp configuration which had to be displaced and reinforced by the use of Halbach magnets which are now protected against heating due to RF induced eddy currents by an effective copper shielding. The Teststand of the plasma generator and its RF generator have been commissioned and thorough measurements are performed, including the plasma's light spectrum, thermal imaging of the source, RF-plasma coupling characterisation and Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma. (author)

  16. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  17. High-power linac for the spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D. J. (Donald J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be the world's most intense source of neutrons for fundamental science and industrial applications. In this paper, we review the physics requirements, design, construction, installation, and first commissioning results of the 1-GeV, 1.4-MW average power RF linac for SNS. The overall project is 82% complete, with most of the linac hardware manufactured and delivered to the SNS site. Commissioning of the first drift tube linac tanks was a success. Approximately 100% of the beam was transmitted at full average current while achieving the emittance goal of less than 0.3 {pi} mm-mrad.

  18. Status of Superconducting RF Linac Development for APT

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K. C. D.; Campbell, B. M.; Gautier, D. C.; Gentzlinger, R. C.; Gioia, J. G.; Haynes, W. B.; Katonak, D. J.; Kelley, J. P.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Madrid, M. A.; Mitchell, R. R.; Montoya, D. I.; Schmierer, E. N.; Schrage, D. L.; Shapiro, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development progress of high current superconducting RF linacs in Los Alamos, performed to support a design of the linac for the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) Project. The APT linac design includes a CW superconducting RF high energy section, spanning an energy range of 211 to 1030 MeV, and operating at a frequency of 700 MHz with two constant beta sections (beta of 0.64 and 0.82). In the last two years, we have progressed towards build a cryomodule with bet...

  19. History of the JAERI linac facility for 33 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI electron linear accelerator will be shutdown and disassembled at the end of 1993. At the JAERI, a prototype 20 MeV linac was constructed at 1960, and was used for the neutron time-of-flight experiments and for the isotope productions. An upgraded 120 MeV linac was constructed at 1972, and was used for many fields of research works until 1993. History of the JAERI Linac and the results of the works made using these facilities are reviewed, and also R/D on the accelerator engineering are described briefly. (author)

  20. A new method for improving beam quality of LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the self-adaptive feed-forward (SAFF) control to improve the beam quality of linac is introduced. the analytical procedure for calculating the control signals, the structure of a practical control system, and applications of SAFF in klystron, RF gun, and linac are presented, especially the application in the thermionic gun whose response is non-linear, time-variant and of large time-delay. The described control system is operational and some primary experimental results have been obtained, including the control of amplitude and phase fluctuations of the klystron output, the microwave field in the gun cavity and linac

  1. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users

  2. Development of RF linac for high-current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Schneider, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    High-current proton linacs are promising sources of neutrons for material processing and research applications. Recently, a linac design that makes use of a combination of normal-conducting (NC) and superconducting (SC) linac technologies has been proposed for the US Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. As a result, a multi-year engineering development and demonstration (ED and D) program is underway. In this paper, the authors will describe the design and merits of the NC/SC hybrid approach. The scope, technology issues, and present status of the ED and D Program, and the participation of industry will also be described.

  3. Using basic electromagnetism to introduce LINAC4 (CERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Vidal, Xabier; Cid, Ramon; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The LHC is the last element of CERN’s accelerator complex, which is a succession of machines with increasingly higher energies. Everything starts in the 50 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC2), but a new linear accelerator, the 160 MeV LINAC4, will replace LINAC2 in 2018, upgrading LHC injectors to higher intensity and eventually increasing the luminosity of LHC. The aim of this article is briefly introducing this new accelerator, and presenting a simple application of some fundamental laws of magnetism to be taken to the secondary school classrooms.

  4. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  5. The injector linac for the Mainz microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and setup of a 3.5 MeV, 100μA injector for a cascade of race track microtrons is presented. It replaces a 2.1 MeV Van De Graaff for getting higher reliability, improved beam dynamics in the first RTM by increased and more stable input energy, as well as an easier access and a better vacuum to launch a beam of polarized electrons. In this paper, the considerations which led under given boundary conditions to the final design concept are discussed and its realization with PARMELA is described. Details of the linac setup are given. First operation showed a good longitudinal performance (energy stability ≤ ±2 star 10-4, spectrum ≤ 1 star 10-3 FWHM, bunch length ≤ ± 1.5 degrees) and an excellent reproducibility of machine operation

  6. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  7. High power pulse modulator for PLS LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete design, assembly, and testing of 200 MW modulators are in progress at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) for the full energy injection linac system of the Pohang Light Source (PLS). A 150-MW pre-prototype modulator (350 kV, 3.5 μs flat-top width, and 840 Ω load) has been assembled and tested up to 175 MW. Design, construction, and test of a 200-MW prototype modulator (400 kV, 4.4 μs flat-top width, 800 Ω load) has also been completed. Eleven units of main 200-MW modulators are under construction, and their assembly is expected to be completed in 1993. This paper presents the design and the current status of performance results of 150-MW and 200-MW modulators

  8. Design considerations on a proton superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze the longitudinal motion of a single proton in a superconducting linear accelerator. They derive the linearized equations of motion, and develop a matrix formalism to represent the progress of motion. The goal is to provide a tool which can be easily included in a computer code for the design of superconducting proton linacs. In particular they determine the stability conditions, and the amount of motion mismatch resulting from the presence of drift insertions, and from the rate of acceleration. Space-charge effects have not been included in the analysis. They complement the analysis with considerations of the rf and cryogenic power requirements, of the pulsed mode of operation, and of the beam transverse confinement. They conclude with an example of a Spallation Neutron Source

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  10. Radiation processing with the Messina electron linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditore, L.; Barnà, R. C.; De Pasquale, D.; Emanuele, U.; Loria, D.; Morgana, E.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the last decades radiation processing has been more and more applied in several fields of industrial treatments and scientific research as a safe, reliable and economic technique. In order to improve existing industrial techniques and to develop new applications of this technology, at the Physics Department of Messina University a high power 5 MeV electron linac has been studied and set-up. The main features of the accelerating structure will be described together with the distinctive features of the delivered beam and several results obtained by electron beam irradiations, such as improvement of the characteristics of polymers and polymer composite materials, synthesis of new hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, reclaim of culture ground, sterilization of medical devices, development of new dosimeters for very high doses and dose rates required for monitoring of industrial irradiations.

  11. RF control of ICR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the ICR Kyoto University, the proton linac has been developed. The RF high power is fed into the cavity from the klystron and the RF pulse width is 65 μsec. The RF amplitude and the phase in the cavity are affected by the beam loading and the pulse shape of the klystron cathode voltage. The fast RF stabilization system are required to accelerate the high beam stably. The stabilization system consists of the auto level control (ALC) and the phase locked loop (PLL). The designed band width is more than 1 MHz. The main modules of the circuit are the PIN diode attenuator, the fast phase detector, the phase shifter and the wideband feedback amplifier. The variation of the RF amplitude and the RF phase are 0.5 % with ALC and 5deg with PLL, respectively. (author)

  12. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Error sensitivity analysis of drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) is used for acceleration of protons and ions in beta range of 0.04 to 0.4. It is a RF resonating cavity excited in TM0.10 mode wherein E-field is along the axis and H-field is along azimuth. The DTL consists of array of Drift tubes which performs dual function of shielding the accelerating beam from negative RF phase and for housing the magnetic lenses for transverse focusing of the beam. The axial gaps between DTs are called acceleration gaps as particle sees E-field in this gap. The accelerating beam profile is dependent on high frequency E-field and H-field spatial distribution and static magnetic field generated by the PMQs. However the Electromagnetic fields (both static and dynamic) are expected to deviate from ideal due to fabrication tolerances and will vary during operations due to temperature fluctuations which results in mechanical deformation in the RF structures, The static magnetic field generated by PMQs will vary from PMQ to PMQ due to variation in properties of permanent magnets. This paper describes the results of sensitivity analysis on accelerating charged particle beam in Drift Tube linac due to mechanical deformations in the RF structures, variations of amplitude and phase of RF power, variation of ∫G.dl and uniformity of ∫G.dl, roll angle of PMQs and misalignment of magnetic lenses. Results obtained from simulations carried out using COMSOL, CST, Super fish and Tracewin are used to conclude effective deviations in the beam phase space and energy gain due to above mentioned factors. This analysis is carried out on 10 MeV to 20 MeV section of DTL for LEHIPA. (author)

  14. A Program for Optimizing SRF Linac Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-04-01

    Every well-designed machine goes through the process of cost optimization several times during its design, production and operation. The initial optimizations are done during the early proposal stage of the project when none of the systems have been engineered. When a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac is implemented as part of the design, it is often a difficult decision as to the frequency and gradient that will be used. Frequently, such choices are made based on existing designs, which invariably necessitate moderate to substantial modifications so that they can be used in the new accelerator. Thus the fallacy of using existing designs is that they will frequently provide a higher cost machine or a machine with sub-optimal beam physics parameters. This paper describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK [1] several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project. The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs.

  15. The development of electron linacs with high energy and high power for the purpose of irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron linacs are the key devices for the irradiation processing industrialization in the application of nuclear technology. Therefore the R and D of electron linacs is very important. A 10 MeV 15 kW class electron linac for sterilization of medical devices and food has been designed and built at CIAE and HTA. The details of it are presented in this paper. The accelerator facility has been used for different food commodities treatment for about two years, which demonstrated that it is a very successful new type of device for irradiation processing. During the R and D of the accelerator facility, we developed some key technology such as the accelerating, transportation and extraction of high intensity electron beams, the design and manufacture of high voltage pulse modulator with high power and long pulse, and the high power stable operation of the accelerator facility. We promote the technology of electron linacs for irradiation processing in china and this upgrades chinese manufacture technique and the industrialization capability of this type of accelerator facility. (authors)

  16. Overview of linac applications at future radioactive beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest worldwide in the research which could be done at a next generation, advanced radioactive beam facility. To generate high quality, intense beams of accelerated radionuclides via the open-quotes isotope separator on-lineclose quotes (ISOL) method requires two major accelerator components: a high power (100 kW) driver device to produce radionuclides in a production target/ion source complex, and a secondary beam accelerator to produce beams of radioactive ions up to energies on the order of 10 MeV per nucleon over a broad mass range. In reviewing the technological challenges of such a facility, several types of modem linear accelerators appear well suited. This paper reviews the properties of the linacs currently under construction and those proposed for future facilities for use either as the driver device or the radioactive beam post-accelerator. Other choices of accelerators, such as cyclotrons, for either the driver or secondary beam devices of a radioactive beam complex will also be compared. Issues to be addressed for the production accelerator include the choice of ion beam types to be used for cost-effective production of radionuclides. For the post-accelerator the choice of ion source technology is critical and dictates the charge-to-mass requirements at the injection stage

  17. Electron linac based pulsed white neutron sources for high resolution neutron time of flight spectroscopy - status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With r.f. linacs nowadays intense, subnanosecond bursts of neutrons can be produced which allow neutron time of flight measurements in a range covering in favourable cases 11 decades of neutron energy (1 meV-100 MeV). The number of neutrons contained in such short bursts is larger that the corresponding numbers generated with the short burst spallation source at LAMPF and with the Karlsruhe cyclotron. The considerably larger average neutron intensities at the latter two accelerators are due to the much higher pulse repetition frequencies. This advantage is cancelled if pulse overlap conditions require a reduction of the p.r.f. down to the level at which electron linacs operate. Taking this into account the contemporary linac equipped with a subnanosecond pulsing facility like GELINA continues to offer the best intensity/resolution performance for neutron time of flight spectroscopy between 10 keV and a few MeV. At very low (meV range) and at high (> some ten MeV) neutron energies the LAMPF neutron sources occupy with distinction the first rank while in the low MeV range the KFK cyclotron is clearly superior to electron linacs and competitive with the LAMPF short burst satellite source. Plans or thoughts to replace some electron linacs by more powerful accelerators have existed for several years. So far none of them has had the chance of realization. Instead of going the way of completely new and very expensive concepts which carry a non-negligible technological risk, for the field of applied neutron nuclear data the following two approaches are suggested: a) Case of dominant interest in neutron data for fission reactors: Exploitation of the L-band linac to the same level as it is done for S-band linacs, including post acceleration pulse compression. b) Case of dominant interest in neutron data for fusion reactors: Use of KFK cyclotron type source. With 70 MeV deuterons on uranium a hundred times more neutrons would be available at 14 MeV than with contemporary

  18. The invention that shapes Linac4: Tolerance Aligned Cantileaver Mounting (TACM) system to build drift tube linacs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no new to original optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This was indeed the case for the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.Interview with Suitbert Ramberger, Project engineer for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL).

  19. Femtosecond electron beam generation by S-band laser photocathode RF gun and linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser photocathode RF electron gun was installed in the second linac of the S-hand twin linac system of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory (NERL) of University of Tokyo in August in 1997. Since then, the behavior of the new gun has been tested and the characteristic parameters have been evaluated. At the exit of the gun, the energy is 3.5 MeV, the charge per bunch 1∼2 nC, the pulse width is 10 ps(FWHM), respectively, for 6 MW RF power supply from a klystron. The electron bunch is accelerated up to 17 MeV and horizontal and vertical normalized emittances of 3 π mm.mrad are achieved. Then, the bunch is compressed to be 440 fs(FWHM) with 0.35 nC by the chicane-type magnetic pulse compressor. The linac with the gun and a new femto- and picosecond laser system is planned to be installed for femtosecond pulseradiolysis for radiation chemistry in 1999

  20. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, A.; Droba, M.; Ratzinger, U.; Hofmann, I.

    2012-05-01

    Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×1019W/cm2, a total yield of 1.5×1013protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5MeV was exceeding 1010protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH) cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  1. Inverse planning in the age of digital LINACs: station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last few years have seen a number of technical and clinical advances which give rise to a need for innovations in dose optimization and delivery strategies. Technically, a new generation of digital linac has become available which offers features such as programmable motion between station parameters and high dose-rate Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams. Current inverse planning methods are designed for traditional machines and cannot accommodate these features of new generation linacs without compromising either dose conformality and/or delivery efficiency. Furthermore, SBRT is becoming increasingly important, which elevates the need for more efficient delivery, improved dose distribution. Here we will give an overview of our recent work in SPORT designed to harness the digital linacs and highlight the essential components of SPORT. We will summarize the pros and cons of traditional beamlet-based optimization (BBO) and direct aperture optimization (DAO) and introduce a new type of algorithm, compressed sensing (CS)-based inverse planning, that is capable of automatically removing the redundant segments during optimization and providing a plan with high deliverability in the presence of a large number of station control points (potentially non-coplanar, non-isocentric, and even multi-isocenters). We show that CS-approach takes the interplay between planning and delivery into account and allows us to balance the dose optimality and delivery efficiency in a controlled way and, providing a viable framework to address various unmet demands of the new generation linacs. A few specific implementation strategies of SPORT in the forms of fixed-gantry and rotational arc delivery are also presented.

  2. Half wave helix loaded superconducting resonator for heavy ion Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the main characteristics and performances of the helix superconducting resonators designed and mounted in the new Saclay Booster Linac which is the first european heavy ion superconducting accelerator

  3. Error and tolerance studies for the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes error and tolerance studies for the SSC Linac. These studies also include higher-order multipoles. The codes used in these simulations are PARMTEQ, PARMILA, CCLDYN, PARTRACE, and CCLTRACE

  4. Bunch Shape Monitors For The Desy H-Minus Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feschenko, A. V.; Liiou, A. V.; Mirzojan, A. N.; Menshov, A. A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Holtkamp, N.; Nagl, M.; Peperkorn, I.

    1997-05-01

    In order to tune and control the longitudinal bunch shape and energy spread in the DESY Proton linac (LINAC III), three Bunch Shape Monitors (BSM) have been developed and installed. The mechanical layout has been optimised in order to fit the extremely narrow space between the DTL tanks. One of the BSMs, as an additional feature, can measure the absolute energy of the beam and is installed downstream of three Alvarez tanks. Using of thin wire as a source of secondary electrons, these devices can be used as a non-destructive beam diagnostic tool during Linac operation. The performance of the BSMs as well as the results of the Linac III studies using the new devices will be presented.

  5. Present status of the TOHOKU 300 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TOHOKU linac that was constructed about a quarter century before has been operated without serious trouble recently. This report describes as follows: main trouble, maintenance, present performance of the machine and status of operation. (author)

  6. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H- ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  7. Photonuclear reactions with Zinc: A case for clinical linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I; Karakoç, M; Özmen, S F; Çeçen, Y; Çoban, A; Caner, T; Bayram, E; Saito, T R; Akdoğan, T; Bozkurt, V; Kuçuk, Y; Kaya, D; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. For this purpose, a bremsstrahlung photon beam of 18 MeV endpoint energy produced by the Philips SLI-25 linac has been used. The subsequent decay has been measured with a well-shielded single HPGe detector. The results obtained for transition energies are in good agreement with the literature data and in many cases surpass these in accuracy. For the half-lives, we are in agreement with the literature data, but do not achieve their precision. The obtained accuracy for the transition energies show what is achievable in an experiment such as ours. We demonstrate the usefulness and benefits of employing clinical linacs for nuclear physics experiments.

  8. A Radiation shielding study for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    Radiation shielding calculations are performed for the Fermilab Linac enclosure and gallery. The predicted dose rates around the access labyrinth at normal operation and a comparison to measured dose rates are presented. An accident scenario is considered as well.

  9. Commissioning of the LCLS Linac and Bunch Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through the first bunch compressor, was commissioned in the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of commissioning, including the second bunch compressor and various main linac modifications, was completed in January through August of 2008. We report here on experience gained during this second phase of machine commissioning, including the injector, the first and second bunch compressor stages, the linac up to 14 GeV, and beam stability measurements. The final commissioning phase, including the undulator and the long transport line from the linac, is set to begin in December 2008, with first light expected in July 2009

  10. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  11. Maintenance of KURRI-LINAC in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KURRI-LINAC (electron linear accelerator of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University) is a facility for joint use program among universities and research institutes. It was constructed in 1965. Since 1966, this facility has been used by KURRI researchers, and many joint research programs have been started in 1968. In the present report the outline of the maintenance experience of KURRI-LINAC in 20 years are described. (author)

  12. A bunch extension monitor for the SPIRAL2 LINAC

    OpenAIRE

    Vignet, J.L.; Revenko, R.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch longitudinal shape of beamparticles are crucial for optimization and control ofLINAC beam parameters and maximization of itsintegrated luminosity. The non-interceptive bunchextension monitor for the LINAC of SPIRAL2 facility isbeing developed at GANIL. Five bunch extensionmonitors will be installed at the beginning of the LINACbetween superconducting cavities. The principle ofoperation is based on the registration of x-rays induced byions of accelerator beam interact...

  13. Status report on the Saclay Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saclay Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac is now in full operation with all 50 resonators and delivers routinely beams to Nuclear and Solid State Physics experiments since March 1989. After describing the LINAC, we give informations on the upgrading of the cryogenic system and summarize our experience of resonator behaviour on the accelerating line. Cooldown, multipactor barrier conditioning, and field raising procedures are also discussed. (author)

  14. The SSC Linac: Status of design and procurement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) is the first element in the injector chain for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It must be operational by October 1995 in order to commission the Low Energy Booster (LEB). The physics design of the Linac is now essentially complete, detailed engineering is well advanced, and manufacturing has begun. This paper will review the physics design with emphasis on recent significant improvements, summarize mechanical design and construction status, and describe recent achievements in the development program

  15. The SSC linac: Status of design and procurement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) is the first clement in the injector chain for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It must bc operational by October 1995 in order to commission the Low Energy Booster (LEB). The physics design of the Linac is now essentially complete, detailed engineering is well advanced, and manufacturing has begun. This paper will review the physics design with emphasis on recent significant improvements, summarize mechanical design and construction status, and describe recent achievements in the development program

  16. Measured resolutions of the Arc and Linac BPM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6'' long final focus beam position monitors (short FF BPM's are longer, thus deliver more signal after a 15 nanosecond filter, than either the Linac or Arc monitors. The purpose of this note is to compare the resolution of the Arc vs Linac electronics when applied to a short FF 2'' diameter BPM. A method of calibrating the Arc modules is also tested and briefly discussed. The range of each DAC setting to minimize digitization error is also calculated

  17. High energy accelerating structures for high gradient proton linac applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-energy part of a proton linac, following a drift tube section, accelerates protons and H- ions of energies above 150 MeV. High efficiency and high gradients in the accelerating structure considered for this part of a proton linac are studied. Several known and improved structures working at 1350 MHz were optimized for maximum shunt impedance. The study was performed with the extensive use of a computer code--SUPERFISH. The theoretical results of this study are presented

  18. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  19. Acceleration test of heavy ion RFQ linac at TIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 80 MHz heavy ion RFQ linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT) has been constructed for research on inertial fusion and plasma experiments. Equipment for beam acceleration has been fabricated and assembled to confirm the performance with low currents of the RFQ. The linac successfully accelerated He+ and C2+ ion beams to their final energies of 219 keV/u. The obtained beam transmission was more than 89% with currents of a few tens μA. (orig.)

  20. Trends in Intermediate-Energy Superconducting wide-β Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting low beta linacs have been developed during the last 20 years as heavy ion accelerators for nuclear research; such linacs, mainly made of 2 or 3 gap superconducting cavities, are used in many countries as boosters for tandem accelerators and also as standalone machines. An important contribution in this field was given by the Weizmann Institute, where the first superconducting quarter wave booster was developed, becoming the model for many other machines around the world

  1. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  2. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the Varian TrueBeam linac is presented. The Monte Carlo geometrical model of the TrueBeam linac uses information provided by Varian that reveals large similarities between the TrueBeam machine and the Clinac 2100 downstream of the jaws. Thus, the upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled by introducing modifications to the Varian Clinac 2100 linac geometry. The most important of these modifications is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by ad hoc thin filters. These filters were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements performed with a diode detector for radiation fields ranging from 3  ×  3 to 40  ×  40 cm2 at depths of maximum dose of 5 and 10 cm. Indicators of agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results obtained with the proposed geometrical model were the dose differences, the root-mean-square error and the gamma index. The same comparisons were performed for dose profiles obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using the phase-space files distributed by Varian for the TrueBeam linac as the sources of particles. Results of comparisons show a good agreement of the dose for the ansatz geometry similar to that obtained for the simulations with the TrueBeam phase-space files for all fields and depths considered, except for the

  3. Physics design of APT linac with normal conducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based production of tritium calls for a high-power, cw proton linac. Previous designs for such a linac use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL) to an intermediate energy and a coupled-cavity linc (CCL) to the final energy. The Los Alamos design uses a high-energy (6.7 MeV) RFQ followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a CCL. This design accommodates external electromagnetic quadrupole lenses which provide a strong uniform focusing lattice from the end of the RFQ to the end of the CCL. The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells symmetric in both the CCDTL and CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. At higher energies, there are some advantages of using superconducting rf cavities. Currently, such schemes are under vigorous study. This paper describes the linac design based on normal conducting cavities and presents simulation results

  4. The 400 MeV Linac Upgrade at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade in planned to increase the energy of the H{sup {minus}} linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHs drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MRs side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 7.5 MV/meter. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a 12 MW klystron-based rf power supply. Three of seven accelerator modules have been fabricated, power tested and installed in their temporary location adjacent to the existing DTL. All seven RF Modulators have been completed and klystron installation has begun. Waveguide runs have completed from the power supply gallery to the accelerator modules. The new linac will be powered in the temporary position without beam in order to verify overall system reliability until the laboratory operating schedule permits final conversion to 400 MeV operation.

  5. Status and plans for Linac4 installation and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Comblin, J F; Coupard, J; Dimov, V A; Fuchs, J F; Funken, A; Gerigk, F; Granemann Souza, E; Hanke, K; Hansen, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Kozsar, I; Lallement, J B; Lenardon, F; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Maglioni, C; Midtun, O; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Paoluzzi, M; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, J L; Scrivens, R; Tan, J; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vollaire, J; Wegner, R; Weisz, S; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting 160 MeV Hˉ linear accelerator presently being installed and progressively commissioned at CERN. It will replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the PS Booster (PSB), increasing at the same time its brightness by a factor of two thanks to the higher injection energy. This will be the first step of a program to increase the beam brightness in the LHC injectors for the needs of the High-Luminosity LHC project. After a series of beam measurements on a dedicated test stand the 3 MeV Linac4 front-end, including ion source, RFQ and a beam chopping line, has been recommissioned at its final position in the Linac4 tunnel. Commissioning of the following section, the Drift Tube Linac, is starting. Beam commissioning will take place in steps of increasing energy, to reach the final 160 MeV in 2015. An extended beam measurement phase including testing of stripping equipment for the PSB and a year-long test run to assess and improve Linac4 reliability will take place in 2016, prior to...

  6. Klystron power supply systems for J-PARC linac. Report of construction status and 60MeV linac operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerators for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project (J-PARC) are now under construction in the Tokai area. The klystron power supply systems for the J-PARC Linac have been installing since this April. This paper reports the construction status of the systems, and the operation of the systems for the 60MeV Linac in the Tsukuba area. (author)

  7. Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory coupled-cavity linac mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaboration between the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the engineering and mechanical design of the SSCL Coupled-Cavity Linac (CCL) has yielded an innovative example of the well known side coupled-cavity type of linear accelerator. The SSCL CCL accelerates an H- beam from 70 MeV to 600 MeV with an rf cavity structure consisting of eight tanks in each of nine modules for a total length of about 112 meters. Magnetically-coupled bridge couplers transfer power from tank to tank within a module. A single rf power input is located at the center bridge coupler of each module. The bridge couplers permit placement along the beam line of combined function focusing/steering electromagnets and diagnostic pods for beam instrumentation. Each tank and bridge coupler is rf frequency stabilized, nominally to 1,283 MHz, by water pumped through integral water passages. Air isolation grooves surround the water passages at each braze joint so that water-to-vacuum interfaces are avoided. Each tank is supported by adjustable spherical bearing rod end struts to permit alignment and accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of the rf structure. Tank struts, electromagnet/diagnostic pod support frames, vacuum manifolds and utilities are all mounted to a girder-and-leg support stand running the full length of the CCL. (Author) tab., fig

  8. A Multi-MW Proton/Electron Linac at KEK

    CERN Document Server

    Belusevic, Radoje

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that a multi-MW superconducting proton/electron linac (SCL) and a proton injector (PI) be built at KEK. The 3 GeV PI would serve both as an injector to the SCL and a source of proton beams that could be used to copiously produce neutrons and muons. Protons accelerated by the SCL to 20 GeV would be transferred through the KEK Tristan ring in order to create neutrino, kaon and muon beams for fixed-target experiments. At a later stage, a 60 GeV proton synchrotron could be installed inside the Tristan ring. The SCL, comprising 1.3 GHZ superconducting ILC-type rf cavities, could also accelerate polarized or unpolarized electron beams. After acceleration, electrons may traverse an XFEL undulator, or could be used to produce polarized positrons. An SCL-based synchrotron light source for applications in materials science and medicine is also envisaged. The proposed facility would be constructed using the existing KEK accelerator infrastructure.

  9. A High Current Proton Linac with 352 MHz SC Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Pierini, P

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for a 10-120 mA proton linac employing superconducting beta-graded, CERN type, four cell cavities at 352 MHz is presented. The high energy part (100 MeV-1 GeV) of the machine is split in three beta-graded sections, and transverse focusing is provided via a periodic doublet array. All the parameters, like power in the couplers and accelerating fields in the cavities, are within the state of the art, achieved in operating machines. A first stage of operation at 30 mA beam current is proposed, while the upgrade of the machine to 120 mA operation can be obtained increasing the number of klystrons and couplers per cavity. The additional coupler ports, up to four, will be integrated in the cavity design. Preliminary calculations indicate that beam transport is feasible, given the wide aperture of the 352 MHz structures. A capital cost of less than 100 M$ at 10 mA, reaching up to 280 M$ for the 120 mA extension, has been estimated for the superconducting high energy section (100 MeV-1 GeV). The high effic...

  10. A high current proton linac with 352 MHz SC cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal for a 10-120 mA proton linac employing superconducting beta-graded, CERN type, four cell cavities at 352 MHz is presented. The high energy part (100 MeV-1 GeV) of the machine is split in three β-graded sections, and transverse focusing is provided via a periodic doublet array. All the parameters, like power in the couplers and accelerating fields in the cavities, are within the state of the art, achieved in operating machines. A first stage of operation at 30 mA beam current is proposed, while the upgrade of the machine to 120 mA operation can be obtained increasing the number of klystrons and couplers per cavity. The additional coupler ports, up to four, will be integrated in the cavity design. Preliminary calculations indicate that beam transport is feasible, given the wide aperture of the 352 MHz structures. A capital cost of less than 100 M$ at 10 mA, reaching up to 280 M$ for the 120 mA extension, has been estimated for the superconducting high energy section (100 MeV-1 GeV). The high efficiency of the proposed machine, reaching 50% at 15 mA, makes it a good candidate for proposed nuclear waste incineration facilities and Energy Amplifier studies. (author)

  11. Study of space charge-dominated beam bunching and some aspects of SSF linac designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is made up from works under the Agreement 1083P0015-35 between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Moscow Radiotechnical Institute. There are five report parts. In the 1-st, 2-nd, and 3-d parts works on SCD-beam dynamics understanding were continued. In the 4-th and 5-th parts two conceptual linac designs were considered: for deutron linac with energy of 40 MeV and for proton linac with energy 1 GeV. The both linacs have focusing by superconducting solenoids (SSF linacs). The 1 GeV proton CW linac design is an extension of the design from

  12. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  13. Bunching system of the KEKB linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the KEK 2.5-GeV Linac is being upgraded as the injector of the KEK B-factory (KEKB). One of the most important changes is to increase the intensities of positron beams injected into a KEKB ring; it is, therefore, required to accelerate high-intensity single-bunch electron beams to high energy, 3.7 GeV, where they are converted to positron beams. For the purpose, the primary electron bunch should have more than 10 nC. Furthermore, the bunch lengths must be limited as short as 10 ps, in order to achieve narrow energy spreads of primary electron beams, and produce positron beams of short bunch lengths, as well. The bunching system has been designed to meet these requirements, introducing subharmonic bunchers (SHB). This paper describes the upgrade of the bunching system and the results of simulations of bunching using PARMELA. The designs and RF test of SHB cavities are described. (author)

  14. Development of head docking device for linac-based radiosurgery with a Neptun 10 PC linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin Khoshnazar, Alireza; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Hashemian, Abdolreza; Salek, Roham

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a method for focused irradiation of intracranial lesions. Linac-based radiosurgery is currently performed by two techniques: couch mounted and pedestal mounted. In the first technique a device is required to affix the patient's head to the couch and neoreover to translate it accurately. Structure of such a device constructed by the authors plus acceptance test performed for evaluation is described in the article. A head docking device has been designed and constructed according to geometry of linac's couch and also desired functions. The device is cornpletely made from aluminum and consists of four major components: attachment bar, lower structure with four moveing accuracy mechanical stability and isocentric accuracy were assessed in the frame of acceptance test. Translating accuracy, mechanical stability and isocentric accuracy were found to be respectively: 1 mm, 1.64 mm and 3.2 mm with accuracy of 95%. According to AAPM report no. 54, a head docking device should translate head with an accuracy of 1 mm; this recommendation has been met. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the isocentric accuracy and mechanical stability of the device are sufficient that the device on confidently be used in stereotactic treatment. PMID:17664152

  15. Fabrication, tests, and RF control of the 50 superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators are currently in use in the linac Outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for both designs but internal structures are different full wave helix (λ) with three gaps behavior or half-wave (λ/2) with two gaps behavior. The λ structure is based on a Karlsruhe design. All cavities (34 λ and 16 λ/2) are now fabricated, tested for field, and mounted in the eight machine cryostats. Resonator characteristics are listed. Frequencies are multiples of the low energy bunching frequency (13.5 MHz). The high magnetic fields arise at the welds joining helix to can (λ/2) or half-helices together (λ)

  16. Fermilab 200 MeV linac control system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the present Linac distributed control system that replaces the original Xerox computer and interface electronics with a network of 68000-based stations. In addition to replacing the obsolete Xerox equipment, goals set for the new system were to retain the fast response and interactive nature of the original system, to improve reliability, to ease maintenance, and to provide 15 Hz monitoring of all Linac parameters. Our previous experience with microcomputer installations showed that small, stand-alone control systems are rather straightforward to implement and have been proven to be reliable in operation, even in the severe environment of the 750-keV preaccelerator. The overall design of the Linac system incorporates the concept of many relatively small, stand-alone control systems networked together using an intercomputer communication network. Each station retains its local control system character but takes advantage of the network to allow an operator to interact with the entire Linac from any local console. At the same time, a link to the central computer system allows Host computers to also access parameters in the Linac

  17. Fermilab 200 MeV linac control system hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a description of the present Linac distributed control system that replaces the original Xerox computer and interface electronics with a network of 68000-based stations. In addition to replacing the obsolete Xerox equipment, goals set for the new system were to retain the fast response and interactive nature of the original system, to improve reliability, to ease maintenance, and to provide 15 Hz monitoring of all Linac parameters. Our previous experience with microcomputer installations showed that small, stand-alone control systems are rather straightforward to implement and have been proven to be reliable in operation, even in the severe environment of the 750-keV preaccelerator. The overall design of the Linac system incorporates the concept of many relatively small, stand-alone control systems networked together using an intercomputer communication network. Each station retains its local control system character but takes advantage of the network to allow an operator to interact with the entire Linac from any local console. At the same time, a link to the central computer system allows Host computers to also access parameters in the Linac.

  18. Mechanical Engineering of the Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project will accelerate an average current of 1 mA of H- ions from 20 MeV to 1GeV for injection into an accumulator ring. The linac will be an intense source of H- ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals as well as to minimize costs. The DTL, CCDTL and CCL are 466m long and operate at 805 MHz with a maximum H- input current of 28 mA and 7% rf duty factor. The Drift Tube Linac is a copper-plated steel structure using permanent magnetic quadrupoles. The Coupled-Cavity portions are brazed copper structures and use electromagnetic quads. RF losses in the copper are 80 MW, with total rf power supplied by 52 klystrons. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam power levels with no increase in duty factor. The authors give an overview of the linac mechanical engineering effort and discuss the special challenges and status of the effort

  19. Higher order beam jitter in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulse-to-pulse behavior of the beams in the SLC linac is dominated by wakefields which can amplify any other sources of jitter. A strong focusing lattice combined with BNS damping controls the amplitude of oscillations which otherwise would grow exponentially. Measurements of oscillation amplitude along the linac show beam motion that is up to six times larger than that expected from injection jitter. A search for possible sources of jitter within the linac uncovered some problems such as structure jitter at 8 to 12 Hz, pump vibrations at 59 Hz and 1 Hz aliasing by the feedback systems. These account for only a small fraction of the observed jitter which is dominantly white noise. No source has yet been fully identified but possible candidates are dark current in the linac structures (not confirmed by experiment) or subtle correlations in injection jitter. An example would be a correlated x-z jitter with no net offset visible on the beam position monitors at injection. Such a correlation would cause jitter growth along the linac as wakefields from the head of the bunch deflect the core and tail of the bunch. Estimates of the magnitude of this effect and some possible sources are discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. A heavy ion linac complex for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy ion linac complex for unstable nuclei is under construction at INS. The linac complex consists of a 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ), a charge-stripper section, and a 51-MHz interdigital-H (IH) linac. The SCRFQ with modulated vanes, 0.9 m in diameter and 8.6 m in length, accelerates ions with a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/30 from 2 to 170 keV/u. The stripper is a carbon foil. The IH linac, 1.34 m in diameter and 5.54 m in total length, comprises four cavities and three magnetic quadrupole triplets placed between cavities, accelerates ions with q/A ≥ 1/10, and varies the output energy continuously in the range 0.17 - 1.05 MeV/u. The duty factor of the linac complex is 30% for q/A = 1/30 ions. (author)

  1. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on 'radiation protection in LINACs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain seven reports on electron and proton accelerators currently used in Japan. The first report describes the 'Present Condition of Linac Facilities in Japan -- Questionnaire Survey'. It summarizes results of a questionnaire survey on 400 facilities where accelerators are used for research, industrial or medical applications. The second one deals with 'Radiation Protection at Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Tohoku University'. Safety measures taken in the institute are described. The third report outlines 'Radiation Protection at Linac Facility in Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, focusing on equipment, radiation management, and safety measures. The fourth report, titled 'Proton Linac at High Energy Physics Research Institute', outlines major features of the facilities in the institute, radiation safety measures, etc. The fifth one describes the 'Safety Management at Electrotechnical Laboratory', centering on the equipment used, radiation management, and safety measures. The sixth one outlines major features of 'Electron Linac at Industrial Science Research Institute of Osaka University'. The seventh report describes the 'Present Condition of Neutron Generator (KURRI-LINAC)'. (N.K.)

  3. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver LINAC and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both LINACs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver LINAC is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver LINAC is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver LINAC are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  4. High-intensity low energy beam transport design studies for the new injector linac of the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GSI will replace the Wideroe prestripper linac by an RFQ and IH-type accelerator presently under construction. The new prestripper linac should deliver beam intensities to fill up the heavy ion synchrotron SIS to the space charge limits for all ions. In case of uranium the new injector has to deliver 15 emA U4+. One of the two existing ion-source terminals has already been rebuilt for installation of the high current sources of CHORDIS- and MEVVA-type. Therefore, investigations of high-current beam transport have been made in the existing LEBT. For that, additional beam diagnostic elements have been installed: beam transformers, emittance measurement devices, residual gas ion spectrometer. The measured beam properties, e.g. transverse emittance, degree of space charge compensation, support the design of the future LEBT. According to the various requirements two layouts of the new LEBT have been studied so far. (author)

  5. First successful beam test of niobium based superconducting linac at Nuclear Science Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the energy of the ion beam from Pelletron accelerator, a superconducting booster linear accelerator (linac) is under construction. Quarter wave resonator (QWR) made by niobium has been chosen as the accelerating unit of our Linac. Recently eight resonators along with a superconducting solenoid had been installed and aligned in the first linac cryostat. In the on-line test beam transmission through the linac was measured to be ∼100%. A pulsed beam of 28Si+7, 90 MeV, 1.5 ns FWHM was injected into the superbuncher which produced a beam of 300 ps FWHM at the entrance of linac. By turning on resonators one by one in linac cryostat and carefully adjusting their reference phases, a total energy gain of ∼ 6 MeV was measured at the exit of linac. Details of different systems of the linac and its on line beam experiment is presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Rénovation des amplificateurs Radiofréquence Linac1 pour l’expérience MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Giguet, JM

    2010-01-01

    Deux amplificateurs type Linac1 de 1958 ont été rénovés et modifiés pour être utilisés en fonctionnement pulsé à haute puissance pour l’expérience MICE au Laboratoire de Daresbury UK). Cette solution a permis d’avoir des unités capables de fournir les puissances demandées avec un investissement réduit.

  7. Linac injector options for a relativistic heavy ion synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing interest in medical uses for high energy heavy ion beams has led to two recent proposals to build dedicated medical heavy ion synchrotrons. Linear accelerators are generally preferred as injectors for synchrotrons, but in the case of heavy ions with relatively low charge to mass ratios, the required linacs are extremely large, and/or complex, low frequency structures. Cyclotrons were therefore initially proposed as the injectors for the medical synchrotrons. Recently a new radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure has been developed. Its excellent capture, beam transport and acceleration characteristics for low velocity ion beams makes it ideally suited as a heavy ion synchrotron injector either alone or in combination with a drift tube linac

  8. Application of RF crossed lenses for beam focusing in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of beam focusing by two-electrode RF crossed lenses with decelerating fields is proposed. The lenses are arranged in accelerating gaps of a drift tube linac. The crossed lens is a set of plane electrodes with rectangular apertures such that the apertures in the neighbouring electrodes are rotated 90 degrees each other. Different variants of the focusing period structure are considered. The βλ FD period is shown to be used for low energy part of the linac. The transverse phase advance for the FD period is independent on the particle phase when the synchronous harmonics of the accelerating field is absent and the structure is analogous to RFQ with unmodulated vanes in the case. In the main part of the linac it is worth to change to the 2βλ FODO period to obtain essentially higher acceleration rate. (author)

  9. Status of Superconducting RF Linac Development for APT

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K C D; Gautier, D C; Gentzlinger, R C; Gioia, J G; Haynes, W B; Katonak, D J; Kelley, J P; Krawczyk, F L; Madrid, M A; Mitchell, R R; Montoya, D I; Schmierer, E N; Schrage, D L; Shapiro, A H; Tajima, T; Waynert, J A; Mammosser, J; Kuzminski, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development progress of high current superconducting RF linacs in Los Alamos, performed to support a design of the linac for the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) Project. The APT linac design includes a CW superconducting RF high energy section, spanning an energy range of 211 to 1030 MeV, and operating at a frequency of 700 MHz with two constant beta sections (beta of 0.64 and 0.82). In the last two years, we have progressed towards build a cryomodule with beta of 0.64. We completed the designs of the 5 cell superconducting cavities and the 210 kW power couplers. We are scheduled to begin assembly of the cryomodule in September 2000. In this paper, we present an overview of the status of our development efforts and a report on the results of the cavity and coupler test program.

  10. Investigations of Slow Motions of the SLAC Linac Tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of slow transverse motion of the linac tunnel of the Stanford Linear Collider have been performed over period of about one month in December 1999 -- January 2000. The linac laser alignment system, equipped with a quadrant photodetector, allowed submicron resolution measurement of the motion of the middle of the linac tunnel with respect to its ends. Measurements revealed two major sources responsible for the observed relative motion. Variation of the external atmospheric pressure was found to be the most significant cause of short wavelength transverse motion of the tunnel. The long wavelength component of the motion has been also observed to have a large contribution from tidal effects. The measured data are essential for determination of parameters for the Next Linear Collider.

  11. Investigations of Slow Motions of the SLAC Linac Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of slow transverse motion of the linac tunnel of the Stanford Linear Collider have been performed over period of about one month in December 1999--January 2000. The linac laser alignment system, equipped with a quadrant photodetector, allowed submicron resolution measurement of the motion of the middle of the linac tunnel with respect to its ends. Measurements revealed two major sources responsible for the observed relative motion. Variation of the external atmospheric pressure was found to be the most significant cause of short wavelength transverse motion of the tunnel. The long wavelength component of the motion has been also observed to have a large contribution from tidal effects. The measured data are essential for determination of parameters for the Next Linear Collider

  12. Collective electron driven linac for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linac design is presented in which an intense ultrarelativistic electron bunch is used to excite fields in a series of cavities and accelerate charged particles. The intense electron bunch is generated in a simple storage ring to have the required transverse and longitudinal dimensions. The bunch is then transferred to the linac. The linac structure can be inexpensively constructed of spacers and washers. The fields in the cells resulting from the bunch passage are calculated using the program BCI. The results show that certain particles within the driving bunch and also trailing particles of any sign charge can be accelerated. With existing electron storage rings, accelerating gradients greater than 16 MV/m are possible. Examples of two accelerators are given: a 30 GeV electron/positron accelerator useful as an injector for a high energy storage ring and 2) a 110 GeV per beam electron-positron collider

  13. Fast alternate beam injection from SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam from SPring-8 linac has been distributed to the booster synchrotron (Sy) of SPring-8 and New SUBARU (NS) of University of Hyogo. The beam direction from the linac had been changed every fifteen or twenty seconds in TopUp operation by sending command messages to network devices from central control room. Because the commands are software-based and executed successively one by one, it took about ten seconds to complete them. To change the beam routes every 0.5 seconds, we modified the timing system of linac and NS. NS timing system was changed to synchronize with that of Sy and gun trigger signals were modified to get time-shared for Sy and NS. The radiation safety system was also improved to fit faster alternate injection. These modifications were completed successfully in June 2013 and realized no wait injection of SR and NS. (author)

  14. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems

  15. Design considerations for high-current superconducting ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as fusion materials irradiation testing, spallation neutron source, transmutation of radioactive waste, tritium production, and energy production. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. Superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs, respectively. However, cost-effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement. Key aspects of high-current cw superconducting linac designs are explored in this context

  16. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the ΔF and ΔT beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid ΔT + ΔF method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation

  17. Installation of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Stout, Daniel; Casagrande, Fabio; Cutler, Roy I; Hatfield, Daniel; Howell, Matthew; Hunter, Ted; Kersevan, Roberto; Ladd, Peter; Strong, William

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac consists of 11 medium beta (0.61) and 12 high beta (0.81) superconducting RF cryomodules, 32 intersegment quadrupole magnet/diagnostics stations, 9 spool beampipes for future upgrade cryomodules, and two differential pumping stations on either side of the linac. The cryomodules and spool beampipes were designed and manufactured by Jefferson Laboratory, and the quadrupole magnets and beam position monitors were designed and furnished by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The remaining items were designed by ORNL. At present we are installing and testing the cold linac. Experience gained during installation will be presented. The performance in terms of mechanical and cryogenic systems will be described.

  18. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a 19F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an 16O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. TLD determination of neutron dose contribution in medical linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of Linacs with accelerating voltage higher than 10 MV in clinical radiotherapy is producing and increasing demand of accurate dosimetric measurements of the photon induced neutron contamination of the radiotherapy beams, due that the associated Bremsstrahlung X rays may produce neutrons as a result of subsequent photonuclear reactions with the different materials constituting the accelerator head. Thermal neutron fluences can be measured with TLD-600/TLD-700 pairs arranged in both a bare and a cadmium (Cd) foil covered methacry-late box. Neutron response of Tl dosemeters irradiated with two different neutron sources has been investigated. The shape of the glow curve of these TLDs after irradiation in a medical Linac and in a Pu Be neutron source has been studied to verify the contribution of neutrons to an additional dose to staff, patients and the general public, due to photonuclear reactions generating neutrons from medical Linacs. (Author)

  20. Construction of an interdigital-H linac at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the radioactive-beam facility at INS, unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/10 are accelerated from 170 to 1046 keV/u by an interdigital-H linac. Designed IH linac consists of four acceleration tanks and three sets of quadrupole triplets placed between tanks. Output energy is continuously variable by changing rf power and phase of the last operating tank. On the basis of an equivalent circuit analysis, low power models were constructed. Resonant frequency close to the design value and flat gap voltage distribution were obtained for the tank-4 model. On the basis of the model measurement, the tank-4 for the practical use was designed and constructed. In this paper, a present status on the IH linac is described together with a brief summary of the studies done so far. (author)

  1. QCD Explorer Proposal E-Linac Versus E-Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Karadeniz, H

    2006-01-01

    TeV center of mass energy lepton-hadron collider is necessary both to clarify fundamental aspects of strong interactions and for adequate interpretation of the LHC data. Recently proposed QCD Explorer utilizes the energy advantage of the LHC proton and ion beams, which allows the usage of relatively low energy electron beam. Two options for the LHC based ep collider are posibble: construction of a new electron ring in the LHC tunnel or construction of an e-linac tangentially to the LHC. In the latter case, which seems more acceptable for a number of reasons, two options are under consideration for electron linac: the CLIC technology allows shorter linac length, whereas TESLA technology gives higher luminosity.

  2. High Current Beam Dynamics in an Ess SC Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, M; Letchford, A P

    2000-01-01

    Three alternative designs of the European Spallation Source (ESS) high energy linac are described. The most promising ones are either a normalconducting (nc) coupled cavity linac (CCL) up tofinal energy or a change at 407 MeV to only one group of 6 cell superconducting (sc) elliptical cavities. Fully 3d Monte Carlo simulations are presented for both options, optimized for reduced halo formation at the linac end. For the error free matched case, especially the halo formation in the longitudinal plane is more pronounced for the hybrid solution with its superconducting cavities, caused by the unavoidable phase slippage, but still quite well acceptable for loss free ring injection. Simulations however for a 30% mismatched dense core, surrounded in addition by 1.5% halo particles are showing few particles with very large amplitudes even in real space. This case represents halo formation in front to end simulations, caused by current fluctuations, filamented RFQ output distribution and enhanced by accumulated field...

  3. Approach of a failure analysis for the MYRRHA linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MYRRHA project currently under development at SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium) is a subcritical research reactor that requires a 600 MeV proton accelerator as a driver. This linac is expected to produce a beam power of 1.5 MW onto a spallation target for the reactor to deliver a thermal power around 70 MW. Thermomechanical considerations of the spallation target set stringent requirements on the beam trip rate which should not exceed 40 trips/year for interruptions longer than three seconds. The 3 underlying principles in the design of the MYRRHA linac are elements redundancy (like the dual-injector), elements operation at de-rated values (like cavities operating at about 30% from their nominal operating points) and the fault tolerance concept, which allows the failure of a beamline component to be compensated by its neighbouring elements. Studies presented in this document show that in the event of a failure of the first cryo-module or the first quadrupole doublet the linac can resume nominal operation with a re-matched lattice. Since the fault tolerance procedure is expected to work more efficiently at higher energies (due to lower space charge effects) we can extrapolate from our studies that the MYRRHA linac is expected to operate with the failure of any cryo-module or quadrupole doublet in the main linac. A virtual accelerator-based control system is mandatory for the operation of the MYRRHA linac to ensure the very fast implementation (<3 seconds) of the fault tolerance procedure. The virtual accelerator uses a beam dynamics code (like TRACEWIN or TRACK) to compute the model of the real accelerator in operation and interacts with this later through the accelerator control command

  4. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-09-14

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33}(per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  5. Improved cathode assembly for electron gun of 7 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) of RPCD, BARC is the key component of the pulse radiolysis facility being used for radiation chemistry research. The heart of the LINAC is the electron gun, which generates electron from a tungsten cathode. Recently an improved cathode assembly is designed and fabricated for better performance of the linac. (author)

  6. Thermal simulation of linac cavity of 10 MeV RF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10 MeV RF linac at Electron Beam Centre Kharghar, has 33 cells assembly fabricated in three parts. Of these, the top and the bottom parts consist of 14 cells each while the middle part has 5 cells, including the power feed cavity. Water cooling is provided to the cavity by brazing Cu tube spirally over the cavity surface. Detailed conjugate heat transfer modelling has been carried out using the FLUENT flow modelling software. The temperature distribution profile is obtained which identify the hot spot zones. The further thermal optimization has been carried out based on the results and more uniform thermal profile is obtained by modification in the cooling tubes design and water flow rate. (author)

  7. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-08-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  8. Billion particle linac simulations for future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on multi-physics, multi-billion macroparticle simulation of beam transport in a free electron laser (FEL) linac for future light source applications. The simulation includes a self-consistent calculation of 3D space-charge effects, short-range geometry wakefields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and detailed modeling of RF acceleration and focusing. We discuss the need for and the challenges associated with such large-scale simulation. Applications to the study of the microbunching instability in an FEL linac are also presented

  9. Tranverse beam break up in a periodic linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of cumulative beam break up in a periodic linac for a general impedance is discussed, with the effects of acceleration included. The transverse equations of motion for a set of identical point like bunches moving along the length of the linac are cast into a simple form using a smooth approximation. This results in a working formula that is used to analyze beam breakup. Explicit expressions for the transverse motion in the case of a single resonance impedance are found using saddle point integration. This is done first with no external focusing, and again in the strong focusing limit

  10. Beam Instrumentation Using BPM System of the SPring-8 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagida, K; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Tomizawa, H

    2004-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) system of the SPring-8 linac has been operated since 2002. The following upgrade programs have been carried out during this period: The BPMs were installed in the linac's dispersive sections. A synchronized accumulation of beam position data into the database system started. A feedback control of steering magnets for beam position stabilization has been under development. In this conference the authors report a performance of the BPM system, and discuss its usefulness for beam diagnostics, machine diagnostics and beam stabilization.

  11. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  12. Linac Beam Dynamics Simulations With PY-ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linac dynamics simulation capabilities of the PyORBIT code are discussed. PyORBIT is an open source code and a further development of the original ORBIT code that was created and used for design, studies, and commissioning of the SNS ring. The PyORBIT code, like the original one, has a two-layer structure. C++ is used to perform time-consuming computations, and the program flow is controlled from a Python language shell. The flexible structure makes it possible to use PyORBIT also for linac dynamics simulations. A benchmark of PyORBIT with Parmila and the XAL Online model is presented.

  13. Coupled cavity 3-D codes for linac tolerance simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three developing codes, based on previous work at Los Alamos (1) are now being used in the Fermilab Linac Upgrade project, to survey system tolerance requirements. Both linear and non-linear beam dynamics of a pi-mode side coupled 805 MHz linac are simulated. Particular attention to the z-plane synchronism has been integrated into the code group, so that klystron drive boundaries can be monitored in the dynamics. All system length errors that contribute to desynchronization, and other data set failures are recognized by the particle PIC code (CAVDYN) to enhance design coherence. Some current results of the CAVDYN code simulations will be discussed

  14. Estimates of dispersive effects in a bent NLC Main Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Syphers and Leo Michelotti

    2000-10-31

    An alternative being considered for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) is not to tunnel in a straight line but to bend the Main Linac into an arc so as to follow a gravitational equipotential. The authors begin here an examination of the effects that this would have on vertical dispersion, with its attendant consequences on synchrotron radiation and emittance growth by looking at two scenarios: a gentle continuous bending of the beam to follow an equipotential surface, and an introduction of sharp bends at a few sites in the linac so as to reduce the maximum sagitta produced.

  15. Beam Loading Compensation in the Main Linac of CLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, D.; Syratchev, I.

    2000-01-01

    Compensation of multi-bunch beam loading is of great importance in the main linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The bunch-to-bunch energy variation has to stay below 1 part in 1000. In CLIC, the RF power is obtained by decelerating a drive beam which is formed by merging a number of short bunch trains. A promising scheme for tackling beam loading in the main linac is based on varying the lengths of the bunch trains in the drive beam. The scheme and its expected performance are presen...

  16. Design and construction of the main linac module for the superconducting energy recovery linac project at Cornell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell University has been designing and building superconducting accelerators for various applications for more than 50 years. Currently, an energy-recovery linac (ERL) based synchrotron-light facility is proposed making use of the existing CESR facility. As part of the phase 1 R and D program funded by the NSF, critical challenges in the design were addressed, one of them being a full linac cryo-module. It houses 6 superconducting cavities- operated at 1.8 K in continuous wave (CW) mode - with individual HOM absorbers and one magnet/ BPM section. Pushing the limits, a high quality factor of the cavities (2⋅1010) and high beam currents (100 mA accelerated plus 100 mA decelerated) are targeted. We will present the design of the main linac cryo-module (MLC) being finalized recently, its cryogenic features and report on the status of the fabrication which started in late 2012

  17. Electron linac diaphragmatic waveguide testing at high field gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of testing of two wavequide structures approximately one meter long of electron linacs in the running and standing wave modes at SHF pulse power up to 8 MW are presented. Both waveguiges operate on the π/2-type wave, and cells of the waveguide major part differ in loading parameters a/lambda and equel 0,0927, Rsub(s)=65 MOhm/m, and in the second variant a/lambda=0.0725 and Rsub(s)=72 MOhm/m. The tests conducted have shown, that conventional round diaphragmatic waveguide approximately one meter long manufactured according to accepted technology operates without break-downs at the frequency 3.2 GHz with the pulse duration tau=3 μs in the running wave mode at the 20 MeV/m average acceleration rate over the waveguide length, the 30 MeV/m maximum acceleration rate in central cells of the waveguide and the 40 MV/m, maximum electric fields on the surface of diaphragm bending radius in the standing wave mode at the 10 MeV/m, average acceleration rate over the length, 30 MeV/m accelerating fields in all the cells of the waveguide except injection ones, and the 50 MV/m maximum electric fields on the surface of bending radius of diaphragms. On the basis of the waveguide with a/lambda=0.0725 and Rsub(s)=72 MOhm/m with the active length 0.65 m a nondestructive test facility providing electron acceleration up to 8 MeV and bremsstrahlung inten

  18. Low power-high energy linacs for irradiation in polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.; Fiti, M.; Radu, A.; Dragusin, M.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarirescu, A.; Indreas, I.

    1995-04-01

    Electron beam applications in the chemistry of polymers are given, such as the production of acrylamide polymers which are of great interest in the treatment of waste industrial waters. These products have unique properties: the required dose is smaller by a factor of 10 to 100 as compared to the dose requirement for other polymeric materials and they are used in aqueous solutions in a concentration of one or two magnitude orders smaller than conventional anorganic flocculants. The acrylamide polymer technologies were first developed on a semi-industrial scale with γ-ray sources and then transferred to the linacs built in the Accelerator Laboratory in the Institute of Atomic Physics. An original feature was included in order to make our linear accelerators using an electron gun of the diode type to render them suitable to obtain programmed beam single shots and pulse trains. It is particularly useful for automatic control of irradiation processing in order to provide the maximum efficiency of the electron beam application. The preliminary results obtained using our electron beam sources make the assumption that the low output power linacs are economically attractive for commercial production of acrylamide type polymers: about 2000 kg per beam kWh.

  19. A low Z linac and flat panel imager: comparison with the conventional imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted for an Elekta Ltd Precise Treatment System linac fitted with a low Z insert of sufficient thickness to remove all primary electrons. A variety of amorphous silicon based panels employing different scintillators were modelled to determine their response to a variety of x-ray spectra and produce an optimized portal imaging system. This study has shown that in a low Z configuration the vast majority of x-rays are produced in the nickel electron window, and with a combination of a carbon insert and caesium iodide based XVI-panel, significant improvement in the object contrast was achieved. For thin, head and neck-type geometries, contrast is 4.62 times greater for 1.6 cm bone in 5.8 cm water than the standard 6 MV/iViewGT system. For thicker, pelvis-type geometries contrast increases by a factor of 1.3 for 1.6 cm of bone in 25.8 cm water. To obtain images with the same signal-to-noise ratio as the 6 MV/iViewGT system, dose reductions of a factor of 15 and 4.2 are possible for 5.8 cm and 25.8 cm phantoms respectively. This design has the advantage of being easily implemented on a standard linac and provides a portal image directly from the therapy beam aperture.

  20. Study of the properties of an electron linac beam by means of the electromagnetic fields associated with the beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For measuring the diverse characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam, the one method causing the least perturbation to the electron beam itself, consists in the detection of signals induced in certain types of detectors by the electromagnets fields associated with the beam. Some particular detectors are then described, for measuring the following characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam; a) electron beam peak current, a) longitudinal dimension and density of an elementary electron bunch, c) phase position of the electrons on the travelling sine wave of the accelerating field, d) transverse position of the beam. These particular electrodes are then used to provide experimental data In order to check the theoretical computations giving the longitudinal and transversal motions Of the electrons during their acceleration. (author)

  1. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, John, E-mail: jstevenson@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi, E-mail: tgozani@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 10{sup 8} cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9

  2. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John; Gozani, Tsahi; Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig

    2011-10-01

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 10 8 cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9 MV

  3. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 108 cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9 MV

  4. Supervisory control system for 10 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 MeV Linac is being tested at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. The Linac system consists of subsystems like RF system, magnet power supplies, vacuum pumps and gauges, radiation monitoring systems, interlocks and personnel safety system and the support systems required for the operation of Linac. A supervisory control system for Linac and associated subsystems is developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. The control system features monitoring and controls of diversified subsystems, timing trigger system, synthesizer, oscilloscopes, machine and personnel safety interlocks. The control system hardware is VME bus based controller referred to as the Equipment controller (EC). All the subsystems are interfaced to the EC with isolation in each interface signal. Interlocks are supervised directly in hardware. Personnel safety is ensured by the 'Area Search' interlock. The software layer of the control system consists of a server and client based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system implemented in LabView. Software system also includes GUI at operator console and dedicated softwares developed to control various instruments connected on Ethernet. The server interacts with the EC over RS232 link. A Web site is also developed to locally display the historical data of beam current, beam energy and facilitates the retrieval of the various parameter values logged in the data base. The paper describes the architecture of control system, the hardware and software developments, features and operational experiences. (author)

  5. MAFIA analysis of the effects of coupling slots in linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. P.; Ungrin, J.; de Jong, M. S.

    1991-05-01

    We have used the MAFIA codes to analyze on-axis slot-coupled {π}/{2}- mode standing-wave linac structures. Quadrupolar fields in the structure are found to produce an elliptical accelerated beam. A modification to the design, yielding reduced beam ellipticity, is proposed.

  6. 200 MeV RF linac for synchrotron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction has been completed on an electron linear accelerator for the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This accelerator will be used for the injection of a 200 MeV electron beam into a synchrotron for lithography experiments. This paper describes the conceptual design of the linac, its e-gun pulser, and its control and timing systems. 3 figs., ref

  7. Beam dynamics of alternating-phase-focused linac

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Y; Kapin, V

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to find an array of synchronous phases for alternating-phase-focused (APF) linacs is presented. The phase array is described with a smooth function having free parameters. With a set of the parameters, a simulation on the beam dynamics was made and distributions of the six-dimensional phase spaces were calculated for each set of the parameters. The parameters were varied, and numbers of the simulations have been performed. An optimum set of the parameters were determined so that the simulations of the beam dynamics yield large acceptances and small emittances of the extracted beams. Since the APF linac can provide both axial and radial stability of beams just with the rf acceleration-field, no additional focusing element inside of drift tubes are necessary. Comparing with conventional linacs having focusing elements, it has advantage in construction and operation costs as well as its acceleration rate. Therefore, the APF linacs would be suited for an injector of medical synchrotrons. A practic...

  8. Design study on an intense heavy-ion linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-vane RFQ cavity is designed for an intense heavy-ion linac system. RFQ-vanes with small tip curvatures are applied in order to improve the RF power efficiency. Beam optical and RF parameters are investigated by beams of numerical methods. Using a scale model, the cavity structure is experimentally optimized. (Author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  9. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  10. New control system for the KEK-linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New control system for the KEK-Linac has been developed. Unix-based workstations and VME-bus computers are introduced. They are inter-connected with an Ethernet, which is used as a high-speed data-exchange network. New system will start the operation after October 1993. (author)

  11. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  12. Linac4: injecting new life into the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Construction work is nearing completion on the ion source for Linac4, the new linear accelerator that forms part of the LHC injector upgrade programme. Here we find out more about this essential component of the accelerator chain, designed and built at CERN.     The image shows the Linac4 H- source. The red light is the alpha line of the visible hydrogen emission spectrum. The ion source is a key component of Linac4, the linear accelerator that from 2018 will supply H- ions (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) at 160 MeV for injection into the accelerator complex. As the only ion source at CERN, Linac4 must be highly reliable, which requires a full understanding of the production mechanisms, the simulation of physical processes and the validation of those processes through experimentation. “This source is the result of much fruitful collaboration,” says Jacques Lettry of the BE department. “Its design was inspired by the many sources of th...

  13. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...

  14. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kozawa, T.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Miya, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  15. Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gorelov, Dmitry; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver ...

  16. Status update on the photocathode RF LINAC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the progress achieved so far in the Photocathode Linac Project. We have developed and tested linear accelerator structures at 2856 MHz, designed and performed preliminary tests on the photocathode gun, commissioned the klystron modulator and microwave systems to extract 3.2 MW of pulsed power, developed the beam-line, and are ready to commence acceleration experiments. (author)

  17. A low-charge-state injector linac for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a low-charge-state linac which is capable of accelerating, for example, 132Sn1+ for injection into the existing heavy-ion linac ATLAS is discussed. The injector linac is intended for radioactive beam applications, and will accelerate a low- charge-state beam to energies of 500 keV/nucleon, at which point the ions can be stripped to charge states sufficiently high to be injected into ATLAS. A primary design goal has been to extend the very good longitudinal beam quality typical of ATLAS to low charge state beams. The proposed injector linac consists of several elements. First is a gridded-gap four-harmonic buncher and a short (normally-conducting) 12 MHz RFQ structure, both operating on a 350 kV open-air variable-voltage platform. Then comes an array of 24 Mhz and 48 Mhz superconducting interdigital accelerating structures interspersed with superconducting quadrupole transverse focusing elements. Numerical ray-tracing studies indicate that a transverse acceptance greater than 0.25π mm-mrad can be obtained while simultaneously limiting longitudinal emittance growth to a very few keV-nsec

  18. Status of the Project-X CW Linac Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostiguy, J-F.; Solyak, N.; Berrutti, P.; Carneiro, J.P.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Saini, A.; Stheynas, B.; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project-X is a proposed proton accelerator complex at Fermilab that would provide particle beams to support a diversified experimental program at the intensity frontier. As currently envisioned, the complex would employ a CW superconducting linac to accelerate a 1 mA average, 5 mA peak H{sup -} beam from 2.1 MeV to 3 GeV. A second superconducting linac, operating in pulsed mode would ultimately accelerate a small fraction of this beam up to 8 GeV. The CW linac is based on five families of resonators operating at three frequencies: half-wave (1 family at 162.5 MHz), spoke (2 families at 325 MHz) and elliptical (2 families at 650 MHz). Accelerating and focusing elements are assembled in cryomodules separated by short warm sections. A long open region ({approx} 15 m) allows beam extraction at 1 GeV in support of a nuclear experimental program. In this paper, we present the latest iteration of the CW linac baseline lattice. We also briefly compare it to an alternative where the 162.5 half-wave resonators are replaced with 325 MHz spoke resonators.

  19. Progress on LINAC 4 : Civil engineering (28/07/2009)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    The commissioning of the new Linac4 source – first element of the new acceleration chain for the upgrade of the LHC (sLHC) – has started beginning of July. After years of preparation but after only a few hours of fine-tuning of the numerous parameters involved, the source has delivered its first negative ions.

  20. An Energy Recovery Electron Linac On Ring Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; Geoffrey Krafft; Valeri Lebedev; Ilan Ben-Zvi

    2001-09-01

    Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33} (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. Electron beam polarization appears to be crucial for many of the experiments. Two accelerator design scenarios have been examined in detail: colliding rings and recirculating linac-on-ring. Although the linac-on-ring scenario is not as well developed as the ring-ring scenario, comparable luminosities appear feasible. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations; (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors; (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. This technology has been demonstrated at Jefferson Lab's IR FEL with cw current up to 5 mA and beam energy up to 50 MeV. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at higher currents (a few hundred mA) and higher energies (a few GeV) as well. The report begins with a brief overview of Jefferson Lab's experience with energy recovery and summarize its benefits. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented next. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed next and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  1. Tentative design of beam focusing for the AHF linac and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals for an advanced hadron facility include building afterburner linacs for LAMPF. A first afterburner, Add-on Linac number 1, is proposed to accelerate the beam from 0.8 to 1.6 GeV. The output beam would then be fed to a compressor ring and to another afterburner, Add-on Linac number 2. We make a rough estimate of the transverse focusing strength needed in these linacs, and consider the transport line from the end of the LAMPF 805-MHz linac to the start of Add-on Linac number 1. A rebuncher is needed in this transport line for proper acceptance of the beam into the add-on linac. 2 refs., 4 figs

  2. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  3. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F.

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  4. Improved performance of the control scheme for IUAC superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many years energized ion beams from linac are being delivered routinely for scheduled experiments using all the three accelerating modules of linac along with super buncher and rebuncher. Major efforts are dedicated to improve the performance of the control scheme to minimise the down time of the linac during operation. Earlier, a number of developments were carried out to improve the dynamics of the control scheme. The most significant of them is the piezoelectric actuator based tuning mechanism which is implemented in all the operational resonators of second and third accelerating modules of superconducting linac. This has helped us to bridge the gap between the accelerating fields achieved during Q measurement at 6 W of helium power and during phase locking of the resonator during beam operation at a given RF power (∼120W). The piezoelectric actuator based tuner is also instrumental to reduce the unlocking rate of the resonators. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control based helium gas operated tuner is implemented in few resonators to improve phase locking performance. CAMAC based distributed control scheme is upgraded to VME based distributed control without changing the existing client interface to maintain uniformity between the Pelletron and linac control. Python code support has been implemented to protect the resonators against high forward power during unlocking. This is also integrated with the display status of the resonators for monitoring. A frequency to voltage converter is incorporated in control scheme to monitor the frequency error. This has helped us to develop a scheme for automatic phase locking of the cavities using piezoelectric actuator based tuner control. (author)

  5. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI(at)Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  6. Electromagnetic design and development of quadrupole focussing lenses for drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear accelerator comprising of a radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) is being developed at BARC . The alvarez type post-coupled cw DTL accelerates protons from an energy of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The drift tube linac is excited in TM010 mode, wherein the particles are accelerated by longitudinal electric fields at the gap crossings between drift tubes. The particles are subjected to transverse RF defocusing forces at the gap crossings due to the increasing electric fields in the gap. This transverse defocusing is corrected by housing magnetic quadrupole focussing lenses inside the drift tubes. The permanent magnet quadrupoles are placed inside the hermetically sealed drift tubes and provide constant magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture. The drift tubes are mounted concentrically inside the resonating DTL tank and are connected to the tank body with stems. Rare earth permanent magnets have been used to achieve the high field gradients in the aperture. The drift tube body is subjected to RF heating due to eddy current losses and hence the sealed drift tubes are required to be cooled from inside. The temperature rise of the drift tube assemblies has to be limited to avoid degradation of permanent magnets and also to limit thermal expansion of the tubes. This paper discusses various aspects of magnetic design, selection of magnetic materials and the engineering development involved in the assembly of the drift tubes. (author)

  7. A real time scintillating fiber Time of Flight spectrometer for LINAC photoproduced neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, M.; Berra, A.; Conti, V.; Giannini, G.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2015-03-01

    The use of high-energy (> 8 MeV) LINear ACcelerators (LINACs) for medical cancer treatments causes the photoproduction of secondary neutrons, whose unwanted dose to the patient has to be calculated. The characterization of the neutron spectra is necessary to allow the dosimetric evaluation of the neutron beam contamination. The neutron spectrum in a hospital environment is usually measured with integrating detectors such as bubble dosimeters, Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) or Bonner Spheres, which integrate the information over a time interval and an energy one. This paper presents the development of a neutron spectrometer based on the Time of Flight (ToF) technique in order to perform a real time characterization of the neutron contamination. The detector measures the neutron spectrum exploiting the fact that the LINAC beams are pulsed and arranged in bunches with a rate of 100-300 Hz depending on the beam type and energy. The detector consists of boron loaded scintillating fibers readout by a MultiAnode PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT). A detailed description of the detector and the acquisition system together with the results in terms of ToF spectra and number of neutrons with a Varian Clinac iX are presented.

  8. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.; Morgan, M. J.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Wu, J. (OTD-ESE); (Monash Univ.); (Australian Synchrotron Project); (SLAC National Accelerator Lab.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI{at}Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  9. Conceptual Design of the Superconducting Proton Linac Short Cryo-module

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Capatina, O; Azevedo, P; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Vande Craen, A; Williams, L R; Weingarten, W; Rousselot, S; Duthil, P; Duchesne, P; Reynet, D; Dambre, P

    2012-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&amp;amp;D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art Superconducting Radio Frequency technology, which would serve as a driver for new physics facilities such as neutrinos and radioactive ion beams. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium b=1 elliptical cavities, operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating field of 25 MV/m, and testing of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase only four out of the eight cavities of an SPL cryo-module will be tested in a ½ length cryo-module developed for this purpose, and therefore called the Short Cryo-module. This paper presents the conceptual design of the SC, highlighting its innovative principles in terms of cavity supporting and alignment, and describes the integratio...

  10. Beam dynamic design of a high intensity injector for proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Jia, Fang-Jian; He, Yuan; Wang, Zhi; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2016-08-01

    A compact room-temperature injector is designed to accelerate 100 mA proton beam from 45 keV to 4.06 MeV for the proposed high intensity proton linac at State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology in Peking university. The main feature is that the Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ) and the Drift Tube linac (DTL) sections are merged in one piece at the total length of 276 cm. The beam is matched in transverse directions with an compact internal doublet instead of an external matching section in between. The design has reached a high average accelerating gradient up to 1.55 MV/m with transmission efficiency of 95.9% at the consideration of high duty factor operation. The operation frequency is chose to be 200 MHz due to the already available RF power source. The injector combines a 150 cm long 4-vanes RFQ internal section from 45 keV to 618 keV with a 126 cm long H-type DTL section to 4.06 MeV. In general the design satisfy the challenges of the project requirements. And the details are presented in this paper.

  11. The main linac cavity for Cornell's energy recovery linac: Cavity design through horizontal cryomodule prototype test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future particle accelerators will require continuous wave operation of SRF cavities capable of supporting high beam currents. An example of this is the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) at Cornell University, a next generation light source designed to run high currents (100 mA) with a high bunch repetition rate (1.3 GHz). Obtaining the beam emittance necessary to meet design specification requires strong damping of higher-order modes that can lead to beam breakup. We discuss the optimization and verification of the accelerating cavity. Next we show that an ERL constructed from the optimized cavity geometry – including realistic shape errors – can support beam currents in excess of 300 mA while still maintaining beam stability. A niobium prototype 7-cell cavity was fabricated and tested in a horizontal cryomodule. We show that the prototype cavity exceeds quality factor and gradient specifications of 2×1010 at 16.2 MV/m at 1.8 K by 50%, reaching Q=(3.0±0.3)×1010. The prototype cavity also satisfies all design constraints and has a higher order mode spectrum consistent with the optimized shape geometry. At 1.6 K, the cavity set a record for quality factor of a multicell cavity installed in a horizontal cryomodule reaching Q=(6.1±0.6)×1010

  12. Maximizing Number of Passes in Recirculating Energy Recovery Linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, S. Alex

    2016-03-01

    The next generation of high energy recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) will rely on the energy recovery (ER) process for their extreme high current operation. Here, we discuss optimum design of multi-pass linac optics for an RLA based on a large scale superconducting linac. Initial strategy used in the design of 60 GeV, 6 pass RLA for the LHeC, has been extended to 10 passes for the proposed CEBAF ER experiment. The presented optimization scheme addresses overall beam transport performance, as well as specific beam dynamics issues, such as, beam stability due to collective effects. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  13. Spectral fluence of neutrons generated by radiotherapeutic Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral fluences of neutrons generated in the heads of the radiotherapeutic linacs Varian Clinac 2100 C/D and Siemens ARTISTE were measured by means of the Bonner spheres spectrometer whose active detector of thermal neutrons was replaced by an activation detector, i.e. a tablet made of pure manganese. Measurements with different collimator settings reveal an interesting dependence of neutron fluence on the area defined by the collimator jaws. The determined neutron spectral fluences were used to derive ambient dose equivalent rate along the treatment coach. To clarify at which components of the linac neutrons are mainly created, the measurements were complemented with MCNPX calculations based on a realistic model of the Varian Clinac. (authors)

  14. The split coaxial linac structure and its RF modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Split Coaxial Cavity structure has been invented and applied for the first time in the heavy-ion RFQ linac MAXILAC of GSI. It has an ideally flat RF voltage distribution and a good power economy. From another standpoint, it is a member of the small family of linac structures where the two modes, the wanted one and the unflatness mode, are clearly and strictly separable. The unflatness or ''Q Line'' mode is analyzed in more detail in this paper. It is necessary for the understanding of the interaction of the beam with the cavity, possible beam instabilities resulting from it, and for curing these instabilities with the chance of obtaining improved beams. (orig.)

  15. Beam-Based Alignment Measurements of the LANSCE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    McCrady, R C

    2004-01-01

    We have made measurements of the alignment of the LANSCE Drift Tube linac (DTL) and Side Coupled linac (SCL) using beam position measurements and analyzing them with linear models. In the DTL, we varied the injection steering, measured the beam position after each DTL tank, and analyzed the data with a linear model using R-matrices that were computed by the Trace-3D computer program. The analysis model allowed for tank-to-tank misalignments. The measurements were made similarly in the SCL, where the analysis model allowed for misalignments of each quadrupole doublet lens. We present here the analysis techniques, the resulting alignment measurements and comparisons to measurements made with optical instruments.

  16. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  17. The component improvement of the SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY2013, the total operation time of SPring-8 injector linac were 4328.3 hours. The total downtime was 0.13% (The frequency of fault was 0.22 times per day) and as stable as the last few years. We modified the timing system of linac and NS to change the beam routes every 0.5 seconds. NS timing system was changed to synchronize with that of Sy and gun trigger signals were modified to get time-shared for Sy and NS. These modifications were completed successfully in 2013 and realized no wait injection of SR and NS. A pressurized SF6 waveguide system was replaced with a vacuum waveguide system including newly developed S-band vacuum circulators and isolators in the 2013 fiscal year. (author)

  18. Upgrade of the Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven 200 MeV linac serves as the injector for the AGS Booster, as well as delivering beam to the Biomedical Isotope Resource Center. During the past year, many linac systems have been upgraded to allow operation at 2.5 times higher average current (150 μA). This was achieved by an increase in rep-rate from 5 to 7.5 Hz, an increase in beam current from 25 mA to 37 mA, and a slight increase in pulse width to ∼530 μs. Additional upgrades were made to improve reliability and modernize old systems. This paper describes improvements made in the 35 keV and 750 keV beam transport, 200 MeV beam transport, rf transmission line, rf power supplies, control systems, and instrumentation

  19. Plants for H- acceleration in the AGS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its commissioning in 1970, the 200 MeV Linac at the Brookhaven AGS has been capable of producing peak proton beam current of greater than 100 mA with pulse lengths up to 300 μsec at a repetition rate of 10 pulses/second. The linac typically runs at 5 pulses per second, providing a 60 mA pulse of 120 μsec duration every 1.6 to 2.4 seconds for conventional multiturn injection into the AGS. The intervening pulses of length up to 300 μsec are used by the radio-isotope production, chemistry and medical facilities. Preparations are now being made to inject and accelerate H- ions in order to implement charge exchange injection into the AGS. This paper describes the aspects of this work leading to an H- beam at 200 MeV

  20. Phase and amplitude tuning procedures for the Fermilab linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for both coarse and fine tuning of phase and amplitude of the Fermilab linear accelerator cavities are described. Coarse tuning is accomplished by measuring the change in energy as the phase of an individual accelerator cavity is adjusted. Proper field level occurs when the peak energy change equals the design value. Phase is initially set to calculated values relative to the phase at which the energy peak is measured. Fine tuning is accomplished using the delta-t procedure developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Preliminary tests of the delta-t procedure on the existing 200 MeV linac show qualitative trends in agreement with theory. The procedures described in this report have been proposed for use on the upgraded linac under construction at Fermilab. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties

  2. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kufer, M. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pfeffer, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wolff, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  3. Cryogenic concept of the Berline Energy Recovery Linac Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Helmoholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is currently in the design process of the Berline Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) as a demonstrator of ERL science and technology. The accelerator itself consists of three main parts: an SRE photo-injector, three superconducting booster cavities and three main linac cavities. The operating temperature will be at 1.8 K. The corresponding subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. Liquid helium at 4.5 K necessary for the cooling of the accelerator cavity structure, HOM and RF couplers is supplied by a Linde L700 helium liquefier. A helium distribution system with several transfer lines and valve boxes has to be designed. The conceptual design of the cryogenic system and supply lines are being described. (author)

  4. BERLinPro: the HZB Energy Recovery Linac Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB) is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in Berlin Adlershof. Goal of this ''Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project''(BERLinPro) is to demonstrate the feasibility of the ERL principle with very high currents while preserving the ultimate beam quality, present state of the art injectors are capable to generate. ERLs pledge to deliver high current beams of unrivaled quality, ideally suited for a very broad field of applications from electron coolers to synchrotron or Compton back scattering radiation sources. In this talk we give an introduction to BERLinPro and its project goals. The physical and technological challenges of a high current low emittance ERL will be pointed out and a review of the present project status will be given.

  5. ANU LINAC upgrade using multi-stub resonators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Weisser; N R Lobanov

    2002-11-01

    A proposal has been prepared to upgrade the LINAC at ANU, using re-plated PbSn split loop resonators performing at 3.6 MV/m, and the addition of two- and three-stub resonators. The system is designed to provide 6 MeV/a.m.u. 107Ag starting with gas-stripped beam from the 14 UD, which is then foil-stripped before the LINAC. No major changes to the beam optics components will be required other than addition of a large bore rebuncher in the middle of the 180° achromat. Models of the two- and three-stub resonators have been built and optimized for the goal frequency, for the separation of accelerating and other modes as well as for the minimization of the current in the demountable joints. A copper prototype has been constructed and is being plated with PbSn for cold testing.

  6. Simultaneous acceleration of multiply charged ions through a superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N; Zinkann, G P; Shepard, K W; Nolen, J A

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneously accelerating particles with a range of charge-to-mass ratios (~20%) to the same energy is proposed and demonstrated for a superconducting linac. Uranium ions stripped in a foil with eight charge states have been accelerated through a portion of the ATLAS linac from 286 to 690 MeV, with 94% of the injected uranium in the accelerated beam. Emittance of the resultant beam has been measured and the energy spread was 1.3% compared to 0.4% for a single charge state. This development has immediate application to the high-intensity acceleration of heavy ions that are limited by ion-source intensities, such as the proposed rare isotope accelerator facility. (6 refs).

  7. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  8. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  9. Image processing system for electron linac beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For diagnosis of electron linac beams, image signals from a TV camera viewing a ceramic screen monitor were processed and analyzed using a waveform digitizer and a personal computer. The black-and-white TV camera used has a zoom lens with a remote-controllable iris; the automatic gain control circuit was switched off to obtain tolerable linearity of the output video signal against the brightness of the beam spot on the screen. The video signals are taken by the waveform digitizer with a sampling rate of 4 MHz; the digitized picture is transmitted to the personal computer via the GPIB and is analyzed to derive spatial intensity distribution of the beam. The sync signal of the TV camera is externally synchronized with the electron linac beam timing

  10. Interdigital-H linac for unstable nuclei at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the prototype facility of the Exotic-arena at INS, unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/10 is accelerated from 170 to 1046 keV/u by an interdigital-H linac. Designed IH linac consists of four acceleration tanks and three sets of quadrupole triplets placed between tanks. Output energy is continuously variable by changing rf power and phase of the last operating tank. A high shunt impedance is expected from an equivalent circuit analysis. The rf measurement on the low power models is now in progress. Preliminary results of the tank-4 model shows that a resonant frequency and a shunt impedance roughly agree with the design values. (author)

  11. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-To-Ring Positron beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Valentyn; Ushakov, Andriy [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with vertical stroke Pe{sup +} vertical stroke {>=} 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented. (orig.)

  12. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  13. Commissioning of the new H- source for Linac4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the CERN accelerator complex upgrade, a new linear accelerator for H- (Linac4) will start its operation in 2014. The source for this linac will be a 2 MHz rf driven H- source which is a copy of the very successful source from DESY. In this paper the design and the first results of the commissioning are reported. The commissioning has progressed successfully, and no major obstacles have been identified which will prevent reaching the goal of 80 mA H- beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 0.4 ms pulse length, and 2 Hz repetition rate. The source is producing up until now a stable beam of 23 mA, 35 keV, and with a repetition rate of 0.83 Hz.

  14. Liquid nitrogen distribution for Pelletron LINAC facility, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low temperature facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai provides liquid helium and liquid nitrogen along with the various other cryogenic support services to many facilities and laboratories of the institute. On the total annual liquid nitrogen consumption over 3,00,000 liters, majority supply is utilized by the Pelletron LINAC Facility, for cooling the thermal shields of the quarter wave resonating cavities, distribution line of the cryostats, precooling of helium refrigerator and for the beam hall experiments. Liquid nitrogen is produced by STIRLIN-8 plant with a liquefaction rate of 110 liter per hour at an elevated pressure of 2 barg. The vacuum jacketed and super-insulated liquid nitrogen transfer line of about 310 meters long interconnects plant and SC LINAC accelerator. The paper present the in depth details about the cryogen distribution, VJ piping and also the technical modifications and various automation carried out by us on the liquid nitrogen plant. (author)

  15. IRLED-based patient localization for linac radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Currently, precise stereotactic radiosurgery delivery is possible with the Gamma Knife or floor-stand linear accelerator (linac) systems. Couch-mounted linac radiosurgery systems, while less expensive and more flexible than other radiosurgery delivery systems, have not demonstrated a comparable level of precision. This article reports on the development and testing of an optically guided positioning system designed to improve the precision of patient localization in couch-mounted linac radiosurgery systems. Methods and Materials: The optically guided positioning system relies on detection of infrared light-emitting diodes (IRLEDs) attached to a standard target positioner. The IRLEDs are monitored by a commercially available camera system that is interfaced to a personal computer. An IRLED reference is established at the center of stereotactic space, and the computer reports the current position of the IRLEDs relative to this reference position. Using this readout from the computer, the correct stereotactic coordinate can be set directly. Results: Bench testing was performed to compare the accuracy of the optically guided system with that of a floor-stand system, that can be considered an absolute reference. This testing showed that coordinate localization using the IRLED system to track translations agreed with the absolute to within 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. As rotations for noncoplanar couch angles were included, the inaccuracy was increased to 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. Conclusions: IRLED technology improves the accuracy of patient localization relative to the linac isocenter in comparison with conventional couch-mounted systems. Further, the patient's position can be monitored in real time as the couch is rotated for all treatment angles. Thus, any errors introduced by couch inaccuracies can be detected and corrected

  16. Development of Electron Guns for Linacs and DC Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons guns for RF linacs and DC Accelerators are designed and developed at Electron Beam Centre (EBC)/APPD/BARC. Planar geometry grid and Pierce geometry grid configuration diode and triode guns with LaB6 cathode are developed. The cathode assembly consists of cups and heat shields made out of Tantalum and Rhenium sheets. The cathode assembly and the electron guns are tested on a test bench for beam characterization. The paper presents the development of the electron guns.

  17. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H- volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H- plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H- source operating at SNS.

  18. Light source based on multiturn circulation energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light source based on a nine-turn ring circulation energy recovery linac with bunch-by-bunch beam switch by RF deflection cavities is proposed and its performance is estimated including the degradation of the beam quality by radiation excitation. The application of the round to flat beam conversion at a injector, which was proposed for linear colliders, is discussed for a scheme to reduce the brightness degradation by radiation excitation. (author)

  19. A self-adaptive feedforward rf control system for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance of a self-adaptive feedforward rf control system are reported. The system was built for the linac of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Variables of time along the linac macropulse, such as field or phase are discretized and represented as vectors. Upon turn-on or after a large change in the operating-point, the control system acquires the response of the system to test signal vectors and generates a linearized system response matrix. During operation an error vector is generated by comparing the linac variable vectors and a target vector. The error vector is multiplied by the inverse of the system's matrix to generate a correction vector is added to an operating point vector. This control system can be used to control a klystron to produce flat rf amplitude and phase pulses, to control a rf cavity to reduce the rf field fluctuation, and to compensate the energy spread among bunches in a rf linac. Beam loading effects can be corrected and a programmed ramp can be produced. The performance of the control system has been evaluated on the control of a klystron's output as well as an rf cavity. Both amplitude and phase have been regulated simultaneously. In initial tests, the rf output from a klystron has been regulated to an amplitude fluctuation of less than ±0.3% and phase variation of less than ±0.6deg. The rf field of the ATF's photo-cathode microwave gun cavity has been regulated to ±5% in amplitude and simultaneously to ±1deg in phase. Regulating just the rf field amplitude in the rf gun cavity, we have achieved amplitude fluctuation of less than ±2%. (orig.)

  20. Scanning magnet power supply for 10 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10 MeV/10 kW RF Linac, coming up at Radiation Processing Facility, Indore; requires a variable frequency and variable amplitude saw-tooth current source for its scanning magnet. In this paper, development of a power supply, which is capable of generating a bipolar saw-tooth current wave up to ±10 A at a frequency, ranging from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz, is presented. (author)

  1. Data logging system for linac operation using oracle database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer control system, which was composed to Programmable Logic Controllers and Personal Computers, was introduced into the L-band linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. Last year, the data logging system based on the Oracle was added to the control system, and is used for the watching of the extraordinary condition of the equipments and the automatic production of the operation daily report. (author)

  2. Diagnostics for the 400 MeV FNAL Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last four 201 MHz alvarez tanks of the twenty-year-old, 200 MeV Fermilab Linac are being replaced by seven high-gradient (7 KV/m), high-frequency (805 MHz) side-coupled-cavity structures to produce a 400 MeV beam for injection into the Booster. Good, reliable beam diagnostics are an important factor in the success of this project. This paper discusses the diagnostic systems

  3. Application of radio frequency superconductivity to recirculating linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) was built and successfully operated many years ago, recent developments in rf superconductivity, which developments have raised practical gradients from 2 MV/m to 5 MV/m, have made RLA's with energies >1 GeV economically feasible. RLA's using present superconducting rf technology are slightly less expensive and have substantially higher quality beams than stretcher rings fed by pulsed linacs. This paper discusses these developments and new design considerations. 25 refs., 7 figs

  4. Operation software for commissioning of KEKB linac programmed with SAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAD (Strategic Accelerator Design) was originally developed for accelerator design. In order to use it as a language for KEKB operation software, Python interpreter and EPICS channel access interface were embedded into it. Tkinter, which encapsulates Tcl/Tk in Python, provides graphical user interface (GUI). Hardware instruments are accessed through EPICS channel access routine. In this paper, some of practical tools used in the commissioning of KEKB linac are presented. (author)

  5. Energy Stability in a High Intensity Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Mosnier, Alban

    2000-01-01

    Spallation source dedicated for neutron scattering experiments, as well as multi-purpose facilities serving several applications call for pulsed mode operation of a high intensity proton linac. There is general agreement on the superconducting technology for the high-energy part, which offers some advantages, like higher gradient capabilities or operational costs reduction, as compared to room-temperatures accelerating structures. This mode of operation however could spoil the energy stabilit...

  6. Status of the photocathode linac project at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the progress achieved so far in the Photocathode Linac Project. We have successfully developed, for the first time in CAT, the technology to build linear accelerator structures. We have also developed the klystron modulator and microwave systems, and are ready to commence acceleration experiments. An undulator has been built for a free-electron laser, which can generate intense tunable radiation using the electron beam (author)

  7. Integrating Externally Developed Systems For SNS Linac Cooling And Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquin, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    External contractors are developing the local cooling and vacuum control systems for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Soon these systems will be integrated into the facility-wide controls system. Allen-Bradley Logix5000 series programmable controllers, populated with appropriate input/output modules, were selected as the local controllers. These controllers will be interfaced to the facility-wide control system via VME systems with PowerPC processors running the Wind River VxWorks o...

  8. Upkeep of cryogenic system of superconducting linac at PLF, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable and efficient cryogenic system is crucial for stable operation of superconducting LINAC at PLF, Mumbai. Typically, LINAC is operated for a month long user experiment cycle. The cryogenic system is needed even for preparation of LINAC and hence is required to operate for about 2 months at a stretch. It was observed that continuous operation of closed cycle helium liquefier over such a long period led to some loss of cooling power. Even though the impurity levels in the helium gas are maintained below few ppm level, the heat exchangers can saturate owing to moisture accumulation over a month long period. To overcome this problem, all pipe lines (HP, LP and impure) and heat exchangers in the cold box are flushed with high purity helium (which is collected via impure bank) and evacuated in warm condition. The procedure is repeated multiple times to completely remove the moisture. During the long operation, it was also found that the first heat exchanger was absorbing moisture from atmosphere due to cryopumping through the LN2 pre-cool path and consequently the cooling power was diminishing with prolonged operation. We have added an additional valve on LN2 precool exhaust line which has completely eliminated this problem. Further, to improve cryogen transport efficiency the compact turbo stations have been installed for better evacuation of transfer tubes. The LN2 storage has been augmented with an additional 1000L storage dewar located just outside the LINAC hall. The maintenance of the entire cryogenic distribution is carried out periodically to minimize the helium gas loss. (author)

  9. Design of a bunching system for a high-intensity electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Advanced Light Source, under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, that uses a 50 MeV, 3 GHz linac as preinjector. The linac will operate in two modes, a single-bunch mode of 4 nC/pulse and a 100 - 500 nanosecond multibunch mode with 125 mA average current. In both modes an rms momentum spread of <0.3% is needed. The linac injection system consists of a high-intensity gun, followed by two subharmonic bunchers (one of 1/24th, and the other of 1/6th the linac frequency), an S-band buncher at the linac frequency and the first few cavities of the linac (the capture section). The beam experiences strong space-charge forces and nonlinearities which cause emittance growth. Expected performance is analyzed with computer simulations

  10. A corrosion study on vacuum brazed joints of LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 MeV, S-band electron linac has been developed at RRCAT for industrial applications. At present, the in-house fabricated accelerating structure, is under continuous operation and has been tested at beam power more than 4.2 kW. The accelerating structure of electron linac comprises RF couplers, buncher section and regular section. The accelerating structure is made of OFE copper and is fabricated by vacuum brazing of cavities and coupler components using BVAg-8 and Palcusil-5 as braze filler metals (BFM). During accelerator operation, RF power is dissipated on cavities surface and the resultant heat is removed by circulating low conductivity water (LCW) in cooling jackets built around the accelerating structure whose inner part is maintained under vacuum. Corrosion characteristics of OFE copper brazed joints in LCW environment is of utmost importance towards development of reliable industrial linac. Therefore, a study has been undertaken to investigate corrosion possibilities in the cooling circuit which can limit the life of accelerating structures

  11. Operational status of PLS 2-GeV electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PLS 2-GeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) has been served as a full energy injector to the storage ring called the Pohang Light Source (PLS) since September 1994. The linac uses eleven 80-MW klystrons driven by 200-MW modulators. There are 42 constant gradient accelerating sections and 6 quadrupole triplets. During the period from September 1994 to December 1995, the accumulated beam operation exceeded 4,000 hours. However, the average operation time of individual klystron reached to 17,200 hours as of December 1995. This time was counted after the installation of individual klystron starting from November 1992. We have lost one klystron which was the oldest one placed at the module no. 2 during the summer maintenance period in 1995. The expected beam operation in 1996 is about 5,000 hours. We report the current status of the linac and several upgrades - mostly computer control system and beam diagnostics - based on our operational experiences achieved during the commissioning and normal operations. (author)

  12. Design and development of R.F. LINAC accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radio frequency linear accelerator, a high power electron LINAC technology, is being developed at BARC. These accelerators are considered to be the most compact and effective for a given power capacity. Important application areas of this LINAC include medical sterilization, food preservation, pollution control, semiconductor industries, radiation therapy and material science. Center for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC has been entrusted with the design, development and manufacturing of various mechanical components of the accelerator. Most critical and precision components out of them are Diagnostic chamber, Faraday cup, Drift tube and R.F. cavities. This paper deals with the design aspects in respect of Ultra high vacuum compatibility and the mechanism of operation. Also this paper discusses the state-of-art technology for machining of intricate contour using specially designed poly crystalline diamond tool and the inspection methodology developed to minimize the measurement errors on the machined contour. Silver brazing technique employed to join the LINAC cavities is also described in detail

  13. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  14. Electron Beam Focusing in the Linear Accelerator (linac)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Luis

    2015-10-01

    To produce consistent data with an electron accelerator, it is critical to have a well-focused beam. To keep the beam focused, quadrupoles (quads) are employed. Quads are magnets, which focus the beam in one direction (x or y) and defocus in the other. When two or more quads are used in series, a net focusing effect is achieved in both vertical and horizontal directions. At start up there is a 5% calibration error in the linac at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This means that the momentum of particles passing through the quads isn't always what is expected, which affects the focusing of the beam. The objective is to find exactly how sensitive the focusing in the linac is to this 5% error. A linac was simulated, which contained 290 RF Cavities with random electric fields (to simulate the 5% calibration error), and a total momentum kick of 1090 MeV. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  15. Coupled superconducting resonant cavities for a heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design for a superconducting niobium slow-wave accelerating structure has been explored that may have performance and cost advantages over existing technology. The option considered is an array of pairs of quarter-wave coaxial-line resonant cavities, the two elements of each pair strongly coupled through a short superconducting transmission line. In the linac formed by such an array, each paired structure is independently phased. A disadvantage of two-gap slow wave structures is that each cavity is relatively short, so that a large number of independently-phased elements is required for a linac. Increasing the number of drift tubes per cavity reduces the number of independently-phased elements but at the cost of reducing the range of useful velocity acceptance for each element. Coupling two cavities splits the accelerating rf eigenmode into two resonant modes each of which covers a portion of the full velocity acceptance range of the original, single cavity mode. Using both of these resonant modes makes feasible the use of coupled cavity pairs for a linac with little loss in velocity acceptance. (Author) 2 figs., 8 refs

  16. High-brightness beam diagnostics for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector includes an S-band linac with the capability to accelerate beams to 650 MeV. The linac has recently been upgraded with the installation of an rf thermionic gun in addition to the standard DC thermionic gun. The rf gun is predicted to have lower emittance (5πmm mrad) and may be used to support the APS self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) experiments. The critical characterization of this gun's beam has begun with a beam diagnostics station at the end of the linac that can address beam transverse size, emittance, and bunch length (peak current). This station uses both an optical transition radiation (OTR) screen at 45 degree to the beam direction and a Ce-doped YAG single crystal normal to the beam with a 45 degree mirror behind it. The visible light images are detected by a Vicon CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera. Spatial resolution of about 30 microm (σ) and temporal resolution of 1 ps (σ) have been demonstrated. Examples of rf gun beam characterization at 220 MeV are reported

  17. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  18. Gridded gun test results for dual mode medical Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an advancement in the current low energy (6 MV) radiotherapy linac technology, SAMEER is developing a dual photon energy linac capable of giving 6 and 15 MV photons and multiple electron energies (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 MeV) for electron treatment. The main feature of this development is to produce clinically acceptable quality electron beam and photon beam. The gridded gun development is a crucial part of this project because of the electron beam current requirement which ranges from milliampere to nanoampere level from photon mode to electron mode. Therefore, precise control on the beam current is key feature in linac operation. The gridded gun design specifications is given. The gun assembly was successfully carried out. The gridded gun was assembled in a test jig and baked at 100 °C. The vacuum achieved after baking was ∼10-9 mbar. The cathode activation results and DC test results were obtained. The high voltage test results in pulsed mode is discussed in this paper along with its supply. (author)

  19. Conceptual design of SC linac for RIBF-upgrade plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the intensity upgrade of very-heavy ions such as 238U and 124Xe at the RIKEN RI-Beam Factory (RIBF), a design study of new SC linac injector has started on. In the RIBF, the very-heavy ions are accelerated in a cascade of the injector linac (RILAC2), the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC), the fixed-frequency ring cyclotron (fRC), the intermediate-stage ring cyclotron (IRC), and the world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC). We plan to substitute the SC linac for the RRC with respect to the very heavy ions, and to boost up the energy of ions with mass-to-charge ratio of 7 from 1.4 MeV/u to 11 MeV/u in the cw mode. The SC cavity is assumed to be a two gap QWR with an rf frequency of 73 MHz, that is twice the rf frequency of IRC and SRC. (author)

  20. Beam dynamics simulations for linacs driving short-wavelength FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast code HOMDYN has been recently developed, in the framework of the TTF (Tesla test facility) collaboration, in order to study the beam dynamics of linacs delivering high brightness beams as those needed for short wavelength Fel experiments. These linacs are typically driven by radio-frequency photo-injectors, where correlated time dependent space charge effects are of great relevance: these effects cannot be studied by standard beam optics codes (TRACE3D, etc.) and they have been modeled so far by means of multi-particle (Pic or quasistatic) codes requiring heavy cpu time and memory allocations. HOMDYN is able to describe the beam generation at the photo-cathode and the emittance compensation process in the injector even running on a laptop with very modest running rimes (less than a minute). In this paper it is showed how this capability of the code is exploited so to model a whole linac up to the point where the space charge dominated regime is of relevance (200 MeV)

  1. Transverse beam dynamics studies of a heavy ion induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple beam induction linac experiment (MBE-4) was built to study the accelerator physics of the low energy, electrostatically focused end of a driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. In this machine four beams of Cs+ ions are accelerated through 24 common induction gaps while being focused in separate AG focusing channels. Each channel consists of a syncopated FODO lattice of 30 periods. The authors report results of the most recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics of a single drifting (180 keV) beam in this machine. The dependence of the emittance on the zero-current phase advance shows systematic variations which may be understood in the light of previous theoretical work on this topic. This result, unique to the beam parameters of a linac for heavy ion fusion, is discussed in the context of its implications for a driver design. In addition they discuss recent measurements of the motion of the beam centroid through the linac. These measurements, coupled with simulations, have proven to be a powerful tool in determining the presence of misalignment errors in the lattice of the accelerator

  2. Implications of a Curved Tunnel for the Main Linac of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary studies of a linac that follows the earth curvature are presented for the CLIC main linac. The curvature of the tunnel is modeled in a realistic way by use of geometry changing elements. The emittance preservation is studied for a perfect machine as well as taking into account imperfections. Results for a curved linac are compared with those for a laser-straight machine.

  3. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of H- stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H- linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  4. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; /Fermilab; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  5. The linac control system for the large-scale synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaki, Hironao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Itoh, Yuichi [Atomic Energy General Services Corporation, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Terashima, Yasushi [Information Technology System Co., Ltd. (ITECS), Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    The linac for large-scale synchrotron radiation facilities has been operated since August of 1996. The linac deal with the user requests without any big troubles. In this report, the control system development policy, details, and the operation for the linac are presented. It is also described so that these experiences can be used for control system of a large scale proton accelerators which will be developed in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. (author)

  6. The linac control system for the large-scale synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac for large-scale synchrotron radiation facilities has been operated since August of 1996. The linac deal with the user requests without any big troubles. In this report, the control system development policy, details, and the operation for the linac are presented. It is also described so that these experiences can be used for control system of a large scale proton accelerators which will be developed in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. (author)

  7. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Niedenführ, Miquel; Sempau Roma, Josep; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Brualla, L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry develop...

  8. High-Power Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, D. J.

    2002-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be the world’s most intense source of neutrons for fundamental science and industrial applications. Design and construction of this facility, located at Oak Ridge, is a joint venture between six DOE laboratories. Construction began in 1999 and is currently ahead of the scheduled 2006 completion date. Injecting a high-power, pulsed proton beam into a mercury target produces neutrons. In this talk, we review the physics requirements, design, and status of the construction of the 1-GeV, 1.4-MW average power RF linac for SNS. The accelerator consists of a drift tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and a superconducting rf (SRF) linac. The phase and quadrupole settings are set to avoid structure and parametric resonances, with coherent resonances posing minimal risk for emittance growth. The DTL is 37 m long and accelerates the ions to 87 MeV. The CCL is 55 m long and accelerates the ions to 186 MeV. The rf structure design and stability for both the DTL and CCL have been validated with scale models. The SRF linac has a modular design to accelerate ions to 1000 MeV, with a straightforward upgrade to 1.3 GeV at a later date. 3D particle-in-cell simulations of beam dynamics are performed to validate performance. The accelerator utilizes 93 MW of pulsed power operating continuously at 60-Hz with an 8factor. Approximately one hundred 402.5 or 805-MHz klystrons, with outputs between 0.55 and 5 MW, are used. The klystrons are powered by a novel converter-modulator that takes advantage of recent advances in IGBT switch plate assemblies and low-loss material cores for boost transformer. Beam diagnostics include position, phase, profile, and current monitors. They are designed to enable accurate beam steering and matching, and to minimize beam loss that would lead to activation and prevent hands-on maintenance.

  9. Measurement of the longitudinal wakefield and the bunch shape in the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on measurements of the bunch energy spectrum at the end of the SLAC linac. Using the spectra obtained for two different linac rf phases they obtain both the bunch induced voltage and the longitudinal distribution of the bunch. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions. In particular, the induced voltage is in good agreement with that obtained using the calculated wake function for the SLAC linac. This measurement technique may be useful for monitoring changes of the linac bunch shape in the SLC

  10. Upgrade of control signal distribution system at J-PARC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of timing signals, 12-MHz clock, 25-Hz trigger, and type code (control word), are used in the timing system of J-PARC. The timing signals are generated in the central control room (CCR) and are delivered to each facilities. In the klystron gallery of the linac, these signals are received, divided, and distributed to each station. However, in this distribution system, an optical signal from CCR is transformed to an electrical one by a O/E module and divided by a FANOUT module, and then re-transformed to an optical by E/O module. This system is a source of troubles such as the module failure, the timing trouble of LLRF for temperature drift and so on. Therefore, we would like to update the timing signal distribution system for use of the optical amplifiers and the optical couplers. (author)

  11. Recent experience on trouble shooting of 4.4 K refrigerator during long run of linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing helium plant of capacity 500 watt at the rate 4.4 K has been in use at IUAC for several years primarily to cool down and provide refrigeration to the LINAC cryo module consisting of niobium cavities. The refrigerator uses two reciprocating piston type expanders working at ∼ 60 K and ∼ 20 K respectively, and JT valve at the third stage of cooling. Prior to the recent long run, started in July 2010 we observed a few problems with the machine such as long initial cooldown time, loss of refrigeration capacity and very high LN2 consumption per litre of LHe production. These issues needed urgent attention. The problems were identified through a systematic approach and they were solved one by one. The paper highlights these problems vis a vis the cause and the subsequent remedy employed. (author)

  12. Design of a drift tube linac for the ISAC project at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISAC radioactive ion beam facility under construction at TRIUMF combines an isotope-separator-on-line with a post accelerator. Required in the accelerator chain is a drift tube linac capable of accelerating unstable nuclei with a post stripper charge to mass ratio of ≥ 1/6 from E = 0.15MeV/u to a final energy fully variable up to 1.5 MeV/u. Due to the relatively low intensities of some of the ion species continuous (cw) operation of the accelerator is required. A five tank interdigital H-type structure, operating at 105 MHz, has been chosen. The beam dynamics conceptual design and the results of various particle simulations are presented. Computer modelling of the rf structure and model measurements have been completed and are reported. (author)

  13. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Pande; Moonooku Prasad; Nita Kulkarni; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) based on a 1 GeV proton synchrotron with 100 MeV H- LINAC as injector. Additionally, the LINAC can form the first 100 MeV part of a 1 GeV proton LINAC to be built in future for accelerator driven system (ADS) applications. We are exploring a configuration of the 100 MeV LINAC which will consist of an H- ion source, a 4–6 MeV RFQ followed either by a 20 MeV drift tube LINAC (DTL) and 100 MeV separated function drift tube LINAC (SDTL) or a coupled cavity drift tube LINAC (CCDTL) structure. In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations. The design of the 4.5 MeV RFQ is discussed along with the matching sections between the RFQ–SDTL/DTL and RFQ–CCDTL. The choice of the accelerator configuration and that of various parameters of the individual accelerator structures under consideration are discussed. The design objectives are to arrive at a configuration which eases heat removal for CW operation and which is less prone to halo formation in order to reduce the beam loss at higher energies.

  14. Beam cavity interaction computer code for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code BCI was used to calculate the energy loss of beam bunches in two types of cavities being studied in ORNL. The merit of the proposed on-axis coupled structure for CHEER is discussed in terms of beam energy loss. A calculation for a simple structure consisting of two accelerating cells and a coupling cell is performed. The amplitude modulation of the wake field is interpreted as the excitation of the zero and π coupled-resonator modes and coupling coefficients are derived. Beam loading of a cw linear accelerator is studied by calculating the bunch energy loss and cavity energy when a cavity is excited resonantly with a series of beam bunches. Calculations of non-resonant excitation are also presented

  15. Status of the Kansas State University superconducting linac project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom J.

    1986-05-01

    Funding for the construction of the superconducting linac at Kansas State University was approved by the Department of Energy on May 15, 1985. The project is funded out of the Division of Chemical Sciences, USDOE. Initial design and staff technical training was initiated during 1984-85 with laboratory personnel working at both Florida State University and Argonne National Laboratory. The linac under construction is based upon the Nb split-ring resonator technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory for ATLAS. The linac at Kansas State University will have 14 superconducting resonators with nine low-β (β=0.06) and five high-β (β=0.105) units operating at 97 MHz. Work has progressed on both of the single-resonator cryostats for time bunching and energy rebunching, respectively, with the major cryostat components presently under construction by C. E. Raymond Enterprise Manufacturing, a division of Combustion Engineering, with scheduled delivery of the single resonator cryostat vacuum housings, LN2-cooled heat shields, and LHe Dewars on January 17, 1986. Orders for all Nb-clad Cu resonators have been placed with Argonne National Laboratory and two low-β units are currently under construction. Requests for quotations for a 300-W LHe refrigerator (expandable to 500 W) 1000-l storage Dewar and LHe distribution system have been issued. The building addition which includes a new accelerator/experimental hall (˜6000 ft2 basement structure) and ground-level laboratory support space including additional experimental setup space, additional machine shop space, and mechanical equipment space, is currently under construction with a completion date scheduled for May 1986. Additional personnel training on LHe refrigeration systems is scheduled for January 1986, at the Texas Accelerator Center and at Florida State University.

  16. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications

  17. Beam transport of PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam transport is one of the most important problems in the linac to be used as the injector for the B-FACTORY accelerators. A basic problem of the beam transport is how to correct transport parameters immediately when a klystron becomes off. This is studied with the PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac. (author)

  18. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  19. Release the beams! - Linac4 ready to hit the 50 MeV mark

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Linac4 accelerator is now prepared to reach 50 MeV. This milestone energy - expected in the coming weeks - will allow the machine to act as a replacement for the ageing Linac2, four years before it takes over at the head of the accelerator chain in 2020.    Inside the Linac4 tunnel, the final DTL cavities will guide beams to 50 MeV.  (Image: Stephan Russenschuck.) The Linac4 accelerator will bring H- ion beams (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) up to 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster. As a key part of the LHC injector upgrade programme, Linac4 will allow the PS Booster to double its beam brightness, which will contribute to increasing the LHC’s luminosity. Linac4 will soon bring beams up to 50 MeV - the current energy delivered by the Linac2 accelerator. This milestone follows on from another recent accomplishment: the installation and commissioning of the final Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank. Using an innovati...

  20. Berkeley research program on ion-induction linacs for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following areas of research are described: (1) driver studies, (2) induction linac technology, (3) core materials, (4) insulators, (5) modulator-switches and pulse forming network, (6) induction linac accelerators and prototype modules, and (7) a high-temperature experiment

  1. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  2. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE

  3. A Multi-MW Proton/Electron Linac at KEK

    OpenAIRE

    Belusevic, Radoje

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that a multi-MW superconducting proton/electron linac (SCL) and a proton injector (PI) be built at KEK. The 3 GeV PI would serve both as an injector to the SCL and a source of proton beams that could be used to copiously produce neutrons and muons. Protons accelerated by the SCL to 20 GeV would be transferred through the KEK Tristan ring in order to create neutrino, kaon and muon beams for fixed-target experiments. At a later stage, a 60 GeV proton synchrotron could be installe...

  4. Status of RF photoinjector and PWT linac at UCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the present status of the rf photoinjector and plane wave transformer (PWT) linac for the production of 20 MeV/c electron beams. The photoinjector is a 1 1/2 cell π-mode standing wave structure operating at 2.856 GHz with photoelectrons generated on a copper cathode by a 4 ps long laser pulse at 266 nm. Measurements of the beam of photoelectrons are underway at various experimental parameters. The PWT has been tested at low power to investigate its mode structure. An overview of the system, latest data, and future directions are presented here. (Author) 3 figs., 5 refs

  5. SARAF Phase I linac operation in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, L.; Berkovits, D.; Arenshtam, A.; Ben-Aliz, Y.; Buzaglo, Y.; Dudovitch, O.; Eisen, Y.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Fishman, I.; Gertz, I.; Grin, A.; Halfon, S.; Har-Even, D.; Haruvy, Y. F.; Hirschmann, D.; Hirsh, T.; Horovitz, Z.; Kaizer, B.; Kijel, D.; Kreisel, A.; Luner, Y.; Mor, I.; Paul, M.; Perry, A.; Rodnizki, J.; Shimel, G.; Shor, A.; Silverman, I.; Tessler, M.; Vaintraub, S.

    2015-10-01

    Phase I of the SARAF superconducting RF linac is under operation at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The present status of Phase I main components is reported, as well as, the beam operation experience accumulated in 2013-2014. The latter include acceleration of a 2 mA and 1.6 mA CW proton beams at energies of 2 MeV and 3.9 MeV correspondingly and 1 mA pulsed, duty cycle of few %, deuteron beams up to 5.6 MeV. The recent experiments include operation of intense CW proton beams on the liquid lithium target.

  6. Introduction of Modern Subsystems at the KEK Injector-linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kamikubota, N; Kusano, S; Obata, T

    2001-01-01

    As an accelerator control system survives over several years, it is often the case that new subsystems are introduced into the original control system. The control system for the KEK electron/positron injector-linac has been using Unix workstations and VME computers since 1993. During the eight-year operation, we extended the system by introducing a) Windows PCs, b) PLC controllers with a network interface, and c) web servers based on modern information technology. Although such new subsystems are essential to improve control functionalities, they often cause communication problems with the original control system. We discuss the experienced problems, and present our solutions for them.

  7. Magnetic transport channel for high-energy linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy linacs, as proposed for future linear colliders, are a severe challenge to the magnetic transport system. The large number of magnets and the low beam emittance require tolerances on the displacement jitter in the submicron region. By choosing a low phase advance per cell, mounting the magnets two by two on rigid girders, and fixing all girders within one betatron wavelength on one beam, the tolerances are considerably relieved. The tolerances on one beam are now a few microns, and between beams they are some tens of microns

  8. The control system of the CERN new linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two computers are used for the Linac control system, interfaced to the process over CAMAC, configured in such a way that each computer has direct access to the CAMAC system. The control system is designed in such a way as to minimize the knowledge of programming and computers required by the normal users of the system. The consoles use touch panels for parameter, program and option selections and are interfaced over parallel CAMAC to the computers, whereas the process itself is interfaced over bit serial CAMAC. In the case of the ion source, the CAMAC Serial Highway crosses the 750 kV with the help of optical data links

  9. A microwave power driver for linac colliders: Gigatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gigatron is a new rf amplifier tube designed for linac collider applications. Three design features permit extension of the lasertron concept to very high frequencies. First, a gated field-emitter array is employed for the modulated cathode. Second, a ribbon beam geometry mitigates space charge depression and facilitates efficient output coupling. Third, a traveling wave output coupler is used to obtain optimum coupling to the ribbon beam. This paper describes recent developments in the gigatron design, and progress towards experimental tests. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. The First Results of Bunch Shape Measurements in SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Feschenko, A; Kisselev, Yu V; Kravchuk, L V; Liyu, A; Menshov, A; Mirzojan, A N

    2004-01-01

    Three Bunch Shape Monitors with transverse scanning of low energy secondary electrons for the SNS Linac have been developed and fabricated. The peculiarity of the detectors is using of energy separation of the electrons. The separation enables to minimize influence of detached electrons originated from dissociation of H-minus ions in the detector wire target. The first detector was used at the exit of the first DTL tank during its commissioning. The results of Bunch Shape measurements are presented and discussed. These results were used to verify beam quality, to set parameters of the accelerating field, to estimate a longitudinal beam halo and to restore a longitudinal beam emittance.

  11. Low-β SC linacs: past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a general review of superconducting low-β technology and applications from its beginning in 1969 into the near-term future. The emphasis is on studies of accelerating resonators and on SC linacs that boost the energy of heavy-ion beams from tandem electrostatic accelerators used for nuclear-physics research. Other topics are positive-ion SC injectors to replace tandems and the need for accelerating structures with β outside of the present proven range, 0.008 < β < 0.2

  12. On structure design for the CLIC Booster Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Esmat

    2015-01-01

    Using the SUPERFISH code we present a design for a traveling wave (TW) structure of the Booster Linac for CLIC. The structure, consisting of thirty asymmetric cells attached to the beam pipes at two ends, works in 2π/3 operating mode at working frequency 2 GHz. For the corresponding operating mode and frequency, the RF field configuration transmitted through the cavity is obtained. The results are prepared in an RF field data file to be used in the PARMELA code for further beam dynamic study.

  13. First operation of MACSE the Saclay pilot superconducting electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACSE, a pilot accelerator has been built at Saclay in order to fully develop the technology of superconducting electron linacs. It consists of five niobium cavities powered by five klystrons. The 1.5 GHz, 5-cell cavities are equipped with coaxial couplers. The first cavity has a reduced phase velocity to capture the 100 kV electrons coming from the injector. It is followed by a four cavities cryomodule. The present status and the first beam test are reported, along with some results of superconductivity R and D

  14. Compensation of initial beam loading for electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious initial beam loading effect may generate beam loss in the electron linac of the VSX light source. Because of the large energy spread, it is difficult to compensate the beam loading with ordinary methods, such as the adjustment of injection timing and ECS (Energy Compensation System). We have developed a phase-amplitude (Δφ-A) modulation system using two fast phase shifters, which is put before a klystron and operated at low power level. In this paper, we report the performance of the test system. (author)

  15. A test beam upgrade based on the BEPC-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of three beam lines, E1, E2 and E3 have based on the LINAC of BEPC. The E1 beam is to be used for intense slow-positron facility. The E2 is a primary positron or electron beam with an energy of 1.3-1.5 GeV. The E3 is a secondary electron or pion test beam with a momentum can be adjustable continuously. The position accuracy of a detected particle is 0.2-0.4 mm with an event rate of 3 - 4 Hz. This beam has been successfully used for some detectors beam test. (author)

  16. Neutron Spectra and H*(10) in a 15 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were calculated inside the bunker of a 15 MV Varian linac model CLINAC iX. Calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods. Neutron spectra in the vicinity of isocentre show the presence of evaporation and knock-on neutrons produced by the source term, while epithermal and thermal neutron remain constant regardless the distance respect to isocentre, due to room return. Along the maze neutron spectra becomes softer as the detector moves along the maze. The ambient dose equivalent is decreased but do not follow the 1/r2 rule due to changes in the neutron spectra.

  17. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  18. Design of a treatment room for an 18 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it has been calculated the treatment room for an 18 MV Linac. The walls thickness, the door and the maze were designed according to the NCRP Report 151 recommendations. The results of this work are contrasted with the Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNP5 code where dose equivalent due to neutrons and neutron spectra are estimated at different points inside and outside of the radiotherapy room, verify the shielding thickness obtained are enough to reduce the dose level allowed by the Mexican regulation. (Author)

  19. Technique for Fissile Materials Detection Using Electron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of technique for fissile material detection using the pulse γ-quantum fluxes generated by electron linac are studied. The technique is based on detection of neutron escaping from fissile materials after gamma irradiation (technique of delayed neutrons). The diffusion approach is developed for description of space-time evolution of neutron fluxes inside the prototype system, which is irradiated by external γ-source. The simulation of electromagnetic interaction with matter is performed using the program package GEANT. The feasibility of this technique is proved for the case of plane one-dimensional model for a three-zone homogeneous subcritical assembly consisting of 235U and 56Fe

  20. Production of slow positrons using an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense pulsed slow-positron beams have been produced using electron linac beams of energy 25 MeV. Slow positorons were counted by complete separation from strong flashed signals produced directly by the primary electron pulsed beam. The yield of low-energy positrons was estimated as 2x106 slow positrons per second. The conversion efficiency of slow-positron production for 25 MeV electrons, epsilon, was 2.4x10-8, much lower than the value obtained by Howell et al. Several methods of overcoming the difficulties of practical application were attempted, and are discussed in the paper. (author)